Henry VIII: February 1525, 1-10

Pages 459-471

Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 4, 1524-1530. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1875.

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February 1525

1 Feb. 1050. For the MONASTERY OF ST. MARY GLASTONBURY, Bath and Wells dioc.
Congé d'élire to the Prior and Convent, vice Ric. Beer, last abbot, deceased. Westm., 1 Feb.
Pat. 16 Hen. VIII. p. 1, m. 7.
1 Feb.
R. O.
Credence for John Cantley. Edinburgh, 1 Feb. Signed.
Fr., p. 1. Add.
1 Feb.
Vit. B. VII. 34. B. M.
* * *
"et par icelles ... par la copie des lettres ... lempereur entendu la volente du Roy dAngleterre ... le legat et lestat enquoy y sont les affaires de sa ma[jeste]."
Madame writes that the King has sent Gregory Casale hither to pay the 500,000 ducats, and to ask the assistance of the Pope, Venetians and others. If he had consented to the contribution with the Emperor, matters would have been safer, and probably the Pope [would not have] made this appointment, and the Venetians would have been in the army.
Left Lodi on the xxii .. ult. Lodged at Marignan and then at Vilant ... to attack the town and castle of St. Angelo, an important place "à cause .. vivres." The marquis of Pescara undertook the enterprise, with four standards of Spaniards, a band of Italians, and ... artillery. They commenced to shoot on Sunday at dawn, and took the town by assault at 20 o'clock. Most of those within fled to the castle, which was surrendered at the same time. The soldiers were set free on swearing not to serve Francis for four months, and the gentlemen are prisoners. There were 50 men-at-arms, 200 light horse, and 300 or 400 hacbuteers. Hopes to raise the siege of Pavia. Desires him to beg the King and Wolsey to do their duty, and to send him the news. The camp at Ghisterni, 1 Feb. 1525.
Fr., copy, pp. 2, mutilated.
B. VII. 27. B. M. Captivité, p. 48.
1053. The FRENCH in ITALY.
* * * "passe ... le sieur de Bourbon et son armee estoi[ent] on ... du Roy devant Pavye, et y a eu bien ... ledit sieur Bourbon a obtenu honneur partout. [Il (fn. 1) est] dempuis alle au chasteau Sainct Jehan ... Roy avoit mis mille hommes bien fournizs de ... municions pour la guerre, affin de tenir le p[ays] contre ses ennemys et devoyent tenir pour ... mois. Mais ledit Bourbon a deffaict e[n] ... jours ledit chasteau et gens."
The French say they defeated [8,000] (fn. 2) Spaniards who came to assist Bourbon; but there were only 300 of them. The Duke has more friends in France than ever. The King is in great want of provisions. An egg costs 12 deniers, and a chicken 15s. The gentlemen, the pensioners of his house, and the captains send to their own houses for money. All the great lords are obliged to go and warm themselves in the King's kitchen. The infantry are in the trenches, and dare not leave them, lest they die of [hunger] and cold. It is reported that Francis will return and leave his army in charge of sieur de M[ontmorency]. Villeroy and other noblemen have returned nearly dead with the cold. * * * "se donne ... qu[e le Roy env]oye le president de Rouen a Angleterre," because he is one of Bourbon's chief enemies, and the cause of all his misfortunes. The archbishop of Rouen has gone to Rouen to hold the estates, as to the taxes, which have increased a third. There is great scarcity in France. Albany has been badly treated, owing, it is said, to a plot of the Pope and Italians under color of treating. They fear nothing in France but the English. If they had marched forward, they would have met no resistance. The Emperor and his Spaniards are much feared. The King hates the Cordeliers Observants, and wishes to destroy them. Every town in France is victualled for eight days. Bourbon has great renown there.
It is reported that the duchess of Lorrayne has sent to Bourbon, without her husband's knowledge, 6,000 or 7,000 men, paid for three months.
Fr., pp. 2, mutilated.
1 Feb.
Vit. B. VII. 33. B. M.
1054. PACE to [WOLSEY].
Has received [from] Sir Gregory Casale his two letters of the 16th ... ult., with copies of a letter to Clerk, and one from the Emperor to his ambassador there. Will go to Venice tomorrow, as the King wishes. Doubts whether the Venetian army will be sent to join the Emperor's; but hopes by the King's mediation that they will either do so, or else not send it to aid the French, which he has lately feared. Is sorry that Clerk did not receive Wolsey's letter before the Pope concluded the amity with Francis, for he thinks that then the Pope would have delayed it. Now he thinks the letter will do some good. If Italian affairs could be brought to the point which Wolsey devises, the end would be good and honorable. Has sent the copy of the Emperor's letter to Bourbon and the Viceroy. Does not know whether the money mentioned has arrived in Italy.
Has also written to Bourbon about going to Flanders if matters in Italy do not succeed, and in no wise to shut himself in Lodi or Cremona, as he intended when with Pace.
On the 27th ult., Albany was near Senys, when he restored Fabius Petrucius, who had been expelled by the citizens, and who is married to one of the Pope's nieces. For doing this the Duke obtained money. It is said he will go on to Naples, being assisted by the Ursynys, who raised men for him about Rome, the Colonneysis doing the same for the defence of Naples. Does not know what the Pope will do, but no one thinks he will allow the French king to take all. When he sees by Wolsey's letters that the King and the Emperor will stick together, he will be forced to consider, because his excuse for this new amity was that he heard of practices by the King and Emperor with Francis. Has no fresh news from the camp; at which he marvels, as the armies were within four or five miles. Will not hear soon, as he is going out of the line of posts. Trent, 1 Feb. Signed.
Pp. 2, mutilated.
2 Feb.
Vit. B. VII. 35. B. M.
1055. PACE to [HENRY VIII.]
According to the letters received from Casale, will start today for Venice. The chief obstacle he will find there will be the Pope's practices. Has written to Clerk to induce the Pope to conform to the King's and Emperor's mind, and give up the practices with France, notwithstanding the amity lately concluded, for no man can be bound to procure that another man should violate his promise.
Has some hope that the Pope will regard some of his old promises to the English ambassadors. If he wu[ll not], despairs of succeeding at Venice. Trent, 2 Feb. Signed.
P. 1, mutilated.
2 Feb.
Calig. B. II. 132. B. M. St. P. IV. 315.
Since his last letters of the 24 Jan. there is great appearance of trouble and business to be between the Queen and Lords, as Wolsey will see by a proclamation issued by the King's Council, and another issued by the Lords. Sends copies also of a letter from the bishop of Aberdeen to the Controller, and of other two letters to divers persons; the one from the Lords, the other from the bishop of Argyle. The Queen has much need of wholesome counsel. She is mustering men to conduct her and the young King to Stirling, where the Lords have appointed to be next Monday. Has advised her not to go and meet them with a power, but to let them come hither upon some reasonable way to do the King service. It is expected few will fight against the Lords, and that there will be a danger of their taking the young King from his mother. Sends two letters he has received, one from the archbishop of St. Andrew's, the other from Angus, in answer to what he had written to them in accordance with Wolsey's letters of the 5th Jan. The Archbishop expects Cassillis and Magnus to meet him at Dunfermline, which the Queen will not agree to. Suspects messages to which Magnus was not privy have been sent by Groselles into France, and that the Queen is putting off the time till they hear thence; unless she have explained her mind otherwise in her two great packets of letters to the King and the Scotch ambassadors. Some things may be noted touching the secret thing disclosed in Wolsey's last letters, and the words of Henry Stuarde touching Albany reported in Magnus's last. The galleys are still waiting for wind to depart. Sees no likelihood of anything favorable to England, except in the Queen, and even she was not well pleased when it occurred to her that the marriage of my lady Princess rested only on a possibility. She had written her letters before Cassillis discharged his mission to the Lords. Is consulting with Cassillis how to avert any sudden hazard proceeding of this business; but the Queen seldom seeks his counsel, nor that of the abbots of Holyrood and Paisley. Here is dangerous tarrying, for none are safe who cannot defend themselves. "The gates be so sore barred up that justice cannot ne may have power to issue forth and pass abroad." All letters pass in peril, and he is obliged to send them by others than the posts. Sends copy of a letter to the Controller from the earl of Rothes which will show the danger of executing the King's orders.
Jas. Dog has just come to him to borrow 300 crowns for the Queen, which he cannot lend without orders. Edinburgh, 2 Feb. Signed.
2 Feb.
Cal. B. III. 154. B. M.
1057. ANGUS to DACRE.
"Copy of a letter sent to my lord of Angus by Sir Christopher Dacre, kt."
Wonders he has received no answer to his or lord Dacre's letter, and no word of his servant that he sent. Received this day a letter at Hexham "from my cousin master of Angus your brother," excusing Angus's absence. Thinks it a falsehood, for he never received a letter from Angus, and he has waited for him at Hexham with horses ready to keep his appointment. Begs Angus will be at Coldstream on Friday, 10 Feb. Will not show his credence to any other man. Hexham, Purification of Our Lady, 2 p.m.
P. 1. Endd.
2 Feb.
Cal. B. III. 73. B. M.
Has just received a letter from Geo. Douglas, signifying the untrue dealing of Angus after the old accustomable manner. Never received a word from him until now, though he had sent him William Hathrington and John Fawconer. Would have met him at Coldstream had he been desired. Had sent his servant Will. Gibson to the Earl, then at St. Andrew's, to obtain information of the affairs of Scotland. Finds he has taken part with the bishop of St. Andrew's. Encloses two letters,—one to the King, one to the abbot of Cambuskenneth; does not know from whom. Hexham, 2 Feb. Signed.
P. 1. Add.: "To my lord Dacre, warden general of all the Marches."
3 Feb.
R. O.
Has informed him of the news from time to time by De Praet, but has not heard from Wolsey for a long time, and sends his squire Cilly, the bearer, to obtain news. Has recovered from his quartan fever, so that he is able to attend to business, hunt, and take recreation. It is now time to act against the common enemy, and obtain their rights from him. Writes on this subject to his Ambassador, for whom and for Cilly he desires credence. Does not think they will ever have the enemy at such advantage as now. Madrid, 3 Feb. 1525. Signed.
In Charles's hand: "Je suis maintenant du tout gary, graces a Dieu."
Fr., p. 1. Add. Endd.
4 Feb.
Galba, B. VIII. 105**. B. M.
Is sending to England the Admiral de Beures, Josse Laurens, president of the Council, and Jehan de la Sauche, the Emperor's secretary, for whom she desires credence. Malines, 4 Feb. '24. Signed.
Fr., p. 1. Add. and endd.
4 Feb.
Vesp. F. I. 13. B. M.
1061. HUNGARY.
Lewis II. of Hungary to the Pope.
Complains of the subtlety of the Turks, who intend to attack him in the spring. Their vast preparations have induced the Tartars to join them. The rumor is confirmed by the count Thomesien and the king of Poland. Since the death of his father Wladislaus, Hungary has been the bulwark of Christendom against the Turks. Disputes of the Christians the main advantage to their enemies. Without aid of the Holy See this kingdom cannot be saved. Has refused the proffers made by the Turks, who have consequently laid siege to Belgrade, and harassed them for the last three years. His ambassadors Stephen Brodericus and Franciscus Marsupinus will give further information. Poson, 4 Feb. 1524.
ii. The same to Charles V.
Much desires concord between Charles and Francis. These dissensions excite the hopes of the Turk, who, having secured his Eastern empire, intends to attack Europe. He made truce with the Sophi. Requests that he will not suffer Hungary to be destroyed, but make peace with France, and turn his army against the common enemy, remembering likewise the interests of his brother Ferdinand the archduke. Poson, 4 Feb. 1524.
iii. _ to Cardinal S. Sisto.
The writer, who has been a prisoner in Moldavia, sends the Legate, who had entered Hungary to aid in the war against the Turks, an account of the latter power. The Turk does not fear the Christians; he believes that the practice of arms has grown to desuetude among them, as he found no opposition at the siege of Taurinus or Albanevander (Belgrade), and in his attack upon Rhodes was encouraged by the indifference of Christendom. He is ever active, whilst the Christians are sluggish;—intends to attack Italy;—is aware of the disputes of Christian princes. The Venetian ambassador was with him at the time when the writer was prisoner in Moldavia, when "these good Christians" took care to inform the Turk of all the dissensions in Christendom, and what the late pope Adrian had done. They and the ambassadors of the great duke of the Molosci were well treated; not so those of the Sophi. Had his information from a Turk, named Alexander, now Assa, who had been a secret Christian 20 years before, been baptised in Licinania (qu. Lithuania ?) by one duke Michael, now a prisoner at Moscow. By reason of his illness contracted in Moldavia, was not able to write to his Holiness or to the cardinal Sanctorum Quatuor, appointed protector of Poland after the death of cardinal Grassis. The Turk would gladly make an alliance with Hungary, but the latter declines; and will prosecute the war in person, if he can make a truce with the Sophi. The truculent way-wode of Moldavia ought to be deposed, as he advises an aid to the Turks. Recommends Desiderius Erasmus, ambassador of his Majesty. Cracow, Octaves of the Three Kings, 1524.
Contemporary copies, pp. 7.
5 Feb.
Vesp. F. I. 74. B. M.
Represents the danger he is in from the Turks, who for the last three years have taken the strongholds of his kingdom, the passes of the Save and Danube, and two provinces of Wallachia. They threaten when the Eastern empire is at peace to attack Hungary, and have made an alliance with the Tartars. Poson, 5 Feb. 1524, 8 Lewis II. Signed and sealed.
Lat., p. 1. Add. Endd.
5 Feb.
Harl. 7035, f. 174. St. P. I. 153.
Is glad to hear from Sir Thomas More that the King is satisfied at his communications with the chancellor Alençon, sent by the French king's mother. Defends himself from the accusations brought against Dr. Allen and his other officers in suppressing the small monasteries, and his proceedings concerning the office of the clerk of the markets within the liberties of St. Alban's. Though "some folks, which be always more prone to speak evil," may have informed the King otherwise, Wolsey has taken no steps in the suppression of the monasteries without fully satisfying those who had right or interest in the same. In the foundation of his colleges, intended for the King's honor, the advancement of learning, and the weal of his soul, he will be sorry to acquire anything ex rapinis.
Sends a copy of certain clauses taken out of the Pope's letters unto his ambassador, declaring on what terms he stands with the French king, and that he intends doing nothing against the King or the Emperor. "And albeit his Holiness' demeanor in that behalf is not so laudable ne of such sort as I would it were, yet it is not so evil as it hath been bruited and reported; trusting that after the arrival of my last letters, wherein I have been round and plain, his said Holiness shall alter his copy, and per case show himself according to such expectation as your Highness and I have had of him."
Westminster, 5 Feb.
Modern copy.
6 Feb.
R. O.
Extracts from Gregory Casale's letters from the camp near Pavia, at the middle milestone, Feb. 4 and 6, at the fourth hour.
Met Pace on Feb. 1, at Trent, and gave him his instructions, on which he returned with all haste to Venice. Went then to Brescia, and showed the Venetians there the King's mind about public affairs, telling them what faith and love he bore to the Signory. They say they intend soon to send their Ambassador, and were astonished at hearing the King's intentions, for they heard from John Joachim and many others that he had already concluded peace or truce with the French. Next went and stopped two days with the duke of Milan, and visited the camp so soon as it was safe, arriving there late yesterday. (fn. 3) Found Bourbon, Piscara, the Viceroy, and the other leaders, most eager for fight. The King's intention pleased them wonderfully, and they wished they had money, which they need most of all.* As a sign of their eagerness for battle, they left Arderagium, which is four miles from Pavia, early this morning, and are now not more than two miles from the enemy. Shall go to Pavia tomorrow. The French army has been drawn up in the camp, expecting battle all day. Our army has been skirmishing with the artillery and light horse. *Tomorrow the king of France will be compelled to fight or raise the siege on the side by the Ticino. If so, the army inside can join them, and they can go straight to cut off the enemy's supplies.*
Heard first of the Pope's declaration in Flanders. There and in Germany all are exclaiming against his Holiness; and Ferdinand complains bitterly that though he would be adored through all Germany, many mutinies have arisen, which will be quieted if he deserts the Pope;—as he affirms he will do. The Pope's agent here says his Holiness will do all that the King wishes, and that he was obliged to place himself in a safe position when he saw that the King would do nothing more. (fn. 4) Hopes the French king will by all means fight, and not make a base retreat. If the latter, will pursue him.* The marquis of Pescara is determined to show that no one wants to fight more than he does. He took the Castle of St. Angelo lately, being the second man to enter it. This has done them great service, as there were many troops there, including 50 lances of Federic de Bozolo, 100 light-armed horse of D. Petrus, and 100 of Æmilius Cauriana, with many exiles and friends of the above lords. Took 1,000 horses and 600 foot. Petrus, Æmilius, and three nephews of D. Federic are prisoners. *Supposes he has heard of the disaster of Don Hugo.* Have not lost more than 100 foot of those who were at Genoa. The fight was with Renzo's troop, who were on their way to join the king of France. Did not believe it till he saw a letter from a captain who was at Genoa.
The generals here urge him to go to Rome, and the Nuncio does the same; which he refuses on account of the prospect of a battle. He will not leave, lest it should be avoided. Cannot hear anything of Russell. Has carried out his instructions relating to Bourbon, who is very well contented with them, and desires to be commended to the King and Legate. Two gates of the park are being attacked, and 3,000 are engaged on both sides. Never saw better forces, or more eager to fight. If he had 100,000 ducats, would spend them in the King's service. *If Wolsey could see these things with his own eyes, he would be of the same mind; for if the French king succeeds in putting off the battle, as he is trying to do, they will be in great danger, for want of money.* Expects that if they fight, the French king will be either killed or taken prisoner. Wishes for fresh instructions with all haste. In the field, near Pavia, 4 Feb. 1525.
Apologises for his hasty writing, but he has been on horseback in arms for ten nights. The Viceroy writes himself. These lords have done much in keeping the army together with so little money.
*Casalis thinks that if there is a battle they will certainly win; but since the French have refused battle yesterday and today, they will probably prefer disgrace to defeat, and will be allowed to retreat in safety. If so, they will not be able to force them to fight again until for a long time. If they can intercept the victuals, the French must fight. The army cannot continue for 30 or 40 days without the 200,000 ducats promised by the Emperor. The general wish is nothing but to fight. The enemy's positions are being attacked by the smaller artillery and the light horse, and they are being provoked to come out to a pitched battle, which they could easily do if they chose, for the ground between the armies is flat and open.*
*They think it a hard thing that money is denied to them now, especially as it will be of little use after the battle. Now, what the Legate wishes for is certain, and a battle will take place, for the French king has promised the Pope that he would rather die than desert Pavia.*
The King can therefore bind the Emperor to himself, if he will give him money enough for one month's wages for the Germans. The Spaniards offer to serve gratis, and meantime the Emperor will either get money or fight. The war is carried on most cruelly. No prisoners are saved, and no quarter is given. Our men have slain 50 hackbutmen of John de Medici, whose horse was killed under him. Have just heard that two forts held by the French have surrendered to the forces we sent against them. Don Hugo's disaster was as follows. He set out with 15 galleys and 3,000 foot to attack Renzo's forces, which he heard had gone to a fort near Savona, and when he had landed, his ships were attacked by the French fleet and fled. He was forced to march along the coast, and, as long as the wind lasted, the French ships followed, firing at his troops, about 100 of whom were killed. The Viceroy, the duke of Bourbon, and the Marquis of Pescara, came to me this morning, asking me to go to the Pope; for they heard he had sent commissioners to the lands of the Church, to provide victuals for Albany's passage into Naples, which he strongly urges. Could not refuse them, but asked to be allowed to be with them till today, for last night it was determined to pitch the camp so as to force the French to fight. The King is in a park at Mirabello, with the Ticino behind him, and 2,000 foot to guard the bridge. La Palice with the Swiss is between the park and the Ticino, and before them a valley with a small stream, which we have determined to cross with the artillery, drive the enemy from their higher position, and go straight to Pavia. If the Swiss cross the water, will attack them. Rely upon the Marquis's advice, who urges a battle. The park is surrounded by a wall, double the height of an English park wall, which the King has had pulled down so as to be able to assist La Palice. Today pitched our camp as was determined. Two such armies have assuredly never been seen so near. Were half a mile from Pavia, with the enemies between us and the city. They had protected themselves from the townspeople by earthworks. Shots were fired from both camps, and many hurt. Intend to attack the enemies' works tonight, and take the higher ground, which would put the enemy in their power. If they are not successful, will afterwards bring up the guns, and fight step by step. If that is unsuccessful, will enter the camp by trenches. The enemy are ready day and night, and the King is continually on horseback. There is daily skirmishing. The generals wish him to go to Rome, which he defers, that he may urge them to a battle, (fn. 5) although, as matters now are, it cannot be avoided. Is tired out with work and want of rest.* Asks for an answer.
Lat., pp. 7. In Vannes' hand. The two sheets of this document have been separated at an early period, the first being endorsed: "The 4th and the sixt of February."
6 Feb.
R. O.
From the letters of Gregory de Casale, 4th and 6th Feb.
Assuredly, unless chance is quite adverse, an immediate battle would end in the death or captivity of the French king.
They cannot get away without a battle now. The Imperialists are within half a mile of Pavia; the enemy between them and the town. They shoot into each other's field, and hourly kill many.
The marquis of Pescara took 1,000 French horse and 600 foot, with Don Petre, Don Æmilius, and three nephews of Don Federike at Castell Angell. Both armies now kill all they can, and save none. 50 gunners of John Medices and his own horse were slain.
From letters of the duke of Milan to lady Margaret, Cremona, 8 Feb.
Pavia is well furnished with victuals for a long time. The French king has encamped within the park, and dares not come out, though battle has been offered him on a fair plain divers times. He is in great dread lest battle should be given and the enemy enter. Many skirmishes are made. On Feb. 7,100 Swiss were slain in a wood besides Pavia. On the 5th the count of Lodron, with five banners of lanceknights and one of Spaniards, sallied out of Pavia, and attacked the faubourg held by the Grysons and Italians; slew more than 500 of them, though they defended themselves galiardly, and took three pieces of artillery, a cart of powder, and baggage worth 2,000 ducats.
From letters of the Viceroy, 5 Feb.
The Viceroy, the marquis of Pescara, and another assaulted one gate of the park where the French had made a bastillon. They entered and slew some, and the remainder fled.
Afterward 4,000 French and five or six Swiss banners attacked them, but were repulsed.
From letters of D. Gaspar, 31 Jan., from Alexandria.
2,000 foot, who were going from Savona toward [the Fren]ch camp, were all taken or slain by him and the duke of Manara when crossing the river of Castellaccio and in the town of the same name.
Pp. 3.
6 Feb.
R. O.
In answer to his message by Gregory de Casale can only say that he desires to serve the King and Emperor, whose affairs being common he cannot believe would fail him in his need ("che manchasse neli soy bisogni, el che ne e tanto caro et gratia, per che se veda quanto per el proprio respetto"). Desires no other remuneration than that his good will should be known to the King. Are two miles from Francis. Hope to meet him tomorrow. From the camp, 6 Feb. 1525. Signed.
Ital., p. 1. Add. Endd.
6 Feb.
R. O.
Has accomplished all things touching the installation of the bishop of Salisbury, for which the chapter demands 10l., which he has deferred till he knows Wolsey's pleasure. "The bishop's vicar here in the cathedral church is destitute, whom your Grace doth name to the chapter," the value whereof is 12l. a year. He must be a priest and a singing man, and keep the choir daily. Salisbury, 6 Feb.
Hol., p. 1. Add.: To my lord Cardinal and Legate.
7 Feb.
R. O.
Hears from Giacomo that the bishop of London has lately tendered Campeggio's oath of allegiance to the King. Expresses his great obligations to him. Refers him to Giacomo for the news. The Turk is reported to have increased his forces on the frontier, and some horse and foot have therefore been enlisted at the Pope's expence. Buda, 7 Feb. 1525. Signed.
Lat., p. 1. Add. Endd.
7 Feb.
R. O.
To the same effect. Buda, 7 Feb. 1525. Signed.
Lat., p. 1. Add. Endd.
7 Feb.
R. O.
Late occurrences have exhausted his strength, but no calamity will prevent him from looking forward to a better time, trusting to the King's kindness and valor. Does not believe Henry will allow the glory obtained by him and the Emperor against the enemy to decay by neglecting Italy, though such was the opinion of some of the princes here, owing to the reports of the enemy. Rejoiced to receive Henry's letter and credence by Casale, and hopes some day to rest on his paternal lands. Thanks the King, and begs his protection. Writes the news to his ambassador. Cremona, 7 Feb. 1525. Signed.
Lat., pp. 2. Add. Endd.
7 Feb.
R. O. Rym. XIV. 121.
Has received Casale's letter and credence. Nothing could be more acceptable now that they are in danger of destruction unless aided by the King. He will hear the news from Augustin Scarpinello, his ambassador.
Advises an invasion of France. Cremona, 7 Feb. 1525. Signed.
Lat., p. 1. Add.
8 Feb.
Vit. B. VII. 38. B. M.
Arrived here yesterday. Was honorably met five miles out of the town by a company of gentlemen. Was brought by them this day to the Senate. Delivered the King's letters to the Duke, who received them reverently. After they were read, declared his charge, and exhorted them to keep their confederation with the Emperor, and send their army to join his. The Duke, after conferring with the Senate, answered that they always intended to observe the treaty, and showed what they did at the expulsion of the Admiral of France at the last war, in which they spent more money than they were bound to do, and saved the duchy;—that now their hasty preparation had prevented Francis going as far as he intended; that their reason for not doing as much as before was that the Pope was procurer of the league, and the Florentines and others were contributors, but they had taken another way, while his Holiness had given Albany free passage into Naples, and the King's money in Italy was recalled; that the Pope had sent them word that he desired peace, and that they would interrupt it by sending their army; that Italy was in such a case, that if they lose their army all their dominion would be lost in eight days, and this might easily happen, as the Emperor's army has no money, and the whole war would be on their necks,—too great a burden for them to bear, especially as they heard that Henry also cared for nothing but peace; that Francis had said, as to an article devised by the Viceroy, that there should be no peace without Henry's consent, that they need not care for that, as peace was already concluded between them. Said the Pope's act in promoting peace was very landable, but it was a great marvel that he did so, when he caused his Florentines to lend Francis 100,000 ducats for the war against the Emperor, and allowed his vassal, the duke of Ferrara, to send men and money; that, whatever they had heard, Henry would not consent to peace without the express [consent] of the Emperor, although, for the rest of Christendom, he was inclined to an honorable peace that would not prejudice his co[nfederates]; that Francis, who feared the Emperor's army, would be in great perplexity if they sent their [army], and would, perhaps, be compelled to leave Italy merely by the fame of it.
They answered that they would debate those matters. Meantime a post came in great haste, that the armies were within half a mile, had fought several skirmishes, and could not avoid a battle. They cannot now send men in time if they would. Both they and the Pope are doubtful of the issue. The Pope's practices are his great obstacle, as he feared. His resident ambassador came to Pace's house, and told him he would find great difficulty. Answered that the difficulty was not so displeasant to him as the author of the same,—the Pope his master. Everything now depends on the news from the field. The King must order himself accordingly, and look for no other good from Italy, as they intend none to him, and less to the Emperor. Will do no good here because of the Pope's practices, but he may prevent their sending their men to aid Francis, which the Emperor's ambassadors greatly feared.
On the 7th, Bourbon and the Imperialists were so near the French that they shot sclopetts at each other, and the French were repulsed in a great skirmish. Francis would not come out, and they say will not, by the Pope's advice. He lately sent seventeen banners of foot from Savona to take Alexandria, but the captain sallied out, and met them in a suitable place, where he slew and captured them all. There has been a skirmish at sea near Genoa, of which there are several accounts. The truth seems to be that Moncada was taken prisoner on the land, and the fleet returned to Genoa, with the loss of three or four barks. Bourbon has done all he could to draw Francis out, and to succor Pavia. Has kept these letters two days, expecting news of a battle. Venice, 8 Feb. Signed.
Pp. 5, mutilated. Add. Endd.
8 Feb.
R. O.
Marriage settlement between Humfrey Ratclyf, one of the sons of lord Fitzwalter, and Katherine Marny, one of the daughters and heirs apparent of lord Marny. The marriage to take place before the next Feast of Purification. The fathers of the contracting parties to provide their apparel for the solemnity, and to share the cost of the dinner. Lord Fitzwalter within six months after the marriage shall make an estate of 40l. a year to the duke of Norfolk, the bishop of London and seven others, for their use, but shall receive the profits till Katherine is 16 years of age, and another estate of 40 marks to come to them after his death. Lord Marny will grant them, within the same time, an annuity of 40 marks from the manor of Bradepoole, Dorset, during Lord Marny's life, to commence when the said Katherine attains the age of 16 years. If they do not marry, or if before consummation Humfrey dies, or they disagree, George, another son of lord Fitzwalter, shall perform the marriage, with similar conditions. If the marriage with him is not fulfilled, or if she is left a widow without issue, lord Fitzwalter shall have her marriage, promising to marry her to a gentleman of blood, who will give her a jointure of 100l. a year, and himself possessing or being heir to property worth 500 marks a year, including the jointure. Lord Marny will leave the manors which he holds by courtesy of England to his daughters Katherine and Elizabeth; his other property to his lawful heirs, except a rent of 12l. for a priest and poor men, and except the manor of Leyer Marny, which, if he die without male issue, shall be left to the use of Katherine, if she marry one of lord Fitzwalter's sons, at the rate of 60l. a year, as part of her inheritance. Fitzwalter will leave to his son who marries Katherine all his manors, &c., with the exception of an estate of 100 marks to his other son, and provision for his widow's jointure. Fitzwalter will pay Marny 1,000 marks for the marriage, making over manors to the yearly value of 100l. to Norfolk and the others for that purpose. The instalments paid shall be returned if Katherine die before reaching the age of 12, or if she refuse the marriage at 14, or if lord Marny die, so that the King has an interest in her marriage, and the intended marriage is broken off. 8 Feb. 16 Hen. VIII.
Pp. 13. Endd.
10 Feb.
Vit. B. VII. 37. B. M.
1074. PACE to [WOLSEY].
Wolsey's letters were [well] received by the Doge and Senate. Gives their answer in the King's letter. Moved them, as of himself, to send an ambassador to England, but could have no answer, as it must be debated in the high council, among 200 persons, and decided by the majoaity. They are in doubt as to the success of the battle, and will act accordingly. Meantime they depend on the Pope, who, in his brief to them for peace, uses not only exhortation, but monition and injunction, and other words very unpleasant to the Imperialists. As to Naples, they do not wish Francis to have it, but they think he will if he gets Milan. Albany is still in Sienna, and calls himself viceroy of Naples and Sicily. The Pope says that, notwithstanding his amity with Francis, he will continue friend to the King and Emperor; but his act[s] are clearly French. The Imperialists have done all they could to fight for eight or ten days, but Francis wishes to wear them out for their money ... Great provision is made with bankers for the [payme]nt of the same, when it shall arrive. Venice, 8 Feb.
P.S.—Sends copies of letters just received from the Viceroy, dated .. ij. inst., and others from the Emperor's agents, of the prosperous exploit of the army. If Francis protracts the time, Pace and the Imperialists will tell the Signory that the impossibility of sending their army in time can no longer be their excuse. Sir Gregory Casale writes of his journey to the Pope, at the desire of Bourbon and the Viceroy, to ask him to cease his preparations for conducting Albany into Naples. His Holiness wishes to make the Emperor's army forsake the duchy, and come to the defence of Naples. The Emperor has sent the investiture for the Duke. It would have been better if it had come sooner, as the promise was made long ago. 10 Feb. Signed.
Pp. 2, mutilated.
10 Feb.
Vit. B. VII. 42. B. M. Captivité, p. 62.
Wrote last of the arrival of Messire Gregoire de Cassal. He left four days ago. Wishes greatly for 50,000 ducats, for the [agents] of the Pope act more and more in favor of the king of [France]. The Emperor's camp is a short mi[le from] Pavia; the French camp being between them and the city, so close that they can hear the cry of the watch. Would have attacked them if the camp had not been so fortified. The day Lanoy arrived, Anthoine de Lyeve made a sally against the enemy at the bo[ulevard] St. Salvator, and killed 500 men. "Ledict sieur Anthoine me demanda de la p[oudre], laquelle je luy ay envoye, et entra devant hier deden[s] Pavye, ce qui na pleu aux ennemys." Will do all they can to draw them out and make them fight. They will have trouble if they stay between him and Pavia. Has done them much mischief, for the Spanish culverin men are of good will, and know their trade. Has received his letters of the 16th ult., and Madame has sent him a copy of his letter to the Emperor. Asks him to send the news. The camp of the Emperor, a short mile from Pavia, 10 Feb. 1525.
Fr., copy, mutilated, pp. 2.
10 Feb.
Galba. B. V. 387. B. M.
Mons. the Admiral and the sieur de Beures are going to England touching the common interest of the two realms. Has heard for the last two or three months a report, at which he should have felt great regret but for his confidence in Wolsey, the author and protector of the alliances between the two kingdoms. Will do all that he can, conformably with his honor, in whatever Wolsey and the King may command him. Wishes a good understanding existed between him and Madame. De Beures is perfectly trustworthy, and Wolsey may speak freely to him. Malines, 10 Feb.
Hol., mutilated, pp. 3. Add.: "Mons. le Cardinal d'Engleterre." Endd.
10 Feb.
Galba, B. V. 343 b. B. M.
The Admiral and De Beures are sent over to the king of England. Tuke is to tell Wolsey that the Admiral desires the amity of the Emperor and the king of England. Wolsey may treat them frankly. Hesdin was at one time appointed to go with them, but somebody thought him too good an Englishman. He need not say who it is. Tuke may imagine it was the sieur de Hoghstrate, who is no friend to Englishmen. Begs Tuke to recommend him to the Cardinal, and will do him any service he can in return. Malines, 10 Feb.
P.S.—Begs to be recommended to the Admiral, the treasurer of Calais, Sir Ric. Wingfield, and Vesedon (Weston).
Hol., Fr., mutilated, pp. 2. Add. Very badly written, and partly copied by Tuke.


  • 1. The word "Il," now lost, is printed in the Captivité from a copy by Bréquigny, as if visible in the MS. at that time.
  • 2. Supplied from marginal notes.
  • 3. The passages between asterisks are ticked in the margin by Wolsey.
  • 4. The passages between asterisks are ticked in the margin by Wolsey.
  • 5. The passages between asterisks are ticked in the margin by Wolsey.