Jews' Garden - John Street

A Dictionary of London. Originally published by H Jenkins LTD, London, 1918.

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Jews' Garden

In the parish of St. Giles without Cripplegate, to the east of Aldersgate Street.

First mention : "le Juesgardyn," 1341 (Ct. H.W. I. 452).

Other forms and names : "Jewesgardin," 1349 (ib. 620). "le Jewengardyn," 1405-6 (ib. II. 365). "Jewengardyn," 1426 (ib. 440).

Stow describes it as a large plot of ground in Red Cross Street of old time called the "Jewes Garden," as being the only place appointed them in England wherein to bury their dead, until 1177, when a special place was assigned to them for the purpose in every quarter where they dwelt.

Remained to them until they were banished. Now turned into garden plots and summer-houses (S. 303-4).

The name survives in Jewin Street (q.v.).

Jews' Harp Court

South out of Angel Alley in Bishopsgate Ward Without (Strype, 1720, I. ii. 108-Elmes, 1831).

The site is now occupied by the North London Railway.

Name derived from the sign.

Jews' Synagogue, Church Row

See Hambro' Synagogue.

Jews' Synagogue, Duke Street

See Great Synagogue.

Jews' Synagogue, Heneage Lane

See Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue.

John (St.) Baptist, Chapel of

See Anne (St.) Chapel.

John (St.) Colchester (Abbey of)

Their town house or "hospitium" was in Mynching (Mincing) Lane (Dugdale, IV. 613).

John (St.) in the White Tower

See John's (St.) Chapel in the Tower.

John (St.) Sacre

See John (St.) Zachary.

John (St.) the Baptist

..-See John (St.) the Baptist, Walbrook, and John (St.) Zachary.

John (St.) the Baptist, Walbrook

On the west side of Dowgate Hill, at the north-east corner of Cloak lane (Leake, 1666). In Walbrook Ward, the parish extends into Walbrook, Cordwainer, Dowgate and Vintry Wards.

Earliest mention : "St. John upon Walebroc," 5 Rich. I. (Anc. Deeds, A. 2462).

Other forms : "St. John de Walebroc," 1181-1204 (H. MSS. Com. 9th Rep. p. 13). "St. John super Walebroc," 12th cent. (ib. 63). "St. John Walebrok," 1241-52 (Anc. Deeds, A. 7296). "St. John in Walebrok," 24 Ed. I. (Ch. I. p.m. (80)). "St. John Baptist" (Strype, ed. 1720, I. ii. 200).

Granted by the Canons of St. Paul's to Peter the priest on payment annually of 2 solidos each year and after his death to a "clericus" chosen by him on payment annually of 4 solidos, 12th cent. (H. MSS. Com. 9th Rep. p. 13).

In 1412 a grant was made to the Rector and parishioners of the church of St. John de Walbrooke of a piece of waste land to the north of the choir of the church, 21 ft. long, 7 ft. 3 in. broad, together with one foot of the public soil of the City to the south of the choir, for the enlargement of the church, in exchange for 51/2 ft. of land to the east of the choir given up for the enlargement of the highway, 13 H. IV. (Cal. L. Bk. I. p. 102). Rebuilt and beautified 1621 (Strype, ed. 1720, I. ii. 198) and again in 1650.

Burnt down in the Fire 1666 and not rebuilt, the parish being united to St. Antholins (Strype, ed. 1720, I. ii. 198-200).

The site was enclosed for a churchyard, as shown on the maps, but the greater part removed c. 1885 for the extension of the District Railway.

A Rectory. Patrons : 31 Ed. I., the Nuns of St. Helens (Lib. Cust. I. 236).

As shown above the avowson belonged originally to the Canons of St. Paul's and must have been given by them to the Priory of St. Helen, in whose possession it remained until the dissolution of the monasteries, temp. H. VIII., when it passed into the hands of the Crown (Newcourt, I. 371).

Dedicated to St. John the Baptist, with the addition of Walbrook to mark its position on the bank of the stream and to distinguish it from St. John Zachary.

A Roman pavement found in excavations on or near the site of the church, at a depth of 15 feet.

John (St.) the Evangelist

On the east side of Friday Street at its junction with Watling Street, in Bread Street Ward (S. 352-3).

Earliest mention found in records : "St. John the Evangelist and St. Wereburga," 1349 (Ct. H.W. I. 596).

There are earlier references to the church under the name of St. Wereburga, as "St. Werburge," 30 H. III. (Cal. Charter Rolls, I. 290). In a later deed (p. 339) a messuage is described as in the corner of Friday Street opposite the door of the church of "St. Werburga." "St. Wereburga" in Frideistrate, 54 H. III. (Anc. Deeds, A. 2118). "Sanctae Wereburgae," 31 Ed. I. (Lib. Cust. I. 230).

Other forms : "St. John the Evangelist and St. Ethelburga," Fridaistrete, 28 Ed. III. (Cal. P.R. Ed. III. 1354-8, p. 100). "St. John the Evangelist in Frydaystret," 1356 (Ct. H.W. I. 690). "St. John in Watlyngstrete," 1484-5 (ib. II. 587).

Stow refers to it as St. John the Evangelist, but has a note in the margin "Sometime of St. Werbridge" (S. 352-3).

An instance of a double dedication. The church was possibly originally dedicated to St. Wereburga and was rebuilt or restored in the 13th century, and dedicated also to St. John the Evangelist.

Repaired and beautified 1626 and gallery built (Strype, ed. 1720, I. iii. 205).

Burnt in the Fire and not rebuilt. Parish united to All Hallows Bread Street (ib. 206).

Churchyard shown in Rocque's map and preserved as a burying ground for the parishioners (ib.).

A peculiar belonging to the jurisdiction of the Archbishop of Canterbury.

A Rectory. Patron : Prior of Christchurch, Canterbury. After the dissolution of the monasteries, the Dean and Chapter (Newcourt, I.).

The parish seems to have enjoyed the distinction of being free from infection during the Great Plague.

St. Werburga, to whom the church was dedicated, was a Mercian princess, granddaughter of Penda the Mercian king. She was trained at Ely by her aunt, the Abbess Etheldreda, and eventually succeeded her as Abbess there. She lived in the 8th century.

Numerous churches were dedicated to her throughout England.

John (St.) Walbrook

See John (St.) the Baptist, Walbrook.

John (St.) Watling Street

See John (St.) the Evangelist.

John (St.) Zachary

On the north side of Maiden Lane at its junction with Noble Street, in Aldersgate Ward. The parish extends into Farringdon Ward Within (O. and M. 1677).

First mention made in records : In Inquisition 1181 (H. MSS. Com. 9th Rep. p. 68).

Forms of name : "St. John the Baptist," 12th cent. (ib. p. 64). "St. John the Baptist," which is called "St. John Zakaries" (Anc. Deeds, A. 11681). "St. John Zakary," 40 H. III. (ib. A. 2224). "St. John Zacari," 1278 (Ct. H.W. I. 35). "St. John de Sacr'," 34 Ed. I. (Cal. L. Bk. C. p. 201). "St. John Sacre," 1378 (Ct. H.W. II. 202).

Granted by the canons of St. Paul to Zacharie that he may visit the church regularly, 12th cent. (H. MSS. Com. 9th Rep. p. 64).

Hence the designation of the church.

Bequest to the belfry, 1378 (Ct. H.W. II. 202).

Church made and new builded by goods of Nicholas Twiford with a tomb for him and his wife 1390 (S. 307).

Repaired 1616, 1619, 1625, 1629 and 1631.

Burnt in the Fire and not rebuilt, the parish being united to St. Anne Aldersgate.

A Rectory. Patron : Canons of St. Paul's, afterwards the Dean and Chapter.

John (St.), Fraternity of

Bequest to the fraternity by a member John de Drayton, tailor, 1358 (Ct. H.W. II. 4).

Sharpe says that the tailors of London formed themselves into a guild or fraternity, having St. John the Baptist for its patron saint.

John Baptist Court

See Baptist's Head Court.

John Carpenter Street

South out of Tudor Street to the Victoria Embankment (P.O. Directory). In Farringdon Ward Without.

Named 1887, in honour of the well-known citizen of that name of the 15th century.

John de Vere's Yard

West out of Seething Lane, near St. Olave's, Hart Street (Strype, 1720-1755), with a passage into Mark Lane.

Other names : "Dyers Yard" (O. and M. 1677). "Hemp Yard" (Rocque, 1746- Boyle, 1799). "John Dever's Yard" (L. Guide, 1758-Boyle, 1799).

Derivation of name : Name derived from owner of property. Dyer's Yard may be merely due to a misreading of the word "Devere."

John Street

West out of the Minories to Crutched Friars. Partly in Portsoken Ward, partly in Aldgate Ward (P.O. Directory).

First mention : 1772 (H. MSS. Com. 14th Rep. 82).

Erected between 1758 and 1772. Site being occupied previously by "Angel Court, Minories" (q.v.) and "Nag's Head Alley" (q.v.).

Remains of the old Roman Wall have been found in the course of excavations here.