Parliament Rolls of Medieval England. Originally published by Boydell, Woodbridge, 2005.
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Introduction April 1341
23 April - 28 May
(C 65/9. RP , II.126-134. SR , I.295-298)
The proceedings of the parliament of April-May 1341 are recorded in C 65/9, a roll of 5 membranes, numbered from 5 to 1, each approximately 260 mm. in width, sewn together in chancery style. The condition of the roll is good, although there is some gallic acid staining on the dorse of membrane 5. The text, written in a small, clear chancery script, occupies the rectos of all membranes and the dorses of membrane 1 and the top half of membrane 2. The remaining dorses are blank. Marginal headings are contemporary. Arabic numerals throughout the roll are later, but the Roman numerals alongside the petitions of the clergy and of the commons are contemporary. The roll does not appear to be incomplete. Its compilation is to be associated with Thomas Drayton, recorded in the roll as clerk of the parliament (item 1), and who fulfilled this office regularly in the period 1340-6. (fn. f1341int-1) Drayton may indeed have been a formative influence, since the roll of 1341 represents an important point in the evolution of the official record of parliament; for the rest of the reign of Edward III the content of the parliament rolls largely followed the format established in 1341. (fn. f1341int-2)
The parliament of 1341 met in the midst of a major political crisis - and turned it, arguably, into a constitutional one. (fn. f1341int-3) On 30 November 1340 Edward III had returned unannounced from the Low Countries to London, frustrated by the failure of his administration to deliver the funds needed to prosecute the war on the Continent and angered at what he saw as the betrayal of his chief minster, John Stratford, Archbishop of Canterbury. In scenes reminiscent of his coup at Nottingham Castle a decade earlier, the king summarily dismissed the chancellor and treasurer and various members of their clerical staffs, arrested five of the justices of king's bench and common pleas, imprisoned several prominent financiers, and even seized one member of the regency council, Sir Thomas Wake. He then issued elaborate instructions to the sheriffs to institute far-reaching inquiries into maladministration and corruption in central and local government during his recent absence from the realm. Strikingly, he chose not (as Edward I had done in similar circumstances) to use parliament as the tribunal in which such complaints might be received and (if necessary) tried; instead, he appointed special commissions at the county level to deal with the flood of complaints that he confidently expected to arise from his oppressed subjects.
The reason for his apparent reluctance to use parliament as a forum for this symbolic re-assertion of royal authority lies chiefly in Edward's quarrel with John Stratford, archbishop of Canterbury. The ministers dismissed on 30 November included Stratford's brother, Robert (the chancellor), and Roger Northburgh (the treasurer). Edward planned not only to disgrace these men but also to try them for their offences. Although John Stratford had held no office since giving up the chancellorship in June 1340 (his presidency of the regency council of June-November 1340 being merely personal rather than ex officio) , the king also wished to proceed against him. The affair therefore aroused great sensitivity over the issues of clerical and ministerial privilege. Having laid out his side of the case in a quasi-public letter promptly dubbed by Stratford as a libellus famosus , the king found that the archbishop intended to stand firm, to be a worthy successor to Thomas Becket, and to resist all forms of trial in a secular court with the exception of full parliament. Realising that the commissions of inquiry had simply provoked suspicion and anger in the shires and that the lords and commons were likely to rally around Stratford, Edward was clearly anxious to avoid humiliation in his own parliament at the hands of a former chief advisor, and prevaricated over the winter of 1340-1, hoping that the pope would back him and thus make it impossible for Stratford to continue his resistance to answering the king's charges.
The correspondence with the pope was still proceeding when, on 3 March 1341, the chancery issued writs for the summons of a new parliament to convene at Westminster on 23 April. (fn. f1341int-4) Although there is some suggestion that the archbishop had in effect forced the king into the summons, Edward's subsequent actions in attempting to prevent Stratford from assuming his place in the lords do not suggest that his primary motive was to use the parliament as a high court for proceedings against the archbishop. Instead, what drove him to issue the summons was, as in 1339-40, the desperate state of his finances. The two fiscal measures in which the domestic government of 1340 had pinned its hopes - the ninth and the forced loan in wool - had proved disastrous in both political and fiscal terms: indeed, it was the failure of Stratford's administration to deliver the funds promised to the king during and after the parliament of 1340 that had so exasperated Edward and led him to his stated (though perhaps disingenuous) belief that the archbishop had meant, through lack of supplies, to ruin him. The fiscal imperative became explicit in the announcement of the causes of summons of the parliament, made (after delays resulting from late arrivals) on Thursday, 26 April (items 4-5): reminding the assembly of the king's obligation to uphold his recently assumed title to the kingdom of France, and his ancient rights in Aquitaine, the statement indicated that, while it was not the king's intention on this occasion to ask for a new aid, he required the assembly, as a matter of urgency, to address the issue of how the arrears of the first year of the ninth might be realised and how the term for the collection of the second year of the levy might be brought forward and the levy raised by late June. The lords and commons were then asked to give their decision on this matter on the forthcoming Saturday, 28 April.
At this point the parliament roll informs us that 'in order to settle certain debates arising from certain articles which the great men and commons of the land requested of our lord the king, the parliament was adjourned from day to day from the said Thursday [26 April] until the Thursday immediately following [3 May]...' (item 6). In fact, it is known from the French Chronicle of London that an important series of events took place between these dates. The first such event, the appeal by the earls of Surrey and Warenne that the king should allow Archbishop Stratford to be admitted to the assembly and take his seat among the prelates and peers, occurred most probably on Saturday 28 April, which was both the closing date for the submission of private petitions and the day fixed for a decision on the matter of the administration of the ninth (items 3, 5). (fn. f1341int-5) The desire both of medieval chroniclers and of modern historians to dramatise this event has led to the assumption that Stratford was shut out of parliament for some time, his passage forcibly prevented by the king's henchmen, Robert Parving, Ralph Stafford, William Kilsby and John Darcy: the chronicle ascribed to Stephen Birchington provides a particularly elaborate story of daily rebuffs and insults to its hero, the archbishop. (fn. f1341int-6) In fact, it may be that Stratford did not attempt to take his seat before the day on which Surrey and Warenne made their protest, after which he was promptly admitted: this point, coupled with the fact that the first few days of the assembly had been lost in procedural matters and adjournments to accommodate late arrivals, means that some caution is needed in reference to those accounts that favour the deliberate and prolonged exclusion of the archbishop from substantive proceedings. (fn. f1341int-7)
Nevertheless, the actions of Parving, Stafford and the others clearly caused considerable offence, provoking the famous outburst of the earl of Surrey, reported by the French Chronicle : 'Sir king, how goes this parliament? Parliaments were not wont to be like this. For here those who should be foremost are shut out, while there sit other men of low rank who have no business to be here. Such right belongs only to the peers of the land. Sir king, think of this.' With this, Darcy and Kilsby 'and the rest [of those who offered offence]' left the chamber, and the earl of Arundel requested that Archbishop Stratford be admitted without delay. 'The king allowed this, and 32 articles were written down against [Stratford], and the archbishop denied them all.' (fn. f1341int-8) Birchington reinforces the sense of aristocratic outrage at the treatment of the archbishop by mentioning that the earls of Northampton and Salisbury also supported his admission to parliament. (fn. f1341int-9)
It is Birchington who also provides a detailed narrative of events over the following few days. On Monday 30 April the king's councillors published the charges against Stratford before the commons. On the following day, 1 May, Stratford requested leave to clear himself of the king's charges 'in full parliament', and a panel of twelve peers was set up to advise the king on the matter. He repeated his request on 2 May, but was shouted down by the king's councillors; and on Thursday 3 May he submitted to a formal reconciliation with the king. (fn. f1341int-10) Historians have often been suspicious of Birchington, and his outline of the opening events of the parliament has already been called into question above. But in this case it has been argued that Birchington's date for the reconciliation between Edward and Stratford is more secure than that supplied by the parliament roll, namely Monday 7 May (item 8), not least because the parliament roll's 'on this same day' may itself refer back not to the previously cited Monday but to the earlier specified Thursday, 3 May (item 6). (fn. f1341int-11) It therefore seems that, contrary to what the parliament roll ostensibly indicates, the reconciliation with Stratford took place on the same day that the committee of twelve peers named on the parliament roll was appointed to deal with the issue of whether the peers of the land were entitled to demand that their offences be tried in parliament (item 6). The matter clearly had its origins in Stratford's case, and in those of his brother Robert and the dismissed treasurer, Roger Northburgh, who had also, according to Birchington, been initially denied access to the parliament chamber.
The fact that (according to the chronology adopted here) the committee's deliberation did not begin until Edward had already been reconciled with the archbishop is important, for it meant that its findings, announced on 7 May, to the effect that 'all the peers of the land, ministers or others, should not...be brought to judgment...except in full parliament and before the peers...' (item 7), could not actually be used by Stratford as a means of forcing a trial on the 32 charges earlier levelled against him. Once more, the king had apparently gone out of his way to avoid a direct confrontation with the archbishop in parliament. Indeed, the king explicitly stated, in response to Stratford's request to clear himself by compurgation in parliament, that he 'wished the business touching the state of the realm and the common profit first to be executed and then he would cause the other matters to be dealt with' (item 8): it was only on 26 May, as the assembly was about to close, that a committee of compugators was appointed (staffed by the bishops of Durham and Salisbury and the earls of Northampton, Arundel, Warwick and Salisbury) with explicit power, if possible, to deliver its recommendations to the king outside parliament (item 44). (fn. f1341int-12) On the other hand, the peers' opinion, subsequently enshrined in the statutes of this parliament (item 51), was certainly an important step in the development of the concept of peerage and the parliamentary state trial.
The affaire Stratford having thus apparently been closed to public scrutiny on 3 May, the more regular business of parliament proceeded. On 7 May, the same day as the committee reported its findings on the trial of peers and ministers, the king received the petitions of the lords and commons which had presumably been in discussion and formulation since 26 April (items 9-17); answers were provided on 9 May, but were deemed insufficient, and a committee of 17 prelates, lords and ministers was set up to consider the king's responses further and report back (items 17). On 9 May the clergy of the province of Canterbury, who had been meeting in convocation at St Paul's Cathedral, were received in parliament where they submitted their gravamina , duly recorded on the parliament roll (items 18-25); in a close parallel to the treatment of the petitions of the lords and commons, answers were provided two days later, on 11 May, but were again judged inadequate and referred to the prelates who, on consultation with certain unnamed secular lords, produced an amended series of answers at an indeterminate date (items 26-33). On Saturday 12 May the committee appointed to consider the answers to the petitions of the lords and commons produced its findings, which were accordingly announced (items 34-41), though it does not seem that formal legislation was issued at this point. Thereafter, the parliament roll provides no further evidence to date its business until the entry for Saturday 26 May (item 43).
Presumably the 'missing fortnight' was taken up with continued discussion of taxation delayed since the political disruptions of 28 April. The fact that the crown had accepted and answered the petitions of the lords and commons (though not, admittedly, issued the statutes) before an eventual decision was reached on taxation was only possible because both crown and parliament had proceeded thus far on the basis that there was a direct subsidy (the ninth) currently in place and on the assumption that it would be collected for the second year. As we have already noted, the government had made the point explicit in the opening stages of the assembly that it did not intend to request further subsidies (item 5). Furthermore, the commons in the parliament of July 1340 had granted the forced loan of 20,000 sacks on the security provided by the second year of the ninth; (fn. f1341int-13) and the petitions of 1341 requested confirmation of the statute containing the terms under which the ninth had been granted (item 16). By the time the text of the 1341 statutes was agreed, however, the lords and commons had determined on a new fiscal strategy (items 42, 56): (fn. f1341int-14) the second year of the ninth would be commuted and replaced by a tax of 30,000 sacks of wool, to be paid in two unequal instalments of 20,000 and 10,000 sacks over two years. The conditions attached to this grant were duly recorded both on the parliament roll (items 42, 55-61) and on the dorse of the statute roll. (fn. f1341int-15) The grant of the wool tax seems to have been made shortly before 26 May, on which day it was agreed that two former treasurers, Sir Robert Sadington and Bishop Northburgh of Coventry and Lichfield, together with a prominent member of the earlier regency council, Sir Thomas Wake, would consult with 'people who have knowledge of the counties' (potentially members both of the lords and of the commons) to arrange the manner of distribution of the tax (item 47). It was subsequently decided (perhaps on 28 May, which might explain why certain members of the commons remained until this day; but perhaps also after the end of the parliament), to assign quotas of wool to each county on the same scale that was used for the assessment of fifteenths and tenths (item 48). (fn. f1341int-16) It was also agreed by statute that the forced loan of 20,000 sacks of wool of 1340 would be abolished and whatever had been collected towards it used to offset the new levy (item 55). (fn. f1341int-17) The notion of collecting a direct subsidy (as distinct from a loan) in wool had been employed once before, in 1338, when the levy had also been modelled on the quotas for the fifteenth and tenth; the device was to prove highly successful and a marked contrast from the badly conceived and badly administered levies of 1340, yielding wool and cash to a total value of over £131,000 in the course of two years. (fn. f1341int-18) It is significant to note that the price of the political and constitutional concessions of 1341 turned out to be the single most profitable direct subsidy ever raised by Edward III.
The statutes of 1341 have been much discussed, (fn. f1341int-19) and only certain aspects of the legislation require special treatment here. First, the very political nature of the legislation needs to be emphasised. Largely because of the political confrontations between Edward III and Stratford, but also partly because of the unusual resort of allowing committees to draft legislation that might be issued in the king's name, the statutes reflected the dramas that had been enacted within the assembly. The crown accepted the recommendation that it guarantee the right of peers to be tried in full parliament (item 7) and enshrined the principle in a statute (item 51). (fn. f1341int-20) It also used the answers provided by the committee appointed to hear the common petitions as a basis for further legislation. The real sticking point in this body of business was the request that 'the king shall appoint the chancellor, the chief justices of both benches, the treasurer, the chancellor and chief baron of the exchequer, the steward of his household, the keeper of the wardrobe, the controller and a suitable clerk to keep the privy seal and the king's chief clerks in the common bench, and this in parliament . And that henceforth concerning such ministers when necessary, and they shall be sworn before the peers in parliament to keep the laws ...' (item 15) (my italics). The chronicle of Adam Murimuth specifies that although the king conceded most of the points demanded in the petitions, he would not accept this proposal, (fn. f1341int-21) which was tantamount to giving parliament a right to appoint, or at least to veto the appointment, of all major offices in the king's service, a position which directly infringed the king's right to select and dismiss his own ministers. A compromise was found, which may have its origin in the content of another of the petitions, requesting that the same officials be sworn to observe 'the laws of the land and the points of the Great Charter and the other statutes made by the assent of the peers of the land' (item 10), a reasonably uncontentious principle which the crown accepted without demur (item 37). In the resulting statute, it was stated that the same ministers should be sworn into office in parliament (item 52); (fn. f1341int-22) and further legislation was added stating that in every parliament the king would take the relevant offices into his hands so that their holders could be put to answer for their misdeeds, be punished by judgment of peers and, if necessary, be dismissed and replaced (item 53). (fn. f1341int-23) This at least preserved for the king the right to appoint and dismiss his officials without the consent of, and outside the context of, parliament.
However, it would seem that the possible infringement of the king's authority and freedom of action in relation to his ministers remained a matter of real concern: when the chancellor, treasurer, judges and others were asked (presumably on the basis of the new legislation) to swear to uphold the statutes announced in this parliament, they said that 'they did not agree with the composition or form of the said statutes, and that they could not observe them in cases where the same statutes were contrary to the laws and practices of the realm which they were sworn to observe' (item 42). This loophole was to prove of considerable importance to the crown, for on 1 October 1341, some four months after the dissolution of this parliament, Edward III was to announce the revocation of the statute of 1341 on the grounds that it had been forced upon him against his will and was injurious to the royal prerogative. (fn. f1341int-24) It has been demonstrated by Dr Harriss that this decision was announced only after due consultation with the magnates in a council called to discuss impending campaigns in Brittany and against the Scots; he has also shown how the revocation of the statute had the effect of forcing a reconciliation between the king and Stratford, effected in a public ceremony at Westminster on 23 October. (fn. f1341int-25) It simply remains to be pointed out that the fact that medieval statutes were issued as pieces of continuous text, rather than (as in their modern rationalisations) as self-contained and identifiable units and clauses, meant that all the legislation of 1341 was nullified by this act. In the parliament of 1343 the commons were to complain about the enforcement of the statutory concessions of 1340-1 (and, though only implicitly, about the abolition of the 1341 statute) since these had been linked so closely to the tax in wool, indicating a sense that the crown had acted in bad faith by continuing to collect the tax while abandoning the political concessions that it had secured; the crown answered that it might be possible to have those points of the statute that were 'honourable and profitable for the king' re-established as statute law (parliament of 1343, item 27, no. IIII). And although no such legislation ever resulted, it is evident from this answer that the crown respected the notion that only certain parts of the 1341 statute had been unacceptable: in particular, it can be argued from the evidence presented above that the issue of the appointment and accountability of the king's minsters was in many respects much more troublesome to the crown in 1341 than was the principle of trial of peers in parliament.
The parliament of 1341 seems to have had its last sitting on 26 May; the roll provides no evidence of formal business thereafter, though contrary to normal practice the writs de expensis were issued with different dates, variously 27 and 28 May. (fn. f1341int-26) It has been indicated above that the issue of the distribution of the tax in wool may have detained some of the members of the commons until 28 May; otherwise, there is no positive evidence to indicate the dissolution of the assembly.
Text and translation
|LE PARLEMENT TENUZ A WESTM' LE LUNDY EN LA QUINZEYNE DE PASCH', L'AN DU REGNE NOSTRE SEIGNUR LE ROI, C'EST ASSAVER D'ENGLETERRE QUINZISME, ET DE FRANCE SECOND.||THE PARLIAMENT HELD AT WESTMINSTER ON THE MONDAY IN THE QUINZAINE OF EASTER IN THE FIFTEENTH YEAR OF THE REIGN OF OUR LORD THE KING OF ENGLAND, AND THE SECOND OF FRANCE.|
|1. En primes, acordez est qe Sire Thomas de Drayton' soit clerk du parlement.||1. First, it was agreed that Sir Thomas Drayton should be the clerk of the parliament.|
|Item, acordez est par nostre seignur le roi et ceux de son conseil qe adonqes estoient venuz, qe une proclamacion se face, qe nul homme porte armes, en la manere qe soleit estre fait as autres parlementz; la quele proclamacion fu fait meisme le jour, en la fourme qe s'ensuyt:||Also, it was agreed by our lord the king and those of his council who had then arrived that a proclamation would be made that no man bear arms, in the manner customary at other parliaments; which proclamation was made on the same day, in the form that follows:|
|2. Por ce qe avant ces heures as parlementz et consealx nostre seignur le roi debates, riotes, et contekes ont este sours et muetz, par tant qe gentz se sont alez es lieux ou les parlementz et conseils ont este somons et assemblez, armez d'aketon', de plates, d'espeis, et de long cutelx, et des autres manere d'armes; et par tiele cause les busoignes du nostre seignur le roi et de son roialme ont este empeschez, et les grandz et autres qi y sont venuz par son commandement effreitez: nostre seignur le roi, voillant purveer de remede contre tielx malx, defend' qe nulle, sur payne de forfaiture de quanq'il purra forfaire devers le roi, de quele estat ou condicion q'il soit, ne voise armez d'aketon, ne de plate, ne de haubergeon, ne a espeie, ne a long cotel, ne od autre arme suspecte, en la citee de Loundres, ne en les suburbes, ne en les autres lieux entre la dite citee et le palays de Westmonstre, ne nul parte en le paleis, par terre ne par ewe, sur la peyne avantdite: forspris les gentz nostre seignur le roi, queux il vodra deputer, ou par son commandement serroit deputez, pur la garde de sa pees es ditz lieux: et auxint forspris les ministres le roi, solonc la fourme de l'estatut fait a Northampton. Et n'est my l'entencion nostre seignur le roi, qe chescun counte et baron puisse avoir sa espeie porte od lui aillours qe en la presence le roi, ou place du conseil. Et auxint est defendu par nostre seignur le roi, et par le conseil, sur peyne d'enprisonement, qe nul enfaunt, ne autres, ne jue en nul lieu du paleys de Westmonstre, durant le parlement qe yest somons, a bares, ne a autres jues nient covenables, come a oustier chaparons des gentz, ne a mettre mayn en eux, ne autre empeschement faire, par quoi chescun ne puisse peisiblement suir ses bosoignes.||2. Because before this time at parliaments and councils of our lord the king debates, riots and quarrels have been inevitable and numerous, because people have brought arms of acton and plate, swords and long knives and other kinds of arms to places where parliaments and councils have been summoned and assembled; and because the business of our lord the king and of his realm has been impeded, and the great men and others who have come there by his command have been intimidated; our lord the king, wishing to provide remedy against such wrongs, forbids anyone, on penalty of forfeiture of as much as he can forfeit to the king, of whatever estate or condition he may be, to come armed with acton or plate, habergeon, sword, long knife, or with any other suspicious arms, into the city of London or the suburbs, or into other places between the said city and the palace of Westminster, or any part of the palace, by land or by water, on the aforesaid penalty; saving those of our lord the king's people whom he wishes to appoint, or who shall be appointed by his instruction for keeping the peace in the said places; and also saving the king's officials according to the form of the statute made at Northampton. And it is not the intention of our lord the king that any earl or baron should be prevented from carrying his sword with him anywhere other than in the king's presence or the place of council. And also it is forbidden by our lord the king and the council, on penalty of imprisonment, that any child or other person shall play either at bars or at any other unsuitable games, such as removing people's hoods, or laying hands on them, in any part of the palace of Westminster during the parliament which is summoned there, nor cause any other trouble by which anyone may not peacefully pursue his business.|
|3. Item, une crie fu fait, qe chescun qi voudra mettre peticion a nostre seignur le roi et a son conseil les mette entre cy et samady preschein avenir le jour compris deinz la crie.||3. Also, an announcement was made that each person who would put forward a petition to our lord the king and his council should put it forward between then and the Saturday next coming, the day appointed in the announcement.|
|Et serront assignez de resceivre les peticions d'Engleterre les souzescritz, c'estassavoir:||
[Receivers and triers of petitions.]
And the following are assigned to receive the petitions from England, that is to say:
|Clerks de la chauncellerie:||
[Receivers and triers of petitions.]
Clerks of the chancery:
|Et pur les peticions de Gascoigne, Gales, Irlande, Escoce et des Isles:||And for the petitions from Gascony, Wales, Ireland, Scotland and the Channel Islands:|
|Clerks de la chauncellerie:||Clerks of the chancery:|
|Et pur oier les peticions d'Engleterre, sont assignez:||And the following are assigned to hear the petitions from England:|
|- associez a eux chaunceller et tresorer quant miester serra.||- consulting with the chancellor and treasurer when necessary.|
|Item, pur oier les peticions de Gascoigne, Gales, Irland, d'Escoce, et des Isles, sont assignez:||Also the following are assigned to hear the petitions from Gascony, Wales, Ireland, Scotland and the Channel Islands:|
|- associez a eux les chaunceler et tresorer quant mester serra.||- consulting with the chancellor and treasurer when necessary.|
|4. Item, est acordez, pur ce qe les prelatz, countes, barons et autres grantz, ne sont pas pleynement venuz y ce lundy le primer jour du parlement, de continuer le parlement tanqe a lendemeigne, c'estassaver, le mardy preschein apres la quinzeyne.||
[Adjournment of parliament.]
4. Also, it was agreed, because the prelates, earls, barons and other great men had not fully arrived on Monday, the first day of parliament, to adjourn the parliament until the morrow, that is to say, the Tuesday immediately following the quinzaine.
|Item, le mardy est fait une continuance tanqe a meskerdy par meisme la cause, et de meskerdy tanqe au joedy.||Also, on the Tuesday an adjournment was made until the Wednesday for the same reason, and on the Wednesday until the Thursday.|
|Et fait aremembrer qe le joedy susdit furent purposees les causes du dit parlement, en presence des prelatz et autres grantz souz escritz; c'estassaver, des evesqes de Wyncestre, Duresme, d'Ely, Cestre, Excestre, Hereford, Seint Davy, Baa, Sarum, Monsir Robert d'Artoys, des countes de Norht', d'Arundell, de Huntyngdon, de Pembrogge, d'Anegos, d'Oxenford, de Devenshire, de Sarum et de Suff', et des seignurs de Percy, de Wake, Monsir Hugh le Despenser, Monsir Nichol de Cantelou, le seignur de Segrave et justices et d'autres du conseil, en la manere qe s'ensuit, c'estassavoir:||
[Opening of parliament.]
And let it be remembered that on the aforesaid Thursday the reasons for the said parliament were proposed in the presence of the prelates and other great men named below; that is to say, the bishops of Winchester, Durham, Ely, Chester, Exeter, Hereford, Saint Davids, Bath and Salisbury, Sir Robert of Artois, the earls of Northampton, Arundel, Huntingdon, Pembroke, Angus, Oxford, Devon, Salisbury and Suffolk, Lord Percy, Lord Wake, Sir Hugh Despenser, Sir Nicholas Cantilupe, Lord Segrave and the justices and others of the council, in the manner that follows, that is to say:
|5. En primes estoit pronunciez coment, par cause qe nostre seignur le roi ne poait trover mesure en Philipp [p. ii-127][col. a] de Valoys, qi se dit roi de France, et qi torcinousement avoit tollutz a nostre seignur le roi ses terres, seignuries et autres possessions en la duchee de Gyen et aillours es parties de dela, et maliciousement et a tort les detient occupez, et nient meyns meyntient, en quant q'en lui est, les enemys d'Escoce contre nostre seignur le roi; acorde fu et assentuz par prelatz, countes, barons et la commune de la terre, en pleyn parlement tenuz a Westm' avant le primer passage nostre seignur le roi as parties de dela, qe nostre seignur le roi se purchaceroit amys, alliez et retenantz qi lui purroient aider a conquer ses droitures, et q'il meismes passeroit par celle cause. Et a ceste chose sustiner et faire plusours eides lui ont este grauntez, a grante charge auxi bien des grantz come des petitz, lesqueux eides par ascuns de ses ministres et autres ont este souztretz et malement despenduz issint q'ils ne sont pas si pleynement venuz au profit de lui come il busoigneroit a grant damage de lui et arerissement de l'exploit des totes ses busoignes, et enpoverissement de son poeple. Par qoi il voet qe touz les grantz et communes de son roialme sachent de certeyne qe sa entencion est d'estre servi de ce qe lui est graunte, si avant come reson demande, au plus grant profit de lui et meyndre charge de son dit poeple. Et n'est pas sa entencion de eux charger d'autre eide faire a lui, forsqe de cest quel ils lui ont grante einz ces heures. Einz pur les grantz meschiefs q'il ad soeffert, et par cause qe ses grosses busoignes ont este trop arirees, de ce q'il n'ad pas este servi des neofismes et autres eides qe lui ont este grauntez autre foitz, si ad il chargez et priez en chargeante manere les ditz grantz et autres de la commune q'ils se treissent ensemble et s'avisent entre eux (c'estassaver, les grantz de par eux, et les chivalers des counteez, citeyns et burgeys de par eux) coment le roi purra mieltz et plus covenablement estre servi de ce qe arer lui est des dites neofismes pur le primer an, et coment il purroit estre eidez plus hastiement, au plus grant profit de lui et meyndre grevance et oppression de son poeple, de meismes les neofismes del second an avant la Seint Johan preschein avenir, pur achevir ent, od l'eid de Dieu, ses grossez busoignes queles il ad entre meyns, come ils bien sevent, et de doner ent respons y ce samady preschein avenir.||5. First, it was pronounced that, because our lord the king could not find moderation in Philip [p. ii-127][col. a] of Valois, who calls himself king of France, and who has wrongly seized from our lord the king his lands, lordships and other possessions in the duchy of Aquitaine and elsewhere overseas, and maliciously and wrongly keeps them occupied, and nevertheless supports the enemies of Scotland against our lord the king as well as he can; it was agreed and assented by the prelates, earls, barons and the commons of the land, in full parliament held at Westminster before the first crossing of our lord the king overseas, that our lord the king would seek friends, allies and retainers who could help him to conquer his rights, and that the king himself would cross for this reason. And to support and do this thing many aids have been granted to him, to the great burden of the great men as well as of the small, which aids have been taken away and wrongly spent by some of his officers and others, so that they have not come to the king's profit as fully as is necessary, to the great damage of him, to the detriment of the accomplishment of all his business and to the impoverishment of his people. Wherefore he wills that all the great men and commonalty of his realm know for certain that his intention is to be provided with what was granted to him, as completely as reason requires, to his greatest profit and with the least burden to his said people. And it is not his intention to charge them with making him another aid, except what they have already granted him. But as a result of the great misfortunes which he has suffered, and because his important business has been too much delayed because he has not been provided with the ninths and other aids previously granted to him, he has charged and prayed earnestly that the said great men and others of the commons discuss together and advise each other (that is to say, the great men by themselves, and the knights of the shires, citizens and burgesses by themselves) how the king might be best and most suitably provided with what is in arrears from the said ninths for the first year, and how he could be most swiftly aided with the same ninths of the second year before Saint John next, to his greatest profit and with the least grievance and oppression to his people, in order to achieve, with the aid of God, the important business which he has in hand, as they know well, and that they give their answer thereon on the Saturday next coming.|
|Item, de parler coment homme purroit avenir d'avoir plus grante plente de monoye, et d'aviser si floryns deyvent coure ove l'esterling en manere qe autre foitz fu parlez.||Also, they should discuss how it might be possible to have a greater abundance of money, and to advise whether florins should be current with sterling in the manner previously discussed.|
|Et auxint fu dit overtement a touz qe chescun qi se sent grevez par le roi, ou par ses ministres, ou autres, q'ils mettroient peticion avant, et ils averont bon et covenable remede.||And it was also openly said to everyone that each person who felt himself aggrieved by the king or his officers or by others should put forward a petition, and they shall have good and suitable remedy.|
|6. Item, fait aremembrer qe pur declarer ascuns debatz mutz sur ascuns articles queux les grantz et communes de la terre demanderont de nostre seignur le roi, le parlement fu continuez del dit joedy de jour en jour tanqe au joedy prescheynement suant; a queu joedy fu mys une bille en parlement par les grantz de la terre contenant ascuns requestes, des queles nostre seignur le roi ottreia bonement, come plus pleynement est contenuz desouz.||6. Also, let it be remembered that in order to settle certain debates arising from certain articles which the great men and commons of the land requested of our lord the king, the parliament continued day by day from the said Thursday until the Thursday immediately following; on which Thursday the great men of the land put forward in parliament a bill containing certain requests, which our lord the king willingly granted, as is more fully contained below.|
|Et pur ce qe entre autres choses contenues en la prier des grantz est fait mencion qe les piers de la terre, officers ne autres, ne serront tenuz de respondre de trespas qe lour est surmys par le roi forsqe en parlement; queu choses, fust avys au roi, qe ce serroit inconvenient, et contre son estat. Si prierent les ditz grantz au roi q'il voloit assentir qe quatre evesqes, quartre countes et quatre barons, ensemblement ove ascuns sages de la leye, fussent esluz de trier en queu cas les ditz piers serroient tenuz de respondre en parlement et nulle parte aillours, et en quel cas nemy, et de reporter lour avys a lui. Et furent esluz a ceste chose faire, les evesqes de Excestr', < Cicestr' > Baa, [col. b] Loundres, les countes d'Arundel, Sarum, Huntyngdon et Suff', les seignurs de Wake, Percy Monsir Rauf de Nevill et Monsir Rauf Basset de Drayton. Les queux douze reporterent lour avys en pleyn parlement, le lundy preschein suant, en une cedule, dont la copie s'ensuit en ceste forme:||
[Report from the lords.]
And because, among other things contained in the request of the great men, mention is made that the peers of the land, ministers or others, would not be bound to answer for any trespass charged against them by the king except in parliament, the king was advised that this would be improper and against his estate. So the said great men prayed the king that he would be willing to agree that four bishops, four earls and four barons, together with some wise men of the law, should be chosen to decide in what case the said peers would be bound to answer in parliament and nowhere else, and in what case they would not, and to report their opinion to him. And the bishops of Exeter, Chichester, Bath and [col. b] London, the earls of Arundel, Salisbury, Huntingdon and Suffolk, Lord Wake, Lord Percy, Sir Ralph Neville and Sir Ralph Basset of Drayton were chosen to do this thing. These twelve men reported their opinion in full parliament on the Monday immediately following in a schedule, the copy of which follows in this form:
|7. 'Honerable seignur, a la reverence de vous semble d'un assent as prelatz, countes et barouns, qe les piers de la terre < ne > deivent estre aresnez ne menez en juggement sinoun en parlement et par lour piers. Et sur ce ad este de novel ascun debat, si ascun des piers, soit ou eit este chaunceller, tresorer, ou autre officer quecunqe, deive enjoier celle franchise auxibien par cause de lour office come en autre manere. Est avis as pieres de la terre qe touz les piers de la terre, officer ou autre, par cause de lour office des choses touchantes lour office ne par nul autre cause ne deivent estre menez en juggement, ne perdre lour temporaltez, terres, tenementz, biens ne chatelx, n'estre arestuz ne emprisonez, outlagez, ne forsjuggez, ne ne deivent respoundre n'estre juggez, forsqe en pleyn parlement, et devant les piers ou le roi se fait partie; salvees a nostre seignur le roi les leies dreiturelement usees par du processe, et salve la suite de partie. Et si par cas nul des pieres voille de sa volente aillours respoundre et estre juggez, [memb. 4] ce ne devera tourner en prejudice des autres pieres, ne a lui meismes en autre cas. Forspris, si nul des pieres soit viscont ou fermer de fee, soit ou eit este officer ou eit resceu deniers ou autres chastelx de roi par qoi q'il est tenuz de rendre acompte, si est l'entencion des ditz pieres qe meisme celui veigne acompter, par lui meismes ou par son attourne, es lieux acustumez, issint qe les pardons einz ces heures faites en parlemeut se tiegnent en leur force. Par qoi prient les ditz pieres qe les choses susdites soient desore fermement tenuz et qe la fraunchise de seinte esglise, la bound et la chartre de la foreste soient tenuz en touz pointz. Et si rien soit fait a l'encontre, soit declarez a cel parlement et par les pieres de la terre duement redrescez. Et si nul, de quele condicion q'il soit, viegne ou riens face a l'encontre, estoise au juggement des pieres de la terre en parlement, auxibien des fraunchises usees come d'icelles qe serront ore grantees. Et qe les fraunchises et autres fraunches coustumes grauntees par nostre seignur le roi ou ses progenitours as piers de la terre, a la citee de Loundres et autres citees et burghs et as ceux des Cynk Portz et a la commune de la terre soient tenuz en touz pointz sanz rien faire a l'encontre. Et qe briefs demandez d'avoir allouance des dites fraunchises, chartres et coustumes soient grauntez sanz nule destourbance, et qe sur les pointz avanditz soit fait estatut en cel parlement.' (fn. ii-126-45-1)||7. 'Honourable lord, saving your reverence, it seems to the prelates, earls and barons, of one accord, that the peers of the land should not be arrested or brought to judgment except in parliament and by their peers. And there has recently been some discussion thereon, whether any of the peers, who is or has been chancellor, treasurer or any other officer whatsoever, should enjoy this privilege by reason of their office as well as in other manner. The peers of the land are of the opinion that all the peers of the land, ministers or others, should not, by reason of their office in matters concerning their office or for any other reason, be brought to judgment or lose their temporalities, lands, tenements, goods or chattels, or be arrested or imprisoned, outlawed or condemned, or should answer or be judged except in full parliament before the peers where the king takes part; saving to our lord the king the laws rightfully observed by due process, and saving the suit of the party. And if by chance any of the peers will willingly answer and be judged elsewhere, [memb. 4] this shall not turn in prejudice to other peers or to himself in other cases. With the exception that if any of the peers is a sheriff or fee-farmer, or is or has been an officer or has received money or other chattels from the king for which he is bound to render account, it is the intention of the said peers that he shall come to render account, by himself or by his attorney, in the customary places, on condition that the pardons made in parliament before this time shall remain in their force. Wherefore the said peers pray that the aforesaid things shall henceforth be firmly upheld and that the franchise of holy Church, the Great Charter and the Charter of the Forest shall be upheld in all points. And if anything is done to the contrary, it shall be declared at this parliament and duly redressed by the peers of the land. And if anyone, of whatever condition he may be, comes or does anything to the contrary, he shall abide the judgment of the peers of the land in parliament, whether concerning customary franchises or those newly granted. And that the franchises and other free customs granted by our lord the king or his progenitors to the peers of the land, to the city of London and other cities and boroughs, to those of the Cinque Ports and to the commonalty of the land shall be upheld in all points, with nothing to be done to the contrary. And that the writs requested for having allowance of the said franchises, charters and customs shall be granted without any delay, and a statute shall be made on the aforesaid points in this parliament.' (fn. ii-126-45-1)|
|8. Et meisme cesti jour vient nostre seignur le roi en la chaumbre de Peynte, et illoeqes vient l'ercevesqe de Cantirburs et les autres prelatz et grantz et communes; et le dit ercevesqe se humilia a nostre seignur le roi, enquerant sa bone seignurie et sa bienvoilliance; et nostre seignur le roi lui resceut a sa bone seignurie, dont les prelatz et autres grantz lui mercierent tant come ils savoient ou purroient. Et puis pria l'ercevesqe au roi q'il pleust a sa seignurie qe desicome il est diffamez notoirement par tut le roialme et aillours, q'il puisse estre aresnez en pleyn parlement devant les pieres, et illoeqes respoundre, issint q'il soit overtement tenuz pur tiel come il est. Queu chose le roi ottreia. Mes il dit, q'il voleit qe les busoignes touchantes l'estat du roialme et commune profit fussent primes mys en exploit et puis il ferroit exploiter les autres. Et si mistrent ils avant meisme cestui lundy ascunes peticions touchantes touz les grantz et la commune du roialme, dont la copie s'ensuyt en ceste fourme:||
[Reconciliation of the king and the archbishop.]
8. And on this same day our lord the king came into the Painted Chamber with the archbishop of Canterbury and the other prelates, great men and commons; and the said archbishop humbled himself to our lord the king, requesting his good lordship and benevolence; and our lord the king received him to his good lordship, for which the prelates and other great men thanked him as much as possible. And then the archbishop prayed the king that it might please his lordship that, inasmuch as he is notoriously slandered throughout the realm and elsewhere, he might be charged in full parliament before the peers, and answer there, so that he should be publicly recognised for what he is. The king granted this. But he said that he wished the business touching the state of the realm and the common profit first to be executed and then he would cause the other matters to be dealt with. And so on the same Monday some petitions touching all the great men and the commonalty of the realm were put forward, the copy of which follows in this form:
|9. 'A nostre seignur le roi pri la commune de son roialme d'Engleterre, qe come les pointz de la bound faitz par les nobles rois < et > ses progenitours, et les grantz du roialme sages et nobles adonqes pieres de la terre, et puis sovent confermez de divers rois; et puis molt des autres ordinances, estatutz, faitz pur profit du commune poeple entendant les pointz de la dite chartre, ensemblement od les autres perpetuelment a durer, sanz estre enfreintz si noun par acorde et assent des pieres de la terre, et ce en pleyn parlement. Et cel entent par celle cause la dite commune, auxibien les grauntz come les petitz, granteront a nostre dit seignur le roi la neofisme de lour aignelx, toisons et garbes, par deux anz, a grant meschief et empoverissement de lour estat. Sur qoi nostre dit seignur le roi, a son parlement tenuz a Westm' le meskerdy preschein apres la mye quarresme l'an de son regne quatorzisme, eant regard a socour et grantz eides qe la commune lui granta a sa grante busoigne, relessa et pardona dettes et amerciementz et autres charges queux avant courerent en demande sur son poeple d'Engleterre, come plus pleinement piert par estatutz ent faitz a meisme le parlement. (fn. ii-126-53-1) Et ja sont les pointz de la dite grante chartre, ordinances, estatutz emblemiz en moltz des maneres et meyns bien tenuz qe estre ne deussent, au grant peril et desclandre du roi, et damage de son poeple, especialment en tant qe clerks, pieres de la terre et autres fraunks et gentz de estat sont arestuz et emprisonez, queux ne furent appellez n'enditez, ne suite de partie vers eux affermez. Et ja sont or de novel ascuns de lour benefitz, et ascunes de lour terres, tenementz et possessions, biens et chatelx voluntriement oustez. Qe il pleise a sa treshaute seignurie, pur relevance de son poeple qe tant est empoveriz, et pur droit meyntenir sicome il est tenuz, comander qe la dite grante chartre, ensemblement od les autres ordinances, estatutz faitz par grant deliberacion soient tenuz, meyntenuz et executz en touz pointz en lour force; et qe les avanditz attachez et emprisonez et autres, come desus est dit, oustez soient frankement delivres et restitutz a lour benefitz, terres, tenementz, possessions, biens et chatelx; issint qe chescun estoise a la lei selonc sa condicion, sanz desoremes user tiel fait, contre la lei et la tenour de la bound, et touz autres ordinances et estatuz. (fn. ii-126-53-2)||
[PETITIONS OF THE COMMONS.]
[I. Confirmation of Great Charter.]
9. 'To our lord the king; the commons of his realm of England pray that whereas the points of the Great Charter were made by the noble kings and their progenitors and the great men of the realm who were wise and noble peers of the land, and often since have been confirmed by various kings; and then many other ordinances and statutes were made for the profit of the common people, with the intention that the points of the said charter, together with the others, would last forever, without being violated except by the agreement and assent of the peers of the land in full parliament. And to this intent, for this reason, the said commonalty, the great men as well as the small, granted to our said lord the king the ninth of their lambs, fleeces and sheaves for two years, to the great misfortune and impoverishment of their estate. Whereupon our said lord the king, at his parliament held at Westminster on the Wednesday immediately following mid-Lent in the fourteenth year of his reign [March 1340], having regard for the help and great aids which the commonalty granted him at his great need, released and pardoned the debts, amercements and other charges which were previously demanded from his people of England, as more fully appears by the statutes made thereon at the same parliament. (fn. ii-126-53-1) And now the points of the said Great Charter, ordinances and statutes are impaired in many ways and not upheld as well as they ought to be, to the great peril and shame of the king and to the damage of his people, especially in that clerks, peers of the land and other freemen and people of estate are arrested and imprisoned, who were not accused or indicted and against whom suit of the party was not affirmed. And recently some have been illegally removed from their benefices and others from their lands, tenements and possessions, goods and chattels. May it please his highest lordship, for the relief of his people who are so impoverished and to maintain justice as he is bound to do, to order that the said Great Charter, together with the other ordinances and statutes made by great deliberation, shall be upheld, maintained and executed in all points in their force; and that the aforesaid arrested and imprisoned men and others removed as aforesaid shall be freely delivered and restored to their benefices, lands, tenements, possessions, goods and chattels; so that each shall be within the law according to his condition, without henceforth using such deed, contrary to the law and the tenor of the Great Charter and all other ordinances and statutes. (fn. ii-126-53-2)
|10. Item, qe chaunceller, tresorer, barons et chaunceller de l'escheqier, justices d'une place et de l'autre et touz autres justices quecunqes q'ils soient, seneschal, chaumberleyn del houstel le roi, gardein du prive seal et tresorer de la garderobe soient jurez, totes les foitz q'ils serront mys en office, de meyntenir et garder les leies de la terre et les pointz de la bound et les autres estatutz faitz par assent des pieres de la terre sanz estre enfreinz. (fn. ii-126-55-1)||
[II. Appointment of ministers.]
10. Also, the chancellor, the treasurer, the barons and chancellor of the exchequer, the justices of both benches and all other justices whoever they may be, the steward, the chamberlain of the king's household, the keeper of the privy seal and the treasurer of the wardrobe shall be sworn, for the whole time that they remain in office, to maintain and observe the laws of the land and the points of the Great Charter and the other statutes made by the assent of the peers of the land without violating them. (fn. ii-126-55-1)
|11. Item, qe chescun eit brief general et especial as tresorer, barouns, barouns de l'escheqier et quecunqe justice d'allower totes les choses contenues deinz le temps de pardon, selonc le force de meisme l'estatutz. Et qe les dettes et demandes en l'escheqer du temps limitez en le dit estatutz soient fait quites. Et si nul vodra demander du roi chartre de pardon de nul tiel dette, qe lui soit graunte de cours en chauncellerie. Et qe sentence soit done par toutz les prelatz contre touz ceux qi viegnent, procurent ou assentent a l'encontre; et s'il aviegne qe nul facz procurer, ou counseil a l'encontre, par ount qe le contraire soit mys en oevre, et de ce soit en parlement devant les pieres mys en reson, et atteint, qe par agarde de meismes les pieres eit tiel juggement et penance come entre eux s'acordront selonc sa decert; et outre ce, soit remuez sanz jammes plus estre mys en office. Et qe ce q'ad este fait contre les choses sus dites einz ces heures, soit duement redrescez ore a cel parlement, et par les piers. Et issint soit fait de parlement [col. b] en parlement devers ceux qi ferront a l'encontre en temps avenir.||
11. Also, each person shall have writs general and special to the treasurer, barons, barons of the exchequer and any justice whatsoever to allow all things included during the term of the pardon, according to the force of the same statutes. And that the debts and demands in the exchequer for the time specified in the said statutes shall be released. And if anyone requests a charter a pardon from the king for any such debt, it shall be granted to him of course in the chancery. And that sentence shall be given by all the prelates against all those who come, procure or conspire to the contrary; and if it happens that anyone is procured or advised to the contrary, by which the contrary shall be put into practice, and this shall be lawfully put before the peers in parliament and accomplished, by award of the same peers he shall have such judgment and penance as is agreed among them according to his guilt; and further, he shall be removed without ever again being put in office. And what has previously been done against the aforesaid things shall be duly redressed now at this parliament by the peers. And thus it shall be done from parliament [col. b] to parliament to those who would act to the contrary in the future.
|12. Item, prient les grantz et la commune de la terre, et pur commune profit de lui et de eux, qe soient certeynes gentz deputez par commission d'oier les acompts des touz ceux q'ont resceu les leynes nostre dit seignur ou autres eides a lui grantez, et auxint de ceux q'ont resceuz et despenduz ses deniers auxibien par de la la meer come par de cea puis le comencement de sa guerre tanqe a ore; et qe roulles et autres remembrances, obligacions, et autres choses faites par dela soient liverez en la chauncellerie d'estre enroullez et mys en remembrance, sicome homme soleit faire einz ces heures. (fn. ii-126-59-1)||
[IV. Hearing of accounts.]
12. Also, the great men and the commons of the land pray, for the common profit of the king and of themselves, that certain people shall be appointed by commission to hear the accounts of all those who have received the wool of our said lord or other aids granted to him, and also the accounts of those who have received and spent his money, whether overseas or in this land, from the beginning of his war until now; and that rolls and other remembrances, obligations and other things made overseas shall be delivered into the chancery to be enrolled and put in remembrance, as used to be done before this time. (fn. ii-126-59-1)
|13. Item, come assentuz fust, pur un temps, par les grantz de la terre esteantz a Norht', pur la pees meyntenir tant come le roi estoit dela la meer, qe larons et mesfesours de male fame et notoires feussent attachez, et puis l'attachement d'enquer sur eux. (fn. ii-126-61-1) Et pur coverture de cele ordinance autres attachementz ont este sovent faitz puis sur gentz d'autre condicion. Par qoi prient les ditz grauntz et la commune qe la dite ordinance soit reppellez et de tut anientez. (fn. ii-126-61-2)||
[V. Repeal of ordinance on public order.]
13. Also, whereas it was agreed, for the time being, by the great men of the land being at Northampton, in order to maintain the peace while the king was overseas, that robbers and criminals of evil and notorious reputation would be attached, and after the attachment to inquire into them. (fn. ii-126-61-1) And under pretence of this ordinance other attachments have often since been made on people of other condition. Wherefore the said great men and the commons pray that the said ordinance be repealed and completely annulled. (fn. ii-126-61-2)
14. Item, pri la dite commune qe par la ou diverses commissions sont issues d'enquer des chaunceller, tresorer et autres grantz officers, piers de la terre, et auxint d'enquer des autres diverses pointz de eire generalx, les queux commissions n'ont pas este veues estre grauntees avant ces heures sanz assent du parlement, a si graunt charge de la commune. Et les ditz justicz en les dites commissions assignez ont mys
[[The following text has been deleted:
mys]] divers officers atteintz devant eux a si grevouses fyns, nient eant regard a la quantite de lour mesprisions. Et auxi ont chargez le viscont de retourner touz les fraunks, seignurs des villes et autres, nient eant regard a resseantz ou de nient resseantz, et ont chargez le viscont de respondre des issues de ce q'ils ne vindrent pointz a la value de lour terres coment q'ils ne feurent resseantz, contre la lei de la terre, et estatut de ce fait. Et auxint ont les ditz justicz comandez de seisser terres pur defaut des ceux qi ne vindront point contre la lei. Et auxi les enditez devant eux ne pont par autres passer en lour acquitance mes par lour enditour, sanz allower a eux lour chalenges de meismes les enditours. Q'il pleise a sa treshaute seignurie qe tieles choses faites contre la lei et usages avant ces heures usez, repeller, et ce qe par les dites commissions contre la lei est fait redrescer. Et s'il plest a lui d'autres commissions droitureles par assent de son parlement isser, selonc ce q'il se sent par ses ministres ou autres estre grevez, qe gentz de lai et autres du pays q'ont conussance du port et de les condicions de les officers en diverses parties soient assignez. (fn. ii-126-63-1)
[VI. Redress against commissioners of inquiry.]
14. Also, the said commons pray that whereas various commissions are issued for inquiring into the chancellor, treasurer and other great officers, peers of the land, and also for inquiring into other various points of the general eyre, these commissions have not been seen to be granted without the assent of parliament before this time, to the very great burden of the commonalty. And the said justices appointed to the said commissions have set very grievous fines on various officers attainted before them, having no regard for the seriousness of their crimes. And they have also charged the sheriff to return all freemen, lords of vills and others, having no regard for residence or non-residence, and have charged the sheriff to answer concerning issues which do not come to the value of their lands, as if they were resident there, contrary to the law of the land and the statute made thereon. And the said justices have also ordered lands to be seized for the offences of those who did not break the law. And also those indicted before them cannot have their acquittal through others but only through their indicator, without being allowed to challenge the same indicator. May it please his highest lordship to repeal such things done against the law and practices observed before this time, and to redress what the same commissions did contrary to the law. And may it please him to issue other lawful commissions by the assent of his parliament, since they feel themselves aggrieved by his ministers or others, so that men of law and others of the region who have knowledge of the behaviour and conditions of the officers in various parts shall be assigned. (fn. ii-126-63-1)
|15. Item, pur ce qe moltz des malx sont avenuz par malveis conseillers et ministres, prient les grantz et la commune q'il pleise ordeigner, paravis des prelatz, countes et barouns, qe le roi face chaunceller, chief justice de l'un baunk et de l'autre, tresorer, chaunceller et chief baron del escheqer, seneschall de son houstel, gardeyn de la garderobe et contreroullour, et un clerk covenable pur garder son prive seal, chief clerks le roi en le commune baunk, et ce en parlement. Et issint soit fait desoremes de tieux ministres quant miester serra, les queux soient jurez devant les pieres en parlement de garder les leies, come desus est dit: et ce selonc les ordenances devant ces heures sur ce faites. (fn. ii-126-65-1)||
[VII. Appointment and oaths of ministers.]
15. Also, because much evil has occurred as a result of bad counsellors and ministers, the great men and the commonalty pray that it may please him to ordain, by the advice of the prelates, earls and barons, that the king shall appoint the chancellor, the chief justices of both benches, the treasurer, the chancellor and chief baron of the exchequer, the steward of his household, the keeper of the wardrobe, the controller and a suitable clerk to keep his privy seal and the king's chief clerks in the common bench, and this in parliament. And that henceforth this shall be done concerning such ministers when necessary, and they shall be sworn before the peers in parliament to keep the laws, as is aforesaid; and this according to the ordinances made thereon before this time. (fn. ii-126-65-1)
|16. Et est l'entencion d'un assent des grantz et de la commune, qe totes les choses contenues en l'estatut grante pur la neofisme soient tenues en touz pointz, et autrement ne se tiegnent les ditz grantz et commune estre [p. ii-129][col. a] tenuz de rien paier de la dite neofisme, ne de riens estre chargez. Et si lui pleise les avandites choses graunter, ensemblement od les peticions qe lui sont ore baillies par les grantz et la commune, ils lui ferront tiel respons q'il se devera agrer par reson.||
[VIII. Statute concerning the ninth.]
16. And it is the intention of the great men and the commons, of one accord, that all the things contained in the statute granted for the ninth (fn. ii-126-67-1) shall be upheld in all points, and the said great men and commonalty shall not otherwise be [p. ii-129][col. a] bound to pay any of the said ninth or to be charged with anything. And if it pleases him to grant the aforesaid things, together with the petitions which were recently delivered to him by the great men and the commons, they will make him such answer as should rightly please him.
|17. Et prieront au roi q'il les vousist otreir bonement.' Et nostre seignur le roi, eue deliberacion sur les choses contenues en meismes les peticions, fist doner ascunes respons as meismes les peticions. Les queux respons, ensemblement ove les peticions susdites reportees en pleyn parlement devant le roi et devant les grantz et communes le meskerdy preschien suant, fust avis as ditz grantz et communes, qe les dites respons ne feurent pas si pleynes et si suffissantes come il covendroit. Par qoi ils prieront au roi q'il lui pleust faire y mettre amendement. Et nostre seignur le roi ottreiant a lour priere assentist ovesqe eux qe quatre prelatz, quatre countes et quatre barons et autres sages de la lei soient assignez de surveer les dites peticions et respons et de reporter lour avys au roi. Et feurent assignez les evesqes de Duresme, Loundres, Ely et Sarum, les countes de Norht', d'Arundell, Sarum et Huntyngdon', les seignurs de Wake, Percy, Monsieur Rauf de Nevill et Monsir Rauf Basset de Drayton, les chaunceller, tresorer, Mestre Johan de Ufford, Monsir William Scot [memb. 3] et Monsir Robert de Sadyngton qi empristront celle charge.||17. And they pray the king that he would grant these things willingly.' And our lord the king, having had deliberation on the things contained in the same petitions, caused certain answers to be given to the same petitions. Which answers, together with the aforesaid petitions reported in full parliament before the king and before the great men and commons on the Wednesday immediately following, the said great men and commons were informed would not be as full and as sufficient as was necessary. Wherefore they prayed the king that it might please him to make an amendment. And our lord the king granting their request, agreed with them that four prelates, four earls, four barons and other wise men of the law should be assigned to oversee the said petitions and to report their opinion to the king. And the bishops of Durham, London, Ely and Salisbury, the earls of Northampton, Arundel, Salisbury and Huntingdon, Lord Wake, Lord Percy, Sir Ralph Neville and Sir Ralph Basset of Drayton, the chancellor, the treasurer, Master John Orford, Sir William Scot [memb. 3] and Sir Robert Sadington were appointed and undertook this charge.|
|18. Et meisme cestui meskerdy mistrent les ditz ercevesqe et les autres prelatz ascunes peticions devant le roi en son dit parlement, dont la copie s'ensuit en ceste forme:||
[PETITIONS OF THE CLERGY.]
18. And on this same Wednesday the said archbishop and the other prelates put forward certain petitions before the king in his said parliament, the copy of which follows in this form:
|19. 'A nostre seignur le roi; monstrent l'ercevesqe de Cantirbirs et ses freres evesqes de sa province: qe come clerks ne deivent estre pris ne emprisonez sanz cause ou processe de lei, les ministres nostre seignur le roi, par son comandement sicome ils dient, ont pris et emprisonez ascuns notoirement clerks, en prejudice du privilege et de l'estat de seinte esglise et contre la lei et les usages de la terre, en grant peril de lour almes. (fn. ii-126-72-1)||19. 'To our lord the king; the archbishop of Canterbury and his brothers, the bishops of his province, declare: that whereas clerks should not be taken or imprisoned without reason or process of law, the ministers of our lord the king, by his order as they say, have notoriously taken and imprisoned certain clerks, in prejudice to the privilege and estate of holy Church and contrary to the laws and practices of the land, to the great peril of their souls. (fn. ii-126-72-1)|
|20. Item, qe touz les privileges, fraunchises et fraunches custumes grantees par vous, nostre seignur le roi, ou par voz progenitours a seinte esglise, ou as prelatz, countes et barons, ou as citees, come a Loundres, Everwyk, etc. ou ascun autre citee ou chastel ou burgh, ou a les < Cynk > Portz, ou a la commune soient sanz blemisement gardez, et sur ce certeyne peyne mys. Et qe la grande < chartre > soit publiement leue et par serement novel afferme, et qe de chescun poynt soit certeyne peyne mys sur les viscontes et autres ministres le roi et gentz du pays s'il soeffrent par nuly rien estre fait contre les leies, privileges ou chartres le roi. (fn. ii-126-74-1)||
[II. Privileges of the Church.]
20. Also, all the privileges, franchises and free customs granted by you, our lord the king, or by your progenitors to holy Church, or to the prelates, earls and barons, or to cities such as London, York, etc. or any other city, castle or borough, or to the Cinque Ports, or to the commonalty, shall be observed without infraction, and a certain penalty set thereon. And the Great Charter shall be publicly read and newly affirmed by oath, and on each point a certain penalty shall be imposed upon the sheriffs and other officers of the king and the people of the region if they allow anything to be done by anyone contrary to the laws, privileges or charters of the king. (fn. ii-126-74-1)
|21. Item, plusours du poeple, justices et autres, sont pris et emprisonez et en prisone detenuz contre les pointz de la bound; et la sentence d'escomenge q'est donez contre touz iceux qi viegnent ou font contre le dit bound conferme par le pape, en grant peril de lour almes; supplient q'il pleise a nostre seignur le roi, pur peril de sa alme eschuir et les leies de sa terre come il est tenuz meytenir, comander la deliverance des ditz clerks et lays qi issint sont emprisonez, et qe desormes ce ne soit fait. (fn. ii-126-76-1)||
[III. Delivery of imprisoned clergy.]
21. Also, many people, justices and others, are taken and imprisoned and kept in prison contrary to the points of the Great Charter; and the sentence of excommunication is imposed upon all those who come or act contrary to the said Great Charter, confirmed by the pope, to the great peril of their souls; they petition that it may please our lord the king, in order to avoid the peril to his soul and to maintain the laws of his land as he is bound, to order the deliverance of the said clerks and lay people who are thus imprisoned, and that henceforth this shall not be done. (fn. ii-126-76-1)
|22. Item, les justices assignez par nostre seignur le roi, quant par viscontes est retournez qe ascun clerk empeschez devant eux n'ad lai fee en sa baillie, tantost commandent un capias, la ou ils dussent mander un brief a l'evesqe son ordinarie de faire venir son clerk; [col. b] et si ascun clerk beneficez soit condempnez devant eux en ascun somme des deniers par quecunqe cause, les justices commandent de lever la dite somme sanz rien mander a l'evesqe son ordinarie. Par qel commandement les lays ministres entrent le fee de seint esglise et les biens et les chatelx illoeqes trovez parnent et vendent, et les deniers a lour volentes emportent, contre l'estat et privileges de seinte esglise et les layes et usages de la terre, en grant peril de lour almes. (fn. ii-126-78-1)||
[IV. Sheriffs' jurisdiction over clergy.]
22. Also, when sheriffs return that a clerk impeached before them does not have lay fee in his bailiwick, the justices assigned by our lord the king now send a capias, when they should send a writ to the bishop's ordinary to make his clerk appear; [col. b] and if any beneficed clerk is condemned before them in any sum of money for any reason whatsoever, the justices order the said sum to be levied without sending anything to the bishop's ordinary. By which order the lay officers enter the fee of holy Church and take and sell the goods and chattels found there, and carry away the money at their will, contrary to the estate and privileges of holy Church and the laws and customs of the land, to the great peril of their souls. (fn. ii-126-78-1)
|23. Item, qe come touz iceux qe entront manoirs, granges, maisons et autres lieux des ercevesqe, evesqe, religiouses, persones et autres gentz de seinte esglise et lour biens, contre lour volente, ou des gardeyns des ditz biens pernent et importent, et touz iceux qe cestes choses faites en lour noun ou par lour familiers ont ferme et greable, soient escomengez. Les ministres nostre seignur le roi, par colour de lour office, entrent les ditz lieux de seinte esglise et debrussent les hois, serrures, et emportent lour bledz, feyns et leyns et lour autres biens, et ensealent les hois de lour granges et maisons, q'ils ne poent entrer lour maisons de mene, sanz grant empeschement des ditz ministres, contre lour volente, et des gardeyns de icelx, encorant la dite sentence d'escomenge a grant peril de lour almes, et contre la chartre nadgairs sur ce graunte au clergie par le roi. Et estre ce, les ditz ministres destreignent et mettont a serement persones et autres gentz de seinte esglise, et par extorsions des tieux serementz enquerent de eux des choses choses qe sont en les mansions et autres lieux des gentz de seinte esglise, et en esglises: et ce qe en est issint trove par extorsions parnont et font prendre et emporter, encorant la sentence susdite, en grant peril de lour almes. (fn. ii-126-80-1)||
[V. Property of clergy.]
23. Also, whereas all those who enter manors, granges, houses and other places of archbishops, bishops, religious, parish clergy and other people of holy Church and take and carry away their goods against their will or that of the keepers of the said goods, all those who have done these things, in their name or through regular and willing retainers, should be excommunicated. The officers of our lord the king, by colour of their office, enter the said places of holy Church and broke the doors and locks, and carried away their corn, hay, wool and other goods, and sealed the doors of their granges and houses so that they could not enter their own houses without great hindrance from the said officers, against their will and that of the keepers of the same, incurring the said sentence of excommunication, to the great peril of their souls, and contrary to the charter thereon formerly granted to the clergy by the king. And moreover, the said officers distrain and put on oath parish clergy and other people of holy Church, and by extortion of such oaths ask them about the items which are in the houses and other places of the people of holy Church, and in churches; and they seize that which is thus found by extortion and cause it to be taken and carried away, incurring the aforesaid sentence, to the great peril of their souls. (fn. ii-126-80-1)
|24. Item, les ditz justicz acrochent a eux jurisdiccion et conussance, contre la lei de seinte esglise et de la terre, de usures; et les evesqes, arcedeaknes, officialx, deans, sequestrours et autres ministres de seinte esglise empeschent pur grevances, extorssions et oppressions, sicome ils diont, faitz par eux au poeple; c'estassaver, pur deniers pris pur redempcion de penance corparel, pur deniers pris pur proeve et acompt des testamentz et les travailles entour ce mises, et pur deniers donez a solempnite de esposailles, et plusours autres causes, contre l'estat, droit et privilege de seinte esglise, et contre l'estatut sur ce fait et graunte au clergie, a grant peril de lour almes. (fn. ii-126-82-1)||
[VI. Cognisance of secular courts over clergy.]
24. Also, the said justices accroach to themselves jurisdiction and cognisance of usury, contrary to the law of holy Church and the law of the land; and they impeach bishops, archdeacons, officials, deans, sequestrators and other officers of holy Church for grievances, extortions and oppressions, as they say, done by them to the people; that is to say, for money taken for remission from corporal penance, for money taken for the proof and account of wills and the labour expended upon this, for money given for the solemnising of marriages and for many other reasons, contrary to the estate, right and privilege of holy Church, and contrary to the statute made thereon and granted to the clergy, to the great peril of their souls. (fn. ii-126-82-1)
|25. Item, come nadgairs par prelatz, countes, barons et autres grantz de la terre qi sont tenuz venir a parlement fust un eide graunte a nostre seignur le roi en defens de son roialme et de seinte esglise d'Engleterre, c'estassaver la neofisme garbe, la neofisme aignel, et la neofisme toison des berbitz, par deux anz a paier par eux tant soulement et qe pur les deux anz les ditz prelatz serroient deschargez des dismes; les ministres nostre seignur le roi se afforcent, par destresce et autres damages q'ils pont, de lever la dite neofisme des autres gentz de seinte esglise qi ne sont pas tenuz de venir au parlement et la dite neofisme unqes ne granteront, et qi paient lour dismes. Et par colour des commissions faites a coiller la dite neofisme pur le second an, les ditz ministres defendent publiement a totes gentz qe nul ne paie la disme a Dieu et seinte esglise d'aignelx, toisons et garbes, einz qe le roi soit servi de la dite neofisme, a grante oppression de clergie et contre la forme du dit graunte, a grant peril de lour almes. Supplient les ditz ercevesqe et evesqes q'il pleise au dit nostre seignur le roi, par peril de sa alme eschuir et la lei de sa terre come il est tenuz mayntenir, touz et chescuns des ditz grevances repeller, et les errours redrescer.' (fn. ii-126-84-1)||
[VII. Clerical payments towards the ninth.]
25. Also, whereas formerly an aid was granted to our lord the king in defence of his realm and of the holy Church of England by the prelates, earls, barons and other great men of the land who are bound to come to parliament, that is to say, the ninth sheaf, the ninth lamb and the ninth sheep's fleece, for two years to be paid by them only, and that for those two years the said prelates would be discharged from tenths; the officers of our lord the king strive, through distraint and whatever other damages they can, to levy the said ninth from other people of holy Church who are not bound to come to parliament and never granted the said ninth, and who pay their tenths. And by colour of commissions made for collecting the said ninth for the second year, the said officers publicly forbid all people to pay the tithe of lambs, fleeces and sheaves to God and holy Church, but that the king shall be provided with the said ninth, to the great oppression of the clergy, and contrary to the form of the said grant, to the great peril of their souls. The said archbishop and bishops petition that it may please our said lord the king, in order to avoid the peril to his soul and to maintain the law of his land as he is bound, to repeal all and every of the said grievances, and to redress the errors.' (fn. ii-126-84-1)
|26. As queux peticions nostre dit seignur le roi comanda de faire respons; les queux respons ensi faites et [p. ii-130][col. a] mises en escritz feurent reportez devant le roi et devant les ditz prelatz et autres grantz et communes en dit parlement, ensemblement od les peticions de la clergie, le vendredy le unzisme jour de May. Et illoeqes lieues et oies, fust avys as prelatz qe les respons ne feurent pas si pleisantes come reson demanderoit. Par qoi ils prierent d'avoir la copie des dites respons pur avoir ent deliberacion, la quele copi lour fu livere meyntenant. Et eux eue ent deliberacion od ascuns des grantz sur meismes les respons, au drein fu acordez en la manere qe s'ensuit:||26. To which petitions our said lord the king ordered answers to be made; which answers thus made and [p. ii-130][col. a] put in writing were reported before the king and the said prelates and other great men and commons in the said parliament, together with the petitions of the clergy, on Friday, 11 May. And when they had been read and heard there, the prelates were informed that the answers were not as pleasing as reason required. Wherefore they prayed to have a copy of the said answers in order to deliberate thereon, which copy was immediately delivered to them. And when they had deliberated with some of the great men upon the same answers, it was finally agreed in the manner that follows:|
|Respons a la clergie.||Answers to the clergy.|
|27. 'Quant au primer point, (fn. ii-126-89-1) l'entencion le roi n'est pas qe clerks soient pris contre la lei ou en prejudice du privilege de seinte esglise; et si ascun eit este pris par comandement le roi, ce est fait par jouste cause, solonc l'ordenance faite au parlement de Norht'. Et si par cas ascun se voudra pleindre, le roi est prest de faire son devoir.||27. 'As regards the first point, (fn. ii-126-89-1) it is not the king's intention that clerks should be taken contrary to the law or in prejudice to the privilege of holy Church; and if anyone has been taken by the king's command, this was done with just cause, according to the ordinance made at the parliament of Northampton. And if by chance anyone will complain, the king is prepared to do his duty.|
|28. Quant a la seconde point, (fn. ii-126-90-1) la volente le roi est qe la bound et privileges dont la peticion fait mencion soient tenuz en touz pointz. Et semble au roi qe depuis qe les privileges et franchises sont ensealez souz sealx le roi et ses auncestres, ce deit suffir a ore, sanz autre serement faire ou peyne ordeigner en celle partie. Et les prelatz qi ne deivent pas jurer sanz grande et jouste cause ne deivent mye voler qe gentz soient chargez de novel serement, qar trop y ad parjurs en son roialme.||28. As regards the second point, (fn. ii-126-90-1) the king's will is that the Great Charter and the privileges which the petition mentions shall be upheld in all points. And it seems to the king that since the privileges and franchises were sealed under the seal of the king and his ancestors, this should now suffice, without any other oath to be made or penalty to be ordained in this matter. And the prelates, who should not swear an oath without great and just cause, should not wish people to be burdened with a new oath, since there is too much perjury in his realm.|
|29. Quant au tierce point, (fn. ii-126-91-1) le roi entent q'il n'y ad nul pris par son commandement sanz jouste cause, contre la lei et l'assent du parlement de Norht'; (fn. ii-126-91-2) et si nul se voudra pleindre, le roi fra son devoir.||29. As regards the third point, (fn. ii-126-91-1) the king intends that no-one shall be taken by his order without just cause, contrary to the law and the assent of the parliament of Northampton; (fn. ii-126-91-2) and if anyone will complain, the king will do his duty.|
|30. Quant au quart article, (fn. ii-126-92-1) le proces dont ceste peticion fait mencion est avowable par lei de la terre q'ad este usee du temps dont memoire ne court. Et n'est pas l'entencion ne la volente le roi qe ascuns homme lays entre le fee de seinte esglise, contre les franchises et privileges d'y celle.||30. As regards the fourth article, (fn. ii-126-92-1) the process which this petitions mentions is avowable by the law of the land observed since time immemorial. And it is not the king's intention or will that any lay man shall enter the fee of holy Church contrary to the franchises and privileges of the same.|
|31. Quant au quint point, (fn. ii-126-93-1) l'entencion le roi n'est mye qe ses ministres entrent seinte esglise, ne lieux appurtenantz a y celle, de prendre illoeqes biens des persones de seinte esglise mes si lays gentz mettent lour bien en seint esglise, en fraud du roi, et pur defuyr la ley, le roi n'entent mye qe seinte esglise doit tiele fraude meyntenir. Et si auscun ministre eit mespris contre l'estat de seinte esglise et la chartre grantee nadgaires au clergie, soit puny selonc la lei. Et ne voet mye le roi qe clerks soient destreintz a faire serement autre q'ils ne devient de reson.||31. As regards the fifth point, (fn. ii-126-93-1) it is not the king's intention that his officers enter holy Church or the places belonging to the same to take the goods of persons of holy Church, but if lay people put their goods in holy Church, in deceit of the king and to avoid the law, the king does not intend holy Church to maintain such deceit. And if any officer has erred against the estate of holy Church and the charter formerly granted to the clergy, he shall be punished according to the law. And the king does not wish that clerks should be distrained to take an oath other than as they rightly should.|
|32. Quant au sisme point, (fn. ii-126-94-1) il est avis as grantz qe la neofisme et disme grantees au roi soient paiees en manere come ils estoient grauntees; c'estassavoir, qe ceux qe tiegnent du roi par baronie et deyvent venir au parlement par somonse paient la neofisme, et les gentz de seinte esglise qe ne tiegnent rien par baronie, ne ne sont pas acoustumes d'estre somons au parlement, paient la disme. Mais si gentz de religion ou autres de seinte esglise eient possessions purchacez et appropriez, nient taxes entre lour autres temporaltes en le taxe use des disme, est avys par equite qe de ceux temporaltes deyvent paier la neofisme, issint qe pur choses pur queux ils paient le un ne soient artez a paier l'autre. Et sur ce eyent briefs totes foitz q'ils les vorront avoir.||32. As regards the sixth point, (fn. ii-126-94-1) the great men were informed that the ninth and tenth granted to the king shall be paid in the manner it was granted; that is to say, that those who hold of the king by barony and should come to parliament by summons shall pay the ninth, and the people of holy Church who do not hold anything by barony and are not customarily summoned to parliament shall pay the tenth. But if people of religion or others of holy Church have, among their other temporalities, possessions purchased and appropriated but not taxed with the usual tax of the tenth, it is only fair that they should pay the ninth from those temporalities, so that for things for which they pay the one they shall not be forced to pay the other. And they shall always have writs thereon when they wish.|
|33. Item, quant au septisme article, (fn. ii-126-96-1) acorde est qe le roi eit la conissance des usurers mortz, et les ordinaires de usurers vifs. Et ce par cause q'ils ount afaire compulsions as ditz usurers vifs defair restitucion des usures q'ils ount malement pris, come autrement coreccion de lour almes ne put estre fait. Et veult le roi qe ministres de seinte esglise, pur deners pris pur redempcion de penance corporel, pur proeve et acompte de testament ou pur travail sur ce mys, pur solempnite des esposailles, ne pur autres causes touchantes la jurisdiccion de seinte eglise, ne soient empeschez devant les justices le roi, ne ses autres ministres contre l'estat de seinte eglise. Et deyvent sur ce avoir briefs as justices.||33. Also, as regards the seventh article, (fn. ii-126-96-1) it is agreed that the king shall have cognisance of deceased usurers, and the ordinaries of living usurers. And this is because they have to force the said living usurers to make restitution of the usury which they have evilly taken, as otherwise their souls cannot be corrected. And the king wills that officers of holy Church shall not be impeached before the king's justices or his other officers contrary to the estate of holy Church for money taken for remission of corporal penance, for the proof and account of wills or for the labour expended thereon, for the solemnising of marriages or for other reasons touching the jurisdiction of holy Church. And they should have writs thereon from the justices.|
|Item, l'entencion du roi n'est pas qe ministres de seinte esglise, pur deniers pris pur redempcion de penance corporele, pur proeve ou acompt de testament ou pur le travaille entour ce mys, ou pur solempnite des esposailles, ne soient empeschez devant les justicz le roi, ne ses autres ministres, contre le statut sur ce fait et l'estat de seinte esglise.' (fn. ii-126-97-1)||Also, it is not the king's intention that the officers of holy Church shall be impeached before the king's justices or his other officers contrary to the statute made thereon and the estate of holy Church for money taken for remission of corporal penance, for the proof or account of wills or for the labour expended thereon or for the solemnising of marriages.' (fn. ii-126-97-1)|
|Respons as grantz.||The answer to the great men.|
|34. Item, fait aremembrer qe le samady preschein suant fu respondu a la peticion des grantz (fn. ii-126-101-1) en ceste manere:||34. Also, let it be remembered that on the Saturday immediately following the petition of the great men (fn. ii-126-101-1) was answered in this manner:|
|35. 'Item, le roi voet et graunt, pur lui et pur ses heirs, qe si nulle parsone en temps avenir facz chose qe soit contre la bound, estatutz, ou les leyes droitureles, respoigne en parlement, ou ailliours ou il devera respondre, a la commune lei, come desus est dit, auxi avant par la ou il le fait par commandement du roi come de sa autorite demene.' (fn. ii-126-102-1)||35. 'Also, the king wills and grants, for himself and for his heirs, that if any person in times to come does anything contrary to the Great Charter, the statutes or the rightful laws, he shall answer in parliament, or elsewhere where he should answer, at the common law, as is aforesaid, whether he does it by the king's command or of his own authority.' (fn. ii-126-102-1)|
|Respons as communes.||The answers to the commons.|
|36. Item, endroit de la peticion des communes fu respondu en la manere qe s'ensuit:||36. Also, the petition of the commons was answer in the manner that follows:|
|37. 'Quant au primer article, (fn. ii-126-106-1) la volente nostre seignur le roi est qe la bound et autres estatutz faitz soient tenuz en touz pointz; et voet et grant pur lui et pur ses heirs, qe si nulle persone en temps avenir face chose qe soit contre la bound, estatutz ou leies droitureles, respoigne en parlement, ou aillours ou il devera respondre, a la commune lei, come desus est dit, auxi avant par la ou il le fait par commission ou par commandement du roi come s'il le fist de sa autorite de meigne. (fn. ii-126-106-2) Et quant as serementz des ministres, (fn. ii-126-106-3) il plest au roi qe ses ministres soient jurez selonc la forme de la peticion. (fn. ii-126-106-4) Et quant al article qe chescun eit chartre, brief general et especial as tresorer et barouns et as quecunqes justices d'allouer totes les choses contenues dedeinz le temps de pardoun selonc l'effect de l'estatut de pardoun, (fn. ii-126-106-5) le roi le voet; et qe les dettes et demandes en l'escheqer du temps limitez en le dit estatut, soient fait quitz.||37. 'As regards the first article, (fn. ii-126-106-1) our lord the king's will is that the Great Charter and the other statutes made shall be upheld in all points; and he wills and grants, for himself and for his heirs, that if any person in times to come does anything contrary to the Great Charter, the statutes or the lawful laws, he shall answer in parliament, or elsewhere where he should answer, at the common law, as is aforesaid, whether he does it by commission or the king's command or of his own authority. (fn. ii-126-106-2) And as regards the oaths of officers, (fn. ii-126-106-3) it pleases the king that his officers shall be sworn according to the form of the petition. (fn. ii-126-106-4) And as regards the article that each person should have the charters and writs general and special to the treasurer and barons and to any justices whatsoever to allow all the things included during the term of the pardon according to the effect of the statute of pardon, (fn. ii-126-106-5) the king wills it; and that the debts and demands in the exchequer for the term specified in the said statute shall be released.|
|38. Item, quant al seconde article, (fn. ii-126-108-1) c'estassavoir d'acomptes oier de ceux q'ont resceu les leynes le roi et autres eides etc., il plest au roi qe la chose se face par bones gentz a ce adepute, issint qe le tresorer et le chief baron y soient ajointz; et soit fait de ce come autre foitz fust ordeigne, < et > soient esluz les seignurs en ce parlement. Et auxint qe touz roules, remembrances et obligacions faitz de la le meer soient liverez a la chuncellerie.||38. Also, as regards the second article, (fn. ii-126-108-1) that is to say, concerning hearing the accounts of those who have received the king's wool and other aids etc., it pleases the king that the thing be done by good men appointed to this, so long as the treasurer and the chief baron are associated in this; and it shall be done in this matter as was previously ordained, and lords shall be chosen in this parliament. And also that all rolls, remembrances and obligations made overseas shall be delivered to the chancery.|
|39. Item, quant al'acorde faite a Norht' de prendre gentz de male fame et destourbours de la pees, [p. ii-131][col. a] il plest au roi qe, selonc la peticion de la commune, la dite ordinance soit repelle.||39. Also, as regards the accord made at Northampton to arrest people of evil reputation and disturbers of the peace, (fn. ii-126-110-1) [p. ii-131][col. a] it pleases the king that the said ordinance shall be repealed, according to the petition of the commons.|
|40. Quant al article touchant les commissions d'enquer de ministres le roi, (fn. ii-126-112-1) il plest au roi qe les commissions soient examines en sa presence devant les grantz et certeynes persones des communes. Et si rien soit trovez erroigne ou demaudre, soit corrigez et amendez par l'avys de son bon conseil.||40. As regards the article touching the commissions to inquire into the king's officers, (fn. ii-126-112-1) it pleases the king that the commissions shall be examined in his presence before the great men and certain members of the commons. And if anything shall be found to be erroneous or evil, it shall be corrected and amended by the advice of his good council.|
|41. Il plest au roy qe si nul grant officer le roi nomez en la peticion (fn. ii-126-114-1) par mort ou par autre encheson soit oustez de son office, q'il prendra a lui l'acorde des graundz qi serront trovez plus pres en pays, ensemblement ou le bon conseil q'il avera entour lui, et mettra autre covenable en le dit office. Et soient jurez, solonc la peticion, au prochein parlement. Et a chescun parlement soient lour offices pris en la main le roi, et eux arespondre a ceux qe pleindre vorront. Et si pleint soit faite de quecumqe ministre de nulle mesprision, et de ce soit atteint en parlement, soit oustez et punis par juggement des pieres, et autre covenable y mys. Et sur ce le roi ferra pronuncier et faire execucion sanz delai, solonc juggement des pieres en parlement.' (fn. ii-126-114-2)||41. It pleases the king that if any great officer of the king named in the petition (fn. ii-126-114-1) shall be removed from his office by death or for any other reason, he will take to himself the agreement of the great men who will be found nearest in the region, together with the good counsel which he has near him, and put another suitable man in the said office. And these men shall be sworn at the next parliament, according to the petition. And at every parliament their offices shall be taken into the king's hands, and they shall answer those who will complain. And if a complaint is made concerning any officer whatsoever of any crime, and he is attainted in parliament, he shall be removed and punished by the judgment of the peers, and another suitable man put there. And the king will cause this to be pronounced and executed without delay, according to the judgment of the peers in parliament.' (fn. ii-126-114-2)|
|42. Et fait a remembrer qe sur les respons susdites, auxibien a les requestes des grantz come de ceux de la commune et de la clergie, feurent faitz les estatuz souzescritz par les ditz grauntz et communes et monstrez a nostre seignur le roi: ensemblement od ascunes condicions qe les grantz et la commune demanderent du roi, pur le grant q'ils ferroient a lui de .xxx. .m. saks de leyne, en recompensacion de la neofisme garbe, aignel et toison del an second. (fn. ii-126-116-1) Les queux estatutz et condicions puis furent lieues devant le roi. Et le chaunceller, tresorer et ascuns justices de l'un baunk et de l'autre, et le seneschal del houstiel le roi, et le chaumberleyn et ascuns autres feurent jurez sur la croice de Cantirbirs de les tenir et garder si avant come < a eux > attient. Mes les ditz chaunceller, tresorer et ascuns des justices firent lour protestacion q'ils ne assentirent a la fesance ne a la forme des ditz estatutz, ne qe eux ne les purroient garder en cas < qe > meismes les estatuz fussent contraires a les leies et usages du roialme les queux ils feurent serementez de garder. Et puis feurent meismes les estatutz et condicions ensealez du grant seal le roi et liverez as grantz et as chivalers du countee; les queux estatutz et condicions, ensemblement od l'avis des grantz et autres en sur ascuns pointz contenuz en les commissions faites as grantz d'enquer des oppressions, extorsions, grevances et excesses faitz par ministres le roi et autres en divers counteez, sont plus pleynement contenuz au dos de cesti roulle. (fn. ii-126-116-2)||42. And let it be remembered that on the aforesaid answers made to the requests of the great men as well as to those of the commons and of the clergy, the statutes written below were made by the said great men and commons and declared to our lord the king, together with certain conditions which the great men and the commons demanded from the king for the grant of 30,000 sacks of wool which they made to him in compensation for the ninth sheaf, lamb and fleece of the second year. (fn. ii-126-116-1) These statutes and conditions were then read before the king. And the chancellor, the treasurer and some of the justices of both benches, the steward of the king's household, the chamberlain and some others swore on the cross of Canterbury to uphold and observe them as fully as possible. But the said chancellor, the treasurer and some of the justices protested that they did not agree with the composition or form of the said statutes, and that they could not observe them in cases where the same statutes were contrary to the laws and practices of the realm which they were sworn to observe. And then the same statutes and conditions were sealed with the king's great seal and delivered to the great men and to the knights of the shires; which statutes and conditions, together with the advice of the great men and others on certain points contained in the commissions made to the great men to inquire into oppressions, extortions, grievances and excesses made by the king's officers and others in various counties, are more fully contained on the dorse of this roll. (fn. ii-126-116-2)|
|43. Et fait remembrer qe le samady en la veille de Pentecoust feurent acordez et assentuz en dit parlement les choses souz escrites, c'estassaver:||43. And let it be remembered that on the Saturday on the vigil of Pentecost the things written below were agreed and assented in the said parliament, that is to say:|
|44. Primerement, qe les evesqes de Duresme et Sarum, les countes de Norht', Arundell, Warr' et Sarum oient les respons l'ercevesqe des choses qe lui sont surmys par le roi; issint qe si ses dites respons soient covenables, adonqes le roi de sa bone grace lui tendra pur excuse, et en cas q'il semble au roi et a son conseil qe meismes les respons ne sont mye suffissantz, adonqes les ditz respons serront debatuz en preschein parlement, et illoeqes < ent > juggement rendu.||44. First, that the bishops of Durham and Salisbury and the earls of Northampton, Arundel, Warwick and Salisbury should hear the archbishop's answers concerning the things which were put to him by the king; so that if his said answers were reasonable, then the king of his good grace would consider him excused, and if it seemed to the king and his council that the same answers were insufficient, then the said answers would be debated in the next parliament, and there judgment would be returned on the same.|
|45. Item, pur ce qe acorde est qe le roi fra passer les vynt .m. saks de leyne a lui grauntees devant le fest de Seint Michel preschein suant, assentuz est qe nul homme deinz meisme le terme face passer novelles leynes, sur peyne de forfaire le treble de ce qe serra passe et auxint d'estre en la volente le roi de vie et de membre; issint qe ceux qi avoient conge de passer veilles leynes les puissent faire passer, paiant pur la custume .xl. soldz, issint tote foitz qe eux ne soient mellez od noveles leynes, sur peyne et peril avanditz.||
[Embargo on wool exports.]
45. Also, because it was agreed that the king would export the 20,000 sacks of wool granted to him before the feast of Michaelmas immediately following, it was agreed that no man during the same term would export new wool, on penalty of forfeiting treble what he would export, and also on penalty of being at the king's will concerning life and limb; on condition that those who had licence to export old wool might export it, paying 40s. for the custom, always provided that the said old wool was not mixed with new wool, on the aforesaid penalty and peril.
|46. Item, endroit de les religious aliens qi nadgaires avoient restitucion de lour temporaltez par assent du parlement, acordez est qe durant la guerre par entre le roi et ceux < de France > qe le roi les puisse charger de novel; issint tote foitz qe le roi eit regard as eides queux < ils lui > ont faitz par cause de la dite restituion, et as charges queux < il lour > covient faire pur meyntenance de seinte esglise et lour estat.||
46. Also, as regards the alien religious who formerly had restitution of their temporalities by the assent of the parliament, it is agreed that during the war between the king and those of France the king can charge them anew; so always that the king shall have regard for the aids which they have made to him as a result of the said restitution, and for the charges which they must make for the maintenance of holy Church and their estate.
|47. Item, assentuz est qe l'evesqe de Cestre, le seignur de Wake et Monsir Robert de Sadyngton, par informacion des gentz qe ont conussance des countees, facent apporcioner les leynes grantees a nostre seignur le roi en chescun countee, selonc l'afferant de la quinzisme nadgaires faite en chescun countee.||
[Assessments for the tax payable in wool.]
47. Also, it is agreed that the bishop of Chester, Lord Wake and Sir Robert Sadington, by the information of people who have knowledge of the counties, shall cause the wool granted to our lord the king to be assessed in each county, according to the rate of the fifteenth formerly made in each county.
|Les queux evesqe de Cestre, seignur de Wake, ensemblement od autres, apporcionerent les leynes en la manere qe s'ensuit:||The bishop of Chester and Lord Wake, together with others, assessed the wool in the manner that follows:|
|48. 'Summe particulares lanarum levandarum hoc anno .xv. o in comitatibus subscriptis, in partem satisfaccionis .xxx. milium saccorum lane regi in parliamento suo apud Westm', in quindena Pasche eodem anno, concessorum; per apporcionacionem inde factam juxta sortem lanarum et ratam quintedecime triennalis in eisdem comitatibus colligende de civibus, burgensibus, hominibus dominicorum regis et communitatibus regni, et de archiepiscopis, episcopis, religiosis par baroniam tenentibus, comitibus et baronibus in eisdem comitatibus bona habentibus, juxta formam concessionis predicte:||48. 'Particulars of the amount of wool levied this fifteenth year in the counties written below, in part satisfaction of the 30,000 sacks of wool granted to the king in his parliament at Westminster on the quinzaine of Easter this year; by assessment made thereon according to the sort of wool and the rate of the triennial fifteenth collected in the same counties from citizens, burgesses, men of the royal demesne and the commonalty of the realm, and from archbishops, bishops and religious who hold by barony, and from earls and barons having goods in the same counties, according to the form of the aforesaid grant:|
|Et liverent celles parcelles en la chauncellerie, par roulles endentez de troiz peces a la manere d'une cyrograffe; et sur ce feurent commissions faites et enroullees en la chauncellerie de coillier et lever les leynes, selonc ce qe plus pleynement poet apparer par meismes les roulles de la chauncellerie.||And they delivered these parcels into the chancery, by indented rolls in three pieces in the manner of a chirograph; and commissions thereon were made and enrolled in the chancery to collect and levy the wool, as more fully appears in the same rolls of the chancery.|
|49. Et fait aremembrer qe totes les choses touchantes l'aresnement l'ercevesqe de Cantirbirs demurent devers Sire William de Kyldesby, gardeyn du prive seal nostre seignur le roi.||49. And let it be remembered that all the things touching the arraignment of the archbishop of Canterbury shall remain with Sir William Kilsby, keeper of our lord the king's privy seal.|
|[memb. 5, dorse]|
|50. Nostre seignur le Roi Edward tierce apres le conquest, a son parlement tenuz a Westm' ala quinzeyne de Pasche l'an de son regne quinzisme, desirant qe la pees de la terre et les leies et les estatutz avant ces heures ordeignes soient < gardez > et maintenuz en touz pointz, al honur de Dieu et de seinte esglise et al commune profit du poeple, par assent des prelatz, countes < et barons > et autres grauntz et tote la commune du roialme d'Engleterre au dit parlement somons, ordeigna et establist en mesme le parlement les articles souz escriptz, les queux il voet et graunt pur lui et pur ses heirs q'ils soient fermement gardez et tenuz a touz < jours > : (fn. ii-126-135-1)||
[Recitation of statute.]
50. Our lord King Edward the third since the conquest, at his parliament held at Westminster on the quinzaine of Easter in the fifteenth year of his reign, desiring that the peace of the land and the laws and statutes ordained before this time be observed and maintained in all points, to the honour of God and holy Church and to the common profit of the people, by the assent of the prelates, earls, barons and other great men and all the commons of the realm of England summoned to the said parliament, has ordained and established in the same parliament the articles written below, which he wills and grants for himself and for his heirs, shall be firmly observed and upheld forever: (fn. ii-126-135-1)
|En primes, est acorde et assentu qe la franchise de seinte esglise, et la bound, et la chartre de la foreste, et les autres estatutz faitz par nostre dit seignur le roi et ses progenitours, piers et la commune de la terre, pur commune profit du poeple, soient fermement gardez et mayntenuz en touz pointz. Et si rien desore soit fait contre la bound et la chartre de la foreste, soit declarez en prochein parlement et par les piers de la terre duement redrescez. Et si nul de quele condicion q'il soit riens face al'encountre, estoise au juggement des piers en prochein parlement. Et issint de parlement en parlement, auxi bien des franchises usees come d'ycelles qe serront ore grantees. Et qe les franchises grantees par nostre seignur le roi ou ses progenitours a seinte esglise, as piers de la terre, ala citee de Loundres et as autres citees et burghs, et as ceux de Cynk Portz et ala commune de la terre, et totes lour franchises et franches custumes soient mayntenuz en touz pointz, sanz rien faire al'encountre. Et qe briefs demandes d'avoir allouance des chartres, franchises et custumes et chartres de pardouns des dettes et des totes autres choses grantees par le roi et par ses progenitours avant ces heurs soient franchement grantees, sanz destourbance devant quecunqe justices ou autres ministres [col. b] ou il bosoigne d'avoir allouance; et soient faitz quitz en l'escheqier et aillours. (fn. ii-126-137-1)||First, it is agreed and assented that the franchise of holy Church, the Great Charter, the Charter of the Forest and the other statutes made by our said lord the king and his progenitors, the peers and the commons of the land, for the common profit of the people, shall be firmly observed and maintained in all points. And if anything is done contrary to the Great Charter and the Charter of the Forest henceforth, it shall be declared at the next parliament and duly redressed by the peers of the land. And if anyone, of whatever condition he may be, does anything to the contrary, he shall abide the judgment of the peers in the next parliament. And so from one parliament to another, concerning customary franchises as well as those which will be granted. And that the franchises granted by our lord the king or his progenitors to holy Church, to the peers of the land, to the city of London and to other cities and boroughs, to those of the Cinque Ports and to the commonalty of the land, and all their franchises and free customs shall be maintained in all points, without anything to be done to the contrary. And that writs requested for having allowance of charters, franchises and customs and charters of pardons of debts and of all other things granted by the king and by his progenitors before this time shall be granted freely, without disturbance before any justice of other officer whatsoever [col. b] when it is necessary to have allowance; and they shall be released in the exchequer and elsewhere. (fn. ii-126-137-1)|
|51. Item, pur ce qe avant ces heurs piers de la terre ount este arestuz et emprisonez, et lour temporaltez, terres et tenementz, biens et chateux, seisiz en mayns des rois, et ascuns mys a la mort, sanz juggement de lour piers, acordez est et assentuz qe nul pier de la terre, officer ou autre, par cause de son office ne des choses touchantes son office ne par autre cause, soit mesnez en juggement a perde de lour temporaltez, terres, tenementz, biens ne chatelx, n'estre arestuz, n'emprisonez, outlagez, exulez ne forsjuggez, ne respondre, n'estre juggez, si noun paragard des ditz piers en parlement; salvees totefoitz a nostre seignur le roi et a ses heirs en autre cas les leies dreiturelment usees, et par due processe, et salve auxint < la > suite des parties. Et si par cas nulle piere de son gree voile aillours respoundre ou estre juggez forsqe en parlement, qe ce la ne tourne en prejudice des autres piers, ne a lui mesmes en autre cas, forspris si nul des piers soit viscont, ou fermer de fee, ou ad este officer, ou eit resceu deniers ou autres chatelx le roi, par cause de quel office ou receit il est tenuz d'acompter, qe mesme celui acompt par lui ou son attourne es lieux acoustumez, issint qe les pardons einz ces heurs faitez en parlement se tignent en lour force. (fn. ii-126-139-1)||51. Also, because before this time peers of the land have been arrested and imprisoned, and their temporalities, lands and tenements, good and chattels, seized into the hands of kings, and some have been put to death, without the judgment of their peers, it is agreed and assented that no peer of the land, minister or other, by reason of his office in matters concerning his office or for any other reason, shall be brought to judgment for the loss of their temporalities, lands, tenements, goods or chattels, or shall be arrested or imprisoned, outlawed, exiled or condemned, or shall answer or be judged except by the decision of the said peers in parliament; saving always to our lord the king and to his heirs the laws rightfully observed by due process in other cases, and also saving the suit of the parties. And if by chance any peer, of his freewill, will answer or be judged elsewhere than in parliament, this shall not turn in prejudice to other peers or to himself in other cases, with the exception that if any of the peers is a sheriff or fee-farmer, or has been an officer, or has received money or other of the king's chattels, by reason of which office or receipt he is bound to make account, the same account shall be made by him or his attorney in the accustomed places, provided that the pardons made in parliament before this time be upheld in their force. (fn. ii-126-139-1)|
|52. Item, pur ce qe les pointz de la bound sont blemiz en moltz maneres, et meyns bien tenuz q'estre ne dussent, a grant peril et esclandre du roi et damage de son poeple, especialment en tant qe clerks, piers de la terre et autres franks hommes sont arestuz et emprisonez, et de lour biens et chatelx oustez, quels ne feurent appellez n'enditez ne suite de partie devers eux affermee, acorde est et assentuz qe desore tieles choses ne soient faites; et si nul le face, ministre le roi ou autre persone de quele condicion q'il soit, ou veigne contre nul point de la bound, autres estatutz ou les leies de la terre, respoigne en parlement, auxibien a la suite le roi come ala suite de partie, la ou remedie ne punissement ne fust ordeignez avant ces heurs, tant avant ou il le fait par commission ou commandement du roi come de sa autorite de mene; nient contrestant l'ordinance avant ces heures faite a Norhampton, la quele par assent du roi, prelatz, countes et barons et la commune de la terre cy en ce parlement est repellee et de tut anientee. Et qe les chaunceller, tresorer, barons et chaunceller de l'escheqier, justices del un bank et del autre, justices assignez en pais, seneschal et chaumberleyn del hostel le roi, gardeyn du prive seal, tresorer de la garderobe, contrerollour et ceux qi sont chiefs deputez < a demurer > pres du fitz le roi duk de Cornewaille, soient ore jurez en ce parlement, et issint desore a totes les foitz q'ils serront mys en office, de garder et meyntener les priveleges et fraunchises de seinte esglise, les pointz de la bound, chartre de la foreste et touz autres estatutz sanz nul point enfreindre. (fn. ii-126-141-1)||52. Also, because the points of the Great Charter are damaged in many ways and not upheld as well as they should be, to the great peril and slander of the king and the damage of his people, especially in such that clerks, peers of the land and other free men are arrested and imprisoned, and their goods and chattels taken, who had not been accused, or indicted or had the suit of the party asserted against them, it is agreed and assented that henceforth such thing shall not be done; and if anyone does such a thing, king's minister or other person of whatever condition he may be, or goes against any point of the Great Charter, other statutes or the laws of the land, he shall answer in parliament at the suit of the king as well as at the suit of the party, where neither remedy or punishment was ordained before this time, whether he did it by commission or command of the king or of his own authority; notwithstanding the ordinance made at Northampton before this time which, by assent of the king, prelates, earls and barons and the commons of the land, was repealed and completely annulled in this parliament. And that the chancellor, the treasurer, the barons and chancellor of the exchequer, the justices of both benches, the justices assigned in the country, the steward and the chamberlain of the king's household, the keeper of the privy seal, the treasurer of the wardrobe, the controller and those who are principally appointed to remain with the king's son, the duke of Cornwall, shall now be sworn in this parliament, and thus henceforth whenever they are put in office, to observe and maintain the privileges and franchises of holy Church, the points of the Great Charter, the Charter of the Forest and all other statutes, without violating any point. (fn. ii-126-141-1)|
|53. Item, assentuz est qe si null des officers avantditz, ou contrerollour ou chief clerk en commune bank ou en bank le roi, par mort ou par autre cause soit oustez de son office, qe nostre seignur le roi, par acorde des grantz qi serront trovez plus pres en pays les queux il prendra devers lui, et par le bon conseil q'il avera entour lui, mettra autre covenable en le dit office, qi serra jure selonc la forme avantdite. Et qe a chescun parlement, al tierce jour de meisme le parlement, le roi prendra en sa mayn les offices des touz les ministres avantdit, et issint demoergent quatre ou cynk jour, forspris les offices des justices del une place et del autre, justices assignez et barons [p. ii-133][col. a] de l'escheqier, issint tote foitz qe ceux et touz autres ministres soient mys a respondre a chescuny pleinte. Et si defaut soit trove en ascun des ditz ministres par pleinte ou en autre manere, et de ce soit atteint en parlement, soit puny par juggement des piers et oustez, et autre covenable mys en son lieu. Et sur ce nostre seignur le roi ferra pronuncier et faire execucion sanz delay, solonc le juggement des ditz piers en parlement.||53. Also, it is agreed that if any of the aforesaid officers, or the controller or chief clerk in the common bench or in the king's bench, shall be removed from his office by death or by other cause, our lord the king, by the accord of the great men who will be found nearest in the region and whom he will take to him, and by the good counsel which he will have near him, will put another suitable man in the said office, who will be sworn according to the aforesaid form. And that at every parliament, on the third day of the same parliament, the king shall take into his hands the offices of all the aforesaid ministers, and they shall remain like that for four or five days, except for the offices of the justices of both benches, the assigned justices and the barons [p. ii-133][col. a] of the exchequer, so always that these and all other officers shall be put to answer to every complaint. And if fault is found in any of the said officers by complaint or in other manner, and he is attainted of this in parliament, he shall be punished by the judgment of the peers and removed from office, and another suitable man shall be put in his place. And our lord the king will have this pronounced and executed without delay, according to the judgement of the said peers in parliament. (fn. ii-126-143-1)|
|54. Item, acordez et assentuz est qe le roi et ses heirs eient la conussance des usurers mortz, et qe les ordinairs de seinte esglise eient la conussance des usurers vifs, desicom a eux attient faire compulsion par sensures de seinte esglise pur le pecche de faire restitucion des usures prises contre la lei de seinte esglise. (fn. ii-126-145-1) Item, acordez est qe les ministres de seint esglise pur diverses prises pur redempcion de penance corporele, ne pur proeve et acompt des testamentz ou pur travaille entour ce mys, ne pur solempnite des esposails, ne pur autre cause tochante la jurisdiccion de seinte esglise, ne soient empeschez ne arestuz, ne chacez a respondre devant les justices le roi ne ses autres ministres. Et sur ce eient les ministres de seinte esglise briefs en la chauncellerie a les justices et autres ministres totes les foitz q'ils les demanderont. (fn. ii-126-145-2)||54. Also, it was agreed and assented that the king and his heirs shall have cognisance of deceased usurers, and that the ordinaries of holy Church shall have the cognisance of living usurers, seeing that it belongs to them to force them, by censures of holy Church, to make restitution for the sin of usury taken contrary to the law of holy Church. (fn. ii-126-145-1) Also, it is agreed that the officers of holy Church, for various charges, for the redemption of corporal penance, for the proof and account of wills or for the labour expended thereon, for the solemnising of marriages or for other reasons touching the jurisdiction of holy Church, shall not be impeached or arrested or forced to answer before the king's justices or his other officers. And the officers of holy Church shall have writs thereon in the chancery from the justices and other officers whenever they request them. (fn. ii-126-145-2)|
|Explicit statutum; incipiunt condiciones.||Here ends the statute; here begin the conditions.|
|55. Fait aremembrer qe les condicions qe les grantz et la commune demandent pur le grant q'ils ferront a nostre seignur le roi pur le neofisme aignel, toison et garbe, del an second. (fn. ii-126-149-1) Primes, ce q'est coilly et leve de les .xx. .m. saks de leyne autrefoitz grantez a nostre seignur le roi en maner d'avoir recompensacion de y cele de la noefisme del an secounde soit recoupe et allowe es countees ou les leines sont levees, et les persones paiez et les commissions de .xx. .m. sacks repellees. (fn. ii-126-149-2)||55. Let it be remembered that the great men and commons demanded conditions for the grant which they made to our lord the king for the ninth lamb, fleece and sheaf of the second year. (fn. ii-126-149-1) First, what is collected and levied of the 20,000 sacks of wool previously granted to our lord the king, in the manner of having compensation of the same of the ninth of the second year, shall be deducted and allowed to the counties where the wool was levied, and the people paid and the commissions of 20,000 sacks repealed. (fn. ii-126-149-2)|
|56. Item, qe les toisons et aignelx de cest seconde an levez soient acomptez devant ceux qi serront deputez a les dites leynes coiller, qi soient bones gentz et loialx du pays. Et qe la value des ditz aignelx et toisons levez soit recoupe, et allowe en le nombre des saks ore granteez. Et qe le remenant de trois choses acoiller de cest seconde an ne soit riens leve einz detut relexez; et sur ce soient lettres patentes souz le graunt seal liverees as chivalers des counteez sanz rien paier. (fn. ii-126-151-1)||56. Also, the fleeces and lambs levied for this second year shall be accounted before those who will be appointed to collect the said wool, who shall be good and lawful people of the region. And that the value of the said lambs and fleeces levied shall be deducted and allowed in the number of sacks now granted. And that the remainder of the three things to be collected for this second year shall not be levied but completely released; and letters patent thereon under the great seal shall be delivered to the knights of the shires without anything to be paid. (fn. ii-126-151-1)|
|57. Item, qe les leynes en chescun countee soient coilliees par bones gentz du pays, et soient liverees as resceivours le roi par saks es counteez ou ils serront coilliees, selonc le poys ordeigne par estatut; c'estassavoir, .xiiij. livres pur la piere, et .xxvi. pieres pur le sak, sans autre encresce. Et qe nul ne soit chargiez de rendre sur ce acompt au roi, mes soulement les resceivours le roi. Et qe en chescun pays soient assignez deux grantz bones gentz d'oier et terminer les pleyntes de ceux qi se vodront pleindre des ditz coillours et resceivours; et ce as jours et lieux des counteez. (fn. ii-126-153-1)||57. Also, the wool in each county shall be collected by good men of the region and delivered to the king's receivers by sacks in the counties where they are collected, according to the weight ordained by the statute; that is to say, 14 pounds in the stone, and 26 stone in the sack, without other increase. And that no-one shall be charged to render account to the king for the same, except only the king's receivers. And that in each county two great and good men shall be assigned to hear and determine the complaints of those who will complain about the said collectors and receivers; and this at the days and places of the counties. (fn. ii-126-153-1)|
|58. Item, qe prelatz, countes et barons, chivalers et autres grantz de chescun pays queux serront tenuz de paier la neofisme solonc le grant sur ce fait soient apporcionez solonc lour afferaunt a la charge graunte des dites leynes. Et en cas qe ascuns des prelatz ou grantz avanditz ou autre ne voille paier selonc [col. b] ce q'il serra apporcione, soient les nouns des tieux et lour porcion liverez as ditz resceivours, et par eux a la chauncellerie, et tant soit allowe al counte; et celui qi serra trove desobeisant soit destreint de paier le treble de la porcion a quel il fu mys.||58. Also, that the prelates, earls and barons, knights and other great men of each region who are bound to pay the ninth according to the grant made thereon shall be assessed according to their rate to the charge granted on the said wool. And if any of the prelates or aforesaid great men or other will not pay according [col. b] as he is assessed, the names of such men and their portions shall be delivered to the said receivers, and by them to the chancery, and so much shall be allowed to the county; and he who is found to be disobedient shall be distrained to pay treble the portion which he was set. (fn. ii-126-155-1)|
|59. Item, qe nul qi q'il soit, marchand ne autre, achate ne amesne leynes hors de la terre entre cy et la Seint Michel preschein avenir, en eide qe le roi soit servi de ce qe lui est graunte. Et qe apres la dite fest de Seint Michel, chescun du roialme, marchand et autre, franchement puis vendre et achatre, et passer la meer ovesqe lour marchandises des leynes, et des totes autres choses, paiantz les custumes auncienement usees, selonc les estatutz einz ces heures faitz al darrein parlement tenuz a Westm' a my quarresme. (fn. ii-126-157-1) Et ceux q'ont leynes soient tenuz de les vendre selonc le sort et pris du pays, pur acomplier les leynes grauntees au roi. Et ceux qi serront coillours des dites leynes soient gentz suffisant des meismes les counteez, esluz ore en parlement, et q'ils ne soient changez par nul mandement. (fn. ii-126-157-2)||59. Also, no-one whoever he may be, merchant or other, should buy or export wool out of the land between now and Michaelmas next coming, to the intent that the king be provided with what was granted to him. And that after the said feast of Michaelmas, every person of the realm, merchant and other, may freely sell and buy and travel overseas with their merchandise of wool, and of all other things, paying the customs anciently observed, according to the statutes made before this time at the last parliament held at Westminster at mid-Lent [March 1340]. (fn. ii-126-157-1) And those who have wool shall be bound to sell it according to the quality and price of the region, in order to make up the amount of wool granted to the king. And those who will be collectors of the said wool shall be sufficient people of the same counties, chosen now in parliament, and they shall not be changed by any order. (fn. ii-126-157-2)|
|[memb. 2, dorse]|
|60. Item, qe le or la roine ne courge en demande par reson de cel graunt. Et qe citees et burghs et touz les religious qi tiegnent par baronie et sont tenuz de venir au parlement, et ceux qi ont chatelx sanz gaignerie, soient chargez en ceste contribucion od la commune. Et qe celui qi serra trove coupable de passage, soit a la forfaiture de la double value des leynes. Et qe les pernours puissent prendre les leynes quele parte q'ils soient trovees hors de seintuarie, selonc le sort et le pris de Norhampton [sic: read 'Notyngham'] . (fn. ii-126-159-1) Quant a ce qe est derere de la neofisme del an passez, le roi fra assigner ascuns des soens, ove bones gentz des counteez, de prendre informacions par totes les voies q'ils saveront ou purront de la verroie value des neofismes en chescune paroche; et selonc cestes informacions soient les neofismes levees. (fn. ii-126-159-2)||60. Also, Queen's gold shall not be demanded because of this grant. And the cities and boroughs and all the religious who hold by barony and are bound to come to parliament, and those who have chattels without arable land, shall be charged with the commonalty in this contribution. And he who will be found guilty of export shall forfeit double the value of his wool. And the takers might take any part of the wool which they shall find out of sanctuary, according to the quality and the price of Northampton [sic: read 'Nottingham'] . (fn. ii-126-159-1) As regards that which is in arrears from the ninth of the past year, the king will assign some of his men, with good people of the counties, to get information in every way possible of the true value of ninths in each parish; and the ninths shall be levied according to this information. (fn. ii-126-159-2)|
|61. Item, qe les peticions par les grantz et la commune monstrez soient affermees, selonc ce q'ils sont grauntees par le roi; c'estassavoir, les pointz adurer par estatut, et les autres par chartre ou patent, et liverez as chivalers des counteez sanz rien paier. Et qe pleise a nostre seignur le roi de parfournir la grace quele il ad promys as grauntz, endroit des attachez et emprisonez ore en cel parlement. Et ceux qi ont fait fyns, estoisent a lour fyns, ou a la comune lei a lour chois. (fn. ii-126-161-1)||61. Also, the petitions declared by the great men and commons shall be affirmed, according as they were granted by the king; that is to say, the points to last by statute, and the others by charter or patent, and delivered to the knights of the shires without anything to be paid. And may it please our lord the king to perform the grace which he promised to the great men as regards those attached and imprisoned now in this parliament. And those who have made fines shall remain at their fines or at the common law at their choice. (fn. ii-126-161-1)|
|Explicit condiciones; incipiunt commissiones etc.||Here end the conditions; here begin the commissions etc.|
|62. Il semble as grantz et as communes, s'il plest au roi, qe les justices assignez en les grandes commissions sursesent desore a totes les choses continues es meismes les commissions, forspris les choses touchantes ses ministres et ceux q'ont mesnez leynes ou autres marchandises outre meer nient cokettees, sanz coustume et contre la defens du roi. Et qe de proces comencez devant eux il facent outre lei et reson, sanz plus comencer ou enquer de novel.||62. It seems to the great men and the commons, if it please the king, that the justices assigned in the great commissions henceforth should cease from all the things contained in the same commissions, except the things touching his officers and those who have taken wool or other merchandise overseas uncocketted, without custom and against the king's prohibition. And processes already begun before them should be completed within law and reason, without more being begun or inquired into anew.|
|63. Item, qe touz ceux sur queux les fyns sont mys devant les justices assignez es dites commissions, et qi ne feurent mye present quant les fyns feurent faites, et ne voillent acorder de paier la porcion qe a eux attient par reson des tiels fyns, soient deschargez des meismes les fyns, et estoisent a la commune lei devant meismes justices, ou aillours ou ils deveront respondre par reson.||63. Also, all those on whom fines were set before the justices assigned to the said commissions, who were not present when the fines were made, and who will not agree to pay the portion which belongs to them as a result of such fines, shall be discharged of the same fines, and shall remain at the common law before the same justices, or elsewhere where they should rightly answer.|
|64. Item, qe meismes les fyns qe sont faitz par comunes des ministres en gros, ne soient mys sur nule singuliere persone selonc la quantite de ce q'il ad, einz selonc la quantite du trespas par lui fait.||64. Also, the same fines which were made by the commonalty to the officers generally shall not be set on any individual person according to the amount that he has, but according to the seriousness of the trespass committed by him.|
|65. Item, qe des exigendz qe sont issuez ou a isser pur chose qe ne touche felonie ne trespas fait contre la pees, soient faitz briefs de surseer tanqe au preschein parlement, generalx et especialx, pur chescun qi les vourra suir. (fn. ii-126-171-1)||65. Also, concerning exigent which was issued or will be issued for anything which does not concern felony or trespass committed against the peace, general and special writs shall be made to surcease until the next parliament for each person who will sue. (fn. ii-126-171-1)|
|66. Item, qe par la ou les justices ont comandez de faire venir touz les Fraunks des counteez ou lour sessions sont, et ont este, et mettent en issuz auxibien ceux qi ne sont pas reseantz en pays, malades sanz fraude, come ceux qi sont reseantz, qe ce est errour et qe les justices le devient redrescer; et qe en cas qe les [col. b] visconts, par malice ou de lour autorite de meene, retournent les nouns de ceux en panel qi ne sont pas reseantz, et malades, qe les justices enquergent de eux, et ceux qi serront trovez coupables, a suite de partie facent punir selonc ce qe reson demand.||66. Also, whereas the justices were ordered to cause all the freemen of the counties where their sessions are and have been to appear and submit for decision those who are not resident in the area and those who are ill without deceit, as well as those who are resident, this is wrong and the justices should redress it; and if the [col. b] sheriffs, by malice or of their own authority, return in a panel the names of those who are not resident and of those who are ill, the justices shall inquire into them, and those who are found guilty shall be punished at the suit of the party as reason requires.|
|67. Item, qe par la ou les gentz sont enditez des extorsions, excesses ou autre trespas, et ne poent avoir lour acquitances si ce ne soit qe ascuns de lour enditours soient sur les enquestes; qe bon serroit qe si nul ensi enditez vourra chalenger nul de ses enditours sur la prise des enquestes de lour deliverance, qe cest chalenge soit allowez entre cy et le preschein parlement. Et qe nul de tieux enditours soient sur les enquestes contre la volente de ceux qi sont ensi enditez, ou a enditer, en le mene temps, et qe adoncs soit ordeigne certeyne lei de ce qe soit a faire en cel cas.||67. Also, whereas people were indicted of extortions, excesses or other trespass, and could not have their acquittals if some of their indictors were on the inquests; it would be a good thing that if anyone thus indicted would challenge one of his indictors on the taking of inquests of their deliverance, this challenge should be allowed between then and the next parliament. And that no such indictors shall be on the inquests against the will of those who are thus indicted in the meantime, and then a certain law shall be ordained as to what should be done in this case.|
Appendix April 1341
Petition of the commonalty of the land of England concerning doubts arising over the intention and effect of the statute de donis (13 Edw I, Statute of Westminster II, c. 1 [ SR , I.71-2]). This may date to the parliaments of either 1341 or 1343.
Source : SC 8/321/E496, printed in full in SCCKB , III.cxx.
Petition (not extant) of the men of the vill of Westminster, resulting in a chancery instrument dated 22 May 1341 and warranted 'by petition of council'.
Source : CCR 1341-3 , 89
Petition (not extant) of John de Ampleford, resulting in a chancery instrument dated 22 May 1341 and warranted 'by petition of council'.
Source : CCR 1341-3 , 89-90.
Petition (not extant) of the barons of the Cinque Ports resulting in a chancery instrument dated 26 May 1341 and warranted 'by the king and the whole council in parliament'.
Source : CCR 1341-3 , 97.
Petition (not extant) of the abbot of St Evroult resulting in a chancery instrument dated 28 June 1341 and warranted 'by petition of council'.
Source : CCR 1341-3 , 169.
Petition (not extant) of the merchants of the Society of the Peruzzi, resulting in a chancery instrument dated 18 June 1341 and warranted 'by petition of council'.
Source : CCR 1341-3 , 182.
Petition (not extant) of William de Keu resulting in a chancery instrument dated 28 July 1341 and warranted 'by petition of council'.
Source : CCR 1341-3 , 252.
Petition (not extant) of the men of the Channel Islands, resulting in a royal confirmation of the privileges of the islands dated 10 July 1341 and warranted 'by petition of council in parliament'.
Source : CPR 1340-3 , 237.
Large number of chancery instruments dated variously at Westminster, the Tower of London, King's Langley and Havering between 15 May and 4 September 1341 in response to petitions from numerous individuals and collectives among the of the king's subjects in Aquitaine, variously warranted 'by king in parliament' (in one case), 'by king and (full) council in (the last) parliament', 'by council in parliament', 'by petition of council in parliament', 'by petition of council in parliament and by write of privy seal' and 'by petition of council in parliament and by testimony of the Sire d'Albret'.
Sources : C 61/53, m. 33-m. 5 (passim), m. 23d; see also CPR 1340-3 , 261.