Spain: July 1528, 16-31

Pages 741-758

Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 3 Part 2, 1527-1529. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1877.

This free content was digitised by double rekeying and sponsored by the Arts and Humanities Research Council. All rights reserved.


July 1528, 16-31

16 July. 492. Prince Bisignano to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 43,
f. 101.
States the many services he has rendered the Emperor. Is entirely ruined, the whole of his patrimonial estates being occupied by the French.—[Naples?], l6th July 1528.
Indorsed: "Relacion de diversas cartas, &c."
Spanish. Contemporary abstract
17 July.
S. E. L. 1,554,
f. 626.
B. M. Add. 28,577,
f. 261.
493. The Emperor to Miguel Mai, his Ambassador [to Rome].
Credentials.—Montisoni, 17th July 1528. (fn. n1)
Addressed: "Mig. Mai equiti, Consiliario et Oratori nostro."
Latin. Original draft.
17 July. 494. Prothonotary Caracciolo to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 43,
f. 20.
In consequence of the taking of Pavia, Abia, (fn. n2) and Como by the enemy, as reported in his former despatches, Leyva resolved to cross the Adda and join the auxiliary forces coming from Germany. His intention at first was to lay siege to Bergamo, and thence detach the Germans under Brunswick. The want of money and provisions in the army of the latter obliged Leyva to abandon this project, and undertake Lodi, in hope of finding in that city or its immediate neighbourhood resources with which to maintain the fidelity of these new Germans, more mutinous and rebellious, if possible, than their comrades. Money he had little to give, as his own men have received no pay for several months, and yet whatever funds he could procure from Milan, or from other quarters, he distributed equally between Brunswick's Germans and his own. For this purpose Lodi was invested, and an assault attempted, which proved unsuccessful, and caused the death of many brave soldiers, and, among the rest, of Captain Diego Ramirez Burman, who fell gloriously in front of the city walls.
Naples is so surrounded by the enemy that, unless these Germans now in Lombardy can be sent to their assistance, the city, and indeed the whole kingdom, is in great danger; and yet the mutinous spirit of these troops, and the total want of means to pay them, preclude all hope of their advancing in that direction. Meanwhile St. Pol is coming from France at the head of 400 men-at-arms and 10,000 foot, among whom are some German lansquenets. Italians he has none. The Venetians and the Duke Francesco [Sforza] muster about 4,000. Leyva, however, loses no opportunity of attacking the enemy wherever he is, and, if he only had money to pay his troops, would work wonders. He is still investing Lodi (fn. n3) —Milan, 17th July 1528.
Signed: "Il Prothonotario Caracciolo."
Addressed: "To His most Sacred, &c."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1528. Milan. Caracciolo. 17th July."
Italian. Original entirely in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet (fol. 24). pp. 4.
17 July. 495. The Same to the Same.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 43,
f. 26.
After the above was written a mutiny of the Germans (Tedeschi) at the camp in front of Lodi has obliged Leyva to come here to Milan, in order to procure money if possible. As the Germans threaten to sack this city, and then join their comrades on their way home, the greatest efforts are being made to satisfy their cravings. Part of the money has already been procured, and the remainder promised for tonight. But what good? The lansquenets are sure to begin again at once, for they are really insatiable. Leyva sends Captain Rivadeneyra to Spain that he may inform the Emperor of the state of things in the Duchy. The consequences of the mutiny at Lodi have been serious. The Germans under Brunswick having abandoned their positions on the other side of the Adda, the city has been largely supplied with provisions and ammunition. Fears that Leyva will be compelled to raise the siege.—Milan, 17th July 1528.
P.S.—Hears that one of the articles in the Doria convention bears that the important city and port of Gaeta will be placed in the hands of that general for him to hold the government. This is rather a dangerous move, although it is not to be supposed that Andrea will act dishonourably.
Signed: "Caracciolo."
Addressed: "To His most Sacred, Imperial, &c."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1528."
Italian. Original in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet, .. 1.
17 July. 496. Ascanio Colonna to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 43,
f. 98.
Writes in credence of Captain Pedro Davalos, going to Spain.
Describes the situation of Naples, and the pains he and the Marquis del Guasto have lately taken to make the Germans advance to its relief. Both have been trying to bring over Andrea Doria to the Imperial service, and make him go to Naples without waiting for the ratification of the agreement. Has reason to think from the message lately brought by Baury that Doria has quarrelled with the King of France, and is ready to desert from him, the cause of the dispute being that the latter wants to get the prisoners of Salerno into his power.
Genoa is so affected by the plague that, if attacked, it can offer no resistance to the Imperialists. The plan is not abandoned, though in reality its taking would be of very little use just now.
St. Pol is coming down with 400 lances and 7,000 foot, but up to the present only 1,500 lansquenets, " de la banda nera," have arrived, and are encamped between Haste (Asti) and Genoa. As the Venetians have strongly fortified Bergamo, and might in conjunction with that general annoy Leyva, it would be advisable to send for more Germans, and arm two galleys to bring money in specie, without which it is very dangerous to increase the number of the auxiliaries.
The Pope is exceedingly anxious (avidissimo) about Florence and Ferrara, and much dissatisfied with France, and specially with the Venetians, who still retain Ravenna and Cervia. Both he and the Marquis [of Guasto] are raising funds with which to pay their respective ransoms, in order to serve again in Naples, or wherever they may be ordered to go.—[Naples?], 17th July 1528.
P.S.—Since the above was written Doria has accepted the conditions brought by Baury, and actually deserted from the League. Both that general and his nephew Filippino will be of great use for relieving Naples; they are going thither with their galleys, and he (Ascanio) accompanies them.
Signed: "Ascanio Colonna."
Indorsed: "Relacion de cartas de Leyva, Colonna y otros."
Italian. Contemporary abstract, .. 1.
17 July. 497. The Collateral Council of Naples to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 43,
f. 99, vo.
Strongly suspect that the delay of the auxiliary Germans is caused in part by the Pope, who secretly favours it, for there is a report that His Holiness is making levies of men, and has caused a gentleman from this place, who went for the purpose of hastening the march of the Germans, to be detained in his territory. If by the end of August Naples is not relieved by sea and land, the whole of the Imperial dominions in Italy are lost for ever.
Twenty thousand ducats have been procured with the greatest difficulty to pay some of the arrears due to the Germans.
A person of authority and parts is much wanted to fill the post of Viceroy.—[Naples], 17th July 1528.
Indorsed: "Relacion de diversas cartas, &c."
Spanish. Contemporary abstract, .. 1.
18 July. 498. Prothonotary Caracciolo to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 43,
f. 19.
His Majesty the Emperor will hear by his (Caracciolo's) other despatches of the same date the events [of Lodi and Pavia]. As this might change the plans of the generals respecting Lodi, were a messenger to be sent thither, he (Caracciolo) being at Milan, and the news not come in time, in such case Antonio de Leyva himself will no doubt give information about the whole affair.—Milan, 18th July 1528.
Signed: "Il Prothonotario Caracciolo."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1528. Caracciolo. Milan."
Italian. Original, .. 1.
18 July. 499. The Duchess of Francavilla to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 43,
f. 101 v..
She has done, and is doing, her best to help the army at Naples. Has sent provisions and money. Has also sent to the Marquis del Guasto and Ascanio Colonna the money for their ransom (talla); both are expected to take service again.
The last news is that Lautrech has been struck by the plague. Writes again in credence of Pedro Davalos.— [Ischia?], 18th July 1528.
Indorsed: "Relacion de diversas cartas, &c."
Italian. Contemporary abstract in Spanish.
19 July. 500. Alonso Sanchez to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 43,
f. 33.
Since his letter of the 24th of June, wherein he announced that he had applied for, and obtained, leave to quit, and was determined to go that same week, two things have happened to upset his plans. In the first place he was attacked by a fever which kept him 12 days in bed. Secondly, when called upon by the Signory to draw out a paper stating that as Imperial ambassador he had enjoyed all possible liberty at Venice, and been allowed to go freely wherever he chose, he (Sanchez) refused to do this unless a clause was introduced concerning the bill of exchange accepted by Ludovico di Affayta, and which that banker had begun to pay, when the Signory ordered him to stop payment. Without a clause to this effect, showing that he has never recovered the amount of that bill, he (Sanchez) refused to draw up the certificate () that was required of him; upon which the Doge declared that he should not receive a safe-conduct to leave Venice. Three days after this, one of the Doge's secretaries came to him (Sanchez) proposing a middle course, which was that an act should be drawn before a public notary, either at the ambassador's dwelling or at the College-Hall. Persisted in his refusal, saying that unless an order was issued for Ludovico di Affayta to pay him his money, and he himself was allowed to quit Venice with his moveable property and family, according to the engagement taken by their ambassador before he was allowed to quit Spain, he would never sign the paper. The Secretary then asked whether he (Sanchez) was willing to go on the receipt of the safe-conduct. His answer was that he begged them to fulfil the engagement entered into by their ambassador. If they did not, as he could not force them to do it, he would accept the safe-conduct, and depart as soon as he was sufficiently recovered from his late illness, he being still suffering from fever at the time. This conversation having been reported to the Doge on the 10th inst., a safe-conduct was put into his hands, bearing date of the 28th June, without his signing the paper in question, or receiving from Ludovico di Affayta the sums which are owing to him personally. Intends, though not very strong yet, to start this evening for La Mirandola, where he will wait for an answer to his letter to Antonio de Leyva. Instead of going, as his friends advise him, to Germany, where he might be of service, he much prefers remaining in Italy and joining Leyva, wherever he may be, notwithstanding the insecurity of the roads, and the plague in the Ferrarese and Mantuan territories, through which he must of necessity pass.
Has written to the King of Hungary and to Madame the Governess of Flanders, to Don Iñigo de Mendoça in England, to the Prince of Orange at Naples, to Miçer Joan Antonio Muxetula, who is now with the Pope at Viterbo, and in fact to all the Emperor's agents, announcing his departure from Venice, and informing them of the state of affairs in Italy. (Cipher:) Must not omit to say that, having applied for a safe-conduct to pass through the Ferrarese, the Duke has replied that he wonders much why Imperial ambassadors should ask him for such a thing, as they ought to know that his estate is as secure for them as Spain would be. The same answer did the Marquis make when asked for a safeconduct.
The ambassador of the King of Hungary remains. His orders are to wait until he (Sanchez) is gone, and then feign illness and say that the physicians advise him to take change of air in his native country. Has obtained a promise from him that he will not leave Venice until he hears of his arrival at La Mirandola, and has appointed somebody to take charge of his correspondence, so that his (Sanchez's) letters may be directed to Germany, and the answers sent to La Mirandola) or wherever he may be.
(Common writing:) Has no news of Antonio de Leyva since the 19th ulto. Hears that he and the Germans newly arrived were besieging Lodi. (Cipher:) Most likely the want of funds to pay the said Germans is the cause of their not advancing, as they are ordered to do, for otherwise it is hardly conceivable that, for the sake of Lodi, the relief of Naples, which is of such importance, should be indefinitely postponed. Lope de Soria writes that, of the 400,000 ducats which His Imperial Majesty sent by Julian (Giuliano della Spezzia) some time ago, the troops at Naples have already consumed 140,000. There remain in his (Soria's) hands 60,000 more, for the other 200,000 have not yet been paid by the bankers on whom the bills were drawn. Though duly accepted, they will not pay them until they hear from their correspondents in Spain whether this and other moneys owing to them have been paid by the Imperial treasurers.
This delay of the succour that is to go to Naples makes him (Sanchez) suspect there must be some other reason for the Germans not advancing, for certainly it cannot be only the want of money. However this may be, there can be no doubt that the tardy provision from Spain on one hand, and the dilatory proceedings of Leyva and his Germans on the other, have placed Naples in jeopardy. The kingdom is almost en tirely wasted and destroyed, and the plague besides is making great ravages. Hears that the city of Bari has lately surrendered to the League, and acknowledged the supremacy of the King of France, as they did formerly that of the Emperor. They say here that the governor has acted thus at the instigation of the King and Queen of Poland. In Pulla (Puglia) only Manfredonia remains faithful, and in the Otranto territory the capital [Otranto], besides Taranto and Gallipoli. In Puglia also the plague is making such ravages among the country people that there is scarcely one left to reap the harvest.
Has had letters from the King of Hungary, dated Prague, the 19th of June, in which he acknowledges having received bills of exchange for a considerable sum. He (the King) had written to Antonio de Leyva and to the Duke of Fransbich (Brunswick) inquiring whether they chose to have money or men. If the latter, he would immediately order new levies to be made. It is not known what the answer of those captains has been.
His Highness' secretary, however, writes to say that fears are entertained of the Turk returning this year to Hungary, and in that case the King is by no means so well prepared to meet him as he should be. The latest news from Constantinople is that the Sultan [Soliman] has replied to the King's ambassadors that he will not make peace or truce unless the Vayvod [of Transylvania] is first reinstated in his kingdom of Hungary, and more especially the Venetians, who are his friends, left in peace. Many think, however, that for this year the Turk will not do much harm in Hungary.
(Common writing:) This Signory have had letters from the Court of France of the 27th June, and from Lyons of the 29th. Hears that the former relate to the affair of Ravenna and Cervia in answer to the consultation forwarded by the French ambassador at the Papal Court. Has been unable to ascertain what the King of France's decision is; (cipher:) certainly the Venetians are not in the humour just now for restoring those cities to the Pope, but, on the contrary, are fortifying them as much as they can.
(Common writing:) Those from Lyons are from Mons. de St. Pol, who, it appears, has sent a messenger to the Duke of Urbino, asking assistance in money. Hears that the Signory sent him three days ago 26,000 ducats, a very small sum in proportion to what St. Pol asks. The rumour of this captain's crossing has somewhat subsided of late, and yet some say that he will be in Italy by the first week in August.
Fourteen—others say sixteen—French galleys sailed the other day from the coast of Provence to join those of Andrea Doria and of the Venetians before Naples. They will make in all about 40 galleys, a division of which is to be sent to Sicily, with a proportionate land force, not only to cut off the supplies going to Naples, but also to ravage that island, which they can do easily, (cipher:) since His Imperial Majesty has no fleet whatever in those parts.
Letters from Viterbo of the 6th inst. state that Sarra (Sciarra) Colonna and other partisans of his family had defeated at Subiaco the Abbot of Farfa, who with 3,000 foot and 500 horse had taken up arms in favour of the French. After this feat of arms, the Colonnese had taken the road to the Abruzzo.
(Cipher:) Needs scarcely point out the advantage of having the Pope on our side, and that therefore it would be advisable to persevere in the line of policy lately adopted, until that object be fairly accomplished. As to the Venetians, he (Sanchez) knows them so well, having resided many years in their city, that he can only repeat now what he has so often said about them, though he reserves many little things for the day when he shall be allowed to kiss the Emperor's hands and feet, when he hopes to be able to point out what is best for his service.
(Common writing:) Italy is completely ruined, and threatened everywhere with pestilence and famine. Genoa, he hears, is almost deserted, and has been lately visited by fever, and a sort of pestiferous disease, which has carried away many thousands. All fear that next year there will be a most awful famine, for the harvest has been generally bad. Here, at Venice, the price of wheat came down considerably some time ago, but has since risen higher than ever, although the harvest has just begun.
Hears that the Signory have just received letters from Lautrech's camp in date of the 3rd and 8th inst. The former state that Andrea Doria had suddenly disappered and gone to Genoa with his galleys. Some say that he has taken service with the Pope, others with the Emperor. Three—some say five—vessels laden with corn and provisions from Sicily had entered the port of Naples. Sickness prevailed in the French camp, and four or five persons of distinction had been struck by the plague. Luis Pisani, the Venetian proveditor, had died on the 30th of June.
Those of the 8th announce that Lautrech had retreated to, some say 15, others 18 miles from Naples. This news is too good to believe; and yet the report is that at the last muster passed by that commander he found that upwards of 7,000 of his men, receiving pay, were missing; so that, what with desertion and sickness, his camp must be so reduced that he has perhaps found it advisable to raise the siege.
Antonio de Leyva is still at Lodi, which was so closely invested that it could not make a long resistance.
The last news from France is that St. Pol has been unable to subsidize any Germans. They say that France and Venice will do all they can to secure the services of Switzers instead. The same letters announce that the King of France was very ill indeed with his usual complaint, and that his pother had sent an ambassador to Spain to treat again of peace
The ambassador of France to the Papal Court is still in Venice. He has made no progress in the negotiation about Ravenna and Cervia. The Signory refuse to restore them. The English ambassador, who came also from the Pope's Court, took his departure for England yesterday. Hears (cipher) that the aforesaid English ambassador before his departure used very strong language against the Signory, and said that they would by no means be allowed to keep those cities [Ravenna and Cervia] unless they helped [the English] in the Cambray affair.
Of the 500 Turkish horses which this Signory has bought in Coruatia (Croatia) upwards of 200 came 10 days ago; the remainder arrived the day before yesterday.—Venice, 19th July 1528.
P.S.—The Duke Francesco Sforza is at Bressa (Brescia), owing, they say, to the plague which now rages at Cremona. Others maintain that this is only an excuse, and that he has removed thither to convince the Venetians that he has no understanding with the Emperor.
The Imperialists have taken by storm a castle called Santangelo, between Lodi and Pavia, and put to the sword upwards of 800 men who were inside.
The present is a triplicate of others despatched by way of Flanders and England.
Addressed: "To His most Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet, pp. 7.
19 July. 501. The Same to the Grand Chancellor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 43,
f. 53.
Is about to start for La Mirandola, where he will wait for orders. Could not leave before on account of illness. Is literally ruined, having used all his resources in the payment of couriers and messengers, advances made to his secretary, and., above all, by the loss sustained in consequence of the nonpayment of the Affayta bills.—Venice, 19th July 1528.
Spanish. Original, .. 1.
20 July. 502. Prothonotary Caracciolo to the Emperor,
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 43,
f. 56.
B. M. Add. 28 577,
f. 262.
(Cipher:) Strongly recommends the ratification of the secret convention entered into with Andrea Doria. Under the present circumstances, nothing can more effectually serve the Emperor's cause and save the kingdom of Naples than the powerful co-operation of that experienced captain. Not only are his terms moderate, but in his (Caracciolo's) opinion they ought to be improved upon.
As His Imperial Majesty must have heard by his despatch of the 17th, things here are in great confusion, owing chiefly to the want of discipline and frequent mutinies of the Germans under Brunswick, whom, for fear of their going home, Antonio de Leyva is trying to retain before Lodi.— Milano, 20th July 1528.
Signed: "Il Prothonotario Caracciolo."
Italian. Original entirely written in cipher. Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet at fol. 60. pp. 4.
20 July. 503. The Emperor to Alonso Sanchez.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 43,
f. 62.
The King. Alonso Sanchez, of our Council and our ambassador in Venice.
Your despatches of the 24th March and 6th April have come to hand. We thank you for the news they contain. On the receipt of this you shall take leave of that Republic and ask them to have you accompanied and escorted to the frontier, as We have done with their ambassador, who is already in France.
With regard to the information conveyed in your letters respecting the Turk and his armaments, We trust in God that their plans will be defeated.—Monçon, 20th July 1528.
Signed: "Alonso Sanchez."
Spanish. Original minute, .. 1.
20 July. 504. Giuliano della Spezzia to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 43,
f. 104.
Relates what passed between the Germans of Brunswick and Antonio de Leyva, and what pains the latter has taken to retain in the Imperial service about 4,000 of them, by paying them every 15 days. Very little hope there is, however, of the Germans doing their duty henceforward, for certainly the whole difficulty has arisen from their unwillingness to go to Naples. Leyva has tried every expedient with the Duke of Brunswick, but to no purpose; his Germans will not leave Lombardy. If so, no help is to be expected from them. Unless a fleet arrives from Spain with money and provisions for this army, there is no knowing what will become of us all.———, 20th July 1528.
Spanish. Contemporary abstract.
22 July. 505. Miguel de Aguorreta to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 43,
f. 64.
Was one of Don Ugo's confidential servants, and witnessed his death. Knows well the motives he had for the dangerous expedition in which he lost his life. As he has no doubt that the facts of that glorious encounter have been misrepresented by Don Ugo's enemies, he (Aguorreta) will now relate the most remarkable incidents of that maritime battle.
Shortly after the siege of Naples by Lautrech, Andrea Doria arrived with his eight galleys and two brigantines. On his arrival the Baron of Pruxita (Proscida) began to treat with the French and to send them provisions. A town and district called Vicco, within the Bay of Naples, Massa, Cas tellamare, Sorrento, and the Island of Capri, likewise sent in their submission. It was, moreover, feared that Puçol (Puzzuolo) would soon follow their example, as it has since done, in which case Naples might have been reduced to the last extremity from want of food. To avoid this, and to drive away Doria's galleys, Don Ugo determined to attack them with six he had at his disposal, besides two more vessels armed by Spaniards. This determination he took with the counsel and advice of the principal officers of the army, who not only approved of the plan, but advised him to take the command as captain-general of the sea. Don Ugo sailed from Naples on the 27th of May; the following day he met the enemy's galleys at Capri, near Salerno. Don Ugo's attack was so successful at first, that had not two of his own, named the "Perpinyana" and "Calabresa," belonging to Francesco Loria, forgotten their duty, the victory would have been most complete. For disregarding our general's orders, instead of engaging two of the enemy's galleys that were some distance from the rest, they only attacked and plundered two of the others, which Don Ugo at the first onset had disabled with his artillery and almost compelled to surrender, and at the thickest of the battle, when Don Ugo's captain-galley was surrounded by those of the enemy, instead of succouring their general they came to Naples with their plunder, proclaiming that the victory was ours
Meanwhile Don Ugo fought gallantly against the whole force of the enemy. Two of his galleys having deserted him, and the two armed vessels manned with Spaniards having also fled at the commencement of the action, he fought desperately against the eight of the enemy. Two of ours were sunk by the enemy's fire, the "Santa Barbara," Captain Mossen Serans, and the "Santo Andrea," commanded by Don Bernat Villamarin. The captain-galley and that of Il Gobbo were both taken after a long struggle.
Don Ugo, whilst on the deck of his galley, attacked as she was by two of the enemy's, was first shot in the right arm, then in the left leg, and lastly in the breast, when he died, saying, "Comrades, go on fighting stoutly; the victory is ours."
He (Aguorreta) was perhaps the only person standing (en pie) when his master fell, so that should His Imperial Majesty wish to know more details, he can furnish them, though it may be to the detriment of many people's reputation. Dares not speak out plainly, because he is not generally beloved on account of his devotion to Don Ugo, and yet must live in Naples.
Mons. de Ubauri (Waury) was shot in the head and shoulder, as well in various other parts of his body. Fortunately for him he was well armed, and the shot was small; otherwise he would have been killed on the spot. As it was he remained senseless on deck for upwards of three hours.
As His Imperial Majesty will see by the enclosed copy of his nomination, the Prince of Orange has been pleased to confer on him the lieutenancy of Castil del Ovo, to be held until the governor, whoever he may be, comes from Spain. The salary is only 200 ducats a year, a sum not excessive if his long services be taken into account. In case of the governor coming soon, he should like to be appointed to the office of Vice-Admiral of this kingdom, now vacant by the death of Francisco Despuche (Despuig?).—Naples, 22nd July 1528.
Signed "Miguel de Aguorreta."
Addressed: "To the most Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty."
Indorsed: "To the King. 1528. From Naples. From Agurreto (sic). 22nd July."
Spanish. Original, pp. 2.
22 July. 506. Antonio de Leyva to Alonso Sanchez.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 43,
f. 68.
(Cipher:) Has received his letter of the 11th inst. Thanks him for the information it contains. The Germans under Brunswick turn out to be a regular nuisance. On the plea that the terms stipulated with them have not been fulfilled, and that since their arrival in Italy they have received no pay, they refuse marching [on Naples], and some of them actually go home. Is doing all he can to prevent desertion.
With regard to his movements, his opinion is that, the safeconduct from Venice once obtained, he (Sanchez) can easily cross the Veronese, go thence to Bergamo, and afterwards to Trezzo, whence he will have no difficulty in reaching the Imperial camp.
Encloses copy of his answer to the King of Hungary.
Spanish. Copy. pp. 2.
24 July. 507. Dr. Baron to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 43,
f. 102.
Encloses duplicate of his letter of the 22nd.
The Germans mutinied the other day, and sacked several lodgings, among the rest those of Hernando de Alarcon. Every day we are subject to similar proceedings on the part of the lansquenets for want of wine and money to give them. This, and the total want of news from Spain, makes our situation exceedingly precarious.
Five-and-twenty thousand ducats have been received from Gaeta, and 15 cwt. of biscuit sent to Doria's galleys, as there can be no doubt now that he has accepted service under the Emperor.—Naples, 24th July 1528.
Spanish. Contemporary abstract, .. 1.
24 July. 508. Secretary Seron to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 43,
f. 102.
Has little to add to his despatch of the 23rd, informing His
Imperial Majesty how, after being made a prisoner at the battle of Salerno, he ultimately recovered his liberty. When he arrived at the French camp before Naples, Lautrech told him in private many things concerning the Emperor, which he intends reporting on a future occasion. Among other pieces of bravado he said, "Since the Emperor will not make peace, I hope to be the man to take him prisoner."
Mentions the affray of the 18th, in which the French were defeated, and refers entirely to Hernando de Loaysa, a devoted servant of the Emperor, who has sent home the particulars, &c.
Commander La Rosa is worthy of praise for the timely succour he has sent to Naples of money and provisions from Gaeta.—Naples, 24th July 1528.
Indorsed: "Relacion de diversas cartas, &c."
Spanish. Contemporary abstract .. 1.
26 July. 509. Instructions to Martino Centurione.
S. Pat. Re. Nap.
L. 4.
What you, Martino Centurione, our servant, must do in your Italian journey, whereon you are at present sent, is as follows:
Besides that which by another previous instruction we have commanded you to execute, you are to send a certain number of caracks from Genoa, and as many men as you can [to Naples?], and are to keep this entirely secret.—Zaragoza, 26th July 1528.—Yo el Rey.—Alonso Valdés.
Spanish. Original minute, .. 1.
26 July. 510. Leyva to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 43,
f. 87.
B. M. Add. 28 577,
f. 263.
Writes in commendation and favour of Jorge Frunespergh (George Fruntsperg). It was entirely through him that the Germans marched on Rome without pay. Has done, and is doing, all he can to persuade those who are here fat Milan] to serve the Emperor, and prevent them from disbanding and returning home, as they have threatened to do several times. He has lost a son at Rome, and Colonel Gaspar, another of his sons, who was with him (Leyva), has gone to Germany in a most deplorable condition from wounds and sickness, but promises to return soon. His Imperial Majesty knows what George is, but still he can do more with these Germans than all of us put together.
Humbly begs the Emperor to treat George with consideration and care for his affairs; it will be a reward to him and an example to others.—Lodi, 26th July 1528.
Signed: "Antonio de Leyva"
Addressed: "A la Sacratissima, Cesrea. Magtad."
Indorsed: "To His Majesty. From Anthonio de Leyva. 26th July 1528. Answered."
Spanish. Original pp. 2.
27 July. 511. The Same to the Same.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 43,
f. 98.
Captain Valentino, the bearer of this present, will inform the Emperor and his Council of the many great services rendered by George Franesperg (Fruntsperg), as detailed in his letter of yesterday. Begs credence for the said Valentino.—Milan, 27th July 1528.
Signed: "Antonio de Leyva."
Spanish. Original, .. 1,
28 July. 512. Lope de Soria to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 43,
f. 75.
Will be brief, as he has just arrived at the Imperial camp and finds that the bearer of this despatch (Rivadeneyra) is to leave soon.
(Cipher:) Has passed a few days at the estate of the Duke of Ferrara, negotiating with Thomasso de' Fornariis and other bankers. Has obtained 18,000 cr. from the former, and 14,000 more from Stephano Centurione, which he (Soria) considers a great triumph, as most of the bills are payable at Venice and Florence, and there is actual prohibition under pain of death to procure funds for us. The remaining bills, amounting to 150,000, Thomasso refuses to accept, on the plea that most merchants and bankers at Genoa have failed in consequence of late events. Trusts, however, that the said Thomasso, who is sincerely attached to the Empire, will do his utmost to procure funds. If so, he (Soria) wishes to know whether the 12,000 ducats which constitute the ransom of the Marquis [del Guasto] and of Ascanio Colonna are to be banded over to the Prince of Orange.
(Common writing:) It has been resolved to apply to the King of Hungary for 7,000 more Germans paid out of the 50,000 ducats lately remitted from Spain, and on their arrival despatch them to the relief of Naples, together with some Italians and a few light horse; the command to be given to the Marquis, if he will accept it. Fears that this succour will come too late, as Naples is so closely invested by land and sea, that unless Doria manages to supply them with his galleys, the Imperialists will be compelled to surrender. St. Pol is reported to be at Asti with a strong force; Venice has a good and well-appointed army; and the Duke Francesco Sforza holds Cremona and other towns of Germany, so that Leyva will have enough to do to defend himself against forces so superior. He has lately succeeded in stopping 3,000 of Brunswick's Germans who were going home, and joined them to his, making in all 7,000; but neither force is to be relied upon, as they insist upon being paid every week; there is even fear of those in Naples mutinying one fine day. Such being the state of things in Italy, it behoves the Emperor to provide money for his armies, and send general officers to command them, as Antonio de Leyva is old, and out of health.
The Pope is still at Orbieto. Ever since the arrival of this new army he has maintained a neutral position, and even given secretly marks of his adhesion to the Empire; but there is no knowing what he will do now that the German army is almost dissolved, and whether he will continue in the same mood. It would be advisable to secure his alliance by means of the marriage of Princess Margaret to one of his nephews, or by helping him against the Florentines, now that the Duke of Ferrara, whose son (Hercole) has lately married Madame Renée de France, is likely to espouse the cause of the League.
Thomasso de' Fornariis has paid to the army in Naples upwards of 100,000 cr. If to this sum be added the 32,000 paid, to Brunswick and Leyva for their respective forces, there will only remain 22,000 cr. out of the first set of bills accepted by him.
Recommends Captain Rivadeneyra, bearer of this despatch. —Campo contra Lodi, 24th July 1528.
P.S.—Hears that the Duke [of Brunswick] writes by this post to complain about him (Soria), saying that he is responsible for the breaking up of his army, by not having procured funds in time; but the fact is that whatever sums he has been able to obtain from Thomasso have been immediately handed over to his Germans. It is no fault of his if that banker could not make the payments in time owing to the disturbed state of Italy. Besides which 200,000 cr. would have been insufficient to make his Germans march on Naples, determined as they all were to plunder Lombardy, and then go home instead of relieving that kingdom. This and no other seems to have been their purpose, as has since been ascertained, and it is moreover rumoured that the Duke's orders were to relieve Milan and return home through the Venetian territory, doing all the harm possible to the country. The Duke [of Brunswick] is a noble person, and a good servant of the Empire, very brave, but he has little experience of Italian affairs, and those who compose his council have not acted with the honesty and prudence that could have been desired.
Mons. de Valdemont (Vaudemont) has died of the plague near Naples.
Begs to be relieved from his charge so far as relates to the distribution of moneys. It is exceedingly galling to hear the abusive terms in which Brunswick and others speak of him, as if it were in his power to satisfy their cravings. Asks also leave to go to Spain and kiss the Emperor's feet.
To-day, the 27th, he (Soria) has entered Piacenza in company with the Marquis del Guasto, who is going to meet Doria. Has met Bornaldino della Barba, the Pope's commissary in Lombardy, with whose aid and assistance many difficulties have been removed.
In case George Franchsperg (Fruntsperg) should complain of him, and say that he has not yet been paid his due, let it be known that he has already received 4,500 cr., and that the remaining 1,500 will be paid out of the very first funds in the treasury.
Spanish. Original partly in cipher: Contemporary deciphering on separate sheet, pp. 10.
29 July. 513. Doña Maria de Velasgo to the Emperor.
S. E. Port L. 368,
f. 194.
The King of Portugal [Dom João III.] has ordered the challenge of the Kings of France and England to he notified to all the monasteries and convents in his kingdom, inviting both monks and nuns to offer up prayers for the Emperor,— Lisbon, 29th July.
Spanish. Holograph, pp. 2.
29 July. 514. Alonso Sanchez to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 43,
f. 80.
Wrote the very day of his departure from Venice, on the 19th inst., and addressed his despatches through Flanders and England. Hopes that both have reached their destination. The Duke of Ferrara gave him an escort through his estates. The Marquis of Mantua did the same. On the 29th he arrived at La Mirandola, by whose lord (Giovanni Thomasso Pico) he has been so handsomely received and treated that he has no words to express his gratitude.
Has had an answer from Leyva. Encloses a copy of it, that His Imperial Majesty may better understand how matters are in Lombardy.
Intends staying at La Mirandola until he hears from Leyva. Hears from Andrea del Burgo that at his departure from Milan it had been settled that the Duke of Brunswick and his Germans should march on Naples, and that he (Sanchez) should accompany them.—La Mirandola, 29th July 1528.
P.S.—The above is the duplicate of his despatch of the same date that went through Flanders. This one goes by another channel, Lope de Soria having undertaken to send it to Spain with his own.
Indorsed: "To the most Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty."
Spanish. Original partly in cipher. No deciphering, pp. 3.
30 July. 515. Lope Hurtado de Mendoza, Imperial Ambassador in Portugal, to the Emperor.
S. E. L. 368,
f. 155.
Negotiations concerning the navigation [of the Portuguese] to the Moluccas.
Has told certain courtiers near the King's person that he (Hurtado) is surprised that the King of Portugal (João III.) made no suitable demonstration of good-will when the Emperor informed him of the challenge sent him by the Kings of France and England.
Respecting the affair of England the King of Portugal will appoint a person in whom he can place confidence. He will send an answer to the King of France.—Lisbon, 30th July 1528.
Signed: "Lope Hurtado."
Addressed: "To His Sacred, Imperial, and Catholic Majesty our Emperor and Lord."
Spanish. Holograph, pp. 5.
31 July. 516. Don Fadrique de Portugal to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 43,
f. 96.
It is reported that the Pope is sending this new cardinal, Fr. Francisco de los Angeles, with a message to His Imperial Majesty. A gentleman who comes in the cardinal's suite tells him that, although His Holiness had disposed at first of the priory of San Miguel de Esfay in favour of one of his courtiers, he was sure that if the Emperor would only write about it he would annul the grant, and appoint any ecclesiastic of these kingdoms. Begs for the said priory for himself.
Is delighted to hear of the convention entered into with Andrea Doria. With him and with the Imperial galleys in the Mediterranean we shall soon become masters of the sea. Besides the three galleys of Don Alvaro Bazan, which are completely fitted out and ready for sea, there are three more which may be armed at very little cost, and another one belonging to the Procurator-General of Mallorca, which could keep watch on the African shores.
As the Emperor must have seen by the report of treasurer Ferrer, 13 galleys may easily be fitted out at this port. True most of them want men to man the oars; but if the service is officially announced, and a salary fixed, more sailors from the coasts of Andalucia and Valencia will enlist than are wanted. As to artillery, besides that which is at Malaga, there is plenty in private hands, and in the castles of the nobility. If anchors do not come from Viscay, as commanded by the Council of War, they can be cast here. Masts and spars have been ordered in haste, and, once at Barcelona, can be prepared and fixed in a very short time.
As there might be some surplus of artillery at Salsas, Perpiñan, and Colibre [in Catalonia], orders might be sent to the warders of those fortresses to report about the number and quality of the pieces; and as there are here [at Barcelona] two foundries (casas de fundicion) guns might be cast if there were only metal and a couple of founders from Malaga. —Barcelona, 31st July 1528.
Signed: "Don Fadrique, Bishop of Siguença and Viceroy of Catalonia."
Addressed: "To the most invincible Cesar, Catholic and most powerful Lord, the Emperor and King, &c."
Spanish. Original, pp. 2.
31 July. 517. Ascanio Colonna to the Emperor.
M. Re. Ac. d. Hist.
Salazar, A. 43,
f. 104.
Vadamon (Vaudemont) is dead; Lautrech and Pedro Navarro are struck with the plague, which is very prevalent in the French camp. So great is the mortality that if the auxiliary German army were to show itself now we should gain an easy victory.
Sanga, the Pope's secretary, came the other day to visit Andrea Doria in his galley, and try if he could persuade him to return to the French service. Doria's answer was such as might be expected from so honourable a captain. Sanga is known to have said that in sending him with such a message to Doria the Pope only meant to be civil to the French, knowing, as he did, that Doria would never accept.———, 31st July 1528.


  • n1. As will be seen hereafter, Mai did not leave for Rome at the date of this draft
  • n2. Perhaps Abbiategrassa or Biagrassa in Lombardy.
  • n3. A duplicate is at fol. 22.