Henry VIII: March 1533, 11-20

Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 6, 1533. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1882.

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, 'Henry VIII: March 1533, 11-20', in Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 6, 1533, (London, 1882) pp. 99-115. British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/letters-papers-hen8/vol6/pp99-115 [accessed 23 May 2024].

. "Henry VIII: March 1533, 11-20", in Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 6, 1533, (London, 1882) 99-115. British History Online, accessed May 23, 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/letters-papers-hen8/vol6/pp99-115.

. "Henry VIII: March 1533, 11-20", Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 6, 1533, (London, 1882). 99-115. British History Online. Web. 23 May 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/letters-papers-hen8/vol6/pp99-115.


March 1533, 11-20

11 March. 223. Berwick-Upon-Tweed.
See Grants in March, No. 8.

R. O.
224. Berwick-Upon-Tweed.
"A note taken forth of the grant of our Sovereign Lord King Henry VIII. in the 24th year of his reign."
At the election of the mayor of Berwick yearly it was customary, in the time of Sir Will. Tyler, late captain of the town, [to appoint?] four serjeants who stood at the King's wages, receiving 106s. 8d. a year during their term of office. Signed : "Thomas Bradfurthe, mayre."
11 March.
R. O. St. P. VII. 447.
225. Ghinucci, &c. to Henry VIII.
In justification of Sir Gregory's statement respecting his conversation with the Pope, and the committing of the King's cause to a place indifferent. The Pope admits that Sir Gregory, at his return from Calais, urged to have the matter committed into the King's realm ; to which the Pope replied. Stand not upon that ; for if ye do, ye shall destroy all. Think that Sir Gregory, in condescending to have the matter committed to a place indifferent, was influenced by his wish to do what was best. Bologna, 11 March 1533. Signed.
In Bonner's hand. Add. Endd.
11 March.
R. O. St. P. VII. 441.
226. Ghinucci, Benet, Haukins, and Boner to Henry VIII.
On receipt of your letters, and careful consideration of the same, we communicated many things to Card. Tournon, as Grammont was sick. As the Emperor was to depart the next day, we resolved to defer till his departure. We delivered to the Pope your gentle letters, as Tournon advised us. He took them very gladly. Asked him at the same time to commit your cause to England.
He said that he had heard with diligence all the matters excusatory, the object of which was to choose an indifferent place. We offered to show him that England was such, but he wished us to defer it, as he was not fully recovered. At our departure we found Maio in the palace. Tournon told us the Pope was so much moved at your request, that he thought it best not to press it for the present, lest it should ruin your cause, and compel the Pope to join wholly with the Emperor, who is in foribus, and lest also he should refuse the bulls for the see of Canterbury. But, seeing the urgency of your command, we communicated to Tournon our resolution to visit the Pope ; and, having your letters translated into Latin, we read them to his Holiness, who took them in very good part, saying that Sir Gregory, on his return from Calais, urged a commission for a neutral place, on which he had endeavored to persuade the Emperor to agree to the same, as he thought it would be to your contentment, as Gregory at that time affirmed ; but as this does not satisfy you, he can only proceed via ordinaria, and preserve his own jurisdiction, as you wish to preserve yours. We told him that the via ordinaria was to commit the cause to England, and his jurisdiction would be preserved by this process. He said that might have been, if the Queen were contented, but that she objected to England as a place suspect. We urged that such an objection was contumacious, and that in other cases of matrimony it would not be allowed ; and as he had sent into England to examine the fact whether the Queen was cognita or not, he might commit the whole cause there, seeing that you had treated the Queen's counsel impartially, giving the bishop of Durham a great promotion, and using no rigour towards her other councillors. States the other arguments employed ; but finding he was fatigued, told him we would take another opportunity of resorting to him. We told all our proceedings to Grammont and Tournon. We cannot tell what the Pope will do. He has this excuse, that his counsel have left him, and he will follow them to Rome. Have diligently considered the treaty, the notes de potestate Pap, &c. Have delivered your letters as you wish to the Cardinals, your friends. The Pope says that he has sent Ubaldinus to treat with you and the French king touching a General Council. The Emperor left on Friday the 28th for Milan, and will go thence to Genoa and afterwards to Spain. The Pope left on the 10th of March, and will be at Rome by Palm Sunday. Bologna, 11 March. Signed.
In Boner's hand. Add. Endd. by Wriothesley.
11 March.
R. O. St. P. VII. 449.
227. Benet to Henry VIII.
Has written several letters since the 14th Jan. of the interview to be had between the Pope and the French king in May next. He wishes Francis to procure from you some personages to be sent, and bring your cause to an end. The cardinals Tournon and Grammont are surprised that you wrote nothing of this by Bonner, as you had desired it at their departure. They are afraid we should say something to exasperate the Pope. This was the danger of which we spoke in our common letter, and they would not disclose it to my colleagues, but only to me. This was the reason no mention was made to the Pope of the commission, pollicitation, and decretal epistle, as it would greatly irritate him. The Young Man (card. of Ravenna) thinks it not wise to publish his uncle's vote as you desire, as it would be best to keep it secret ; for if it were known to be in your favor, the Pope and the Imperialists, who now think it otherwise, would not be influenced by it, and would defame him for acting against the Pope's commandment. He has given us writings in your cause ; and the rest, he says, are at Rome. "He was in fantasy to have sped the bulls for Chester, but will now resign the bishopric for preferment to the yearly value of 1,000l. st. or marks." Sends a copy of the league lately made between the Pope, Emperor, and powers of Italy. The Imperialists will evacuate Italy, of which they have been the ruin for many years. Have not yet put into execution the King's letter in cipher sent by Bonner. Bologna, 11 March 1533.
Chiefly in cipher. Add. Endd.
R. O. 2. Decipher of the same by Tuke.
11 March.
R. O.
228. Cromwell's Accounts.
A "declaration" of receipts and payments by my master, Thos. Cromwell, to the King's use, from 22 Nov. 24 Hen. VIII. to 11 March following :
i. Receipts.From "suppressed lands." Of John Tyrrell, for Dame Elyns, belonging to Christchurch, London, 30s. Will. Bretton, farmer of Wykes, 4l. 6s. 7d. Will. Werley, for the spiritualities of the late monastery of Sandewall, 4l. 10s. Ant. Cave, receiver of the late priory of Tykford, 40l. Dr. Bentley, for the parsonage of Tottenham, belonging to Christchurch, 9l. 10s. Will. Laurence, for priory of St. Peter's, Ipswich, 20l. Fras. Harryson, for parsonage of Alveley, belonging to mon. of Lyses, 5l. John Purdon, receiver of Walyngforde, 44l. 16s. 7d. Anne Knyght, executrix of John Knight, receiver of Ramston, 32l. The prioress of Halliwell, for tithe in Donton, belonging to mon. of Wallingford, 46s. 8d. John Hall, receiver of Horkesley, 6l. 13s. 4d. Mr. Saynte Jermyn, for parsonage of Maryborne, belonging to Blakemore, 13s. 4d. Will. Laurence, out of the box of Our Lady of Ipswich, 24l. ; and for pensions of Romberow, 18l. 9s. Will. Cavendysshe, for lands of Christchurch, 42l. 13s. 4d. Alice Pemsey, for lands of Lesynge, 46s. 8d. Will. Laurence, on determination of his account, 4l. 17s. d. Ric. Stretie, for goods of Calwyche, 30l. Will. Cavendysshe, for farm of Walcomstowe and parsonage of Bexley, belonging to Christchurch, 11l. 14s. 5d. Simon Momfort, for late mon. of Canwell, 6l. 13s. 4d. Duke of Norfolk, for parsonages of Felixstowe and Walton, belonging to late Cardinal's College, Ipswich, 13l. 6s. 8d.
For restitution of temporalities.Abbot of Holme, 50l. Prior of Huntingdon, 25l. Minister of St. Robert nigh Knaresborough, 10l. Abbot of Walden, 50l.
Money due by obligations from Dr. Blyth, executor to the bp. of Chester, 100l. The duke of Norfolk, 200 marks. The abp. of York, 200l. Peter Lygham, clk., 66l. 13s. 4d. Abp. of Develyn, 200l. Sir Thos. Seymor, 500 marks. Bp. of Hereford, 200l. Bp. of Bath, 133l. 6s. 8d.
Of Martin Bowes, goldsmith, for crown gold molten out of chains, at 41s. 4d. per oz. Of Rob. Draper and John Halalie of the Jewel-house.
Vacations of bishoprics.Of Ric. Strete, for bishopric of Chester, 612l. 18s. 1d. q. Executors of the late abp. of Canterbury, 1,000l. ; and for "a mounte," 100l. Of the Monk Bailie of Westminster, for the abbot's portion, 666l. 13s. 4d.
Farms.Prior of Shene, for parcel of the manor of Lewsham, 3l. Edw. Shelley, for manor of Fyndon, 16l. 0s. 2d. Will. Cavendisshe, for part revenues of Honesdon, 29s. 9d.
Money granted by last Convocation.Of the executors of the late abp. of Canterbury, for the first fifth, 242l. 2s. 3d.
John Judd, for revenues of the Hamper, 300l.
Money received out of the King's coffers of Thos. Alverd, and from the Tower of London.
Loans repaid by Edm. Pekham and Jas. Moryce, the duke of Richmond's receiver.
Revenues of Rice Griffith's lands in Emelyn, Abermerles, and Perottes lands, of Thos. Johns ; of the manor of Newton, from Sir Will. Thomas ; and for a balinger of the said Griffith of Ric. Tanner.
Total receipts, 20,567l. 6s. 3d. q. Whereof
ii. Payments.To John Whalley, for the King's works at the Tower, 831l. 0s. 9d. To Benedict, the King's tomb-maker, 38l. 9s. 9d. To Averey, yeoman of the crossbows, for livery coats. To Thos. Warde, harberger, for reward, 20l. To Steph. Vaughan, 46l. 13s. 4d. Dr. Lee, for his diets in Denmark, 60l. To the post of Denmark, 11l. 13s. 4d. Mons. Beauvays, the French ambassador, 23l. 6s. 8d. My lord of Rocheford, 106l. 13s. 4d. Dr. Benett, by Ant. Bonvice, 1,000 marks. Sir Geo. Lawson and others, to convey the King's money to the North, 13,584l. 9s. 4d. Paper and ink, 14s. 4d. Money paid to the King's coffers, [for the abp. of Canterbury's] vacation and mounte, 1,100l. Silks and velvets bought of Ric. Gresham and Will. Bo[try]. Carriage of copes and other stuff, late of Christchurch. Delivered to the earl of Rutland, 200l. ; and to [the executors of the] abp. of Canterbury, 1,000l.
Payments to Ant. [Bo]nvice for Philip Wylde. To Martin Bowes. To Cavendish, for costs at Christchurch. For my master's fee for the receipt of extraordinary receipts, 150l. To Mary Henyngam, late prioress of Wikes, 5l. To Ric. Riche, for the purchase of lands of Thos. Roberts, nigh Copthall, 220l. To Thos. Alverd, for the King's works at Westminster, 2,000l.
Total payments, 21,240l. 12s. "And so in superplusage, 673l. 5s. 8d. q. Ayenste the whiche
"Received of Thos. Alverd, 4,000l. Whereof"
(fn. 1) [Delivered to] Fowler, for [works] at Calais, 4,000l. Paid to Draper and Halalie, 18 March, 15l. To the landgrave of Hesse's servants, 9l. 6s. 8d. To Roger Elys, clk., 40l. To Sir Geo. Lawson, 1,000l. To John Freman, for plate given to Mons. Momepesarte, 173l. 2s. 11d. To Dr. Lee, for the rest of his diets, 32l. To the king of Denmark's ambassador, 23l. 6s. 8d. To Mr. Speaker of the Parliament, 50l. To Benedict, 7l. 9s. To the King's coffers, 1,000l. To the duke of Bever's (Bavaria's) servant, 23l. 6s. 8d.
Grand total of payments, 27,614l. 3s. 11d.
Large paper, pp. 5. Mutilated.
11 March.
R. O.
229. George Lord Rochford.
Warrant under the King's sign manual to Cromwell, master of the jewels, to deliver to Geo. viscount Rocheford, who is appointed ambassador to France, 106l. 13s. 4d. for his diets for 14 days beginning this day. Westm., 11 March 24 Hen. VIII.

R. O. St. P. VII. 427.
230. Instructions for Lord Rochford, sent to the French Court.
Is to present Francis with the letters written by the King's own hand, and express the delight he feels in his friendship and offers of service made by De Langeais, especially with regard to his asking the King's advice concerning the marriage of the duke of Orleans with the Pope's niece. Has declared it already by De Langeais at his return ; which Rochford is to enlarge upon, touching on the low extraction of the lady, which the King thinks is a great obstacle. Is to tell Francis that, according to his advice given at their last interview, and from his anxiety to have male issue for the establishment of his kingdom, he has proceeded effectually to the accomplishment of his marriage, trusting to find that his deeds will correspond with his promises, and that he will assist and maintain the King in the event of any excommunication from the Pope. That, in full consideration of the friendship of Francis, the King has opened to him his mind entirely, and asked his advice from time to time ; and, considering he is now following the French king's counsel, he hopes that he will, as a true friend and brother, devise whatever he can for the establishment of the said marriage, preventing any impediment to it, or of the succession, which please God will follow, and which, to all appearance, is in a state of advancement already, as the King himself would do for Francis in like case. That, considering the Pope, in the violation of the rights of princes, has unjustly appointed a day for the King to appear before him (to which he does not intend to submit, it being dishonorable to his royal dignity, especially as the Pope refused to admit the excusator), if kings and princes were to allow this, he would extend his usurpation over all the rest, to their great dishonor. Ought a prince to submit to the arrogance and ambition of an earthly creature whom God has made his subject? Ought a King to humble himself, and pay obedience to him over whom God has given him the superiority? This would be to pervert the order which God has ordained, and would be as prejudicial to Francis as to Henry himself. The King will therefore be glad if Francis will despatch an agent to the Pope to intimate to him the following points : 1. That if he refuses to admit the King's excusator, and proceeds against the King, Francis will not allow it, but both will resist it to his great disadvantage ; but if he will maintain the King's privileges, and not intermeddle in the cause, he will find us his true friends ; otherwise, we will never enter into any alliance with him. 2. That he will never consent to the marriage of the Pope's niece with his son, except, without delay, the Pope admits the King's excusator, as he is bound to do. Furthermore, if any one, as is likely to be the case, should endeavour to alienate him from our cause, notwithstanding that we are assured of the alliance between us, and that such attempts would be fruitless, we hope he will excuse us for suggesting that if such a case arises he should reply that he considers our cause to be just, seeing that we are so straitly allied with him in amity and friendship, that, if it were infringed, it would turn to his dishonor, and give the world occasion to suppose that the friendship of princes is nothing but dissimulation.
We think it right to advertise Francis of the affairs of the Scotch, which are to be explained to him by Rochford and Wallop, that on the requisition of his ambassador De Beauvois, who begged of us on his return from Scotland to abstain from invasion, notwithstanding the injuries we have received from them, we did, at his request, command our subjects to make no manner of invasion there.
Nevertheless, the earl of Murray and other Scotch earls are prepared, to the number of 6,000, to invade our country, and certain Scotchmen have carried off prisoners and cattle. He will not, therefore, be surprised if we refuse to put up with this injury, and treat them as they have deserved. As this marriage (the King's) cannot be long unknown, and certainly not beyond Easter, the King would rather it were made public by himself than by any one else, and he would feel highly displeased if it were known at Rome or elsewhere before the time when he thinks fit to declare it. And then he will be obliged to Francis if he will order his Ambassadors at Rome to join with the King's in persuading the Pope and the Cardinals to be satisfied with what is done, and not attempt to contravene it ; or, in case the Pope should attempt it, will be glad if Francis will gain over as many Cardinals as he can for the King's support. The Ambassador is to tell the Grand Master and the Admiral that the King has great confidence in them, and appoints them protectors of his cause in the Court of France, and he is to deliver them the letters herewith sent. Also, they shall make what interest they can for him there. They shall assure Francis that there is no prince or personage on whose support and comfort he relies so much, and that his kind words and promises are a great consolation to Henry, especially as he vows never to abandon the King in this cause, but aid and maintain him in his succession, declaring that he will hold all that trouble him or condemn his proceedings, whether it be Pope or Emperor, as his adversary. The King will study to recompense him, and desire nothing but what shall be agreeable to him. He will always be glad to hear from him. Signed at the head.
R. O. St. P. VII. 435. 2. Copy of a letter enclosed in the preceding, which Henry proposed should be written by Francis I. to the Pope, urging the King's divorce on account of the scruples which he entertains in consequence of his pretended marriage with Catharine. Francis is to say that he has written several times that his cause is agreeable to the Divine law, and can be no longer delayed. Francis wishes it to be determined in the way that Henry suggests, which he considers so just and reasonable that, if the Pope refuses to comply, he will show himself very ungrateful for the respect which the King has always shown to his person and to the See Apostolic. Though he cannot doubt that his Holiness will obey the request of two such princes, if he suffers himself to be diverted by the influence of other persons, it may happen that they will be obliged to have recourse to other ways and means, which would not be quite agreeable to the Pope.
Apostiled in the margin in Wriothesley's hand, evidently at the King's dictation.
Headed : Copie of the letter to be sent to the Pope.
12 March.
R. O.
231. Robert Acton to Pawlet and Cromwell.
Thanks them for their kindness. Perceives by their letter they wish to be informed of the state of the woods within his office of the lordship of Elmeley Lovet. There are two "coppyes" within the lordship, called Bawckryge and Jones Wodde ; the first eight acres of six years' growth, the other six acres of seven years' growth. They were sold by one Ric. Cam, that was deputy to Sir Edw. Beltnop, and not by Mr. Wickson, late master of the wood sales, for 6l. 13s. 4d., to Mr. Richard Newport and John Buttler, of Draytewyche. The tenants also "bear me in hand" that the hedges about the said two "copyes" ought to be set open and broken when they are of six or seven years' growth. There is a common called Snedys Wodde, containing 100 oaks as estimated by three honest persons (named). Elmley Lovet, 12 March.
Hol., p. 1. Add. : To the right worshipful Sir William Pawlet, knight, controller of the King's house, and unto Mr. Crumwell, of the King's council.
13 March.
R. O.
232. Thomas Arundell to Cromwell.
Begs him to continue his goodness to Thos. Phylyppes, "who is now in the King's mercy," for he is cast for the same matter which Cromwell examined, on the evidence of that one man who was before him. The means used should make the man abhorred. Symondisbrough, 13 March.
Hol., p. 1. Add. : To the right hon. Mr. Cromwell, of the King's most hon. Council. Sealed.
14 March. 233. Marriage Of Cousins. (fn. 2)
Dispensation by Peter Vannes to Thomas Skevington and Anne Asheby, of the diocese of Lincoln, to contract matrimony, though they are within the third and fourth degrees of consanguinity. London, 14 March 1532, 10 Clement VII. Signed : Petrus Vannes, collector.
Lat., vellum. Fine seal attached.
[15 Mar.] (fn. 3)
Vit. B. XIV. 106. B. M.
234. [Aug. Ab Augustinis to Cromwell.]
"Humillima commendatione p[rmissa], ... bant ... reliq ... cum in hanc urbem ... ut ... morem ... ut audio die v ... bularum et palli a ... qui iverunt recta Alex[andriam] ... dum revera ex Bononia disce ... solet, sua Majestas per Cremonam ... inquam volui ad Magnificentiam vestram scribere, nacta mi[h]i opor [tunitate] ...
Csar itaque die ix. hujus ad noctem ingressus est hanc civitat[em] ... [Cardinalibus Man]tuano, scilicet, et Sanctorum iiij. Coronatorum, cardinali Barrensi, qui ex Janua p ... et cardinali Oxomensi, olim a confessione su Majestatis, qui cum Csare trajici ... surus in aula, nisi vocatus ; sed in dicesi sua. Cardinalis autem ... de Mendocia quadriennium ab hinc orator apud illam serenissimam Majestatem pe ... ad suam dicesim proficiscitur : quo in itinere melius excipietur, quam ... veniret, siquidem tunc ob quasdam suspiciones plus minus iiij. mens ... ultra prterea ordinariam custodiam corporis sui Csar fuit stipatus ... mdcc. dimissis reliquis Hispanis in agro Mediolanensi : qui s ... non transeunt numerum iiijm, et cum sua Majestate in Hispaniam adnavigabunt ... exauthorat redibunt in Germaniam, quam primum autem Csar ingressus ... a populo non multum honorifice ; nec multum hylari animo fuit rec[eptus] ... intravit, universo ducis prsidio usque ad podagricum quendam decumbentem ... ac ibidem suis dispositis, cum tota sua familia continue illic commoratu ... illius diei omnia loca curiosissime illius arcis spatio trium horarum i ... parum certe admiratus cum munitionem, tum pulchritudinem ejus, he ... xiiij. hujus mensis, et va dies a suo ingressu, hinc discessit ad v ... xxm passuum ab hinc distat, angustus quidem locus, sed venatio[ni aptus], ubi dixit se immoraturum ad summum triduum, inde Alexandriam prop[eraturum] die Mercurii proximo : qui erit xix. hujus mensis : qu sane ... bellorum, et pestis injuria ferme tota diruta, adeo quod vix cl. d[omus] ... erunt idone, illic expectabit Csar donec classis sit inst[ructa] ... onem apta fuerit confirmata : quod futurum non puto ni ... ri potest ipsum Pascha omnino celeb .. *
... Mantuam post lentum et molestum ... ... quarum colliquatione sub montibus ... ... credo illuc mittet aliquem ex ... ... relicta Caroli Lannoii eam con ... ... sub cura prfat principis per ... ... viro conjugari, verum int ... ... dere.
... Bavari, nec de ejus expeditione ... discessum Csaris ex Italia
... [e]lectoris Saxoni, qui expectabatur Alexandri ... nec de eo ullum verbum auditur, et multi existimant eum non am ... nec principem suum velle Csaris conditionibus assentire, tempus tamen multa fert ... [a]b hinc pertransivit : qui defert galerum cardinalitium ad archiepiscopum Tolosanum ... [qui] nominatus fuit a Leone ejus nomine X. pontifice, verum postea exorto bello [inter Csarem] et regem Christianissimum noluit Leo eum publicare. In patrimonio et bonis ... potest impendere singulis annis xxxm coronatorum. Vir est admodum nobilis [ex familia] Aurelianensi, sed ex illegitimo avo descendens ; qui autor fuit suscitand illius ... [J]oann, (fn. 4) cujus consilio (ut Gallorum et vestr histori consentiunt) rebus Galli ... is cepit primum spes aliqua de Anglis recuperandi regni Francorum, sed hc ... a sint.
... Venetiis, citantibus litteras ex Constantinopoli, datas xxvij. Januarii, 50 ill triremes ... abantur, jam erant instruct, et appulerant ad pontem quendam urbis Constantinopolitan, quem [vocant] Pontem Bombardarum, ut bombard imponi possint in prfatis triremibus, ... etiam non contemnendus erat instructus ex parte terr : qui non expectabat nisi ... t uno, et eodem tempore aggrederentur oppugnationem Coroni. Hieronymus ... orator Ferdinandi regis Romanorum pervenerat Constantinopolim, bis audi[tus est] a rege Turcarum, et bis ab Abrahim Bassa, et longiore spatio, in ultimo ... [e]xpedierat prfatus orator per equos dispositos, in modum Ulachi Turc ... dium suum ad regem Romanorum : qui putatur nunc esse Vienn Austri : quid vero ... oratur aliquid momenti ipsum afferre credendum est, et forsan quod ob hanc causam ... apud Altemburgum ducis Georgii Saxoni et oratorum regis Poloni pro inve ... aliqua regni Ungari videtur frigescere, brevi eventus rei cognoscetur ... ... Domini de Velly discedam per Papiam versus Alexandriam : ex quo loco ulti ... ad Magnificentiam vestram, quam humillime rogatam velim, ut me compensationis ... ... tius et libentius quoad" *
Hol., mutilated. Address mutilated.
15 March.
Vienna Archives.
235. Chapuys to Charles V.
Since my last letters of the 8th, the King has got a priest of his to preach before him and the lady, that all the while he had lived with the Queen he had been guilty of adultery, and that all his good subjects ought to pray God to pardon his offence, and enlighten him at once to take another lady ; to which the Lords of his Council should solicit and even constrain him, without any regard to the censures or other provisions that the Pope could make, who ought not to be obeyed in this matter, commanding what was against God and reason. He said also that it would be no wonder if he took a wife of humble condition in consideration of her personal merits, like Saul and David. This was said with such vehemence and warmth that not only were the Queen's servants scandalised, but the Queen herself, who, for this and other bad symptoms that she sees here, is again compelled to implore by her letters sent herewith the aid and favor of your Majesty.
I received the day before yesterday your letters of the 3rd inst., and took occasion to go to court, to learn not only about the affairs of Scotland, and of the German, of whom I last wrote to your Majesty, and also of the charge of lord Rochford, who left here in post two days ago to visit the king of France, with the intention, as some say, to get him to take in hand the affairs of Scotland, with which they are already marvellously troubled ; for there is no lord or other who would willingly go in the said enterprise ; and the earl of Wiltshire has today confessed to me that the King, his master, would be glad of. peace if he was asked for it, because the other is his nephew, and moreover that it was a costly war, very injurious to the English, from which no good could be expected, and further that the Scots had taken seven or eight of their gentlemen. He would name no more, but the common report is that there were about 25, all men of some mark. Among other reasons for believing that Rochford was despatched for this cause is that two days before his departure the King held a great council, to which were summoned the brother of the earl Douglas and another captain, who had just returned from the Borders. Others think that he has gone to know if the King would like to come here as he promised at Boulogne ; and they build upon the rumors current both at Boulogne and here as soon as the King returned, and the orders issued by the King to put his parks in order, revoking all licenses that he had given to hunt,a sign that he means to give this pastime at the meeting. To ascertain the truth, I have had today some conversation with the King about the French king's journey to Compiegne, which was in order to approach near here ; but he would not enter on the subject, only saying it was an ordinary removal of the King for his amusement. I then began to extol the last meeting at Calais, and the causes which had taken him there ; but, for all that, he would not speak of the second. Notwithstanding, it escaped him that the said assembly has been formed chiefly to feast together, and to testify their mutual amity. I think he said this to me because I had told him I had seen the treaty, which was very clumsily forged in the said assembly, and that it did not deserve to have the reputation of having caused that assembly. At last I said to him that they had had such great pleasure and pastime together that they might some day repeat it. He told me it might be so, and that the confidence between himself and the French king was so great that they could visit each other without any ceremony. But he spoke in such a frigid way that I do not think their affairs have gone quite so far, though I think he would vastly desire the said coming of the king of France, especially as he wishes to accomplish his marriage.
I was with him two hours this morning, walking and talking in his garden. To tell you all that passed would be great fatigue to you. I omit, therefore, the less important details. I spoke to him of the league of Italy, and hoped he would take the news in good part, as he had always been a mediator in Christendom. He did not show any gratification at it ; and after thinking awhile, he told me it was not general, and that neither the Venetians nor the duke of Ferrara were included in it. I said I would not insist on the contrary, but on a matter which I thought would be more agreeable to him, viz., the departure of your Majesty from Bologna. At which he was pleased, and asked me, more than four times, the reasons of your going into Spain. He said that your long stay with the Pope, and the great humility you had shown to him, had much irritated Germany, which you had left in great disorder, and the world was astonished at it ;that you had left without coming to any resolution. When I justified your conduct, I asked him what more you could have done for the affairs of Germany than you had done. He said he was not wise enough to give you advice ; and when I told him he was fully informed of affairs in that quarter, from the time that there was an intention of creating the king of the Romans, which I put forward in order to set him bragging, and push him to say more, he told me that without him your Majesty would never have been Emperor ; saying that Germany was very much discontented that you had promised a General Council, and there was no appearance of it, and the Pope would never consent to it, whatever brief he may have written. When I told him of the conversation I had had with Langez of his master's willingness to summon a Council, he laughed to himself, and said that things were not yet ready ; and that the Pope, seeing the ugly bastinadoeing he would be sure to incur, would keep himself from any such Council. On this he began to speak of the wrong you had done him in his great affair, repeating to me the same things over and ever again ; to which I replied pertinently and gently, without losing temper, showing him that the Queen, his people, and almost all the world, blamed you very much, for that, being twice with the Pope, you had not finished this cursed affair. He replied that if you had used such language to any great personage (meaning the Pope), he would have told you that neither you nor the Queen had any right to complain of the delay, for whenever sentence was pronounced the Queen must be condemned. Then I told him he did ill in not allowing the said sentence to be delivered, since he was so certain of gaining it ; and that you desired, as reason and justice required, that this should have been done long ago ; and, if such had been the case, that your Majesty, I thought, would have been very anxious to withdraw the Queen your aunt, and place her with the Empress, and would have been very glad to have had so virtuous and pious a lady with her. I gave him this tag (atache), knowing that one of the great fears he has is that if he make this marriage the Queen will retire into Spain ; and I added, beside that, it would be a marvellous good thing for you and your countries, for if it happened that you returned into Germany or Italy for the Council, you might take the Empress with you, leaving as gouvernante the Queen, who was so much beloved that she was absolutely adored ; and that I was informed by very good authorities that if your Majesty required any good assistance for the affairs of the Queen, that all Spain would put at your disposal their wives and their children. I thought right to tell him this, seeing the danger, and as a rebuff to what he had said on another occasion, that Spain did not care for this matter. These remarks set him thinking.
He then turned to discuss his own affair, saying that the Spanish prelates who had written to the Pope in favor of the Queen had not shown any great regard for their honor, for they had contradicted the constitution made at the synod of Toledo five years ago, which they ought to have maintained ; and that if the Pope would not remit the cause here he would do him the greatest wrong in the world, for which he would find a remedy ; and it was a greater wrong in not admitting his excusator, not only to himself, but also to you and all Christian princes, who would be compelled to appear personally at the discretion of the Pope ; and that he would like to see the said excusator removed by interlocutory, for then there would be a fine to-do with the king of France and himself, who would make their solemn protestations against the Pope, to tie his hands and prevent him attempting anything against them,I do not know whether he meant in this affair only, or in all others also. I showed him several strong arguments why the process should not be treated here, which would occasion doubts in future, sooner than if it were despatched at Rome ; but all to no purpose. He remained as obstinate as ever, saying he knew well what he had to do, and that he did not think that on his doing what he knew he could do quite well, you would break the treaties last made with him, which his good brother and he would observe inviolably, and defend themselves against any one who attacked them. I said he might rest assured that your Majesty had no more thought of making war against him than Lycurgus had of punishing parricides, holding it impossible that he could give your Majesty any occasion. To which he replied that occasions sometimes presented themselves to the minds of those who wished to break treaties, and that he thought that nothing could justify a rupture, except the causes expressed in the treaty. Perceiving that he wished to insinuate that his marriage would not be a sufficient cause, I told him that there were several causes and considerations comprised in most treaties, as, not to do anything against reason or justice, and to the dishonor or injury of the party. He answered that if that was the case he had good occasion to complain of your Majesty for having procured what you had done against him, meaning the last brief ; and that your Majesty not only solicited, as I alleged, that justice should be done, but wanted everything to be done according to your own appetite. This I would not allow to pass, and I got him to soften these expressions, using, however, all courtesy.
On this he began to say a thousand things of the Pope,among others, of the vanity of letting his feet be kissed, and of his great ambition, and the authority he assumed over the Empire and the other realms of Christendom, creating or deposing emperors and kings at his pleasure ; and that he had lately got hold of a book, which he thought had been stolen (forged? rob) in the Pope's library, in which the Popes claimed all the kings of Christendom as their feudatories, even the king of France, and moreover the dukes of Bavaria ; and for his part he meant to remedy it, and repair the error of kings Henry II. and John, who, by deceit, being in difficulties, had made this realm and Ireland tributary, and that he was determined also to reunite to the Crown the goods which churchmen held of it, which his predecessors could not alienate to his prejudice, and that he was bound to do this by the oath he had taken at his coronation. I let him talk on without contradiction, in order to have an opportunity of recommending the General Council, without which the things he talked of could not well be done ; but I could not get him to relish the said Council.
At the end of our talk, the King asked if it was true the king of Portugal was dead. He then began to extol as highly as possible the riches and great power of France, saying that he never saw France better furnished with gentlemen, or with finer men, and that of late the French had been stealing the beauty and corpulence of Englishmen, and that it seemed they were properly Englishmen, and not Frenchmen ; at which expressions I was much astonished, as they implied that there could be no fine men except Englishmen, except among the common people.
Yesterday and today it was proposed in Parliament to make a statute declaring the Pope had no authority in this kingdom ; which many people have found very strange. Nevertheless, every one thinks it will go further ; for the King is entirely set upon it, and has arranged all his policy to this end. If the Pope wished to help, it would be by despatching the affair of the Queen, helping the king of Scotland with money, and passing censures to prevent the contracting [of the new marriage], as I have formerly written ; otherwise there is danger that things will go all wrong. The King says the German, of whom I lately wrote, came here upon a report of war to offer his services, with letters of recommendation from the Landgrave. Besides the six ships of which I wrote, they are arming four others. People here are astonished at the number of ships the Scots have, and suspect they receive help elsewhere.
I forgot to say the King told me the Pope was very urgent to give his niece to the duke of Orleans, and that he considered the thing done. I said I thought your Majesty would be very glad, thinking it a means to promote the common peace. London, 15 March 1533.
Hol., Fr., pp. 10. From a modern copy.
15 March.
R. O.
236. Thomas Hall to Cromwell.
I had word from Thurgarton that upon Tuesday last the sub-prior there, intending to make their election, had referred the whole matter to the King. Please to remember my suit, and, if the King has fixed upon no other, to favor the person I mentioned. 15 March.
Hol., p. 1. Add. : Of the King's Council. Sealed.
15 March.
R. O.
237. Lord Lisle to [the Bishop Of Exeter].
The parish church of Logan in Cornwall, being in your diocese, is now void, and the presentation belongs to me, as the King has given me the wardship of John Basset ; and I beg your Lordship to cause a caveat to be recorded in your register, both here and in your diocese, by which the King's right may be first beard, notwithstanding any colorable title advanced by any one else. At my lodging at the Black Friars, Saturday, 15 March. Signed.
P. 1.
16 March.
R. O.
238. John Rokewood to Lord Lisle.
My Lord Deputy is dead. I understand that your Lordship comes to supply his place. I beg you to allow Robt. Donnyngton, one of the soldiers of the retinue, who keeps a beerhouse and brews, and has served the late Lord Deputy ever since he came into Calais, to supply you also with beer. Calais, 16 March 1532. Signed.
P. 1. Add. : Sealed.
16 March.
R. O.
239. John Knolles to Lord Lisle.
According to your letter, I have stayed all things that Master Hastings can do for you, and all things in his keeping shall be at your commandment. It is reported here that my Lord was indebted to the King, and that the goods are to be seized for payment. If so, a word from you to the King, or to my lord of Norfolk, will suffice to have the house, with all implements, as it stands. If not, you shall be sure of it from Hastings. You had better send from Hampshire two or three hoys for provision of wood, for that is costly here. As to my Lord's death, I know the King has certified you before my letter can reach you, for no man was suffered to go or send for the space of two tides, that the King might have the first knowledge. Calais, 16 March.
Hol., p. 1. Add. : Viscount Lisle.
16 March.
R. O.
240. Henry VIII. to Sir Chr. Garnyshe and Robert Fowler, Vice-treasurer of Calais.
As lord Berners, deputy of Calais, is dangerously ill, and much in our debt, we command you, in case of his decease, to arrest all his goods, either within his house, or within the town and marches, and keep them till we be satisfied. Westm., 16 March.
P. 1. Add below.

R. O.
241. Lord Berners.
John Bourchier lord Barnes has suffered to be recovered, to the use of the King, the manors of Este Horsley, Weste Horsley, Chedingfelde, Okkley, Shere, Effinghame, and Byflete, for 400l. ; whereof 50l. is paid to Sir John Heron, 25l. to Mr. Myklowe, 165l. to Sir Hen. Wyat, and 60l. to Mr. Tuke, and 100l. resteth unpaid.
P. 1.
16 March.
Camusat, 82 b.
242. Montmorency to the Bailly Of Troyes.
The King sends a memoir which has come from the cardinals of Tournon and Grammont, to be shown to the king of England and the duke of Norfolk. He will reply fully to what Langey and Rochefort have brought. As to the prize which the Scotch have taken to Dieppe since the Bailly wrote, such good order has been taken on the coasts of Normandy, Picardy, and Brittany that the king of England has good reason to be contented. Desires him to tell Norfolk of this. The King sends Beauvais to Scotland in a few days. He will pass through England, to try and bring this war to an amicable end. The Emperor does what he can to stir them up. The King will spend Easter at Paris, which is inconvenient, considering the journey he intends to take. Expects that the first news from Italy will be the Emperor's embarcation. Sends a letter in the King's hand to Madame la Marquise (Anne Boleyn). Desires to be recommended to her. Has news that the Bailly's brother is better. The King has sent to Denmark to preserve friendship with the King there, who is the present possessor. Thinks he will remain friendly, though the Emperor has tried to draw him away. Coussy, 16 March.
18 March.
R. O.
243. Sir Edward Ryngeley to Lord Lisle.
Intended to write and inform him of the death of the Lord Deputy, but they had very short time to write to the King. Told the bearer to make his excuses to Lord Lisle. Mr. Porter, (fn. 5) and Lisle's other friends, are very desirous to hear of his coming, which they trust will be before April 6. Asks him to be good to the Lord Deputy' servants. They are tall and honest men. Men so fit for this town could not be had in England. Calais, 18 March. Signed.
P. 1. Add.
18 March.
R. O.
244. Robert Hogan, Master Cook for the King's Mouth, to [Cromwell].
I have sent your Mastership by the bearer 6l. 13s. 4d., which you delivered to my servant upon my token. I beg you will discharge lord Conyers' matter concerning the quittance of the 100l. which you received of John Tenent, my Lord's servant. I was in court on Friday, and took a bad cold. 18 March.
Hol., p. 1.
18 March.
R. O.
245. Bridget Hogan to Cromwell.
I thank you for the great pains taken for my husband and me touching the ward of Appilyard, (fn. 6) as we learn from Master Bonwiche. We beg you to finish it "in your own name, but fro Sir Edward (fn. 7) and fro Sir James," as it would not be good for my husband to meddle with them. He has written to Anthony Bonwic of this matter. Estbrodeham, 18 March. On Sunday last the parson of Asshill, within half a mile of my house, died. The benefice is in the gift of Sir Henry Wyatt. If you could get it for me, or one of my children, it would find him at school. It is worth 10l. a year, "and stonds mytche be corne," which will help me and my house.
Hol., p. 1. Add. : Councillor.
18 March.
Cleop. E. V. 363 (fn. 6). B. M.
246. Richard Browne, Priest, to Dr. Bagarde, Chancellor of Worcester.
One Lattemare preached at Brystowe on the second Sunday in Lent, and it is reported that he has done much harm among the people by sowing errors. It is reported that he said that Our Lady was a sinner, and that neither she nor any other saint ought to be worshipped ; that he exclaimed upon pilgrimages ; and that he said that the woman of Canene, mentioned in the Gospel for the day, fared worse, rather than better, for the prayers of the disciples for her, with other opinions fully against the determination of the Church. He has very sore infected the town. It is said that he will preach again on the Wednesday in Easter week, unless he is forbidden to do so by your commandment to the Dean. The good Catholic people abhor his preaching. The fellow dwells in the diocese of Bath, and sometimes comes into the diocese of Worcester. It is reported that he is forbidden to preach in the former. Asks Bagarde to forbid his preaching in any part of Worcester also. Wishes him good speed in the Convocation. 18 March.
Hol., p. 1. Add. Endd.

Latimer's Remains, 357, from Fox.
247. Latimer to Morice.
I thank you for your kindness and your letter. You will wonder how I have been treated at Bristol by some of the priests, who first invited and welcomed me, and allowed what I said. When I had gone to my benefice, perceiving that I was favored by the people, and that the Mayor had appointed me to preach at Easter, they procured an inhibition against all those who had not the Bishop's licence, which they knew I had not ; and got certain preachers to blatter against me, as Hubberdin and Powell. When I brought them before the Mayor to know what they would lay to my charge, they said they spake on information. Justifies his teaching against misrepresentations on the following points :(1) That Our Lady was a sinner ; which he did not affirm : (2) That saints are not to be worshipped : (3) Pilgrimages : (4) Ave Maria : (5) No fire in Hell : (6) Purgatory. Thinks that provision for purgatory has brought thousands to Hell, for debts have not been paid, nor restitution made, &c. Protests against the abuses of pilgrimage. "I dwell within half a mile of the Fossway, and you would wonder to see how they come by flocks out of the West country to many images, but chiefly to the blood of Hales," which they believe is the very blood of Christ, and that the sight of it puts them in a state of salvation. Hopes God will imbue Dr. Wilson with charity ; for neither he nor any of his countrymen ever loved Latimer since he inveighed against their factions in Cambridge, though before he was highly favored by them. Hears that Wilson has gone in progress about Beverley, through Yorkshire, &c. Asserts that Hubberdine is a man of no great learning, and will preach whatever the Bishop commands. Many will tell you how little regard Dr. Powell at Bristol paid to the sword, i.e. the King. How the Mayor twitted him for it, would be too long to write. Wishes he were ordered to preach before the King every Sunday for a whole year, and then he might perceive how they malign him.

R. O.
248. Archbishop Warham.
General pardon and release to the executors of William archbishop of Canterbury.
A roll of paper, mutilated.
See Grants in March, No. 18.
19 March.
R. O.
249. John Knyghte to Cromwell.
Whereas you granted me your favor for having West Haddon, and said, when I was last with you, that I might have the other, I have made provision to enter at Lady Day next, and I beg I may have your writings. I heard that Standish will keep it, and sends to the tenants not to fear, and if his new lease will not serve, he has a new one of the house of Dauntrie. Let me know whether the King shall have the rent of Raunston at Lady Day next, or my old master. My wife desires her remembrance. Hanslap Lodge, 19 March.
Hol., p. 1. Add. : Of the Council.
19 March.
R. O.
250. John Bunolt to Cromwell.
Sends a letter from Sir John Hacket, directed to Cromwell, received last night. Cannot thank him sufficiently for the trouble he has taken in concluding the matter between Mr. Baschurche and himself. Calais, 19 March.
Hol., p. 1. Add. : Sir Thomas Crumwell, knight, councillor to the King's grace, and master of Jewels, &c. Endd.
20 March.
R. O.
251. Dr. John London to Cromwell.
Whereas you desire to have my college farms of Alton in Wiltshire, which you hear will shortly be in the hands of the College : the fact is that John Benger took a lease of it on the 10th April 19 Hen. VIII., and we cannot let it above 21 years, otherwise you should have had it. I have another farm, called Stertt, not yet leased, of 20 marks rent ; and, if it please you, I will have it granted to you, such years as we may, without any fine. Oxford, 20 March.
My lord Hussey has made long suit to me and my lord of Lincoln for the farm of Alton. I suppose it is for one Botton, who has a farm of the prior of St. Swithin's adjoining. I should lose my college ground if he had the college farm ; therefore he must never have it.
Hol., p. 1. Add. : Of the King's Council.
20 March.
R. O.
252. Thomas Abbot Of Abingdon to John Mason.
"Quod vales g[au]deo ; quod toties ad me scripseris, quod toties amoris pignora ad me miseris, habeo gratiam ; modo autem ea qu mittis tam male perferuntur doleo. Nam ex quo discesseras proxime, prter unam epistolam et annulum item unum, in quo nostra insignia celata erant, neque literarum neque rerum quicquam accepi, tametsi ex illis tuis quas in villam circa quintum decimum diem hujus anni Decembris misisti ad patrem tuum intellexi te annulos duos, libros nescio quot, perspicilia, aliaque ad me transmitti tradidisse ; verum nihil omnino accepi, id quod ex alteris quas ad te antehac misi literis, licet nec Anglice scriptis, facile intelliges ; cum quibus eciam misi ad te dono aurum, nummum quod vulgus regale vocat. Quare si posthac aut scribasaut aliud quidvis mittere decreveris, cave cujus perferendum fidei committas. Non enim est sapientis operam et impensas frustra consumere. Quod sequitur, rogatus scribo, nec aliter facere possum nisi precibus tu vidu (?) matris repugnarem. Illa tui videndi cupientissima est ; propterea uti huc iter acceleres vehementer desiderat. Vale, feliciterque vivas. Ex Abendona, xiij. kalendas Aprilis.
"Thomas abbas de Abendon."
Hol. Add. : To Mr. John Mason, Englishman, born at Abendon, student in Paryse, be this delivered. Endd. : Th'abbot of Abingdon to Mr. Mason.
The writing in this letter is much faded. It has been stained with galls, and is in some parts very illegible.
20 March.
R. O.
253. Sir John Mablisteyn to [Sir Giles Russell].
Mr. Turcoplier has been robbed today, by one of his servants, of his casket and 200l., with other matters of importance. London, 20 March.
Hol., p. 1. Endd. by Russell : R. 22 March 1532.
20 March.
Camusat, 79.
254. Francis I. to the Bailly Of Troyes.
Has already written about the arrival of viscount Rochefort, who has begged him, in the name of the king of England, to write a letter to cardinals Tournon and Grammont, according to a memorandum, of which a copy is enclosed. Did not think this reasonable, as his interview with the Pope was determined upon by Henry's advice. When they last met, he was of opinion that Francis should send the Cardinals to induce the Pope to consent to the interview, so as to disunite the Emperor and his Holiness, and help on Henry's affair. The Cardinals have worked so well that they have nearly brought it to a conclusion, as the King will have heard from Dr. Benoist (Benet), his ambassador at Rome, and from the Sieur de Lange. Has told Rochefort that he can do nothing that may break off the affair or cause a new dispute, especially as his honor is concerned. Has therefore written another letter, which he considers preferable for the affair, until a better blow can be struck at the interview. Sends a copy, and has given one to Rochefort, who replied that he had no charge to alter anything contained in the memorandum, but accepted it on hearing the reasons, and has sent it for Henry to see and say whether it shall be despatched. Has told Rochford that it would be very ill-advised to send the proposed letter, as the Emperor is in Italy, and his Holiness could not find a better excuse than the letter for putting off the interview, the principal purpose of which is to serve Henry. He knows how often Francis has been solicited by the Emperor to meet him, and that the Pope has lately endeavored to bring about an interview between all three. Would not listen to these proposals, being determined to prefer Henry's interest to anything else. If the Pope will act as Henry wishes, will take it as if it was done to himself ; and if he refuses, will never be friendly with him.
Desires him to communicate all this to the duke of Norfolk. If the King wishes the letter to be sent to the Cardinals, will send it at once. Has sent a gentleman to Denmark to king Frederic, to hinder the designs which Henry knows of. Desires Henry to do the same. Hears that certain galleys are arrived at Genoa, so that 25 are now there, beside other ships, which are being equipped for the Emperor's passage to Spain. Fere sur Oyse, 20 March 1532.

R. O.
255. Francis I. to the Cardinals of Grammont and Tournon.
The viscount of Rochford, son of the earl of Wiltshire, has come to him from the king of England, and told him of the Pope's refusal to admit the excusator. Perceives what an insult it will be to all Christian princes. They must urge the Pope to admit Henry's excusator in accordance with the privilege of him and other princes. It will be a very acceptable pleasure to Francis, and will cause him to favor his Holiness in all his affairs. If the Pope make any difficulty, they must urge him to think that the Popes have never refused to admit an excusator ; that it is a thing which touches him, Francis, and all other princes, deeply ; and that at present princes will hardly suffer the Pope to infringe on their privileges and pre-eminences, which this refusal would seem to be an attempt to suppress. If they cannot induce him to grant the admission, they must beg him not to proceed to the refusal of the excuse, or take any other step until the interview between the two Kings, when the matter can be amply discussed. Trusts the Pope will not refuse this. If he is disinclined to comply, they must remind him of the need of consideration before he displeases the king of England ; for they are so united that he will take to heart any displeasure done to Henry as if done to himself. It is not the time for the Pope to irritate the two Kings, or other princes who are his friends, and intend to support him, unless he give them reason for the contrary by this refusal.
Reserves, till his interview with the Pope, certain urgent matters for which he ought not to refuse the petition of the king of England and himself. On hearing them, he will not repent, but rather rejoice at having followed their wish. Asks them to send word of the Pope's answers that he may inform the king of England.
Fr., pp. 2. Endd. : Copy of the French king's letters to the cardinals of Grammont and Tournon.


  • 1. What follows is in Cromwell's handwriting, with marginal heading : "Payments made seth[ens th]e 11th d[ay of M]arch last past."
  • 2. The original of this document was shown to the late Mr. Brewer by Sir T. Hardy, 20 Nov. 1871. It came from the Office of a Master in Chancery.
  • 3. Dated in margin "15 Marcii 1533."
  • 4. Joan of Arc.
  • 5. Sir Christopher Garneys, knight porter of Calais.
  • 6. John, son and heir of Roger Appleyard. See vol. v., 80 (22). This letter may be of the year 1531 or 1532.
  • 7. Boleyn.