BHO

Spain: July 1528, 1-15

Pages 725-741

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 3 Part 2, 1527-1529. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1877.

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Citation:

July 1528, 1-15

1 July. 475. Secretary Perez to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 43,
f. 1.
Wrote on the 15th ulto. by Domingo de Aguirre, the courier, and again on the 17th by the master of a Spanish caravel The present goes through a gentleman who is to sail this evening [for Barcelona]. Did not hear of his going until this morning, and therefore must be brief.
The news of the Germans is that on the 17th of June they were at Bologna, and therefore will be shortly upon the frontiers of Naples. It is said that the Pope had sent commissaries to have provisions served to them on their passage through the lands of the Church, which circumstance, as well as his firmness in observing neutrality, is not much to the taste of the confederates.
Cardinal Campeggio has left Rome for England. He goes there as Legate [to judge and report] on the case of the King's divorce from Her most Serene Highness the Queen [Katharine]. The report here is that the whole of the kingdom [of England] has risen in consequence, and that the Cardinal has been arrested.
Cardinal Frenesis (Farnese) goes as Legate to Rome, but the Pope himself will hot go thither until Civittà Vecchia and Ostia are restored to him.
Suspicions having been aroused about Fabricio Marramao's fidelity, he has been arrested by order of the Prince of Orange, who has written home about it. Fabricio is now detained at Castilnovo until an investigation take place, and the truth be brought to light. Begs that justice be done unto him.
Captain Arrati is still under arrest. What his guilt is no one yet knows,
The Prince has no doubt informed His Imperial Majesty of his negotiations with Count Filippino [Doria]. It is asserted that both he and his uncle, Andrea, have made their peace with His Imperial Majesty, and that the former is now going to meet his uncle with his galleys to concert the means of effectually serving the Emperor.
The Germans are at present engaged in looking out for wine and food in private houses and monasteries. No one offers any resistance, but opens at once his door to them. They do, however, take other things besides wine and food which is a great sin.
Juan Antonio Muxetula writes to say that the Pope granted all his requests at once, and promised to fulfil all his engagements towards the Imperial army. He had then gone to Rome, to return by that route to Naples, but up to this hour has not made his appearance.
The plague is raging both here and at Castilnuovo.
The French camp is still where it was. They no longer skirmish with our troops as they used to do, but keep within their own lines.—Naples, 1st July 1528.
Signed: "Perez."
Addressed: "Sacræ, Cesareæ Majestati."
Spanish. Original, pp. 3.
1 July. 476. The Collateral Council of Naples to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 43,
f. 99 V..
Are in great want and danger owing to the expected succours not coming. Letters have been received from Lombardy, attributing the delay to Leyva, who, they say, wishes to recover certain towns in the Duchy of Milan; if so, Lombardy will not be saved, whilst Naples will be irretrievably lost.
Beg for a powerful fleet of galleys which may at once relieve the place and bring in provisions. If Andrea Doria could be persuaded in the meantime to join his forces to those of the Emperor they would no longer doubt of success.
A viceroy ought to be appointed to replace Don Ugo.— [Naples], 1st July 1528.
Indorsed: "Relacion de diversas cartas, &c."
Spanish. Contemporary abstract, .. 1.
1 July. 477. Luys de Ycart to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 43,
f. 100 V..
In favour and credence of Captain Rodrigo Davalos, who is about to sail for Barcelona, and who will be able to explain the situation of affairs.—[Naples], 1st July 1528.
Indorsed: "Relacion de diversas cartas, &c."
Spanish. Contemporary abstract, .. 1.
2 July. 478. Alarcon to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 43,
f. 99.
In credence of Captain Rodrigo Davalos, who sails for Barcelona. He will inform His Imperial Majesty of the state of things at Naples. There is more to be feared from friends than from the enemy himself. No money to pay the army, and the consequence is that the men become every day more unruly and unmanageable.
Recommends Don Antonio Dixar (de Hixar).—Naples, 2nd July 1528.
Headed: "Relac. de diversas cartas, &c."
Spanish, Contemporary copy. 1.
3 July.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Cart. d'Eras., &c.,
f. 23.
479. Alfonso de Fonseca, Archbishop of Toledo, to Erasmus of Rotterdam.
The storm which was last year raised against him is subsiding. His adversaries have to learn that they must proceed by force of reason and argument, not by oppression and tyranny. Has read his defence. Praises his mother. His fame will be immortal. Advises him to write in order to confute errors, especially in Germany, where heresy prevails. He alone is capable of doing so. Erasmus is not a flatterer, nor a mere disputant, but one who argues for the cause of religion alone.
Encloses a bill of exchange.—Madrid, 3rd July 1528.
Latin. Original minute.
3 July.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 43,
f. 5.
480. Knight Commander La Rosa, Governor of Gaeta, to the Emperor.
Since his letter of the 20th, nothing new has occurred at Gaeta.
Naples is every day more closely invested by the enemy Fears that unless the auxiliary forces from Germany come in time all will be lost, as the garrison begins to feel the want of wine. If the last news received be true, the Germans had not yet crossed the Pò, having been detained on its banks by the state of things in Lombardy.
Here, at Gaeta, things are very different. Is confident that, even in the event of the whole kingdom falling into the hands of the French, it would be soon recovered from this place, whose garrison is in excellent spirits. Though wine is perhaps as scanty here as at Naples, the men bear the privation cheerfully, and there is provision of food for six or eight months. The army at Naples is making a very stout defence; the least succour would enable them to take the offensive, and then victory would be certain. The French have lost thousands of men in skirmishes and by the plague; there are nowdays upwards of 6,000 sick in their camp; and the camp itself would have been broken up had it not been for the many traitors and Angevines (angevinos) who have joined it. But henceforward we hope that matters will improve, for the agreement made with Andrea Doria is no longer a secret. Already some of his galleys have entered this port for the purpose of taking certain oars which Il Gobbo has lent them. On board one of them come the daughters of Antonio de Leyva. (fn. n1) The rest are said to be at Yscla (Yschia). Begs again that his long services be taken into account, and that whenever the estates of the rebel barons come to be confiscated he may get a portion of them with a title of marquis or count. (fn. n2) —Gaeta, 3rd July 1528.
Signed: "Commander La Rosa."
Addressed: "Crea. Y . . . . . Mt."
Indorsed: "To His Majesty. From Knight Commander La Rosa. 3rd July 1528."
Spanish. Holograph, pp. 2.
3 July. 481. The Duchess of Francavilla to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 43,
f. 7.
In favour of Laura Monforte, "baronessa de lo Laurito," and of her husband, "lo Capitan Luise de san Laurentio," who has faithfully served the Emperor in the Italian wars. The French having lately taken possession of the "Casale di Laurito," belonging to her, she is under necessity of claiming the Emperor's help and assistance.—Del suo Castello de Isca (Ischia), 3rd July 1528.
Signed: "La Duchessa de Francavilla."
Addressed: "Ces. Mta."
Indorsed: "Lettres baillees par le Capitaine Davalos (fn. n3) sur negoces particulliers de Naples."
Spanish. Original. 1.
4 July. 482. Cardinal Colonna to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 43,
f. 100 V..
In commendation and favour of several Italians and Spaniards who have served under him, and especially of Captain Vergara, married to a daughter of Cabra (sic).—Gaeta, 4th July 1528.
Indorsed: "Relacion de diversas cartas, &c."
Italian. Contemporary abstract, .. 1.
5 July. 483. The Emperor to Don Iñigo de Mendoza.
K. u. K. Haus-
Hof-u. Staats Arch.
Rep. C. 234.
We have received by sea your letters of November, December, January, and February (the 12th, 19th, and 21st), that of the 24th March, and two more of April, whereby you inform us of various conferences held with the King of England and with the most Reverend Cardinal [of York] on the subject of peace; how both have told you that they desire it, and that the English ambassadors at this our court had misunderstood what their real mission was when they joined (fn. n4) in the challenge [of the King of France]. The answer you made on the occasion was in accordance with our wishes and intentions, because, though the English ambassadors might have exceeded their mandate in this important matter, We could not but resent the extraordinarily harsh language used on the occasion. We were well aware that it was the French ambassadors who induced those of England to join in the challenge, pretending that their King wished them to speak out first, and do whatever the French bade them do. (fn. n5) And so they did, and in a more hasty manner (apresurada) than befitted the King [of England], their master. This notwithstanding, as there is no reason for our forgetting our mutual affection and friendship of so long standing, We shall be most happy, as hitherto, to establish that good understanding between the two countries which is desirable for the public weal.
You inform us that the King and Cardinal have lately sent a gentleman of that Court to us [in Spain], accompanied by a servant of the Lady Margaret [of Flanders], our most beloved aunt, who is to be the bearer of new overtures concerning the present peace, the Cardinal himself having assured you that the said English messenger would bring us such propositions thereupon as We could not but accept. Neither the aforesaid English gentleman nor Madame's servant has yet made his appearance at this our Court, and We are at a loss how to account for the delay, unless the French themselves have arrested them on their way, in order to create enmity between us and the King of England, and impede the negotiations for peace, as they are known to have done on other occasions.
You will tell the King [of England] and the Cardinal that, since their messenger has not yet arrived, We know not what answer to make to their wishes for peace, as expressed to you, but, when he comes, he shall find us prepared to accept any honourable and just terms that may be offered, simply on their account and for the public weal of Christendom at large. And since you tell us that it is the wish of the King and Cardinal that no more demonstration (muestra) of war should be made in these our kingdoms than is actually made in England, that hostilities between us should cease, and the intercourse of trade continue as before, you will tell them that We also wish it so to be, because We never thought or think of making war against the King, whilst waiting for the terms that this their messenger is to bring, unless indeed We were in the meantime compelled to take up arms in our own defence. Such are our instructions to Mons. du Rœulx, who left lately for Flanders with 2,000 Spaniards, and experience will show our affection for England, for her great barons and prelates, as well as for the knights, nobles, merchants, and people of that kingdom, and our desire to keep the old friendship between the King and our predecessors. It would be quite unfair, just for the sake of pleasing our traditional enemies, that We should both make war upon and destroy each other without quarrel or reason whatsoever, for although We do owe money to the King, as We have all along acknowledged and still acknowledge, it would be unworthy for so trifling a cause as a debt to inflict on our own subjects such dire calamities as war generally brings in its train. Besides which, we have always offered the King the payment of our debts in a manner with which he may well rest contented, and thus not only continue in our friendly intercourse, but increase the same for the common welfare of our respective kingdoms.
Respecting the Cardinal's complaint that in our answer to the challenge certain angry words were introduced concerning him and the King, his master, you will offer as an excuse that We could not but stand up in this case for the defence of the Queen's honour, she (Katharine) being our most beloved aunt, and our mother's own sister, and endeavour at the same time to secure the King's being so well advised on her score as to ensure the satisfactory arrangement of the present [matrimonial] dissension. Her cause is ours, and We shall hold it as such.
With regard to other [angry] words spoken on the occasion, We could not but use, for the assertion of our innocence, words of equal force with those of the various charges contained in the said challenge.
You well know that in past times We were sincerely attached to the Cardinal, and anxious for his prosperity; matters have changed since. His credit with the King being such [that nothing is done without his advice], We had sufficient reason to presume that this challenge of his master was made at his instigation. Such being our impression at the moment, We could not forbear from alluding to him in our answers. Yet if he will persevere in his work as a faithful servant of the King, his master, and as a good Englishman, and not be the friend of the traditional enemies of his King and country, but act towards them [and us] as he used formerly, so that the peace of Christendom may be ensured by his exertions, that will be the safest road for making us forget the past. And since they (the King and Cardinal) have shown you, as you say, much good-will, We have already given our orders to suspend forthwith any kind of hostile demonstration against England. We shall, moreover, raise the embargo on the persons, ships, and goods of English subjects trading with Spain, hoping that similar measures will be taken in England respecting our own subjects. You will inform the King of this our resolution, and if, for the better settlement of this matter on each side, the King of England should find your presence there necessary, you shall remain until further orders.
As soon, however, as We hear of your release, orders shall be issued for the English ambassadors [in Spain] to come to this our Court freely, and at their leisure wait there for their King's mandate.—Valencia, 10th May 1528.
P.S.—Your letters of the 18th and 27th of April have come to hand, as well as the duplicates brought by Madame Margaret's messenger. As Silvester Daryo, the collector, is waiting for us at Madrid with the English ambassadors who are to communicate the mandate of their King, We will not say more at present, as you are by no means to leave [London] until our departure for that town, which will take place at the end of this month of July. Then, after listening to what the English ambassadors have to say, We shall send you our instructions.—Monzon, 5th July 1528.
Addressed: "To Don Iñigo de Mendoça, of our Council, bishop elect of Burgos, and our ambassador at the Court of England."
Spanish. Original draft, pp. 5.
5 July. 484. Count Maddalone to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 43,
f. 9.
Hears that the Emperor is preparing at Barcelona a fleet to come over to Italy. May it be so, for although Count Filippino Doria, in consequence of Lautrech having paid up his galleys and dismissed him from the service, is, as well as his uncle Andrea, disposed to take engagements with His Imperial Majesty, it must yet be owned that our affairs are not so prosperous as they ought to be. The Germans, at the request of Leyva, have tarried in their march. What reasons that captain may have had to keep them in Lombardy nobody here knows, but certain it is that the whole of this kingdom is endangered by the delay. Cardinal Colonna has had letters announcing that the German commander (Duke of Brunswick), after leaving 2,000 of his men with Leyva, had at last taken the route to Naples, but whereabouts he was, or at what point he intended crossing the Pò, the correspondence does not state. Ascanio Colonna and the Marquis del Uasto (Guasto) were in the Bergamasco. Leyva wished them to undertake Lode (Lodi), which is very strong.
Filippino Doria with 12 galleys, two of which were unarmed, arrived in sight of this port, and anchored close to the six of Venice that have for some time been blockading us. The Prince of Melphi (Caracciolo), Federigo Gaetano, and Federigo di Monforte, with some cavalry and part of the Venetian crews, occupied the pass of the Garigliano, and possessed themselves of Torre ad Mare (Torrelamar) through the neglect and cowardice (per tristiticia et ribaldaria) of certain Spaniards who were inside, most of whom took part with the French. As he (Maddalone) was marching to their assistance with about 1,000 infantry, he met on this side of the Garigliano pass six or eight of them, who said they had been betrayed by their comrades, who being in league with the French had surrendered the place on their approach. His men are now quartered four miles from Gaeta, at Maranola (Miránda?) Castello Honorato, and Castellone, whilst the Prince [of Amalfi] and the others occupy Trahecto (Traietto), Spigno, Le Fratte, and other places in the neighbourhood. The Prince himself has gone to Sessa to recruit more men.—Gaeta, die quinto Julii 1528.
Signed: "Mathalun."
Addressed: "To His most Sacred, &c."
Indorsed: "To the King. From Count Madalone."
Italian. Original, pp. 2½.
6 July. 485. Lope de Soria to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 43,
f. 11.
Since his last of the 17th of June the news is that the Germans did not stop to take possession of Bergamo, because both the Duke of Branzvich (Brunswick) and Antonio de Leyva thought that the place being so close to the mountains, and so many Germans having shown an intention of returning home, it was dangerous to halt on the road. Even in spite of this precaution some of the soldiers deserted and went home.
The siege of Lodi was then determined upon and undertaken, in order that Milan, Pavia, and other districts of Lombardy should have time to get in the harvest, &c. They are still investing that place, which, they say, cannot resist much longer. May it be so, for certainly they have lost much precious time on the road instead of marching straight on Naples, which was the principal object. Knows that the captains, when interrogated about this unnecessary delay, will accuse him (Soria), and say it was entirely his fault for not sending money for the pay of the Germans, who were mutinous and would not advance without. (Cipher:) His answer is that he cannot furnish money if Thomas de' Fornariis does not first give it him. That banker has accepted the bills, but as the money is in the hands of his correspondents at Venice, Florence, Genoa, and Lucca, which are all hostile cities—with the exception of the last, which, though neutral, is not much attached to the Emperor—it naturally follows that he cannot procure funds, as it has been forbidden under pain of death to pay money to the Emperor's generals and agents in Italy. This is a sort of thing which neither the Duke, nor Leyva, nor the soldiers will stop to consider, often asking for money as pressingly as if he (Soria) had his chests full, and using in case of refusal such language that he would rather die on the spot than hear it. It is not in his power or that of Thomas to act otherwise.
(Common writing:) All he has been able to procure amounts to 25,000 ducats. Of these he has already sent 20,000 to the Duke for the pay of his Germans, and will send him the remainder in a day or two, and indeed any other sums that come into his possession, for the said Tomasso is now with him, and is doing all he can to procure funds. It must, however, be observed that all what the aforesaid banker is prepared to furnish, under the present circumstances and difficulties, is 36,000, having, as he says, paid the remainder in Naples, and not having yet made up his mind to accept the other 150,000 until he hears from his brother Domenico, at Court. Unless this last sum is paid by Tomasso it is quite certain that the Germans will refuse to advance, and will either return home (se moveran en ala), as they have already attempted to do, or will break into mutiny. At this very moment the Duke of Branzuick (Brunswick) is absent from the camp, owing to his soldiers having threatened to kill him if he did not pay them immediately. They are indeed bad men and bad Christians, capable of anything. In short the Emperor's affairs in Italy are in a sorry plight unless these Germans are paid their arrears. But how to get money upon bills? Cash must come from Spain, or else everything may be lost.
(Common writing:) The Duke and Leyva have granted commissions to various gentlemen for raising 3,000 Italian hackbutiers and 600 light horse. These forces, united to the Germans and to some Spanish infantry, are destined for the relief of Naples. Of course he (Soria) is expected to pay all the expenses of the enlistment, which has already commenced. The Italian Princes, on the other hand, are also preparing for war, most likely to help the confederates, not us. (Cipher:) To-day the governor of this place has sent him a polite message in the Duke of Ferrara's name, bidding him quit his territory as soon as possible, as the League has complained of his giving shelter to one of the Emperor's officials. Has determined in consequence to start to-morrow for Reggio, (common writing:) especially as this city (Ferrara?) and its immediate neighbourhood, and indeed almost all Italy, is visited now by a most fatal plague, which has already carried off thousands. Famine will be inevitable next year; for although the harvest is just in, corn can only be had for its weight in gold. How the Imperial armies are to be supplied is more than he can tell.
The Pope still remains neutral, and is trying to recover Ravenna and Cervia from the Venetians, but although both France and England have sent their ambassadors to support and enforce His Holiness' just demands, Venice obstinately refuses to yield.
Alonso Sanchez writes from Venice on the 27th of June, that he has at last got leave from the Signory, and intends quitting Venice on the 2nd inst. (Cipher:) He also advises that the King of Hungary will not be able to send more men, owing to want of money, and the military preparations he has been obliged to make in view of the Vayvod's threatened invasion, assisted by the Turks.
(Common writing:) A few days since 14 French galleys from Provence under a new admiral, and with 800 Gascons on board, entered the port of Savona. Andrea Doria, who was then at Genoa, having heard that they came to take away from him the prisoners of the last sea battle in the Gulf of Salerno, and that a new admiral had been appointed to the command of the fleet, and also that the King refuses giving Savona back to Genoa, weighed anchor and went away with his prisoners to San Remo (?), a strong place belonging to the Order of San Giorgio, on the coast, where he holds to his determination not to serve the King of France any longer, but offer his services either to the Pope or to His Imperial Majesty. It is to be presumed, however, that the King will do anything to conciliate him and retain him in his service. (Cipher:) On the other hand, it is very probable that Guasto, Colonna, and the rest of Doria's prisoners have made some arrangement with him, and perhaps also promised in the Emperor's name the government of Genoa and other advantages.
(Common writing:) The French galleys, after landing the Gascons at Savona, went to Leorna (Leghorn) to take up Renzo da Ceri and the forces under him, and convey them either to Naples or Sicily. Sixteen Venetian galleys had arrived in sight of Naples, but their admiral had since died of disease. Luis Pisani, the Venetian proveditor, had also died in Lautrech's camp. The last advices of the 21st of June are that Naples was still closely invested, and that the besieged had sent Miçer Joan Antonio Muxetula to the Pope to offer Ostia, Civittà Vecchia, and the cardinals whom he had given as hostages, and negotiate other matters relating to the Imperial service.
Muxetula writes to say that he was well received by the Pope.
A messenger who left Naples on the 15th has just arrived. He says that the garrison is in want of wine, fresh meat, and other things. (Cipher:) The Prince of Orange writes that unless the auxiliary forces make haste, Naples will altogether be lost to the Emperor, the Germans refusing to serve and do duty because they have no wine. He, however, adds: "Nothing shall be left undone to persuade them to fight, and I trust that before I surrender to the enemy my Germans will eat one another." Has written to the Duke [of Brunswick] and to Leyva to inform them of the Prince's almost desperate situation.
(Common writing:) Has heard lately from Leyva. He and the Duke were still before Lodi, which they expected to storm within three days. Immediately after the taking of the city the Duke, with his Germans, was to march to the relief of Naples.
Of St. Pol the news is that on the 15th [of June] he was at Lyons. Some of his Germans, about 2,000, had already arrived [in Italy], and more were expected soon to cross the mountains, so that when our Germans are gone towards Naples there will be plenty of work to do in Lombardy.
(Cipher:) Has a most serious complaint to bring against Nicolao and Stefano di Grimaldo for their refusing to pay the 4,000 cr. which remained in their hands out of the last exchange. Last year, when he [Soria] was at La Mirandula he agreed with Stefano that he should go to Genoa and bring back cash, or else procure bills payable in Germany to the order of George Fransperch (Fruntsperg), to whom the money was owing and had long been promised. He now writes that it is quite impossible for him in the state in which Genoa is to procure any funds, which places him (Soria) in the most awkward position, as the said Fruntsperg will no doubt think that it is his fault if he is not paid. Such tricks as these ought to be severely punished, and an example made of these and other bankers who refuse to fulfil their money engagements.
(Cipher:) Neither is Miçer Ansaldo [Grimaldo] very punctual in his engagements. True it is that he does not peremptorily refuse to pay, but he delays it as much as he can, which plainly shows that both he and his partners in business are but little, if at all, attached to the Emperor's service. It is not to be supposed that they are unable, as they pretend, to pay that or a much larger sum, and therefore their refusing to surrender under the present circumstances a sum of money which they have had in their possession during a whole year without paying interest is an evident sign of disaffection.—Reggio, 16th July 1528.
Signed: "Lope de Soria."
Addressed: "To His most Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty."
Spanish, Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet pp. 8.
6 July. 486. The Same to the High Chancellor
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 42,
f. 425.
Will be brief, as he is on his way to the German camp, and has written to His Imperial Majesty by this post. Can assure him (the Chancellor) that nothing is so difficult just now as to procure money. The bills of exchange are generally drawn on places either in the hands of the enemy, or so difficult of access that there is no means of safely conveying the cash to its destination. Meanwhile the Germans and some of their principal officers do nothing but crave incessantly for their pay. Is, however, doing all he can to satisfy their claims and keep them in good humour, but if they fancy that he (Soria) can work miracles and give them money, when there is none, they are very much mistaken; he will rather leave and go somewhere else. Only the other day, as he went to the camp on a visit to the Duke, some of the German captains showed an intention to have him detained until they should be paid for this month. If this is their conduct when they have scarcely been in Italy four weeks, your most illustrious Signory can very easily imagine what it will be when there are three or four months owing to them.
If the wants of this new army are to be regularly provided for, the Commissary General of the army must have also the administration of the funds in the treasury of Milan or Naples.—Reggio, 17th June 1528.
P.S. — Since writing the above, hears that Commander [Luis] Ycart is on the point of leaving Genoa for Spain. He will most likely be the bearer of this present, closed on the 6th of July.
Signed: "Lope de Soria."
Addressed: "To the most Illustrious Sir Don Mercurino de Gattinara, &c., High Chancellor of His Imperial Majesty at Court."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1528. Soria. 6th July."
Spanish, Original, pp. 2.
8 July. 487. Martin de Salinas to Ferdinand, King of Hungary.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
C. 71, f. 196.
His Highness' letter dated Vienna, the 17th of March, came duly to hand on the 7th of June. Wonders how it is that no despatches from him (Salinas) have been received at Court since the 22nd of November, for certainly he has written several times since. But sea voyages are uncertain, and at the present moment merchants seldom send their ships to sea, except when an occasional convoy can be had. Very few expeditions have left for Flanders, and Mons. de Orrus (Rœulx), who was to have sailed with 2,000 men, has been nearly six months on the coast of Andalucia. Does not know what may have been the cause of the delay, but the fact is that he did not reach Lisbon until the 20th of June. A servant of his came on the 2nd inst. to acquaint the Emperor with his arrival at that port and to ask for money. Until supplied with it, Mons. de Rœulx is not likely to sail for Flanders, which accounts for His Highness not having received either his (Salinas') despatches or the bills of exchange, amounting to 50,000 ducats, for the pay of the Germans who are to go to Italy.
The Emperor has heard of the taking of Pavia by Antonio de Leyva, and of his intention to march on Alessandria. He showed contentment when he (Salinas) announced to him that the Germans would be in Italy on the first day of Easter, provided money was forthcoming. His reply was that a sum of 50,000 ducats had been remitted from Villar de Cañas, which was considered sufficient for all purposes. He was confident that by this time Mons. de Rœulx had reached the coast of Flanders, and forwarded the bills of exchange to His Highness. No trouble should be spared in making fresh levies to send to Italy; and as to money the Emperor would do his utmost to procure it.
Took the first opportunity to inform the Emperor of the causes and reasons which have induced His Highness to mistrust the Pope's friendship. The Emperor was of a different opinion, saying he had still hope of a favourable settlement of their differences. He (Salinas) must observe, however, that most of the councillors and courtiers share His Highness' opinion on this subject.
He (the Emperor) was glad to hear of the recent victories in Hungary against the Vayvod, but sorry to learn that the King of Poland (Sigismond) had given him shelter in his estates, and the embassy which His Highness intended to send thither.
The Emperor entered Valencia on the 3rd of May, and was received with great pomp. During his stay in that city there was nothing but carousing and dancing, together with jousts, tournaments, and other manly exercises. The Emperor would have taken share in these last, had he not been prevented by the news which happened to come about that time of the loss of his galleys, and the death of Don Ugo de Moncada and other knights. No sooner did he hear of it than he gave immediate orders for certain ships to be fitted out at Valencia to convey flour [to Naples], and sent orders to Sicily for a supply of men and provisions; for Don Alonso Manrique, who had left that island on an expedition similar to that of Don Ugo, has not reached his destination, and nobody knows what has become of him.
On the 20th of May the Emperor left for Monçon, where he now is, holding Cortes of the three Estates together. Having heard before his departure from Valencia that the King of France was sending one of his heralds (fn. n6) to challenge him to single combat, he sent orders and safe-conducts to all the frontier towns and seaports in Spain that he should be everywhere well received and properly entertained. The herald arrived at Monçon on the 7th inst., and took up his lodgings at Secretary Lallemand's, by whom he was handsomely entertained in token of the great pleasure which His Imperial Majesty derived from his visit. Having delivered his message the day after, in the presence of the lords and knights (señores y caballeros) then at Court, he was graciously dismissed by the Emperor, who promised to send his own herald (fn. n7) with the answer. The herald, therefore, left for France well provided with money for the expenses of his journey, and having besides received as a gift 400 ducats, and a velvet robe lined with brocaded silk and gold tissue of the Emperor's own wearing. (fn. n8) This done, he wrote to the grandees of Castille, informing them of the challenge he had received, and consult ing them thereupon. All replied in terms full of sympathy and devotion, and the Emperor has accordingly despatched his own king-at-arms with a suitable answer, of which a copy is enclosed. (fn. n9)
Luis de Taxis was detained at sea by contrary winds, but it is to be hoped has reached [Flanders] by this time. News has come of the safe arrival of Monforte and the Provost of Balcrique (Valtkirck) on the 8th of April, and also that the Flemings have made a truce of six months with the French, which last piece of intelligence has not been much to the Emperor's taste, as he considers that these are not times to treat with the common enemy. Those who govern Flanders may have had cogent reasons for this step, and perhaps His Highness is aware of them, but nevertheless the measure has not met with approbation at this Court.
On his departure from Madrid the Emperor, thinking that the time was come for his journey to Italy, which for many a, day he has had in contemplation, appointed the Empress to govern these kingdoms during his absence, for which purpose a suitable household, with the Count of Miranda (fn. n10) at its head, was named in the Castillian fashion. Matters have since changed, and the projected journey has been abandoned. She has since been confined of a daughter. (fn. n11)
The Emperor, on His Highness' suggestion, wrote a gracious letter to the Marquis of Mantua (Federigo Gonzaga), and conferred besides with an agent of his, residing at this Court. It is to be hoped that the promises hitherto made will induce him to espouse the Emperor's cause. As to the contemplated marriage alliance, his opinion is that His Highness ought to hold out hopes to him, without taking any engagement thereupon.
The Prince of Orange (Philibert de Chalon) has been appointed Viceroy of Naples and Captain-General of the Imperial armies in Italy in His Highness' absence, and the Emperor is now sending [to Rome] Miçer Mai, of the Council of Aragon, a very wise and learned man, with full powers and instructions. This latter goes in the room of the Archbishop of Toledo (Fonseca), appointed in the first instance, but who has since declined the post.
Hears that the journey to Italy is not entirely given up. When the Emperor first came to Aragon orders were issued for a number of galleys to be fitted up in the ports of the Mediterranean, but this late challenge of the French King has caused a change of plans. Whilst the herald, lately sent to France with his answer, is on his way back, the Emperor is thinking of going to Madrid, and from thence sending the Constable of Castille to Fuentarrabia to prepare the field for combat, &c. The Cortes of Aragon will be prorogued for a term of three calendar months, during which time it will be ascertained whether the French King insists on his challenge, where and when the personal combat is to take place, and so forth. This will give the Emperor time to return to Aragon, and in the meanwhile the fleet of galleys will have made ready to put out to sea, and convey him to the coast of Italy. True it is that this plan is naturally subordinated to the turn that politics and war may take in those parts. With the exclusive management of the former the Chancellor (Gattinara) has been entrusted by the Emperor, whose real designs and plans are known only to a few.
Pedro de Ascoytia has received orders to delay his departure until the French King's answer arrives, that he may announce to His Highness the issue of the whole affair, and what the Emperor intends doing.
Expected invasion of Hungary by the Turks.
News from the Indies. Hernan Cortes has just arrived. He comes for the purpose of acquainting His Imperial Majesty with the affairs of those distant regions, and answering certain charges brought against him. He (Salinas) intends visiting him in His Highness' name, and asking him for particulars of what he has seen and done [at Mexico].—Monçon, 8th July 1528.
Addressed: "To the King."
Spanish. Original draft, pp. 7.
9 July. 488. The Marquis del Guasto to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 43,
f. 98 V..
The Germans make no progress in their march. Was one of the first to ask for them, thinking they would be employed at once in the relief of Naples. Instead of that, they are now besieging Lodi. The consequence will be that we shall lose both Naples and Lombardy.
Juan Antonio Muxetula, who is doing very good service at Rome, writes that the Pope is willing to desert the League, and openly declare in our favour, provided the Germans are made to advance; but experience has shown that the soldiers of that nation will not move without pay, and he fears that there is no chance of that for the present.
The negotiations with Doria still continue, and there is a hope of his coming over to the Emperor.
Should Naples fall, Sicily is sure to come next. It would be advisable to increase the garrison of that island with Spaniards or Germans (gente extrangera), as the natives are not to be trusted.
Has spent considerable sums in fortifying his own castle of Yscla (Ischia). Is, however, without provisions (vituallas). If the Viceroy of Sicily could send thither a vessel with them. that part of the Neapolitan coast might be efficiently defended. (fn. n12) —9th July 1528.
Indorsed: "Relacion de diversas cartas, &c."
Spanish. Contemporary abstract, pp, 2.
12 July. 489. The Same to the Same.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 43,
f. 99.
The Doria convention has been signed. He can be of great use under present circumstances, as Bauri (sic) will not fail to advise.—13th July 1528.
Indorsed: "Relacion de diversas cartas, &c."
Spanish. Contemporary abstract, .. 1.
14 July. 490. Hieronymo Moron to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 43,
f. 102.
It is reported that the Duke of Brunswick hesitates, and that Antonio de Leyva wishes to retain him in Lombardy, fancying that, by doing so, both things may be achieved, the kingdom of Naples saved from destruction, and the Duchy of Milan preserved. In his opinion, Leyva is mistaken. If a few thousand Spaniards landed in Sicily, that would be a more effective succour than any these Germans can afford. His Imperial Majesty must not rely too much on the German soldiers. They are at all times undisciplined and unruly, particularly those at Naples. Hears that most of them are actually in treaty with Lautrech, and have promised to desert, if by the 9th of July they had not received one month's pay, besides one crown per man on the 19th. Their generals are getting the money ready by whatever means they can; but in future, unless the money comes from Spain, there will be no means of appeasing their clamorous begging.—14th July 1528.
Indorsed: "Relacion de diversas cartas, &c."
Spanish. Contemporary abstract.
15 July. 491. Secretary Perez to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 43,
f. 17.
B. M. Add. 28 577,
f. 258.
Wrote on the 1st inst. by Captain Rodrigo Davalos, owing to which, and to the Prince having reported fully on military affairs, he (Perez) will be brief. (Cipher:) Unless money is shortly remitted from Spain we shall not be able to defend Naples, for there is hardly a church or convent in this city that has not been despoiled of its ornaments, gold, silver, silks, &c. to give to the Germans, and yet they rise in mutiny every other day. The Spaniards bear privation much better, though most of them never touch meat or wine.
Since the departure of Doria's galleys for the coast of Genoa, on one of which was Rodrigo Davalos, the Venetian fleet has invested this city more closely, not allowing barks to pass with messengers or provisions. The boatmen, however, still hazard the bringing in a few; for what costs them 10 ducats they are sure to sell for 100. The population, however, is so considerable that these occasional supplies will not be sufficient, Already an ox sells for 50 ducats, a fowl for two and a half, and a couple of eggs for one real. Wine, there is none to be had; and now they say that Lautrech has given orders for all cattle within a radius of 10 leagues round Naples to be removed to other districts far inland under pain of seizure, &c. All this might be remedied through the Germans coming this way, for no sooner would they arrive at Tronto than Lautrech would most probably depart.
There is a report that Cardinal Gampeggio has not yet started for England, and that Frenesis (Farnese) is to go to Rome [as Legate]. Some even assert that the Pope himself is going thither soon, and that preparations are being made for his reception in his palace.
The Prince of Malfa (Caracciolo) and a son of the Duke of Trayeto (Traietto) have recovered Trayeto, Fundi, and the other towns which the Spaniards, who came last from Sicily, took. The Abbot of Farfa, it is reported, went to a small town called Frascati, close to Rome, belonging to Cardinal Colonna. There happened to be inside the town with a few Spaniards one of his nephews, a bishop, (fn. n13) who managed so well that he defeated the Abbot and took 200 of his men prisoners.
Fabricio Marramao is still a prisoner at Castilnovo, but they say will soon come out with honour, for his accuser does not sufficiently prove his charges.
Believes that Thomasso de' Fornariis is with the new army, and that Lope de Soria accompanies him.
The Prince is suffering from fever.—Naples, 15th July 1528.
Signed: "Perez."

Footnotes

  • n1. Antonio de Leyva had two daughters: one, Doña Constanza, who married Don Francisco Fernandez de la Cueva, fourth Duke of Alburquerque; the other, Doña Juana, who married Marco Antonio Doria Carreto (Carreto de Oria?), Prince of Melfi. See "Haro Nobiliario Genealogico," tom. ii. lib. x. p. 401.
  • n2. In another letter, dated the 24th, La Rosa asks for the baronies of Liters and Gravano, formerly held by Carlo Mirabale, who was with the French. Their aggregate income, he says, might be about 1,200 ducats.
  • n3. This is followed in the volume by a letter from Laura Monforte, addressed to Captain Pietro Davalos, about to proceed to Spain, begging him to recommend her husband's suit for a place in the Collateral Council of Naples.
  • n4. "Y el desseo que ambos muestran tener á, ella, y commo os han dicho que sus ambaxadores (sic) no avian entendido su commission hauiendo fecho el desaffio."
  • n5. "Que el Rey de Inglaterra queria que ellos hablassen, y en todo hiciessen lo que los dichos [embaxadores] ingleses les mandassen."
  • n6. His name was Guienne.
  • n7. Bourgogne.
  • n8. "Y le hizo merced de 400 ducados y una ropa de su persona, de terciopelo, aforrada en brocado tela de oro rriço."
  • n9. Not in the volume. Sandoval, however, printed it in full in his Historia del Emperador Carlos V., lib. xvi., § xxii.
  • n10. Don Francisco de Zuñiga y Avellaneda, third count.
  • n11. Doña Maria, born at Madrid the 21st of June 1528, who married in 1548 Maximilian II. of Austria.
  • n12. All the letters contained in thin volume under the head of Relacion de diversas cartas de Italia de los meses de Mayo, Junio, Julio, y Agosto del año MDXXVIII. are evidently contemporary abstracts of originals not preserved at Simancas. Very few state the place whence they were written. It is, therefore, very difficult to determine in some cases where the writers were. For instance, this one of the Marquis del Guasto must have been written on board of Doria's galley, or somewhere about Genoa, for he had not yet recovered his freedom and returned to Naples.
  • n13. Guicciardini (lib xix.) mentions an engagement in the Abruzzo where this very bishop (Marzio Colonna?) was defeated and slain by the Abbot of Farfa.