Records Relating To the Barony of Kendale: Volume 2. Originally published by Titus Wilson and Son, Kendal, 1924.

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'Grasmere', Records Relating To the Barony of Kendale: Volume 2, (Kendal, 1924), pp. 1-19. British History Online [accessed 21 June 2024].

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The parishes of Grasmere and Windermere were "forest." Down to a comparatively recent period there were no freeholds in these parishes except the Fleming estate in Rydal and Loughrigg, monastic land such as the Conishead Priory estate at Baisbrown, a small freehold estate in Little Langdale, and a freehold at Lickbarrow. Windermere water was a several fishery of the lords of Kentdale, and so it has always lain in Kentdale and the county of Westmorland.

1246 At the assizes at Lancaster Hamo "sutor" of Gresemere was indicted for a thief and outlawed; Lancs. Assize Rolls, 112.

1247 The King has assigned to Agnes who was the wife of William de Lancastre in dower the manors of Geirstang, Estan, Scotford, Stothagh and Kerneford, in co. Lancaster, and Grasmere, Langdon, Crosthwayt and Le Lyth with the appurtenances in co. Westmerland; Close R. 1247, p. 499.

1254 Papal mandate to John called "Francigena," one of the king's clerks, to grant a dispensation to Henry de Galdington, rector of the church of Gressemer, diocese of York, value 10 marks, to hold an additional benefice with cure of souls; Cal. of Papal Regist., i, 294.

1274 Robert de Ros of Werk held at his death inter alia the farm of Gresmere, with a moiety of the mill. Cal. Inq., ii, 49; see vol. 1, p. 10.

1283 William de Lyndeseye held at his death at Gresmer 13 a. land in demesne, each acre worth 12d. yearly; 4 a. meadow in demesne, each acre worth 2s. 6d. yearly; 15 tenants who hold 133 a. 1 r., each acre worth 6d. yearly; 11 a. of waste yielding nothing; a free tenant who holds by estimation 4 a. land and renders yearly ½ lb. cummin; 4 cottars who render 18d. yearly; a forest there which renders £3 6s. 8d. yearly for herbage and 5s. for pannage; a fulling mill which renders nothing; a brew-house renders 6d. yearly by malt; a chapel there is taxed at 66s. 8d. yearly, the advowson of which belonged to Sir William de Lindesey; a fishery there is extended at 6d. yearly; the tenants render 5s. for goldewethers alias goldewite (fn. 1) [with those of Langeden]; Lancs. Inq. i, 253; Cal. Inq., ii, 269.

1291 Taxation of Pope Nicholas:—the church of Gressemere £16; pension of the abbot of St. Mary, York, in the same, 33s. 4d. Taxatio Eccles., 308–9.

1297 Confirmation of a charter of Margaret de Ros granting in fee simple to Marmaduke de Twenge, her nephew, inter alia the manor and park of Gressemer and Langeden. See vol. i, p. 137.

1301 Fine levied in accordance with the charter of Margaret de Ros to Marmaduke de Twenge respecting 39 carucates, the moiety of 5 mills in Crosthwaite, Le Lyth, Staveley Gamel, Hugill, Ryspeton, Gresmyer and Langden. See vol. i, p. 138.

1302 Writ, dated 16 December, 30 Edward I, to the sheriff of Westmoreland, directing him to inquire by the oaths of true and lawful men, whether it would be any damage to the crown or others if the Abbey of St. Mary of York be allowed to appropriate the church of Kirkeby in Kendale, with its chapels and appurtenances. At the inquest, taken at Appelby on Thursday next after the Feast of the Epiphany, the jurors found that the appropriation will damage no one. The chapels of the said church to wit, the chapels of Gresmer and Winandermer are of the patronage of Lord [domini] Ingram de Gynes and Christian his wife, by reason of the inheritance of the said Christian, and they hold of the King in chief. . . . . . . . And the chapel of Gresmer is worth yearly 20li. Inq. p.m. 30 Edward I, 68.

1318 New taxation of the church of Gressemere, (fn. 2) £3 6s. 8d. Taxatio Eccles., 328–9.

1320 Licence for Marmaduke de Twenge to grant to William de Twenge for his life the manor of Helsington, the hamlets of Crosthayt, Le Lyth, Gressemere, Langeden, etc., with the mills of the same. See vol. i, p. 141.

1323 Marmaduke de Twenge held at his death a moiety of the hamlets of Gressemere and Langdene in which there are 11 tenants at will who render 60s. yearly, the moiety of 2 water-corn-mills which render 25s. yearly, and the moiety of one fulling-mills which renders . . . . . Lancs. Inq. pt. ii, 148.

1324 Ingram de Gynes held at his death the hamlet of Gressemere, parcel of the manor of Wynandremere, in which hamlet are 21 tenants at will, who render £4 7s. 2½d.; a fishery there worth 2s. 6d. yearly; a water-corn mill there worth 20s. yearly; a fulling-mill there worth 6s. 8d. yearly; the forest there is worth nothing; in the said hamlet of Gressemere there were 11 tenements in the lord's hands, which used to render 20s. 6d. yearly, together with the fishery, 1s. 6d.; the forest there 20s. and a brewery-house there 2s.; but now they render nothing for default of tenants; Inq. p.m., 17 Edward II, n. 60.

1332 Subsidy of a fifteenth. Lay Subsidy Roll, Westd, 195, 1A. This roll includes Grasmere, Langdale, Loughrigg and Rydal.

John son of Walter Stodehird in goods £1 0 0
William de Michelfel " 15 0
Thomas le Junene " 15 0
William Bryan " 15 0
Thomas son of Walter " £1 10 0
Thomas de Asedale (Easedale) " 15 0
Radulph the clerk " £4 0 0
John de le Wra " £1 0 0
Walter son of Roger " 15 0
Thomas Ydel " 15 0
William Mustel " 15 0
Roger Douring " £1 0 0
William de Asedale " 15 0
Thomas Fisher " 15 0
William de le Brig " 15 0
Ede de le Park " 15 0
John de Burgo " £1 0 0
Henry de Michelfel " £1 10 0
William son of Ede " £2 0 0
Richard de Michelfel " £1 0 0
William son of Emme " £3 0 0
John son of Adam Emmeson (fn. 3) in goods £2 0 0
Adam de le Fel (fn. 4) " £1 10 0
John de Braythuayt " £1 10 0
Broune de Langdon " £1 10 0
John Proctor " £1 10 0
John Cort " £1 5 0
Richard Clayf " £1 0 0
William son of Hamonis " 15 0
Richard de Bratwayt " £2 0 0
Robert de Grenrig " £2 0 0
Richard Barebayn " £1 0 0
Adam son of Nicholas " £1 0 0
William Bradhyh " 15 0
Thomas de Foresta " £2 0 0
Enota de Foresta " £1 10 0
Robert son of the same " £1 10 0
John de Brockebank " £1 0 0
John son of Enota " £2 0 0
Radulph Fullo " £1 0 0
William Trowman " £1 0 0
Sum of goods £54 10s. 0d.

1334 Robert de Gynes, staying beyond seas, has letters nominating Oliver de Welle, (fn. 5) parson of the church of Gresmere, and Thomas de Bethum, his attorneys for 3 years; Cal. Close R., 1334, p. 557.

Christiana de Gynes held at her death in the hamlet of Gresmer 21 tenants at will who render £4 7s. 2½ d., a fishery there worth 2s. 6d. yearly, a water-corn mill worth 20s. yearly, a fulling-mill worth 6s. 8d. yearly, the forest there is worth in agistment 40s. yearly, 4 free tenants render 2s. 8½d. and ½ lb. of cummin; Inq. p.m., 8 Edw. II, 1st nos., n. 74.

Whereas divers lands late of Christiana de Gynes, tenant in chief, had passed into the king's hands on her death, whilst they were in the king's hands William de Coucy by deed granted to William de Coucy his son, inter alia the advowsons of the chapels of Wynandermere, Marieholme and Gressemere, without having done homage and fealty to the king or of livery made of them in the usual manner. Cal. Pat. Rolls, 1334, p. 560; see also vol. i, p. 19.

1340 William de Tweng held at his death in Gresmere and Langdene free tenants and tenants at will who render £12; Inq. p.m., 14 Edward III, 1st nos., n. 31.

1349 Presentation of Edmund de Ursewyk to the church of Gressemer, in the king's gift by reason of the lands etc. late of William de Coucy being in his hands; Cal. Pat. R. 1349, p. 400.

Nomination to the abbot of St. Mary's, York, of the king's clerk, Edmund de Urswyk, to be presented by him for admission to the church of Gressemer etc. ib., 421, 447.

1375 Rental of John de Hothome and Walter de Pedwardyn, knts., made at Staveley on Thursday next after the feast of St. Gregory the Pope, 49 Edw. III (15 March, 1375). (fn. 6)

Tenants at Will in Gresmer. Renders yearly.
Richard de Baynbrig holds a tenement £1 10 6
William in le Wra " 2 cottages and 9 acres 2 8
Roger del Legt " a cottage 6
Adam Jonson (fn. 7) " a cottage 6
John Doble, elder, " an intake
Adam Jonson (fn. 7) " a tenement 9 5
Thomas del Hall
John Doble, younger " a tenement 3 10
John Dykson and Ralph Doble, a tenement 4 10
Ralph Doble (fn. 7) " a cottage and intake 1 4
Adam Dodisson " a tenement 3 4
Henry Walker (fn. 7) " "
Agnes dau. of Christiana " an intake 1
Elenor wife of William (fn. 7) " moiety of a tenement 3 1
John son of Richard " the other moiety 3 1
John son of Robert (fn. 7) " a tenement 6 0
John de Grysdale (fn. 8) " " 5 1
John Walker (fn. 7) " " 5 9
Ralph Corker (fn. 7) " " 5 10
John del Brygge " " 5 0
William son of John Watson (fn. 9) " 6 0
John del Bank " " 5 0
Richard del Bank the moiety of a tenement
Henry del Knot (fn. 10) holds a tenement
The same (fn. 11) holds the moiety of a tenement
John de Ottlaye (fn. 12) " a tenement
Adam Honter (fn. 13) " " 4 0
William Ellotson " a cottage 9
William Grenryge " " 10
Ralph Dowble holds a cottage which Richard de Baynbrige held
. . . . . Sandman holds a plat which Beatrix de Wyresdale held
. . . . . holds a cottage which John Dykson held 2 0
Ralph son of John for a brewhouse 1 2
Richard Smyth holds a forge 1 0
The other . . . . tenants for the brewhouse of Keldbergh. 2 0
William Dykson holds an intake 1
William Bakester holds a fulling mill 16 0
The tenants a moiety of a water-mill
The tenants for Forestsylver [£3 6 8]
The tenants for a geld [ 8]
For the fishing of the water [ 2 6]
Sum total £11 0 0

Decay in Gressemer. (fn. 14)

Decay of a tenement which John son of William held.

" Johnson of Walter held.

" Richard Baynerigh held.

1375 Inquest taken at Kirkeby in Kendale on Saturday next after the feast of Corpus Christi, 49 Edward III (23 June, 1375), the jurors say that Joan late the wife of John de Coupeland, decd, held for the term of her life inter alia the hamlet of Grismer. See the inquest under Windermere.

1390–94 Henry de Banrigge holds of the countess Philippa, a tenement (fn. 15) in G[re]smyer by fealty and renders yearly half a pound of cummin or 2d.

Rental of the lands of Philippa, late the wife of Robert de Vere, earl of Oxford, and John de Hothome, within the lordship of Kendale.


A moiety of the hamlet there belongs to the lord (sic). The other moiety belongs to [John] de Hothon, knight, as fellows (pro[ut]socii), together they hold the court, whereof the profits ought to be equally divided between them.

Renders yearly.
s. d.
John de Dacar holds 2 houses, 6 acres 4 0
John Wylleson " 2 " 4" 2 11
John de Cumberland " 2 " 12" 8 6
William Dicson and William Jhonson Dicson " 2" 16" 11 6
John Sleyther " 2" 6" 3 7
John Bonesautt holds a cottage
Roger de Delacar " 2 " 3 " 1 8
Richard de Howbrige " 2 " 4 " 1 0
John Walker, a cottage 8
Agnes de Yewdall " 1 house 8
Agnes relict of Thos. Johne 2 " 8 " 6 2
Thomas de Howe " 2 " 6 " 4
John de Delacar, a cottage 1
OWm Greneupe and Robert his son " 2 " 8 " 6 8
The same " 1" 4 " 4 06½
Magot de Yeland " 1" 1 " 2 0
Adam Wylkynson " 1 " 4 " 4
Thos. Wallare and RobtNycolson " 2 " 10 " 9 1
The same " 2 " 1 6
John de Warton " 2 " 8 " 5 11
Agnes relict of Nich.Atkynson " 2 " 12 " 9 7
John Myddylton " 2 " 8 " 5 0
Adam Tobman, a toft 10
Thomas Mylner " 2 " 8 " 8 1
John Hunter " 2 " 6 " 4 1
Richard Dickenson " 2 " 8 " 4 5
Ralph Walker " 1 " 1 " 10
William Dicson, a brew-house 1 0
The tenants hold agistment called 'Forestsilver' £3 6 8
The tenants hold a water corn mill £1 0 0
The tenants for a rent called 'Goldsilver' 8
s. d.
Ralph de Grenerige for a fulling-mill 13 4
Wylliam de Lancastre, knt., for the fishery 2 6
Sum £10 17s. 11d.

An addition to the rental made in the 16th century.

Frome the tyme of Sr Walter of Lyndesey and Sr Wyllm hs son and hys heyre and the tyme of Dame Cristtane the doughtr of the same Sr Wyllm, aftr wardes wyffe off Ingrme Gynes thare ware the bo[unds] of the lordschepe of Kendall, belongyn to the sayd Sr Wyllm, that is to saye, frome Raper Fold foleand beke to Skermier and so fro the Skermyer to Le Lynde wt the stane in, foloand the syke in to the woode and so into the wattr of Gylpyne, folowand the same wattr in to Towterne the Blakeratr off Wynindermere, folowand the rynge hedge in to Qweneldeskore and to the Hedynnge Hawe and so to crose of Hugyll and so from the crosse to Thwayte * * * and so to the Stotsfald and so to the Capell Hawe, to Thramner Well and so to Carbattyn Heid and so to the * * Heid Bristret, as heawen watter delys, to Edward Toft and Theswald and folowyn Wood Heade a[nd] so to the Rayse of Kyrkestone and so to the Sate Sandall, as hewen watter delys and so to the Grene Tofot at the heid of Sandall and so to the Hey Pyke and fro the Hey Pike to the Lawe Pyke, as hewen watter delys, and fro Lawe Pyke to Scandall Yeatt and so in to the watter of Rowthaye, folowane the watter of Wyndermer; and all the wattr of Wyndermer in to the * * *, savynnge Roger Holme and the fyscheynnge thare an wt xxti nettes fra the soneryse to the sone sett, and savynnge halfe the wattr of Wyndermer to the myde * * *, and fra the Blak . . . . to the Kyd Haw, the wylke is falland to the prior of Cartmell, yeldand yerelye to the same lordschepe XII d. for [the] ferye, and savynge Saunt Marye Holme, the wylke the foresayd Sr Watter of Lyndsaye gave to Sr Heugh * * * wt a fyschynnge of x nettes and wt a hukelreape and ii batys and the * * * * * *. Also be it knowne that in the same boundes ar Free holders, that is, Lykebarraye, yeldand to the lord yerelye XIId. for all maner of service, savynnge * * *. Also Wynsterthawit, yeldand yerelye to the lord a pounde of comyne * and of servys *. And also the Abbott of Cokkersand for Lyndawghe, yeldand * * for all maner of servyc. And also the patrimonge of the kyrke of * * *, that is to saye the nomination falles to the saide lordschepe. And also the lordchepe of Gressemer wt the nomination of the Kyrke wt * * * wattr, wt in the wylke halfe lordschepe is a Frehald cauleth * * *, (fn. 16) yeldand to the sayd lordschepe iid. for all maner of servys. And also halffe the lordsch[epe] of Langdall and halffe Whelpstrother; and also Lytyll Landall is heldyn of the same lordschepe by knyght servys and payeth iid. yerelye and sutt of Courtt and hackes (fn. 17) and besse (fn. 18) falland to the same lordschepe and huntynnge; and also holffe Loghrygge wt the holl watter to the Ovr Brygge at Skelqwt; and also the holl wattt Wyndermer. And also halffe the lordschepe of Crosqwatt and the Lyth, wt in the wylke are Frehelders, that is to saye Ubersteade, yeldynnge yerelye (fn. 19) * for all maner of servys, savynnge Forsterfod. Also Levens, Lupton and * * *, paynnge ii markes VIIIS. iid. And also the heires [of] Bethum, yeldynge for the seyd Bethum xxxiis. [and sutt of] Cowrtt; Heversham, Mylnethorpe and Grarygge L.S., and also ii markes. And also Staynton iijid. of Fre Ryntt, and VIII . . . . . .puter to the baylyffe of the Fee; Hoton Roffe iiiis. and of Moressebye [iiiis.]; also of the heire of Simunde of Heversham iiis. iiiid. and sutt of courtt; Also Borowdall (fn. 20) landes xvid.; Also the heyer of Thomas Addeson iiiis. iiiid. and sutt of court; Also the heyre of Mr. Jhon Collynnge xiis. and sutt of courtt and also Baleffoyd; (fn. 21) Also Sir Raffe Lassels, ynger, of Barburne xxxs. viiid.; Also of Jhon of Qwytby for Rygmadyn 111 brode arowes; Also Adam of* *for land in Krykebye Lonn[esdall]; Also the heyre of Roger Lancastr for Lonsdalle (fn. 22) and sut [of courtt]; Also Wattrson landes iis. and sutte [of] courtt VIII . . . . .; Also [the] heyre of Betson xiid. and a payr of spores and sutt of [courtt].


1401 Ratification of the estate of Walter Hoton, as parson of the church of Gresmere; Cal. Pat. R. 1401, p. 373.

1439 Nomination of George Plompton for presentation by the abbot and convent of St. Mary's, York, to the free chapel of Cressemer; ib., 1439, p. 230.

Account of Walter Stirkeland, esq., accountant to the king, from 17th to 18th year of Henry VI. Issues of John Hyrd and William Jakson, reeves, of two parts of the lordship of Gresmer, £6 12s. 4½d. For the following year the sum was £7 8s. 11½d.

1443 Grant to the king's kinsman, John, duke of Somerset and Kendale, and the heirs male of his body of inter alia two parts of the lordships, manors, vills or hamlets of Gresmere, Loghrige, Langeden, Amelsett, Troughtebek, etc., the third part thereof being held by Jacquetta, late the wife of John, Duke of Bedford, in dower for life. See vol. i, p. 45.

1444 John, duke of Somerset died seised of intail male two parts of the lordship or township of Gresmere, worth yearly £6 10s. 0½d.; two parts of the lordship or manor of Logeryg, worth 29s. 1d.; two parts of the lordship or township of Langedene, worth £4 11s. . . . . . . . two parts of the lordship or manor of Hamelset, worth £16 5s. 9½d. . . . . . . . [all] by grant of the king by his letters patent dated at Westminster, 25 September, 22 Henry VI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Also, under the same letters patent, the duke held, inter alia the reversion of the fishery of or in the water of Wynandremere, after the death of Walter Strykland. The duke died s.p.m. 27 May last. Margaret, his daughter and heir is aged two. Chanc. Inq. p.m., 22 Henry vi, n. 19.

1454 Rental of Edmund, earl of Richmond, within the lordship of Kendale, from 6 March, 31 Henry VI, when the king by authority of Parliament granted the said lordship to the Earl, to Michaelmas, 33rd year (1454), to wit for 1½ year and 26 days. Min. Acct, Bundle 644. n.10444.

Robert Otlayman, the reeve, answers for two thirds (fn. 23) of the rents and farms of the tenants at £7 4s. 11½d. per annum, whereof rent of the tenants £3 16s. 8½d.; agistment of animals in the forest, called 'Forestsilver' £2 2s. 5½d.; farm of the water corn mill 13s. 4d.; farm of the fulling mill 8s. 9½d.; farm of another fulling mill (since 1400) 1s. 8d.; and farm of the fishery 2s. od. Sum of receipts for the 1½ year £10 17s. 5¼d.

1486. John Benson of Grismar, the elder, grants to John Flemyng of Ridale, esq., a tenement with appurt. in Grismar called Baynryg. Witnesses: Walter Flemyng, James Chamer, chaplain, Robert Grigg. Dated 12 July, 1 Henry VII (1486); d. at Rydal Hall.

1511 Presentation to the abbot and convent of St. Mary, York, of John Froste, B.D., to the chapel of Cresmere, void by the resignation of Hugh Assheton, B.D.; Letters and Papers Dom., Henry VIII, i, 288.

1530 Licence to Sir Henry Wyat (surviving feoffee of Sir Thomas Parr) to enfeoff Henry, earl of Essex, and others of inter alia the moiety of the manor of Gresmere, to hold to the said earl and his fellow feoffees and their heirs for ever. Letters and Papers, iv, 2810; see also vol. 1, p. 62.

1543 Grant to John Belloo and Robert Brokelsbye of inter alia the advowson of the rectory of Gresmer, which belonged to St. Mary's monastery beside York; Letters and Papers, Dom., Henry VIII, xviii, pt. 2, 186.

1547 Letters patent of Henry VIII demising to Sir Thomas Parr, knt. for a term of 40 years his part of the lordship, manors, vills and hamlets of Gresmer etc. Dated 11 January, 38 Henry VIII. See vol. i, p. 87.

1560 Court of Henry earl of Cumberland, farmer at Grismyer of Queen Elizabeth etc., held on Wednesday, 5 June, 2 Elizabeth (1560), before Thomas Fallowfeild, esq., seneschal, David Flemyng, gent., and others, for the two years last past. Court roll at Lowther, Kendal Barony, no. 3. John Benson, bailiff there.

John Hawkrig

The son of John Hawkrig

The wife of John Hawkrig

Edward Benson

Robert Benson

John Benson

Robert Benson

The wife of Rich. Jackesone

" John Walker (Res' harriot)

Rolland Walker

Rich. Otlayman

The wife of Leond. Brigg

Will. Grigg

Hugh Grigg

The wife of John Watsone

Henry Watsone

Will. Watsone

The wife of James Dawson

John Daweson

The w. of Reginald Daweson

Putre Edward Grigg

John Meilfeill

Edward Hakrige

Reginald Hawkrige

*The w. of John Hakrig (accid' harriot solut')

The w. of Thomas Hunter

The w. of Christ. Walker

Christ Dawesone

Reginald Daweson

Christ. Jackesone

Edward Knottes

The w. of John Watissone

The same wife

The w. of Rall. Watissone

John Otlayman, son of John

Will. Jakesone

John Otlayman, sen.

John Hunter, son of John

The w. of John Hunter, son of Christ. (harriot vacc' sol').

The w. of John Hunter, son of George (Res' harriot).

John Otlayman, son of Robt.

Thomas Richardson

Hugh Hawkrige

The wife of John Hawkrige (Res' harriot).

Oliver Hird

Hugh Hawekrige

John Hird

[All the above except* were amerced 2d. pro succ' virid' bosc' ib'm. i.e. for green hew].

At the inquest taken it was presented that:—Will. Hawkrig made j hubilshowe (fn. 24) (substituted for 'afframent') upon the common pasture of this lordship with Robert Otlay, tenant of the Marquis of Northampton, against pain 5s.

Robert Hunter made j hubilshowe upon John Otlay, son of Richard, within the lordship, against pain 10s.

Reginald Dawson fished in the several water, against pain 4d.

Edward Benson, Robert Benson, junior, Hugh Hawkrigg, junior, Robert Benson, senior, John son of Christopher Benson, and John Jakson, all cut thorns on the common pasture of the lordship, against pain etc. A pain is laid by the inquest that no tenant or inhabitant of this lordship shall henceforth cut any willows on the common pasture, with reaping-hook or sickle before Michaelmas under pain of forfeiture to the lord of 3s. 4d.

1574. Richmond Fee. The Rental and Survey of the two parts or quarters of the manor and barony of Kendal and other lands. . . . . lately demised to Henry late earl of Cumberland . . . . . taken at Kirkbie Kendall the 7 September, 16 Elizabeth, by Thomas Boynton, Edward Braddill and Robert Byndlosse, esquyers. Excheq. Special Commissions, Westmorland, n. 3130, m. 5.

The jurors testify that in Gressmyer there are no "free tenants" in the lands called "lez Richmond Laundes."

Tenants by "lez tenantright," as follows:—

Renders yearly.
s. d.
John Hawkrigge holds a tenement and 1½ acres, arable and pasture with 1
Relict of Bernard Benson " 5 " 5 1
John Hawkrigge, elder " 1½ " 1
John Benson, elder " 12 " 12 8
Relict of Edw. Benson " 3 " 2
Edward Benson " 2 " 2 11
John Benson " 1 " 1 (fn. 25)
Relict of Robert Benson " 1 " 1
Edward Benson, younger " 2 2
John Jackson " 2¼ (fn. 26) " 1 4
Robert Jackson " 2¼" 1 4
Ralland Walker " 2½ " 1 10½
Relict of John Walker " 2½" 1 10
Richard Otlay " 5 " 3 8
William Grigge " 4 " 4 0
Hugh Watson " 4 " 4 4
s. d.
William Watson"3 acres 3 8
William Watson, younger"1½ " 3 1
Relict of Reginald Dawson "2 " 2 0
John Dawson "2 " 2
Relict of John Mydlefell"1½ " 2 0
Christopher Dawson"4 " 4 0
John Hawkrige"5 " 5 0
Robert Hunter"2¼ " 2 6
Reginald Hawkrig"2¼ " 2 8
Christopher Dawson"2½ " 1 10
Reginald Dawson"2½ " 1 10
Reginald Thomson"2½ " 1 10
Edward Knotte"2½ " 1 10
John Walker"2 " 1 9
Christopher Jackson"5" 5 9
Relict of John Watson"3 " 2 10
Relict of Reginald Watson"3 " 2 10
John Otlaye"3 " 3
William Jackson"3 " 3
Robert Otlay"6 " 6 0
"Relicta Thome""2½ " 3 5
John Hunter"2½ " 2 5
John Otlaye"2½ " 2 5
Thomas Richardson"¾ " 1 2
Hugh Hawkrige"4½ " 4 10½
Hugh Hawkrige, younger"4½ " 4 10
Relict of Oliver Hyrd"2 " 2 2
William Hird"1 " 1 2
John Benson, bailiff"12 " 12 8
The same for rent of the water there 1s. 3d.; for a workshop 3d.; for a cottage 6d.; for "Brewfarme" 12d.; for "lez bettes ters" 2d.; for a pool called "a tarn" 3d. 3 5
John and Roger Grigge for rent of the water 1 6
Item, all the tenants of the lordship pay yearly for their pastures£3 6 8
Item, all the tenants pay yearly for a mill in decay 13 4
Robert Otlay for rent of a mill 1 8
John Hunter for rent of the same mill 1 8
John Otlay and John Otlay, younger, for the same 3 4
John Watson, Edward Hird and Christopher Hyrd, for the same 1 8
s. d.
Hugh Hawkrige and the relict of John Hawkrige for the same 1 8
Sum total of the rent there (fn. 27) £12 4

Item, the jurors present that Henry Parke has incroached upon the common of the lordship at two turns to the quantity of 1 acre and pays nothing to the Queen.

1574 Marquis Fee. Rental and Survey of the fourth part or quarter of the manor and barony of Kendall, lately assigned for the jointure and dowry of the Lady Hellen, Marchioness of Northampton and now delivered into the Queen's hands for other lands. Taken at Kirkbie Kendall the 7th September, 16 Elizabeth, etc. Excheq. Special Commissions, Westmorland, n. 3130, m. 16d. (fn. 28)

The jurors testify that in Gresmyer there are no "free tenants."

Renders yearly.
Tenants by "tenantright" as follows:— s. d.
John Walker holds a tenement with 3 acres and 3
Edward Knotte " 5 " 6 11½
Robert Knotte " 2½ " 2
George Knotte " 3 " 2
Robert Hyrd " 5 " 4 2
John Watson " 2 " 1 5
John Hyrd " 6 " 11½
Edward Hyrd " — " 11½
Christopher Hyrd " — " 1 5
John Watson " 8 " 3 10
Rolland and William Watson claim to be undertenants of the same tenement of certain parcels
John, Christopher and Edward Hyrd hold a tenement 1 6
John Benson holds a tenement with 2½ acres 2 11
Christopher Thomson " 2 " 1
William Thomson " 2 " 1 11¼
Jennet Thomson, widow " 2 " 1
Oswald Thomson " 2 " 1
Robert Hunter " 6 acres and 2
John Watson " 4 " 3
Roger Watson " 4 " 3
Roger Watson " 7 " 4 9
Thomas Benson " 2 " 10
Robert Grige "3 " 2
Reginald Grige " 3 " 2
Robert Grige, elder "4 " 4 1
William Benson " 6 " 4 1
Margaret Hird, widow " 5 " 4 2
Thomas Hawkrige a tenement and cottage 1 0
Roger Grige a tenement and 2 acres 2 6
Sum Total£3 19 3
m. 17 Adhuc Gressmyer.
John Grige a tenement with2 acres 2 6
Hellen Grige, widow " 1 " 1 8
William Grige " 1 " 1 8
Elizabeth Grige, widow " 1 " 1 8
Francis Benson " 4 " 6 2
Ralland Walker " 3 " 2
William Walker holds a parcel of the above tenement 1
The same Ralland, William and Elizabeth Walker hold another parcel of the same tenement
John Walker, a tenement with 3 acres 2
John Hyrd " — " 1 0
Ralland Walker " 3 " 2
Robert Walker " 4 " 3 4
Thomas Hunter " 3 " 2 4
Edward Watson " 3 " 2 2
William Watson " 3 " 2 2
Edward Otlay " 2 " 4 0
Isabel Benson, widow " 3 " 4 0
Margaret Benson, widow ½ " 2
Helen Benson, widow " 2 " 2 0
Thomas Richardson " 2 " 1 8
Robert Richardson " 2 " 1 8
John Richardson " 2 " 1 8
Thomas Richardson " 2 " 1 8
Sum 52s. 3d.

Intakes: Item, the aforesaid tenants within Gressmyer hold a parcel of pasturable land as an improvement upon the common waste there called "lez forrest" and pay yearly, a moiety thereof nevertheless reserved and paid as for "lez Richemound laundes" to the Queen, 20s.

1669 A Breviat of all the hearths chargeable. 55 in number=£2 15s. tax.


Widd: Mackreth 2
Willm Hird 1
John Dawson 1
Rodger Dawson 1
Tho: Richardson 1
Myles Knott 1
John Dawson 2
John Akerigg 1
John Hird 1
Willm Hird 1
John Watson 1
Willm Watson 1
John Richardson 1
John Walker 1
Robt Hackmyre 1
Henry Watson 1
Rodger Watson 2
John Benson 1
John Walker 1
Robt Walker 1
Robt Greene 1
Willm Grigge 2
Eliz: Greene 1
John Williamson 2
Rowland Atkinson 1
John Greene 1
Robt Walker 1
Tho: Richardson 1
Robt Jopson 1
Robt Watson 1
John Akerigg 1
Tho: Greene 1
Chr: Nicholson 1
Mr. John Ambros 3
Robert Harrison 1
Willm Ullocke 1
Widd: Harrison 1
Mary Hird 1
Regnall Dawson 1
Robt Thompson 1
Edward Otlay 1
Alice Dixon 1
John Otlay 1
Henry Bird 1
Bryam Mackreth 1
John Johnson 1
Widd: Benson 1
John Johnson 1

1702 The Warden's presentment made to the bishop, dated 15 May, 1702, records the following:—Our Church is in good repair and no part of it demolished, nor anything belonging to it imbezelled or sold. We have a font wth a cover, a decent Comunion Table wth one decent cov'ing and another of linen, wth a Chalice and a cover, and two flagons for Comunion etc. We present the persons whose names follow for refuseing to pay their Duty for Easter Offerings and for refuseing to contribute to the Rates for Repairing of our Church, Francis Benson of the Fold and Dorothee his wife, Jacob Holm and Sarah his wife of Tarn Foot, John Holm and Jane Holm his mother of Skellwath Bridge End, all Quakers and come not to Church or Chapell to divine service. Francis Benson of Under How and Jane Benson widow in Grasmere, Quakers and come not to Church to divine service. Signed, George Benson, John Mackereth, Edward Tyson, churchwardens. See also Armitt, Church of Grasmere, p. 211.

1705 The same dated 21 May, 1705.

Francis Benson of the Fold, 1s. 8d., Jacob Holm of Tarn Foot 1s. 1d., Jane Holm of Skelwith 4½d., John Shak-Lock of the How 1s. 4d., all in Louhrigge in the Parish of Grasmere. And Francis Benson of the Fold in Lourigge 1od., Jane Benson, wid., 3d., Jacob Holm of Tarnfoot 2d., Francis Benson of Grasm' und' How 2d., Miles Ellerey of Clappersgate and Arthur Benson either 2d. All in the Parish of Grasmere. We have a publick school. Signed, Thomas Benson, John Dawson, John Grigge.

1706 The same dated April 30, 1706.

We have a Font and decent Communion Table. These persons following for refuseing to pay their Rates made for the repair of our Church, viz. Jacob Holm 1s. 4d., John Holm and Jane Holm 8d., Jane Holm for Mill Brow 4d., Francis Benson of the Fold 13d., Miles Elleray 1d. All in Loughrigge, Francis Benson of ye Fold for Grasmer 10d., Jane Benson 3d., Francis Benson Und' How 2d., Jacob Holm for Grasmere 2d. Signed, Hugh Hawkrigge, James Dawson, John Nicholson.

1707 The same dated June 13, 1707.

Our parish Church is in Good Repair, whereof the Porch and Iles are flag'd plain, Walls white and clean; . . . A pew to read Divine service in, and a new one is makeing. A comly pulpet and a new decent Cushion and pulpet Canopie, A large Bible of ye best Translation and common Pray' Book, a Book of Homilys, Book of Canons, Table of Degrees new, Register, Surplice, a Chest with Locks and Keys. We have no Terrier, but we are inform'd one has formerly been deliverd into the Court Ecclesiastical.

Francis Benson of the Fold in Loughrigge for refuseing to pay 1s. 2d., Jane Benson of Grasmere, widow, for refuseing to pay 4d., Jacob Holm of Tarn-Foot in Loughrigge for refuseing pay 1d., Francis Benson Und' ye Howe in Grasmere for refuseing to pay 2d, Towards the Repairs of the Parish Church, all Quakers in the Parish of Grasmere. Likewise we p'sent These two Churchmen.

George Mackereth of Clappersgate for the same 9d. Also we p'sent Jacob Holm 1s. 10d., John Rigge 10½d., Francis Benson 2s. 9d., Henry Dover 11½d., their Church sess wch they refuse to pay. These four last all Quakers and of Loughrigge and in the parish of Grasmere. . . .

The Defects found in our Church at ye Late Visitation viz.: The Floors of the Church porch and Isles uneven Flagg'd, The South wall on ye Inside fro[m] ye Bellfry unto ye East-End, dirty; A decent Reading-pew. Communion Table cloth of Linen and pulpit Cushion wanting; A Table of degrees wanting and a Cracht Bell. All these faults except Two (viz: The Reading-pew and crackt Bell) are amended. The porch and Isles even Flagg'd, the Wall made white and clean. A decent Table-cloth, Pulpet-Cushion, and Table of degrees, procured.

A new Reading pew is in makeing at present, and will shortly be perfected and as for the Bell it was referr'd to Dr. Flemings discrecion to be amended and made tuneable; and he resolves in convenient time to call together and consult wth the chief of his Parishon's to do it, and, in wt time and manner, to the best Advantage. Signed, John Benson, Thomas Richardson, John Nicholson.

1712 The same dated 1712.

We p'sent these persons following for denying to pay their Church sess, viz:

Jane Benson of Nichols in Grasmere 5d., For Grasmere Francis Benson of ye Fold in Loughrigge 1s.3d. The same for Loughrigge and Rydall 1s. 8d., Hen: Dover for Loughrigge 1s. 2d., Wm Ulock Church sess 4d.

We have in o' parish about two hundred Familys in all. No papists, No protestant Dissenters, Except 6 or 7 families of Quakers. Signed, Thomas Holm, Edward Hird, Robt Jackson.

1717 The same dated May 17, 1717.

We p'sent these persons following for refuseing to contribute to the Rates legally made for Repair of our Church and things thereto belonging viz: Francis Benson of ye Fold in Loughrige, Quaker, 1s. 8d. The same for his Estate in Grasmere 1s. 4d. Signed, William Green, James Dawson, Wm Barrow.

1723 The same dated April 30, 1723.

The ten Commandments are fairly written, and set up att the East End of our Church. No proper Box for the Alms to be given to the poor. A Bier but no Hearse-Cloth for the burial of the Dead. The Bells are not firme and in good order but they are agreed to make them good as soon as possible. We have no perfect Terrier agreed upon, we have an Account of all the Glebe Lands, houses, edifices, Orchards, Gardens and Tythes as belong to the Rectory. Our Parson hath another Ecclesiastical benefice. He doth administer the Holy Sacramt of the Lords Supper, ffour times in every year. He doth declare to the people every Sunday the several Holy-days and fasting days in the week following, and he doth read Divine Service appointed to be read on those days. Signed, Edwin Iween, John Dawson, Thomas Roberts.

1727 The same dated April 17, 1727.

A bason to receive alms of the Communicants whole and decent. Our Minister hath another Eclesiastical Benefitt. We believe he doth reside amongst us as far as bound by law. We believe he is legally dispensed with non-residence; the Cure is duly supplyed by a Curate who is allowed a Competent Salary. Francis Benson a Quaker for not paying his Church sess, viz., 1s. 3d. Signed, Robert Thompson, Edward Hird, John Park.

1729 The same dated April 24, 1729.

Francis Benson, a Quaker, 1s. 5d. Church Sess. Signed, John Grigge +, Edward Hird, Robert Jackson +.

1732 The same dated April 27, 1732.

One of our Bells is in good Order the Other two are recasting at York and the ropes are new-makeing, and everything hastning forwards to have them in good Order.

There are none who refuse to pay Church rate but Quakers viz.: Francis Benson 5s. 9d. and Bernard Benson 3s. Signed, Edward Hird, Henry Hird, William Rigge.

1798 The same dated July 7, 1798.

We present the little or least Bell as being burst and unringable. The Rectory House, Barn and out houses in a ruinous state and condition and much out of repair. Signed, John Dixon, George + Green, John Cookson, churchwardens.


  • 1. Goldwit is perhaps a golden mulct: in the Records of the Tower there is mention of consuetudo vocata Goldwith vel Goldwich.
  • 2. The three most important Papal taxes of the second half of the 13th century were the "crusading tithes" of 1254, 1274 and 1291. The latter was known as the taxation of Pope Nicholas IV in consequence of a grant made by him (1288) to Edward 1, for six years, of all the first fruits and tenths of the Ecclesiastical benefices in the British Isles. It was a grant towards defraying the expense of an expedition to the Holy Land That the tithe might be collected to the full value a taxation by the king's precept was begun in the same year and finished in 1292. But the valuation was taken just before the long war for Scottish Independence and that devastating struggle made it quite impossible for the churches to continue to pay on the same basis whilst meeting at the same time the secular expenses of the English Crown. Therefore Clement v ordered the collectors in the devastated areas to the south of the border to ascertain once more the "true value" and to tax accordingly. Hence the "Nova Taxatio" was made, 11 Edward II (1318) by virtue of a royal mandate directed to the Bishop of Carlisle.
  • 3. Another transcript reads "John son of Gunneson."
  • 4. Following this item the other transcript adds 'William Proctor in goods £1 10s. 0d.'
  • 5. He was still rector in 1345. Lancs. Final Concords, pt. ii, 69 n.
  • 6. This is a contemporary MS. and attached to it are portions of earlier rentals. These relate to what may be described as the "Thweng" portion of the barony of Kendale, namely the fourth part. It is necessary to remember that the tenants of the fees of Hothom and Pedwardyn in Grasmere, Langdale and Crosthwaite were not the predecessors of the tenants named in the rental of the countess of Bedford, for a year within the period 1390–95, which follows hereafter.
  • 7. These names occur on another defective membrane of earlier date which is referred to hereafter as membrane B.
  • 8. Gressedall in membrane B.
  • 9. John son of Walter, ib.
  • 10. Henry del Kente, ib.
  • 11. Here occur two entries in membrane B. Thomas Mylner holds a tenement, and William son of Thomas, holds a tenement.
  • 12. Adam de Ottelay, chaplain, and John del Bancke, ib.
  • 13. Adam Hunter, ib.
  • 14. This is on membrance B. which belongs to a year earlier than the above survey.
  • 15. The tenement was named Bainriggs and lay on the east side of Grasmere water.
  • 16. Banrigg.
  • 17. Hawks.
  • 18. Beasts of chase.
  • 19. 18d. rent.
  • 20. Recte Bourdale
  • 21. Bailiff's food, i.e. puture.
  • 22. Recte Bannisdale.
  • 23. The remaining third belonged to Jacquetta, late wife of the duke of Bedford, as her dower.
  • 24. Hubby shoo, a commotion, din, a state of confusion.
  • 25. "Et reddit per annum xvjd. ob. qua."
  • 26. "Cum ij acris et j roda."
  • 27. The particulars add to £12 os. 10¾d., but some of the items are difficult to decipher.
  • 28. The survey of 1593 gives only the names of the 18 tenements in Grasmere belonging to the Marquis Fee, with the names of the tenants of two other holdings. The rental of 1574 shows that the tenements had been sub-divided among the kindred of the ancient holders until in many instances a living could not be obtained from the wretched parcels left after generations of sub-division. This condition drove the inhabitants away by degrees, so that many changes of ownership occurred during the century after 1574, and a process of the gradual acquisition of small adjoining holdings into one tenement followed. By 1676 there were about two-thirds as many tenements as in 1574.