Candlewick Ward - Card Court

A Dictionary of London. Originally published by H Jenkins LTD, London, 1918.

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'Candlewick Ward - Card Court', in A Dictionary of London, (London, 1918) pp. . British History Online [accessed 12 April 2024]

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Candlewick Ward

One of the twenty-six wards of London, adjoining Bridge Ward south and east, Langbourn Ward north, Walbrook Ward west, and Dowgate Ward west and south.

Generally called "Candelwykstrete" Ward in early times (13th to 16th centuries).

Earliest mention : Ward of "Candlewystrate," c. 1285 (Cal. L. Bk. A. p. 209).

Named after the street, which intersected it from east to west. See Wards.

Identified with the ward of Thomas de Basinge mentioned 1275 (Cal. L. Bk. B. p. 256).

Parish churches, five in Stow's time : St. Clement, Eastcheap ; St. Lawrence Pountney, St. Martin Orgar ; St. Michael, Crooked Lane ; and St. Mary Abchurch. Now St. Mary Abchurch and St. Clement Eastcheap alone remain.

The ward underwent very considerable changes in the early part of the 19th century owing to the erection of the new London Bridge and the subsequent formation and erection of King William Street and the other approaches to the new bridge under the Act of Parliament, passed 1829 for the purpose. Numerous streets and buildings, including the church of St. Michael, Crooked Lane, were demolished under this Act.

Candlewick Ward Chambers

In Crooked Lane, near Cannon Street (Lockie, 1816).

Not named in the maps.

Canninge Street

See Cannon Street.

Cannon Alley

North out of St. Paul's Churchyard, at No. 64, to Paternoster Row (P.O. Directory). In Farringdon Ward Within.

First mention : P.C. 1732.

Former names : "Petty Cannons, Petty Canons" (O. and M. 1677 and Strype) "Petty canons alley" (Hatton, 1708).

Some of the canons' houses occupied the site of this street, hence the name.

Cannon Court

At the south end of White Lyon Court, north of Barbican, at the western boundary of Cripplegate Ward Without (O. and M. 1677).

Seems to be named Blue Boar Head Alley (q.v.) in the later maps.

Cannon Street

East from St. Paul's Churchyard to King William Street, London Bridge (P.O. Directory). In Candlewick, Cordwainer, Bread Street and Walbrook Wards.

First mention, under modern name : "Canon Street" (Leake, 1666).

Earliest mention found in records : "Candelwrichstrete," 1180-7 (H. MSS. Com. 9th Rep. 16). "Candelwrictestrate," temp. John (Anc. Deeds A., 1957). "Candewyllestrate " (ib. A. 1980), temp. John. "Candelwrithestrate," c. 1190 (ib. A. 2025).

Other forms : "Candelwritestrate," temp. John (ib. A. 7821). "Kandelwrihtestrate," H. III. (ib. A. 1961). "Cande(wille)strate " (ib.) (ib. A. 1874-6). "Kandelwrithtestrate," H. III. (ib. A. 2044). "Candelwiccestrate," 1259 (Ct. H.W. I. 4). "Candelwrihcestrate," 54 H. III. (Anc. Deeds, A. 2101). "Kandelwricgstrate," H. III. (ib. A. 2271). "Kandelwycestrate," 43 H. III. (ib. B. 2104) "Candelwryhttestrate," 1271-2 (Ct. H.W. I. 10). "Kandelwrictestrete," "Kandelwickstrate," 1275 (Ct. H.W. I. 23). "Candelwriste-strete," 5 Ed. I. (Anc. Deeds, A. 2469) "Candelwestrete," 6 Ed. I. (ib. A. 2001). "Candelwrihttestrate," "Candelwryhtstrate," 1272-3 (Ct. H.W. I. 14). "Candelwekstrate," 1281 (ib. 62). "Candlewystrate," 1282 (Cal. L. Bk. A. p. 53). "Candelwer3-strate," "Candelwer3tstrete," 1298 (Ct. H.W. I. 139). "Candelwyestrete," 1377 (ib. II. 197). "Candelwylwykstrete," 2 Ed. IV. (Anc. Deeds, B. 2098). "Canwikstrete," 14 H. VII. (ib. B. 2282). "Canwykstrete," H. VIII. (Dugdale, IV. 232). "Canninge Street " (temp. Q. Eliz.) (Proc. in Chancery, II. 277). "Candlewright," or "Candlewicke, strete" (S. 219). "Canning Street," near London Stone, 1647-8 (L. and P. Chas. I. XXII. p. 8). (Now commonly called Candlewick.)

In a will of 1372 direction is given for the purchase of cloth of "Candelwykstrete" for the making of coats and hoods (Ct. H.W. II. 145), and Dr. Sharpe says that it was famous for its cloth so late as temp. of Henry VI., and that it was at one time the centre of the cloth trade (Cal. L. Bk. C. p. 136 note).

The fraternity of Burellers of Candelwykestrete are mentioned1345 (Ct. H.W. I. 484).

Originally Candlewick Street or Cannon Street did not extend beyond Walbrook, but in 1853-4 it was decided to continue it further west and make it a thoroughfare to St. Paul's Cathedral, removing for the purpose the narrow line of streets known as Great St. Thomas Apostle, Basing Lane, Little Friday Street, Great Distaff Lane, etc. The thoroughfare was at the same time widened throughout. This western extension was at first and until 1866 known as Cannon Street West, now the whole street is called Cannon Street.

Stow says the street took its name of Chandlers or makers of Candles, both of waxe and tallow, for Candlewright is a maker of candles or of "weeke," which is the cotton or yarne thereof ; or otherwise "wike," the place where they used to work them (S. 219). "Wrich," "wricte," "wrihte" are the earliest forms. "Wyce" does not occur until the middle of the 13th century

There were certainly wax-chandlers here in early times. In 1311 mention is made of John le Cierger de Kandelwikstrate (Cal. L. Bk. D. p. 137) of John le Chaundeler de Candelwykstrete, 1305 (Cal. L. Bk. B. 163) and of Matthew le Chaundeler de Candelwykestrete, 1326 (ib. E. p. 210).

Cannon Street is a corruption of the old name, as indicated in the forms set out above.

Cannon Street House

On the south side of Cannon Street at No. 110 (P.O. Directory), between Martin's Lane and Lawrence Pountney Lane. In Candlewick Ward.

Site occupied by Merchant's Bank in O.S. 1880. Now occupied by warehouses, offices, etc.

Cannon Street Station

On the south side of Cannon Street at Dowgate Hill, extending south to the Thames (P.O. Directory), which is traversed by the railway bridge of the South Eastern and Chatham Railway Co. In Dowgate Ward.

Erected 1865-6 as the City terminus of the South Eastern and Chatham Railway.

It occupies the entire site of the ancient Steelyard (q.v.), and numerous streets and lanes were demolished for the erection of the station, and the formation of the railway lines and the approaches : "Chequer Yard," "Hand Court," southern end of Bush Lane ; "Plumbers' Hall," "Wingoose Alley," "Turnwheel Lane," the western side of All Hallows Lane ; "Double Hood Court," "Steelyard Stairs and Court."

Roman remains have been found here at a depth of 9 feet, and Roman pavements extending to Cannon Street and Bush Lane.

Cannon Street West

See Cannon Street.

Canon Alley

See Cannon Alley.

Canterbury Court, St. Andrew's Hill, Blackfriars

See Green Dragon Court.

Capel Court

East out of Bartholomew Lane at No. 2, in Broad Street Ward (P.O. Directory).

First mention : Horwood, 1799.

Former names : "Ship Court" (O. and M. 1677-Hatton, 1708). "Ship Yard" (P.C. 1732-Lond. Guide, 1758). "Black Swan Yard, formerly Ship Yard" (Maitland, ed. 1775, II. 840).

Derivation of name : From Capel family.

Sir Wm. Capel, draper, was Mayor of London 1503.

In 1523, 15 H. VIII., in a wardmote inquest in Broad Street Ward, mention is made of a defective pavement before Sir Gylys Capell's house in the parish of St. Bartholomew (L. and P. H. VIII. III. Pt. 2, p. 1515).

This house stood on the site of the Stock Exchange at the end of Capel Court.


See Caponeshors.


A tenement so called in Candlewick Street in parish of St. Mary Ab-Church, mentioned several times in the 14th century (Ct. H.W. I. 312, 367, 424, and II 121, 340).

There was a Thomas de Caponeshorse, a bureller and weaver in 1278 (Cal. L. Bk. B. p. 276), a juror in ward of Thomas de Basing, 3 Ed. I. (Rot. Hund. I. 421), who may have resided here and belonged to the Fraternity of Burellers (q.v.)

A tenement called "Litelcaponhors" stood in Candelwikstrete at the corner of Abecherchelane in parish of St. Mary de Abecherche in 1327 belonging to John Lucas (Ct. H.W. I. 323). The two tenements were probably identical.


=Capmakers. Election to the Mistery of Cappers, 1328 (Cal. L. Bk. E. p. 233).

Car Court

In West Smithfield (Strype, 1755-Boyle, 1799).

"Card Court "in Strype.

Not named in the maps.

Car Square

West out of Moor Lane, in Cripplegate Ward Without (Horwood, 1799-O.S. 1848-51).

Former name : "Carr, Car, Yard" (O. and M. 1677-L. Guide, 1758).

Removed for the formation of the Metropolitan Railway lines, which now cover the site.

Car Yard

See White Horse Yard, Seething Lane ; also Car Square.

Car Yard

Out of Redoross Street, in Cripplegate Ward (Strype, ed. 1755-Boyle, 1799).

Not named in the maps.

Card Court

See Car Court.