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Edward III: April 1343

Parliament Rolls of Medieval England. Originally published by Boydell, Woodbridge, 2005.

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1343 April

Introduction 1343

Westminster

28 April - 20 May

(C 65/10. RP , II.135-145. SR , I.299)

The parliament of 1343 is recorded in C 65/10, a roll of 4 membranes, each approximately 325 mm. in width, sewn together in chancery style and/or glued. The condition of the roll is good, although large sections have been stained by gallic acid at the top of membrane 1 and on the dorse of membranes 2, 3 and 4. The text, written in a small, clear chancery script, occupies the recto of all membranes and the bottom halves of the dorse of membranes 2 and 3 and the entire dorse of membrane 4. There is also a contemporary heading on the foot of the dorse of membrane 4, 'Rotulus parliamenti de anno regni regis E tercii decimo septimo', and later notes, 'Parl' anno 17 E3', where the membranes are joined. Marginal headings are contemporary. Arabic numerals throughout the roll are later, but the Roman numerals alongside the petitions of the commons are contemporary. The roll does not appear to be incomplete. It is to be associated with Thomas Drayton, clerk of the parliament (item 1), who fulfilled this role regularly in the period 1340-6. (fn. f1343int-1)

Parliament was summoned by writs dated 24 February, to convene at Westminster on 28 April 1343. (fn. f1343int-2) No business was done on the first day because of the non-arrival of many of the lords and commons (item 2), and the second day's business involved only the appointment of receivers and triers of private petitions (including, as in 1340, petitions from Flanders) (items 4, 5). The primary cause of summons, propounded on the first day of substantive business (30 April) and taking up the early stages of proceedings, was diplomatic business. (fn. f1343int-3) Since 1341 Edward III had involved himself in the succession dispute between John de Montfort (the Plantagenet nominee) and Charles of Blois (the Valois candidate) for the title of duke of Brittany. In October 1342 Edward had left England to campaign in Brittany and had found some success there, occupying parts of the duchy and preparing for a pitched battle with the forces of Philip VI. That battle never materialised, because on 19 January 1343 the two sides agreed, at Malestroit, to a truce effective from that date to 29 September 1346. From the point of view of the papal representatives who negotiated the truce, it was a prelude to a final settlement between Edward III and Philip VI. Plans were set in place for peace talks to be held at Avignon under the presidency of the recently installed pope, Clement VI. Although these talks were in the event much delayed and did not open until October 1344, Edward evidently regarded it as appropriate to consult parliament without further delay on the peace terms that might be acceptable to his subjects in England.

After the chancellor, Sir Robert Parving, had made a brief introductory speech, he deferred to Sir Bartholomew Burghersh to present a statement of the military and diplomatic situation (items 7, 8). Burghersh may have been chosen not merely for his general experience of the war but because of his particular associations with the royal household, in which he was knight banneret: it was in his capacity as the king's chamberlain that he later acted as the royal mouthpiece in parliamentary discussions of war and peace. (fn. f1343int-4) What makes the written report of Burghersh's speech interesting is not the light it sheds on the intended English position within the peace talks (indeed, the report on the parliament roll presents the issues in only the most general manner), but the stress that it places upon parliamentary sanction for the war, and thus for any treaty that might end it. In declaring that the king had undertaken the war in France 'by the assent of the prelates, great men and commons of his realm of England', Burghersh was referring back to the assembly of September 1337 (a parliament - or possibly a great council - for which, unfortunately, no roll is extant) in which Edward III had explicitly sought sanction (and the resulting subsidies) for his then new enterprise in France. In doing this, the king had conformed to a constitutional norm, enshrined among other places in the Ordinances of 1311, that war was a national enterprise and ought not to be embarked upon without general consent. (fn. f1343int-5)

The corollary to which Burghersh now drew attention - that because the war had been undertaken 'by the common assent of the said prelates, great men and commons, the king would not make a treaty of peace or accept peace without their consent' - may be read in a number of ways. Possibly it represented a straightforward desire and necessity on the part of the crown to involve and implicate the community of the realm in the making of peace: given the differences of opinion about the 'right' course of diplomatic action that were to emerge in the domestic polity both after the military victories of 1346-7 and after the treaty of Brétigny of 1360, it clearly made sense to consult widely on the practicality and popularity of potentially controversial peace proposals. On the other hand, it may also be that the parliament represented an elaborate piece of window dressing put up safely in the knowledge that the lords and commons were likely to follow any lead provided by the king. Edward's personal intentions at this time are difficult to fathom, the more so since the parliament roll is so oblique on the terms that the lords and commons might consider 'good and suitable' and 'honourable and profitable' (item 9). As events were to turn out, the Avignon conference foundered both on the vexed question of the status and sovereignty of the ancient Plantagenet inheritances in Aquitaine and (more contentiously) on Edward's reluctance to give up his claim to the French throne. (fn. f1343int-6) Since both of these were matters on which the English political community felt very strongly, it is not surprising that the unrecorded discussions held by the lords and commons in their separate debates on the matter during 30 April and 1 May seem to have produced conditional responses. The lords evidently endorsed Burghersh's position that 'if [the king] could have a good and honourable peace, he [should] take it; [but] if not, he [should] pursue his quarrel as before' (item 8). The commons, through their spokesman William Trussell, (fn. f1343int-7) were more explicit: 'if our lord the king could have an honourable and profitable peace for him and his people, he should agree to have the said peace. And if he could not have it, the said commons will grant him aid to maintain his quarrel with all his power' (item 9). This latter commitment could in some sense be seen both as the main objective and the principal outcome of this process of consultation: namely, to secure from parliament a statement of its continuing obligation to support the war in material as well as moral terms if and when the Avignon conference collapsed and hostilities were renewed.

It was only when the discussion of the war and the proposals for peace had been concluded on 1 May that the parliament turned its attention to other matters. A kind of second opening speech was made by Chancellor Parving on 2 May to the effect that the assembly - and the commons in particular - ought to give its attention to the matter of public order (item 10). Parving's statement that Edward III was concerned about the 'oppressions and grievances' suffered by his people during his four-month absence in Brittany represented an expression of the convention whereby kings returning from campaign ought to give special attention to the maladminstration and corruption that was usually assumed to escalate while they were out of the kingdom. But it probably also represented an attempt to force and guide a discussion of the manner in which any resulting judicial inquiries might be conducted. (fn. f1343int-8) The commissions issued by the king on his return from the continent in December 1340 had provoked widespread opposition in the shires, representing as they did a considerable threat to vested interests and local traditions of self-government: as some of the most far-reaching inquiries ever launched under Edward III, they carried unfortunate echoes of the discredited eyres and trailbastons of an earlier generation. At the time of his departure for Brittany in 1342 the king had in fact issued 'new inquiries' in twenty counties to deal with issues such as the illegal import of coinage and export of wool and to provide back-up to the army by investigating desertions. (fn. f1343int-9) These, coupled with the 'trailbastons' operating in the shires since late 1340, had generated considerable hostility to forms of punitive justice that appeared to be motivated by political and fiscal, rather than peace-keeping, considerations. By asking the commons to confer on the matter in 1343, the crown was offering parliament the opportunity to guide, if not to dictate, the manner in which such inquiries might now be continued. To a surprising extent, the commons' responses, delivered on 3 May, conformed with the government's existing strategy: justices should be appointed in the counties 'by the assent of the great men and of the commons' (item 11) and their authority, clarified in discussion between the lords and commons and set out formally on the parliament roll, remained substantively the same as that enjoyed by the commissioners of 1340-1 (item 12). (fn. f1343int-10) The major difference - and the thing that made these new commissions acceptable to the commons - was the king's effective admission that such matters ought to be dealt with not merely through the exercise of royal will but with due consultation with the polity in parliament. As Dr Harriss has pointed out, a significant number of the petitions subsequently entered by the commons in this assembly and recorded on the parliament roll dealt with the administration and authority of these commissioners. (fn. f1343int-11)

After proceeding, day by day, through the business of parliament up to and including the business of Saturday 3 May, the parliament roll breaks off from a chronological narrative and there is little sense of how the later stages of the business recorded there were spread over the remainder of the assembly. Private petitions were due to be lodged with the receivers by Monday 5 May (item 4), but there are no indications of how and when the lords and commons went through their discussions and made their decisions on such important matters as the state and reform of the currency (items 14-16), (fn. f1343int-12) the setting up of a new schedule of minimum wool prices (items 17-18) (fn. f1343int-13) and the inheritance rights of those born overseas to English parents (item 19). (fn. f1343int-14) Nor is there any indication on the roll of precisely when the commons petitions were either submitted or answered (items 24-57, 59). Three general and important points do, however, emerge from these later stages of the roll concerning the business of this parliament, on the issues of personnel, taxation, and political reconciliation.

In terms of personnel, it needs to be noted that this parliament roll is interesting not only for the light it sheds on the frequent interaction, or 'intercommuning', that took place between the lords and the commons, but also for the evidence it provides of the involvement of a group of merchants in the proceedings. (fn. f1343int-15) 138 English merchants had received summonses to appear before the council at Westminster on 25 April, three days before the opening of parliament; on 29 April twelve of their number sealed an indenture with the crown providing a mechanism for the repayment of those whose wool had been seized by the crown at Dordrecht in 1338. (fn. f1343int-16) It seems realistic to identify some or all of this group of 138 as the merchants reported to have been involved in parliamentary discussions of the coinage (item 14) and to have entered their own set of communal grievances listed on the parliament roll after the common petitions (item 58). On the other hand, some of the decisions of this assembly clearly went against the wishes of the merchant community: their preference for the abolition of the schedule of wool prices set at Nottingham in 1336 (item 58) ran counter to the decision of the commons to implement a new scale of minimum prices (item 17). The sense of unease that existed towards merchant exporters both among the English woolgrowers represented by the lords and knights of the shire and by up-country mercantile communities represented by the burgesses, and which is an important feature of the politics of the 1340s, can certainly be discerned in the seemingly contrasting agendas of this parliament.

It is on the subject of taxation that this sense of tension becomes perhaps most explicit. The parliament of 1343 having been called during a period of truce, it was a moot point as to whether the king was entitled to ask or receive any form of subsidy from his subjects on this occasion. The tax of 30,000 sacks of wool authorised in 1341 was only just completing its cycle, and there is no evidence that the crown requested a new direct tax to dovetail with that grant. However, as part of the negotiation of the new schedule of minimum wool prices, the lords and commons agreed to authorise an extension of the wool subsidy, an indirect tax, for the period from June 1343 to September 1346 (item 17). (fn. f1343int-17) The starting date of the grant coincided with the termination of a previous grant of the subsidy authorised by a merchant assembly in July 1342; (fn. f1343int-18) and the indenture sealed with the merchants on 29 April involved a prolongation of this subsidy in order to fund the redemption of the Dordrecht bonds. It was to this latter grant that the commons subsequently alluded in a petition complaining that 'it is unreasonable for the commonalty to be taxed on their goods by the merchants' (item 28). (fn. f1343int-19) The same petition also requested that the taxes on wool be limited to the half-mark charged under the ancient custom of 1275 'as was observed in the time of [the king's] progenitors, and by statute granted in your time' (item 28) (the reference being to the statute of 1340). (fn. f1343int-20)

To grant a tax with one hand and demand its abolition with another might seem odd, and there has been some debate among constitutional historians as to whether the commons were more concerned to outlaw the wool subsidy or to wrest control of it from the merchants. (fn. f1343int-21) The immediate context is probably provided by the fact that the agreement of 29 April with the merchants had established the notion that the taxation of wool should revert to its standard rate at the end of the subsidy negotiated as part of this deal; (fn. f1343int-22) the commons a few days or weeks later were simply honouring this principle. But the grant of 1343 also needs to be seen as part of the broader tradition of tax bargaining, much in evidence during the assemblies of 1340 and 1341, in which parliament authorised a levy in return for a specific concession: in this case, the new schedule of wool prices. What favours the argument for control over that for abolition is the fact that the grant of 1343 was the first of its kind to be made during a period of truce: indeed, the termination of the grant was timed (perhaps accidentally, perhaps intentionally) to coincide with the end of the truce of Malestroit. In other words, the commons in 1343 showed more inclination to use the wool subsidy as a lever for political concession than to stand firm to the principle that extraordinary taxation ought only to be granted under extraordinary circumstances and that the conclusion of war ought to be accompanied by the abolition of wartime taxes. If their request for a guarantee of a reversion to the ancient custom represented an aspiration in this direction, their actions had already resulted in a weakening of the extraordinary nature of the wool subsidy: beginning with the merchants' grant of 1342, extended by the parliament of 1342, the wool subsidy was in fact to continue in an unbroken series of levies for the rest of Edward III's reign and beyond. (fn. f1343int-23)

If there were signs within the negotiation of the judicial inquiries and the authorising of the wool subsidy that the crown was attempting to manage political opposition and accommodate the wishes of parliament, there were other aspects of the assembly of 1343 that indicated still more clearly a determination to win over the political community to the crown's wider agenda. First, two formal actions were recorded symbolising the king's intention to put to rest the political quarrels of the previous parliament, in 1341: the materials on which Archbishop Stratford had been arraigned were ordered to be brought into parliament and destroyed (item 22); and, while the royal annulment of the 1341 statute was confirmed on the grounds that the legislation had been 'prejudicial and contrary to the laws and usages of the realm and the rights and prerogatives of our lord the king', it was announced that any elements within that statute 'in accordance with law and reason' might be issued as new legislation (item 23). It is unclear whether the latter statement was made before, or after, the submission of the common petitions, in which the crown was reminded that the statutes of 1340-1 had been granted in return for the ninth and the tax of 30,000 sacks of wool and asked to have the statutes upheld; the crown took this as a reference specifically to the legislation of 1341 and made the same point as in the declaration recorded in item 23, that those elements of the statute found 'honourable and profitable' would be made into a new statute. Although no such legislation resulted, the sense of co-operation created in anticipation of such a re-issue was presumably a positive contribution to the political mood of 1343.

The other major sop to public opinion allowed by the crown in the parliament of 1343 was the Ordinance of Provisors. Among the common petitions is an item concerning papal provisions which, although answered (item 41, no. XIX), was deleted from the record with a cross-reference to the dorse of the roll. There, an enlarged version of the same petition appears, with a more or less identical answer: that the king would consult and would write to the pope on the matter (item 59). It was apparently after the replies to the common petitions had been announced that a discussion was held in plenary session of parliament during which the crown was reminded of the contents of the Statute of Carlisle of 1307 (item 60), (fn. f1343int-24) whose preamble was to become something of a set piece in subsequent fourteenth-century anti-papal legislation because of its statement that the Church in England ought to be under the patronage of those who had anciently founded it, the king and nobility. A search was made of the relevant documents (an interesting piece of evidence indicating the ability of fourteenth-century clerks of parliament to access the archive) and the substance of the Carlisle legislation was rehearsed. The crown then agreed to issue an ordinance which (at least potentially) banned all papal provisors from receiving benefices in England (item 60). This ordinance was something of a knee-jerk reaction to the sudden increase in papal provisions that had occurred since the accession of Pope Clement VI in 1342: the commons singled out one of the new cardinals, Elias Talleyrand de Périgord, who had been provided to the rich deanery of York, for particular criticism. (fn. f1343int-25) The legislation has often been treated as if it were a dead letter, ignored by the government of Edward III because it offered no particular advantage to the crown and because it created embarrassments at a tense moment of papal involvement in Anglo-French diplomacy. Recently, however, Dr Barrell has demonstrated that the ordinance was proclaimed and enforced with some rigour down to 1345, when it was dropped after a concordat between Edward III and Clement VI. Pandering as it did to anti-papal and anti-alien sentiments found in both elite and popular political culture, the ordinance may thus be regarded both as an important precursor of the more famous legislation of 1351-3 and as a significant concession to the demands of the political community. (fn. f1343int-26)

Although no statutes arose from the proceedings of the assembly of 1343, it is clear from the parliament roll that this was a busy and in many ways a productive session. As already indicated, the roll leaves uncertain the chronology of the later stages of the parliament, and it remains unclear as to when the commons granted the wool subsidy and the crown delivered its responses to the common petitions. Although in 1340-1 parliament had held up grants of taxation until statutory concessions were secured, the position was not maintained, and subsequent practice during the 1340s and '50s would certainly tend to put the authorisation of the tax before the answering of grievances. (fn. f1343int-27) Furthermore, the suggestion above that the discussion of the Ordinance of Provisors took place at the end of the assembly, perhaps in the final plenary session, immediately after the reading of the replies to the common petitions, tends to confirm the idea that the king and council delayed their formal judgements on this matter until they thought that all other substantive business had been concluded. The issue of the writs de expensis on 20 May stands as the only evidence for the terminal date of the assembly, which had thus run for a period of approximately three weeks. (fn. f1343int-28)

Text and translation

[p. ii-135]
[col. a]
[memb. 1]
LE PARLEMENT TENUZ A WESTM', A LA QUINZEYNE DE PASK, L'AN DU REGNE NOSTRE SEIGNUR LE ROI EDWARD TIERCZ APRES LE CONQUEST, C'ESTASSAVER D'ENGLETERRE DYS ET SEPTISME, ET DE FRANCE QUART. THE PARLIAMENT HELD AT WESTMINSTER ON THE QUINZAINE OF EASTER IN THE SEVENTEENTH YEAR OF THE REIGN OF OUR LORD KING EDWARD THE THIRD SINCE THE CONQUEST, AND THE FOURTH OF FRANCE.
1. En primes, acordez est qe Sire Thomas de Drayton' soit clerk du parlement. 1. It was first agreed that Sir Thomas Drayton should be the clerk of the parliament.
2. Item, fait a remembrer qe le lundy susdit vient nostre seignur le roi en la chaumbre Depeynt ove l'ercevesqe de Cantirbirs et ascuns grantz qi adoncs furent venuz; mes pur ce qe plusours des grantz et autres qi furent somons au dit parlement ne furent pas pleynement venuz au dit jour, les causes du somons du parlement ne furent mye purposees a meisme le jour, einz fu le parlement continuez tanqe au mardy prochein suant. [Adjournment of parliament.]
2. Also, let it be remembered that on the aforesaid Monday our lord the king came into the Painted Chamber with the archbishop of Canterbury and some of the great men who had then arrived; but because many of the great men and others who were summoned to the said parliament had not fully arrived on the said day, the reasons for the summons of the parliament were not propounded on that day, but the parliament was adjourned until the Tuesday immediately following.
3. Et fait a remembrer qe le dit mardy vient nostre seignur le roi en la dite chaumbre Depeynt ove l'ercevesqe et ascuns grantz susditz; a queu jour fu acordez par meisme nostre seignur le roi et ceux de son conseil qi adonqes estoient venuz qe une proclamacion se feisse qe null homme portast armes, en la manere qe soleit estre fait as autres parlementz; la quele proclamacion fu fait meisme le jour en la grande sale de Westm' et en la citee de Loundres et en les suburbes, en la forme qe s'ensuit: [Prohibition against bearing arms.]
3. And let it be remembered that on the said Tuesday our lord the king came into the said Painted Chamber with the archbishop and some of the aforesaid great men; on which day our same lord the king and those of his council who had then arrived agreed that a proclamation would be made that no man bear arms, in the manner in which it was customarily made at other parliaments; which proclamation was made on the same day in the great hall of Westminster and in the city of London and in the suburbs, in the form that follows:
Por ce qe avant ces heures as parlementz et consealx nostre seignur le roi debates, riotes et contekes ont este sours et meuz, par tant qe gentz se sont alez es lieux ou les parlementz et consealx ont este somons et assemblez, armez d'aketone, des plates, d'espeyes et de long cotell et d'autre manere d'armez; et par tiele cause les busoignes nostre seignur le roi et de son roialme ont este empeschez, et les grantz et autres qi y sont venuz par son commandement effreiez; nostre seignur le roi, voillant purveer de remede contre tielx malx, defend qe null, sur peyne de forfaiture de quant q'il purra forfaire devers le roi, de quel estat ou condicion q'il soit, ne voise armez d'aketone, ne de plate, ne de haubergeon, ne d'espeye, ne a long cotell, ne od autre arme suspect, en la citee de Loundres, n'en les suburbes, ne en les autres lieux entre la dite citee et le palays de Westm', ne nulle part en le palays, par terre ne par ewe, sur la peyne avandite; forspris les gentz nostre seignur le roi, queux il voudra deputer, ou par son commandement serront deputez, pur la garde de sa pees es ditz lieux; et aussint forspris les ministres le roi, selonc la forme de l'estatut fait a Norhampton'. Et n'est mye l'entencion nostre seignur le roi qe chescun counte et baroun peusse aver sa espeie portee od lui aillours qe en la presence le roi ou place du conseill. Et aussint defenduz est par nostre seignur le roi et le conseill, sur peyne d'enprisonement, qe null enfant n'autre jue en nul lieu du palays de Westm', durant le parlement qe y est somons, a bares ne as autres jues nient covenables, come a ouster chaparons des gentz, ne a mettre mayn en eux, n'autre empeschement faire, par qoi chescun ne peusse peisiblement suir ses busoignes. Because before this time at parliaments and councils of our lord the king debates, riots and quarrels have been inevitable and numerous, because people have brought arms of acton and plate, swords and long knives and other kinds of arms to places where parliaments and councils have been summoned and assembled; and because the business of our lord the king and of his realm has been impeded, and the great men and others who have come there by the king's command have been intimidated; our lord the king, wishing to provide remedy against such wrongs, forbids anyone, on penalty of forfeiture of as much as he can forfeit to the king, of whatever estate or condition he may be, to come armed with acton or plate, habergeon, sword, long knife, or with any other manner of suspicious arms, into the city of London or the suburbs, or into other places between the said city and the palace of Westminster, or any part of the palace, by land or by water, on the aforesaid penalty; saving those of our lord the king's people whom he wishes to appoint, or who shall be appointed by his instruction, for keeping the peace in the said places; and also saving the king's officials according to the form of the statute made at Northampton. And it is not the intention of our lord the king that any earl or baron should be prevented from carrying his sword with him anywhere other than in the king's presence or the place of council. And also, it is forbidden on the part of our lord the king and the council, on penalty of imprisonment, that any child or other person shall play either at bars or at any other unsuitable games, such as removing people's hoods, or laying hands on them, in any part of the palace of Westminster during the parliament which is summoned there, nor cause any other trouble by which anyone may not peacefully pursue his business.
[col. b]
4. Item, meisme le jour fu fait une crie qe chescun qi vodra mettre peticion a nostre seignur le roi et a son conseil, les mette entre cy et le lundy prochein avenir le jour compris dedeinz la crye. 4. Also, on the same day an announcement was made that each person who would put forward a petition to our lord the king and to his council should put them forward between then and the Monday next coming, the day appointed in the announcement.
Et serront assignez de resceivre les peticions d'Engleterre les souzescritz, c'estassaver:

  • 5. Sire Thomas de Evesham
  • Sire Thomas de Sibthorp'
  • Sire Esmond de Grymmesby
[Receivers and triers of petitions.]
And those written below are assigned to receive the petitions from England, that is to say:

  • 5. Sir Thomas Evesham
  • Sir Thomas Sibthorpe
  • Sir Edmund Grimsby
- clers de la chauncellerie. [Receivers and triers of petitions.]
- clerks of the chancery.
Et pur les peticions de Gascoigne, Gales, Irland, Escoce, < Flandres > et des Isles:

  • Sire Johan de Marton'
  • Sire Elys de Grymmesby
  • Sire Robert de Kelleseye
And for the petitions from Gascony, Wales, Ireland, Scotland, Flanders and the Channel Islands:

  • Sir John Marton
  • Sir Elias Grimsby
  • Sir Robert Kelsey
- clers de la chauncellerie. - clerks of the chancery.
Item, pur oier les peticions d'Engleterre sont assignez les souzescritz, c'estassaver:

  • L'evesqe de Sarum, l'evesqe de Cardoill, ou l'un de eux
  • Les countes de Warr' et de Suff', ou l'un de eux
  • Le seignur de Percy, Monsir Thomas de Berkele, ou l'un de eux
  • Monsir William Scot
  • Monsir Johan de Stonore
  • Monsir Robert de Sadyngton'
  • Monsir William de Shareshull
Also, those written below are assigned to hear the petitions from England, that is to say:

  • The bishop of Salisbury, the bishop of Carlisle, or one of them
  • The earls of Warwick and Suffolk, or one of them
  • Lord Percy, Sir Thomas Berkeley, or one of them
  • Sir William Scot
  • Sir John Stonor
  • Sir Robert Sadington
  • Sir William Shareshull
- associez a eux chaunceller et tresorer quant miester serra. - consulting with the chancellor and treasurer when necessary.
Item, pur oier les peticions de Gascoigne, Gales, Irlande, Escoce, Flaundres et des Isles sont assignez les souzescritz, c'estassaver:

  • Les evesqes de Duresme et de Norwicz
  • Les countes de Huntyngdon' et de Devenshire
  • Monsir Rauf de Nevill
  • Monsir Antoigne de Lucy
  • Monsir Roger Hillary
  • Monsir Johan de Shardelowe
  • Monsir William Basset
  • Sire Roger de Bankwell
Also, those written below are assigned to hear the petitions from Gascony, Wales, Ireland, Scotland, Flanders and the Channel Islands, that is to say:

  • The bishops of Durham and of Norwich
  • The earls of Huntingdon and of Devon
  • Sir Ralph Nevill
  • Sir Anthony Lucy
  • Sir Roger Hillary
  • Sir John Shardlow
  • Sir William Basset
  • Sir Roger Bakewell
- associez a eux chaunceller et tresorer quant miester serra. - consulting with the chancellor and treasurer when necessary.
6. Item, fait a remembrer qe le meskerdy prochein suant, c'estassaver le darrein jour d'Aprill, vindrent en la chaumbre Depeynte nostre seignur le roi et l'ercevesqe susdit, ensemblement od les evesqes de Duresme, Cestre, Seint David, Sarum, Ely, Norwicz, Excestre, Cicestre et Cardoill, et ovesqe les countes de Norht', d'Arundell, Warr', Hunt', Devenshire et Suff', les seignurs de Percy, de Wak, Monsir Rauf de Nevill, Monsir Hugh le Despenser et Monsir Thomas de Berkele, et od autres grantz et communes illoeqes assemblez. Et les causes du somons du parlement furent purposees devant [p. ii-136][col. a] eux par le chaunceller nostre seignur le roi, en la manere qe s'ensuit: [Opening of parliament.]
6. Also, let it be remembered that on the Wednesday immediately following, that is to say, 30 April, our lord the king and the aforesaid archbishop came into the Painted Chamber, together with the bishops of Durham, Chester, Saint Davids, Salisbury, Ely, Norwich, Exeter, Chichester and Carlisle, and with the earls of Northampton, Arundel, Warwick, Huntingdon, Devon and Suffolk, Lord Percy, Lord Wake, Sir Ralph Nevill, Sir Hugh Despenser and Sir Thomas Berkeley, and with other great men and commons assembled there. And our lord the king's chancellor propounded the reasons for the summons of the parliament before them, [p. ii-136][col. a] in the manner that follows:
De les trewes. Concerning the truces.
7. Primerement fu touchez qe la sovereigne et principale cause est de treter et conseiller od les grantz et communes du roialme, ce qe serra mieltz affaire sur les choses touchantes nostre seignur le roi endroit de les trewes prises en Bretaigne entre lui et son adverser de France; et puis apres des choses qe touchent l'estat de nostre seignur le roi et le governement et la salvettee de sa terre d'Engleterre et de son poeple, et relevacion de lour estat. Mes pur ce qe Monsir Berthelmeu de Burgherssh, qi fu ovesqe nostre seignur le roi en Bretaigne a la prise de les darreynes trewes, savera mieltz purposer coment les busoignes sont alees illoeqes qe le chaunceller, si fu comandez par nostre seignur le roi au dit Monsir Berthelmeu de purposer la manere de la prise de les dites trewes. 7. First, it was noted that the paramount and principal reason was to talk over and discuss with the great men and commons of the realm what it would be best to do upon the matters concerning our lord the king with respect to the truces made in Brittany between him and his enemy of France; and then afterwards, upon the matters which concern the estate of our lord the king and the governance and safety of his land of England and of his people and the betterment of their estate. But because Sir Bartholomew Burghersh, who was with our lord the king in Brittany at the making of the last truce, could propound how the business went there better than the chancellor, our lord the king ordered the said Sir Bartholomew to propound the manner of the making of the said truces.
8. Et le dit Monsir Berthelmeu comencea de reconter la manere coment nostre seignur le roi, apres ce q'il avoit empris la guerre de France par assent des prelatz, grantz et communes de son roialme d'Engleterre, pur ses droitz et heritages illoeqes conquer, avoit plusour foitz passez la miere ove son houst, et quel esploit il y avoit eu; et coment qe apres son darrein passage od son host en Bretaigne il avoit chivauche grante partie de la duchee de Bretaigne, et, od l'eide de Dieu, pris villes, chatelx et forcellettes tanqe il vient a la citee de Vanes, ou il, par avys des grantz qi furent pres de lui, mist siege, il fu requis par le seint piere le pape, qe a la reverence de Dieu et de seinte esglise et pur la priere du dit seint pier le pape, qi lui envoia deux cardinalx pur bien du pees, et pur monstrer a nostre seignur le roi ce q'ils avoient en charge de la court de Rome touchant celle busoigne, et pur eschuir les malx qe sont avenuz et venent de jour en autre par la guerre, il se voussist assentir a pees ou as trewes deinz les queux tretee de pees se purreit faire. Et coment nostre seignur le roi, apperceivant qe la forme de celles trewes fu honurable et profitable a lui et as soens, assenti as dites trewes, aufyn qe durantes celles trewes tretee de pees se ferroit devant le dite pape, come meen amy, et noun pas come juge ne compromessair. Et en cas q'il purreit aver bone pees et honurable pur lui, q'il la prendroit; et si ce noun, q'il pursueroit sa querele come devant. Et dist outre le dit Monsir Berthelmeu, depar nostre seignur le roi, qe par cause qe ceste guerre fu emprise et comencee par commune assent des ditz prelatz, grantz et communes, le roi ne voleit tretee de pees faire, ne pees prendre, sanz lour commune assent. Par qoi les ditz prelatz et grantz furent chargez d'assembler par eux en la chaumbre Blanche, yce joedy le primer jour de May pur treter, conseiller et assentir entre eux, si nostre seignur le roy deveroit envoier messages a la court de Rome, pur monstrer et purposer ses droitz illoeqes devant le dit seint pier le pape, come desus est dit, ou nemye; et en meisme la manere furent chargez les chivalers des counteez et communes d'assembler en la chaumbre Depeynte et de treter, conseiller et assentir entre eux sur meisme la busoigne, et de reporter lour respons et lour assent en dit parlement le dit joedy. 8. And the said Sir Bartholomew began to recount the manner in which our lord the king, after he had undertaken the war of France to conquer his rights and inheritances there by the assent of the prelates, great men and commons of his realm of England, had often crossed the sea with his host, and what progress he had made there. And how, after his last crossing with his host into Brittany, he had campaigned through a great part of the duchy of Brittany, and, with the aid of God, taken towns, castles and fortresses until he came to the city of Vannes where, by the advice of the great men who were with him, he laid siege. He was asked by the holy father the pope, to the reverence of God and of holy Church and at the prayer of the said holy father the pope, who sent him two cardinals for the good of peace to show our lord the king what they had in the charge of the Roman curia concerning this business and to avoid the evils which have arisen and do arise from day to day as a result of the war, that he would agree to peace or to truces during which a treaty of peace could be made. And our lord the king, realising that the form of the truces was honourable and profitable to him and his people, agreed to the said truces, so that during the truces a treaty of peace could be made before the said pope, as an intermediary friend and not as a judge or arbitrator. And if he could have a good and honourable peace, he would take it; and if not, he would pursue his quarrel as before. And the said Sir Bartholomew said further, on behalf of our lord the king, that because this war was undertaken and begun by the common assent of the said prelates, great men and commons, the king would not make a treaty of peace or accept peace without their common assent. Wherefore the said prelates and great men were charged to assemble by themselves in the White Chamber on Thursday, 1 May, to talk over, discuss and agree among themselves whether or not our lord the king should send envoys to the Roman curia to declare and propound his rights there before the said holy father the pope, as is aforesaid; and the knights of the shires and the commons were charged in the same manner to assemble in the Painted Chamber to talk over, discuss and agree among themselves on the same business, and to report their answer and their agreement in the said parliament on the said Thursday.
9. A queu jour les ditz prelatz et grantz assemblez en la chaumbre Blanch responderent qe lour fust avys qe les dites trewes estoient honurables et profitables a nostre seignur le roi et a touz les soens; et qe chescun Crestien deveroit voler qe la guerre, q'est si grande et si nosante a touz Crestiens, feust peese et finie en bone et covenable manere. Par qoi les ditz prelatz et grantz pur eux s'acorderent et assenterent qe les dites trewes se tenissent selonc la fourme et l'effect [col. b] d'icelles, et qe certeynes et solempnes messages soient mandez a la court de Rome pur monstrer et purposer devant le seint pier le pape, come devant meen amy et noun pas come juge ne come compromessair, les droitz nostre seignur le roi sur ses chalenges, et de treter outre de la pees selonc la fourme des dites trewes. Et puis vindrent les chivalers des counteez et les communes, et responderent par Monsir William Trussell en la dite chaumbre Blanche, qi en presence de nostre seignur le roi et des ditz prelatz et grantz purposa pur les chivalers et communes, q'ils se sont pleynement assentuz et acordez a les dites trewes tenir, au fyn qe bone et honurable pees se preigne. Et prierent outre les ditz communes qe nostre seignur le roi envoiast solempnes messages pur purposer ses droitz et treter de la pees, come desus est dit. Et en cas qe nostre seignur le roi purra aver honurable pees et profitable pur lui et pur les soens, q'il condescendroit a la dite pees aver. Et en cas q'il ne la purra mye aver, les dites communes granterent de lui eider a meyntenir sa querele ove tote lour poair. [Discussion of the truces.]
9. On which day the said prelates and great men assembled in the White Chamber answered that they were advised that the said truces were honourable and profitable to our lord the king and to all his people, and that every Christian should want the war, which is so severe and so harmful to all Christians, to be settled and ended in a good and suitable manner. Wherefore the said prelates and great men agreed and assented that the said truces would be held according to the form and the effect [col. b] of the same, and that certain official envoys should be sent to the Roman curia to declare and propound the rights of our lord the king on his claims before the holy father the pope, as before an intermediary friend and not as before a judge or arbitrator, and further to discuss the peace according to the form of the said truces. And then the knights of the shires and the commons came into the said White Chamber and answered through Sir William Trussell, who in the presence of our lord the king and of the said prelates and great men propounded on behalf of the knights and commons that they fully agreed and consented that the said truces should be upheld, so that a good and honourable peace could be achieved. And the said commons further prayed that our lord the king would sent official envoys to propound his rights and to discuss the peace, as is aforesaid. And if our lord the king could have an honourable and profitable peace for him and his people, he should agree to have the said peace. And if he could not have it, the said commons will grant him aid to maintain his quarrel with all their power.
10. Item, fait a remembrer qe le vendredy le second jour de May, vindrent nostre seignur le roi, les ditz prelatz, countes et barons et autres grantz et les communes en la chaumbre Blanche; et illoeqes purposa le chaunceller depar nostre seignur le roi coment le roi, sur son retourner hors de Bretaigne, avoit entenduz qe plusours oppressions et grevances furent faitz a son poeple d'Engleterre, aussibien en sa absence come en sa presence, et qe la leye de sa terre ne fu pas si bien meyntenus come afferroit, par cause des diverses empeschementz et meyntenances faitz en moltz des maneres; et coment le roi desir sovereynement qe la lei eit owel cours entre poures et riches, et q'ele soit tenue et meyntenue en son droit cours sanz empeschement. Par qoi nostre seignur le roi voleit aver lour consealx et avys coment tieux empeschementz et torcinouse meyntenance purront mieltz estre oustez, et la ley mieltz gardee et tenue en son droit cours, en manere q'ele soit owele as poures et as riches. Et sur ce furent les ditz prelatz, countes et barouns et autres grantz chargez par eux, et les communes par eux, de treter et conseiller, et de reporter lour avys le samady prochein suant. A queu jour vindrent les chivalers des countees et les autres communes, et donerent lour avys en la forme qe s'ensuit: 10. Also, let it be remembered that on Friday, 2 May, our lord the king, the said prelates, earls and barons and other great men and the commons came into the White Chamber; and there the chancellor, on behalf of our lord the king, propounded how the king, upon his return from Brittany, discovered that many oppressions and grievances had occurred to his people of England, in his absence as well as in his presence, and that the law of the land was not upheld as well as it should be because of various impediments and maintenances made in many ways; and above all the king desires that the law should have equal course among the poor and rich, and that it should be observed and upheld in its proper course without impediment. Wherefore our lord the king would have their counsel and advice as to how such impediments and wrongful maintenance could best be removed, and the law better kept and upheld in its proper course, so that it is equal to the poor and the rich. And the said prelates, earls and barons and other great men were charged by themselves, and the commons by themselves, to talk over and discuss this matter, and to report their opinion on the Saturday immediately following. On which day the knights of the shires and the other commons appeared and gave their opinion in the form that follows:
[memb. 2]
11. 'Tresexcellent et treshonurable seignur, les gentz de vostre commune soi recomandent a vous obeissantment, en merciant si avant come lour petitesse purra suffire de ce qe tant tendrement parnez a quer a meyntenir la pees a la quiete de vostre poeple. Et semble a eux qe bien seante chose serroit qe, en chastiement des malveys et salvacion et eide des bones gentz, qe certeyns justices fussent esluz ore a ce parlement, par assent des grantz et de la commune; et qe meismes les justices soient jurez ore a ce parlement, devant les piers de la terre et la commune, qe en lour sessions par engyn ne par subtilite nul homme ne soit susduit, mes mesnez par Dieu et bone foie et les bones leys einz ces heures usees, d'oier et terminer felonies, trespasses, conspiracies, confederacies et malveys meyntenance. Et qe commissions soient faites a les justices ensi esluz d'aler es countees ou miester serra; et qe les pointz des commissions avandites soient monstrez as piers de la terre, q'ont les leis souz vous a meyntenir, et a la commune, avant ce qe les commissions soient ensealees ou en nul point usees. Et si avis soit a eux qe les pointz soient pleisantes a Dieu, et al honur de vous, et salvacion de vostre poeple, et en meyntenance des autres leys as autres parlementz devant ces heures grantees, vostre poure commune, s'il vous pleise, s'agree. Et semble a la dite commune qe totes autres [p. ii-137][col. a] choses poent suffissantement estre rewelez et terminez en bank le roi, commune bank et devant justices as assises prendre, ensi qe les delayes nient covenables soient aggreggez et oustez ore a ce parlement par estatut.' [The commons' advice on commissions of inquiry.]
11. 'Most excellent and most honourable lord, the people of your commons recommend themselves to you obediently, thanking you as fully as their worthlessness can allow for what you took so tenderly to heart to maintain the peace and the quiet of your people. And it seems to them that it would be very appropriate that, in chastisement of evil and in salvation and aid of the good people, certain justices should be chosen now at this parliament, by the assent of the great men and of the commons; and the same justices should be sworn now at this parliament before the peers of the land and the commons that no man should be convicted by fraud or deceit in their sessions, but that they should be guided by God and by good faith and the good laws observed before this time to hear and determine felonies, trespasses, conspiracies, confederacies and evil maintenance. And commissions should be made to the justices thus chosen to go to the counties where there is need; and the points of the aforesaid commissions should be declared to the peers of the land, who have to maintain the laws under you, and to the commons before the commissions are sealed or enforced in any point. And if they are advised that the points are pleasing to God, to your honour, the salvation of your people and in maintenance of the other laws granted at other parliaments before this time, your poor commons, if it pleases you, will agree. And it seems to the said commons that all the other [p. ii-137][col. a] matters can sufficiently be decided and determined in the king's bench, the common bench and before the justices of assize, provided that unsuitable delays should be abolished and prevented now at this parliament by statute.'
12. Mes pur ce q'il feust avys a nostre seignur le roi et as prelatz et grantz qi furent pres de lui en son parlement q'il covendroit plus expressement faire mencion des articles dont les justices qi serront assignez es countees deivent par la cause susdite enquere, si rebaillerent ils as chivalers et communes susditz ascuns articles, qe furent ordeignez par meismes les prelatz et grantz pur lour ent aviser et doner lour assent. Les queux articles s'ensuent en la forme souzescrit: 12. But because our lord the king and the prelates and great men who were with him in his parliament were advised that it was fitting to mention more expressly the articles into which the justices assigned to the counties should inquire for the aforesaid reason, they therefore gave back some of the articles to the aforesaid knights and commons, who were ordained by the same prelates and great men to advise them thereon and to give their assent. These articles follow in the form written below:
Les pointz dont justicz deivent enquer. The points into which the justices should inquire.
Il semble bon qe justices soient assignez d'enquer, oier et terminer les pointz souzescritz pur le profit du roialme et pur garder la pees et la ley meyntenir. It seems good that justices should be assigned to inquire into, hear and determine the points written below for the profit of the realm and for keeping the peace and maintaining the laws.
Primerement, d'enquer des totes maneres des felonies et trespases faites contre la pees. First, to inquire into all manner of felonies and trespasses committed against the peace.
Item, des totes maneres des conspiracies, confederacies, champarties, ambidextres, des meyntenours, des meffessours et de faux quereles et des totes autres faussetees faites en deceite de la ley. Also, into all manner of conspiracies, confederacies, champerties, ambidexters, maintainers, wrongdoers, false quarrels and all other crimes committed in deceit of the law.
Item, d'enquer des chatelx des felons et futives encoruz au roi puis l'an etc., et as queux ils sont deliverez, et pur quel value, et s'ils vaillent pluis ou nemye, et de faire lever les ditz chatelx al oeps le roi. Also, to inquire into the chattels of felons and fugitives forfeited to the king since the year etc., and to whom they were delivered, and for what value, and whether or not they were worth more, and to cause the said chattels to be levied to the king's use.
Item, des leynes, pealx lanutz, quirs et autres marchandises custumables, nient custumees ne cokettez ne bien poisez, ne trovez mesnez hors du roialme d'Engleterre. Also, into wool, woolfells, leather and other customable merchandise which has not been customed or cocketted or properly weighed, or which is discovered being taken out of the realm of England.
Item, de fausse monoie portee deinz la roialme. Also, into false money brought into the realm.
Item, des leynes achatees deinz le pris de Notyngham, et de ceux q'ont mesnez lour leynes propres en autri noun, contre la defens et l'ordynance sur ce faites. Also, into wool bought within the price of Nottingham, and those who have exported their own wool in another's name contrary to the defence and ordinance made thereon.
Item, des armures et vitailles et autres biens et marchandises mesnez a les enemys d'Escoce, et autres. Also, into weapons and victuals and other goods and merchandise taken to the Scottish enemies and others.
Item, de ceux qi furent coillours de la neofisme et coillerent plus qe ne responderent au roi. Also, into those who were collectors of the ninth and collected more than they answered for to the king.
Item, de ceux qi feurent assignez par commissions pur les busoignes le roi et du roialme et parnont douns, et lessent les dites busoignes perir, en deceite du roi et du poeple. Also, into those who were assigned by commissions for the business of the king and the realm and took gifts, and left the said business to perish, in deceit of the king and of the people.
Item, d'asseours et coillours des leynes et lour souzcoillours, clers et deputez, qi n'ont mye responduz au roi de ce q'ils ont resceu; et auxint de ceux qi coillerent les bones leynes et les venderent, et achaterent autres febles pur liverer au roi; et aussint de ceux qi pristrent deniers en lieu des leynes, et achaterent febles leynes de meyndre pris pur liverer au roi, et le remenant des ditz deniers retiendrent a lour oeps de meen. Also, into assessors and collectors of wool and their deputy collectors, clerks and assistants who have not answered to the king for what they received; and also into those who collected the good wool and sold it, and bought other inferior wool to deliver to the king; and also into those who took money in lieu of wool, and bought inferior wool at a lesser price to deliver to the king and kept the rest of the said money for their own use.
Item, des < custumers, > tronours, contreroullours et des touz autres ministres le roi, coment ils se ont portez en lour offices. Also, into how customs officials, tronagers, controllers and all other officers of the king have behaved themselves in their offices.
Item, de ceux qi parnent feez, rentes ou empensions des meffessours, pur lour meyntenir et avower en lour malveitees; la ou ils ne tiegnent terres ne tenementz de eux par qoi ils dussent tiels rentes paier, aussibien en Gales come en Engleterre. Also, into those who take fees, rents or pensions from wrongdoers to maintain and protect them in their crimes, when the said wrongdoers do not hold lands or tenements of their own by which they should pay such rents, in Wales as well as in England.
Item, de ceux qi parnent gentz, et les amesnent et detiegnent tanqe ils eient fait raunceon a lour volentee. Also, into those who take people and carry them off and detain them until they have made ransom at their will.
Item, de ceux qi par force on manace destourbent les justices nostre seignur le roi, et touz autres ministres alantz par mye le pays en lour sessions, issint q'ils ne poent droit faire, ne le poeple lour droit suir. Also, into those who by force or menace disturb the justices of our lord the king and all other officers going throughout the country in their sessions, so that they cannot do justice and the people cannot pursue their right.
Les queux articles veuz et examinez par les dites communes, ils se assenterent qe bons justices et loialx soient assignez d'oier et terminer totes les choses contenues [col. b] es ditz articles, pur le profit nostre seignur le roi et de son poeple. These articles were viewed and examined by the said commons, and they agreed that good and loyal justices should be assigned to hear and determine all the things contained [col. b] in the said articles, for the profit of our lord the king and of his people. (fn. ii-135-64-1)
Item, d'enquere des terres et tenementz amorteez par gentz de religion, ou autres, contre la forme de l'estatut ent fait, sanz conge le roi; et aussint des tenementz q'ils ont purchacez par conge, s'ils eient purchacez rien plus qe ce q'est contenuz en lour conge, ou de plus grant value, et aussint des tenementz qe sont tenuz du roi en chief. Also, to inquire into lands and tenements amortised by people of religion or others contrary to the form of the statute made thereon, without the king's licence; and also concerning tenements purchased by licence, whether they have purchased anything more than is contained in their licence or of greater value, and likewise concerning tenements which are held of the king in chief.
De marchandz aliens. Concerning alien merchants.
13. Item, fait a remembrer qe les susditz prelatz et grantz a par eux et les dites communes a par eux feurent puis chargez de eux aviser sur les pointz souzescritz, c'estassaver: 13. Also, let it be remembered that the aforesaid prelates and great men by themselves and the said commons by themselves were then charged to consider the points written below, that is to say:
Primerement, des Lumbards et autres marchandz aliens qi demurent assiduelement en la terre pur marchander, et ne fyrent unqes nul eide au roi, et se coevrent par une chartre grantee par le roi l'aiel as marchandz aliens repeirantz en Engleterre; par la quele chartre ils ne deveroient mye estre eidez mes pur lour demure de .xl. jours pur lour descharger et recharger. Et quant nostre seignur le roi feust en Bretaigne, feust acordez q'ils deveroient estre taillez et taxez pur le temps q'ils ont demurez; et s'ils ne voloient paier la dite taillage, q'ils voidassent la terre deinz les .xl. jours. Sur queu chose les ditz prelatz, grantz et communes deivent aviser si celle chose soit affaire ou nemye. First, concerning Lombards and other alien merchants who dwell continually in the land in order to trade, and never make any aid to the king, and are protected by a charter granted by the king's grandfather to alien merchants staying in England; by which charter they are not bound to give aids unless they remain forty days for their unloading and reloading. And when our lord the king was in Brittany it was agreed that they should be tallaged and taxed for the time that they dwell here; and if they would not pay the said tallage, they should leave the land within the forty days. On which matter the said prelates, great men and commons should give their opinion as to whether or not this thing should be done.
As queux prelatz, grantz et communes feust avis qe les marchandz aliens qi sont demurantz et conversantz en roialme, et parnent les profitz en roialme si avant ou plus come font les marchandz denzeyns, deivent eider et porter charge entre autres du roialme, pur le temps q'ils ont demurez, come desus est dit. Par qoi acordez est et assentuz q'ils soient taxez et taillez pur le temps q'ils ont demurez, ou q'ils voident la terre en la manere susdite. The prelates, great men and commons are of the opinion that the alien merchants who remain and dwell in the realm, and take profits in the realm as or more fully than denizen merchants do, should aid and bear charges along with others of the realm during the time they dwell here, as is aforesaid. Wherefore it is agreed and assented that they should be taxed and tallaged for the time they dwell here, or that they should leave the land in the aforesaid manner.
De la monoie. Concerning the currency.
14. Et puis furent les ditz prelatz, grantz et communes, ovesqe certeyns marchandz, orfevres et moneours, chargez de eux aviser, jointement et severalment, de mettre remede sur ce qe la bone monoie est portee hors du roialme, et fausse monoie reportee; et d'ordeigner coment bone monoie purreit estre encreu et multiplier en roialme, et la fausse monoie estre ousteez et destruite. Et apres plusours avisementz euz en celle partie, si fu assentuz et acordez au darrein en la forme souzescrit: 14. And then the said prelates, great men and commons, with certain merchants, goldsmiths and moneyers, were charged to consider, jointly and individually, the matter of providing remedy in view of the fact that good money is carried out of the realm, and false money brought back; and to ordain how good money could be increased and multiplied in the realm, and false money removed and destroyed. And after they had had much deliberation on this matter, it was finally agreed and accorded in the form written below:
'Assentuz est et acordez par le conseil, pur encrestre et multiplier la monoie dont il y ad trope grande defaute en roialme d'Engleterre en present, et pur mettre remede sur les damages et perdes queux les grantz et communes du roialme ont soeffert meynt jour, par reson qe les floryns ont este liverez en paiement en Flandres a si haut pris qe il covendroit a force perdre la tierce parte et plus de la value des totes maneres des marchandises qe sont mesnees vers celles parties hors d'Engleterre, qe orfeevres, et autres en certeyn noumbre qe se conussent mieltz en billioun d'or, et qi soient des plus loialx et des plus suffissantz qe homme savera trover, soient fait venir devant le conseil; et qe par lour avys soit mys au fu et au billioun de chescune manere des floryns qe courgent communement en present entre marchandz un floryn ou deux, bien purgez et finez. Et quant les floryns serront ensi purgez et finez, soit le fyn or de chescune manere des ditz floryns mys a certeyn pris en esterlyng selonc la verroie value d'icell. Et de cell fyn or si est acordez de faire une monoie d'or en Engleterre, et en Flandres si les Flemmyngs le voillent, qe avera son cours en Engleterre et en Flandres, de tieu pois, alaye et value come serra ordeignez par le roi et son conseil. Et qe totes autres monoies d'or soient defendues en Engleterre et en Flandres et soient portez a l'eschanges en Engleterre et en Flandres, et illoeqes mys au billion; et eient les marchandz et autres des queux tiele monoie serra liveree a l'eschange autre [p. ii-138][col. a] monoie covenable, en recompensacion a la value del fyn or. Et fait a entendre qe la dite monoie d'or ensi faite en Engleterre avera son cours entre marchand et marchand come monoie nient refusable et touz autres aussibien grantz come petitz qe la voillent rescevire de lour bon gree, issint tote foitz qe nul argent soit portez hors du roialme, en monoie n'autrement, forspris qe les grantz quant ils vont pardela q'ils peussent aver vessealx d'argent pur servir lour hostelx.' 'It was agreed and accorded by the council, to increase and multiply the coinage, of which there is too great a lack in the realm of England at present, and to provide remedy for the damages and losses which the great men and commonalty of the realm have often suffered because florins have been delivered in payment in Flanders at so high a price that one has to lose one third or more of the value of all manner of merchandise which is taken to those parts from England, that goldsmiths and certain others who have a very good knowledge of gold bullion, and who are the most loyal and sufficient that can be found, should be made to come before the council; and by their advice every manner of florin which is in general currency at present between merchants should be melted down, one florin or two, and properly purified and refined. And when the florins have been thus purified and refined, the pure gold from all manner of the said florins should be set at a certain price in sterling according to the true value of the same. And it was agreed that from this pure gold a gold coin should be made in England, and in Flanders if the Flemings are willing, which would be current in England and Flanders, of such weight, alloy and value as will be ordained by the king and his council. And all other gold money should be forbidden in England and in Flanders and should be taken to the exchanges in England and in Flanders and melted down; and the merchants and others who deliver such money to the exchange should have other [p. ii-138][col. a] suitable money in compensation to the value of the pure gold. And let it be understood that the said gold money thus made in England will be current as money that cannot be refused between merchant and merchant, and all others, great as well as small, who will receive it of their free will, always provided that no silver is carried out of the realm, in money or otherwise, except when great men go overseas and have silver vessels for serving their households.'
De monoie. Concerning the currency.
15. Item, acordez est < de faire une monoie > des bons esterlings en Engleterre du pois et del alaye del auncien esterling, qe avera son cours en Engleterre entre les grantz et la commune de la terre, et la quele ne serra portez hors du roialme d'Engleterre en nulle manere, ne par qecunqe cause qe ce soit. Et en cas qe les Flemmyngs voillent faire bone monoie d'argent, grosses ou autres acordante en alaye as bons esterlings, qe tiele monoie eit cours en Engleterre entre marchand et marchand et autres, qi la vodroient resceivre de lour bon gree; issint qe nul argent soit portez hors du roialme. 15. Also, it was agreed to make money of good sterling in England of the weight and alloy of the ancient sterling, which will be current in England between the great men and the commonalty of the land, and which will not be carried out of the realm of England in any manner for any reason whatsoever. And if the Flemings will make good silver money, groats or others corresponding in alloy to good sterling, that such money should be current in England between merchant and merchant and others who will receive it of their free will; provided that no silver is carried out of the realm.
Item, est acordez et assentuz qe bones gentz et loialx soient assignez es portz du miere et aillours ou miester serra de faire la serche qe nul argent soit portez hors du roialme, en monoie n'autrement, forspris qe les grantz quant ils vont par dela q'ils peussent aver vessealx d'argent pur servir lour hostelx. Et qe nul soit si hardy de porter fausse et malveis monoie en roialme, sur peyne de forfaiture de vie et de membre et a faire eschanges a ceux qi passeront la miere, d'or pur lour bons esterlings a la value. Also, it is agreed and assented that good and loyal men should be assigned to sea ports and elsewhere where there is need to search so that no silver is carried out of the realm, in money or otherwise, except when great men go overseas and have silver vessels for serving their households. And no-one should be so bold as to bring false and bad money into the realm on penalty of forfeiture of life and limb, or to make exchanges of gold to the value of their good sterling with those who cross the sea.
Item, assentuz est et acordez qe les ditz sercheours, par cause q'ils ferront lour offices plus diligeantment et plus loialment, ils eient la tiercz partie de < tote la fauxe monoie q'ils purront trover portee deinz le roialme, a lour profit demeen. Et en meisme la manere eient la tierce partie de la bone monoie quele ils troveront en la > miere, passant hors de la terre. Et en cas q'ils soient trovez negligentz ou rebealx a tieux serches faire, qe lour terres et tenementz, biens et chateux soient seisiz en la mayn [memb. 2] le roi, et lour corps pris et detenuz tanqe ils eient fait fyn au roi pur lour desobeissance. Et en cas q'ils soient assentantz de porter tiele fausse monoie, et de soeffrire sachantement l'argent ou monoie, autrement forspris qe les grandz quant ils vont par dela q'ils peussent aver vessealx d'argent pur servir lour hostelx, come desus est dit, estre mesnez hors du roialme eient juggement de vie et de membre. Also, it was agreed and accorded that the said searchers, because they perform their offices very diligently and very loyally, should have one third of all the false money which they can find brought into the realm for their own profit. And in the same manner they should have one third of the good money which they find on the sea passing out of the land. And if they are found negligent or recalcitrant in making such searches, their lands and tenements, good and chattels should be seised into the king's hands, [memb. 2] and their bodies taken and detained until they have made fine to the king for their disobedience. And if they consent to the bringing in of such false money, and knowingly suffer the silver or money to be taken out of the realm, except when the great men go overseas and have silver vessels for serving their households as is aforesaid, they should have judgment of life and limb. (fn. ii-135-85-1)
De la monoie. Concerning the currency.
16. Et fait a remembrer qe durante celle tretee entre les grantz, vindrent les communes et donerent un avisement d'encrestre la monoie, en la forme qe s'ensuit: 16. And let it be remembered that during this discussion among the great men, the commons came and made a suggestion to increase the currency, in the form that follows:
'Quant au plentee de bone monoie aver en Engleterre, avis est a la commune qe chescun qi passe leynes hors de la terre, report pur chescun sak, plate qe poise deux mars, come contenuz est en l'estatut de ce fait einz ces heures. Et aussint, qe touz ceux qi passent quirs a la value d'un sak de leyne reportent plate d'atiele poys come avant. Et aussint des totes autres marchandises custumables qe passent, c'estassaver pur le pris du sak de leyne soit reportez plate d'atiele poys. Et qe endentures ent soient faites par entre les custumers et les ditz marchandz qi passent les dites marchandises, ou autres a ceo deputez; par queles endentures ils purront estre chargez a lour venue; et adoncs soit la dite plate portee as coignes pur eschanges faire pur bon esterling et mayles a ce acordantz, selonc lour afferant. Et qe les coygnes soient overtz tote parte ou ils soleient estre. Et qe nul apport soit fait del esterling hors de la terre ne de vessell d'argent, ne de plate d'argent. Et qe les marchandz aliens qi viegnent od lour marchandises en Engleterre, resceivent or pur lour paiement, [col. b] ou marchandise pur marchandise, et qe estreitement soit enquis et de ce bon serche faite a chescun port, de ceux qi apportent la fausse monoie, et les coupables grevousement puniz.' 'As regards having an abundance of good money in England, the commons are advised that everyone who exports wool out of the land should bring back plate weighing two marks for each sack, as is contained in the statute made thereon before this time. And also, all those who export leather to the value of a sack of wool should bring back plate of a similar weight as above. And likewise for all other customable merchandise which is exported, as when for the price of a sack of wool, they bring back plate of a similar weight. And indentures should be made thereon between the customs officials and the said merchants who export the said merchandise, or others appointed to this; by which indentures they can be charged upon their arrival; and then the said plate should be treated as coin to be exchanged for good sterling and halfpennies corresponding to it, according to their rate. And the coins should be valid wherever they are used. And no sterling, silver vessels or silver plate should be exported out of the land. And the alien merchants who come into England with their merchandise should receive gold for their payment, [col. b] or receive merchandise in exchange for merchandise, and this should be strictly inquired into and a good search made at every port for those who carry false money, and the guilty should be grievously punished.'
Le pris des leynes. The price of wool.
17. Item, pur encrestre la bone monoie en ceste terre, est avis a les communes qe le sort des leynes soit enhauncez en chescun countee d'Engleterre; c'estassaver, en le countee d'Everwyk en Craven et es autres lieux acordantz .ix. mars et aillours en meisme le countee .xi. mars, en Kent la meilloure leyne pur .ix. mars et le marrois pur .c. s, en Sussex et Midd' en meisme la manere, en Surr' par tut .vi. mars, en le countee de Nicole la meilloure pur .xiiij. mars holand et le marrois pur .xi. mars, Roteland pur .x. mars, Salop' pur .xiiij. mars, Oxon' .xiij. mars et siltre .x. mars, Berk' .ix. mars, Notyngh' .x. mars et demi, Norht' .xi. mars, Staff' la meilloure .xiij. mars, l'autre .xij. mars, Derb' .ix. mars et demi, Leyc' .xij. mars, Warr' la meilloure .x. mars et demi, Cantebr' .ix. mars, Hunt' .ix. mars, Buk' .xi. mars, Bed' .xi. mars, Wiltes' .viij. mars et demi, Somers' .xi. mars, Sutht' la meilloure pur .ix. mars, L'Isle de Wyght et la Novelle Foreste .c. s., Dors' .viij. mars, Hereford la meilloure .xij. mars et l'autre .x. mars, Wyrcestre la meilloure .x. mars et demi et l'autre .viij. mars, Hertford .x. mars, Essex la meilloure .x. mars et le maroys .c. s., Glouc' la meilloure .xij. mars et l'autre .xi. mars, Norff' .c. s., Suff' .c.s., Cumbr' .x. mars, Northumbr' .viij. mars, Westmerl' .x. mars, Lancastre .viij. mars, Devon' .lx. s., Cornewaill .iiij. mars. Et qe cest pris se tiegne, forspris des leynes dues au roi par fyns faites devant ses justices en pays avant cest parlement ou en autre manere, qe ne sont uncore paiees, issint qe nul marchand ne achate deinz le pris susdit, mes qe chescun peusse vendre aussi haut come il poet. Et qe la peyne qe sur ce serra ordeignee se tiegne devers les achatours et nemye devers les vendours. 17. Also, in order to increase good money in this land, the commons are advised that the value of wool should be raised in each county of England; that is to say, in the county of Yorkshire, in Craven and in other corresponding places 9 marks, and elsewhere in the same county 11 marks; in Kent the best wool for 9 marks and the lesser for 100s.; in Sussex and Middlesex in the same manner; everywhere in Surrey for 6 marks; in the county of Lincoln the best for 14 marks and in Holland and lesser wool for 11 marks; in Rutland for 10 marks; in Shropshire for 14 marks; in Oxford for 13 marks and lesser wool for 10 marks; in Berkshire for 9 marks; in Nottingham for 10½ marks; in Northamptonshire for 11 marks; in Staffordshire the best for 13 marks and the other for 12 marks; in Derbyshire for 9½ marks; in Leicestershire for 12 marks; in Warwickshire the best for 10½ marks; in Cambridgeshire for 9 marks; in Huntingdonshire for 9 marks; in Buckinghamshire for 11 marks; in Bedfordshire for 11 marks; in Wiltshire for 8½ marks; in Somerset for 11 marks; in Hampshire the best for 9 marks, in the Isle of Wight and the New Forest for 100s.; in Dorset for 8 marks; in Herefordshire the best for 12 marks and the other for 10 marks; in Worcestershire the best for 10½ marks and the other for 8 marks; in Hertfordshire for 10 marks; in Essex the best for 10 marks and the lesser for 100s.; in Gloucestershire the best for 12 marks and the other for 11 marks; in Norfolk for 100s.; in Suffolk for 100s.; in Cumberland for 10 marks; in Northumberland for 8 marks; in Westmoreland for 10 marks; in Lancashire for 8 marks; in Devon for 60s.; and in Cornwall for 4 marks. And this price should be upheld, with the exception of wool due to the king by fines made before his justices in the country before this parliament or in other manner, which have not yet been paid, so that no merchant should buy below the aforesaid price, but that each person might sell as high as he can. And the penalty which will be ordained thereon should be upheld against the buyers and not against the sellers.
Et fait a remembrer qe endroit de < cel > pris mys des leynes, nostre seignur le roi et les ditz grantz < et communes > se sont assentuz et acordez q'il estoise [...] de la Seint Johan prochein avenir < tanqe a la Seint Michel prochein suant, et de meisme la fest tanqe a la > < fyn des trois anz prochein suantz > pleynement acompliz. Et les ditz grantz et communes se sont assentuz qe par tut cel temps nostre seignur le roi prendra de chescun sak de leyne qe passera .xl. s. < de subside, > outre l'aunciene custume. And let it be remembered as regards this price fixed for wool, that our lord the king and the said great men and commons have agreed and accorded that it should stand from Saint John next coming until Michaelmas immediately following, and from the same feast until the end of three full years. And the said great men and commons have agreed that for the whole of this time our lord the king will take a subsidy of 40s. on every sack of wool which is exported, in addition to the ancient custom.
De ceux qi achatent deinz le pris, et qe la veille custume et subside soient paiez. Concerning those who buy below the price [set for wool], and that the ancient custom and subsidy should be paid.
18. Fait a remembrer qe le roi et les grantz sont acordez qe nul homme, denzein ne forein, de quele condicion q'il soit, ne doit achater nulles leynes deinz le sort ordeignez ore a ce parlement, sur peyne de forfaiture de meismes les leynes ensi achatees, la quele peyne portera l'achatour. Et aussint qe la veille custume et subside soient paiez pur passage des leynes par manere come est acordez en parlement; c'estassaver, de la fest de Seint Johan Baptistre prochein avenir tanqe a la < feste de la Seint Michel, et de meisme la fest tanqe a la > fyn de trois annz prochein suantz. Et nostre seignur le roi ad grantez et promys q'il ne pardurra nulle forfaiture encurrue par cause de passage des leynes nient cokettees ou nient custumees; ou qe subside ne soit paiez ne grantera conge a nulle persone quele qe ce soit d'achater leynes deinz le dit sort, ne de passer leynes sanz paier les custume et subside avanditz. Et sur ce ad comandez a son chaunceller et gardein de son prive seal q'ils ne facent mandementz ne garantz au contraire de cel acorde en nul point. Et estre ce, serra commandez a touz les custumers d'Engleterre, q'ils ne soeffrent nulles leynes passer en autre manere hors des portz ou ils sont deputez, pur nulles lettres ou mandementz faitz ou affaire a l'encontre souz qecunqe seal qe ce soit. 18. Let it be remembered that the king and the great men have agreed that no man, denizen or foreign, of whatever condition he may be, should buy wool below the price ordained now at this parliament, on penalty of forfeiture of the same wool thus bought, which penalty will be brought against the buyer. And also the ancient custom and subsidy should be paid for the export of wool in the manner agreed in parliament; that is to say, from the feast of Saint John the Baptist next coming until the feast of Michaelmas, and from the same feast until the end of three full years. And our lord the king has granted and promises that he will not pardon any forfeiture incurred by reason of the export of uncustomed and uncocketted wool, and that no subsidy should be paid or licence granted to any person who buys wool below the said price or exports wool without paying the aforesaid custom and subsidy. And in this matter he has ordered his chancellor and the keeper of his privy seal that they should not make orders or warrants contrary to this agreement in any point. And further, all the customs officials in England will be ordered not to allow any wool to pass in other manner out of the ports where they are appointed, despite any letters or orders made or to be made to the contrary under whoever's seal they may be.
[p. ii-139]
[col. a]
De heirs neez dela la miere. Concerning heirs born overseas.
19. Pur ce qe avant ces heures grante doute et difficultee ont este entre les grantz de cest roialme et les communes, aussibien gentz de lei come autres, si les enfantz qi sont neez es parties d'outre miere deveroient porter heritage apres le decesse de lour auncestres en Engleterre, par cause qe certeyne lei n'ad pas este sur ce ordeignee cea en arere, si fu demandez par . . l'ercevesqe de Cantirbirs a touz les prelatz et grantz presentz en ce parlement, si les enfantz nostre seignur le roi qi feussent neez es parties de dela serroient enheritez en Engleterre. Les queux prelatz et grantz, chescun a par lui examinez, donerent lour respons d'une acorde q'il n'y ad nulle manere de doute qe les enfantz nostre seignur le roi queu part q'ils soient neez pardecea la miere ou pardela, porteront l'eritage de lour auncestres. Mes quant as enfantz des autres, il est avis as ditz prelatz et grantz et as gentz de lei illoeqes presentz qe pur divers doutes et difficultees qe purront avenir de prover qe tieux soient verrois heirs si debatz ou empeschementz soient mys en lour heritages, il covendroit molt penser avant qe certeyne lei sur ce soit ordeignee. Si fu ceste matiere autre foitz recitee en la presence nostre seignur le roi et des ditz prelatz et grantz, et aussint des communes, et par eux touz uniement acordez et assentuz come desus, qe des enfantz de nostre seignur le roi il n'y ad doute ne difficultee q'ils ne serront enheritez, queu parte q'ils soient neez. Et endroit des autres enfantz, acordez est en ce parlement q'ils soient aussint enheritez queu part q'ils soient neez < en le service le roi. > Mes pur ce qe le parlement est ore a departir, et ceste busoigne demand grant avisement et bone deliberacion coment ele se purra mieltz faire, et plus surement, pur ouster tote manere d'empeschementz, si est acordez, qe la fesance de l'estatut en ce cas demeurge tanqe au prochein parlement, issint qe entre cy et adonqes chescun empense coment certeyne lei ent purra mieltz estre ordeignee. Et sur ce sont les justices et autres sages chargez par le roi et par les grantz. 19. Because before this time there has been great doubt and difficulty among the great men of this realm and the commonalty, men of law as well as others, as to whether children born overseas ought to have rights of inheritance in England after the death of their ancestors, since there has not been a definitive law ordained in this matter before this time, the archbishop of Canterbury asked all the prelates and great men present in this parliament whether the children of our lord the king who were born overseas should be able to inherit in England. These prelates and great men, each examined by him, gave their answer of one accord that there was no manner of doubt that the children of our lord the king should have rights of inheritance from their ancestors whether they are born here or overseas. But as regards the children of others, the said prelates and the great men and the men of law present there considered that, as a result of various doubts and difficulties which could occur in proving that such people are true heirs if disputes or impediments are brought against their inheritances, it was necessary to think carefully before a definitive law should be ordained thereon. And this matter was recited again in the presence of our lord the king and of the said prelates and great men, and also of the commons, and they unanimously agreed and assented as above that concerning the children of our lord the king there was no doubt or difficulty that they will inherit, wherever they are born. And as regards other children, it was agreed in this parliament that they should also inherit wherever they are born in the service of the king. But since the parliament was about to conclude, and this business required great consideration and good deliberation as to how this could best and most securely be achieved, to remove all manner of impediments, it was agreed that the making of the statute in this case should wait until the next parliament, so that between now and then each person could consider how a definitive law could best be ordained in this matter. And the justices and other wise men were charged thereon by the king and the great men.
De ceux qe ne voillent ester a lour porcion des communes fyns. Concerning those who will not pay their portion of common fines.
20. Item, acordez est et assentuz qe en cas qe ascun homme des countees, de quele condicion q'il soit, ou communes fyns sont faites pur trespas ou pur excesses, devant justices assignez d'oier et terminer en meismes les countees, ne voille ester a sa porcion des tieux fyns, qe soit mys sur lui, q'il estoise a la commune lei devant meismes les justices, ou autres queux le roi vourrai assigner. Et en cas q'il soit trovez nient coupable, soit la porcion q'est ensi mys sur lui jettue sur ceux qi l'averont apporcionez torcinousement. 20. Also, it was agreed and assented that if any man, of whatever condition he may be, of the counties where common fines are made for trespasses or for excesses before justices assigned to hear and determine in the same counties will not pay his portion of such fines, he should stand at the common law before the same justices, or others whom the king will assign. And if he is found not guilty, the portion which was thus set on him should be borne by those who wrongfully apportioned it.
[col. b]
Des exigendes. Concerning exigent.
21. Item, acordez est et assentuz qe des exigendz qe sont issues ou a isser pur chose qe ne touche felonies ne trespases faites contre la pees, forspris les choses comprises en les respons al unzisme article des peticions des communes, soient faitz briefs de surseer, tanqe au prochein parlement generalx et especialx pur chescun qi les vourra demander. 21. Also, it was agreed and assented that concerning exigent issued or to be issued for anything that does not concern felonies or trespasses committed against the peace, with the exception of the things contained in the answer to the eleventh article of the petitions of the commons, general and special writs to surcease until the next parliament should be made for each person who requests them.
De l'arreinement l'ercevesqe. Concerning the arraignment of the archbishop.
22. Fait a remembrer qe nostre seignur le roi ad comandez qe totes les choses touchantes l'arreynement . . l'ercevesqe de Cantirbirs, les queux choses demurerent devers Sire William de Kyldesby au parlement tenuz a Westm' a la quinzeyne de Paske l'an quinzisme pur aver ent avisement tanqe a ce parlement, soient adnullez et oustez de tut, come celles qe ne sont pas resonables ne veritables. Par qoi comande fu a Mestre Johan de Ufford de porter meismes les choses en parlement pur anienter illoeqes. 22. Let it be remembered that our lord the king has ordered that all the things touching the arraignment of the archbishop of Canterbury, which things were left in the possession of William Kilsby at the parliament held at Westminster on the quinzaine of Easter in the fifteenth year [1341] in order to have advice thereon at this parliament, should be annulled and completely void, as they are unreasonable and false. Wherefore Master John Offord was ordered to bring the same things into parliament to be destroyed.
De l'estatut fait a Westm' l'an .xv., q'est repellez. Concerning the statute made at Westminster in the fifteenth year [1341], which is repealed.
23. Item, acordez est et assentuz qe l'estatut fait a Westm' a la quinzeyn de Pask, l'an du regne nostre seignur le roi quinzisme, soit de tut repellez et anientez et perde noun d'estatut, come cel q'est prejudiciel et contraire a leys et usages du roialme et as droitz et prerogatives nostre seignur le roi. (fn. ii-135-113-1) Mes pur ce qe ascuns articles furent compris en meisme l'estatut qe sont resonables et acordantz a lei et a reson, il est acordez par nostre seignur le roi et son conseil qe des tieux articles et autres acordez en cest present parlement soit fait estatut de novel, par l'avis des justices et autres sages, et tenuz a touz jours. (fn. ii-135-113-2) 23. Also, it was agreed and assented that the statute made at Westminster on the quinzaine of Easter in the fifteenth year of the reign of our lord the king [1341] should be completely repealed and void and lose the name of statute, since it is prejudicial and contrary to the laws and usages of the realm and to the rights and prerogatives of our lord the king. (fn. ii-135-113-1) But since certain articles contained in the same statute are reasonable and in accordance with law and reason, it was agreed by our lord the king and his council that such articles and others agreed in this present parliament should be made into a new statute, by the advice of the justices and other wise men, and upheld forever. (fn. ii-135-113-2)
Des custumers et autres officers q'ont lour office en fee. Concerning customs officials and other officials who have their office in fee.
24. Item, acordez est et assentuz par nostre seignur le roi, prelatz et grantz en ce parlement qe, pur eschuir les meschiefs et damages qe sont avenuz einz ces heures a nostre seignur le roi et viegnent de jour en autre par tant qe ascunes gentz q'ont l'offices des custumers, contreroullours et tronours en fee ou a terme de vie ou des aunz, a la priere des grantz lessent lour offices as autres a ferme, les queux fermers se portent malement en les offices et servent au roi meyns suffissantement, qe touz tieux officers soient ousteez et remuez, nient contrestant qe les offices soient grantez a eux en fee ou a terme de vie ou des aunz, come desus est dit. Et qe desore nulle commission soit faite des tieux officers forsqe a la volentee le roi. Et en cas qe nul tiel office soit grauntez a nuly en fee, a terme de vie ou a terme des aunz en noun de garisoun, viegne celui a qi l'office est grante devant le roi; et le roi avera tiel regard devers lui q'il se tendra paiez par reson. 24. Also, it was agreed and assented by our lord the king, the prelates and great men in this parliament, in order to avoid the misfortunes and damages which have previously occurred to our lord the king and occur from day to day because some people who have the offices of customs official, controller and tronager in fee or for a term of life or years lease their offices to others to farm at the request of the great men, and these farmers conduct themselves badly in the offices and do not serve the king sufficiently, that such officials should be expelled and removed, notwithstanding that the offices were granted to them in fee or for a term of life or years, as is aforesaid. And henceforth no commission of such officials should be made except at the king's will. And if any such office is granted to anyone in fee, for a term of life or a term of years for the purpose of his livelihood, he to whom the office was granted should come before the king, and the king will have such regard for him that he will be rightly compensated.
LES PETICIONS DES COMMUNES ET LES RESPONS OVESQES. THE PETITIONS OF THE COMMONS WITH THEIR ANSWERS.
[col. a]
[memb. 3]
I. Adeprimes, qe seinte esglise eit totes ses franchises, et soit meyntenuz en touz pointz. [I. Liberties of the Church.]
I. First, that holy Church should have all its franchises and should be maintained in all points.
[editorial note: Responsio. ] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi l'ad volu touz jours, et le voet uncore. The king has always willed it, and wills it again.
25. II. Item, qe la grande chartre et la chartre de la foreste se tiegnent en touz pointz. [II. Confirmation of the Great Charter.]
25. II. Also, that the Great Charter and the Charter of the Forest should be upheld in all points.
[editorial note: Responsio. ] [editorial note: Answer.]
En meisme la manere le roi le voet. The king wills it in the same manner.
[col. b]
26. III. Item, qe les estatutz deinz ces heures par le conseil le roi, piers de la terre et la commune ordeignez se tiegnent et soient meyntenuz en lour force. [III. Confirmation of statutes.]
26. III. Also, that the statutes previously ordained by the king's council, the peers of the land and the commons should be upheld and maintained in their force.
[editorial note: Responsio. ] [editorial note: Answer.]
Il plest au roi qe les estatutz soient veuz et examinez, et ceux qe sont d'amender soient amendez, et les bons estoisent en lour force. It pleases the king that the statutes should be viewed and examined, and those which need to be amended should be amended, and the good ones should remain in force.
27. IIII. Item, qe les darreins estatutz faitz et ordeignez par le conseil le roi, piers de la terre et par la commune, [p. ii-140][col. a] pur queux estatutz avoir et meyntenir les grantz ove les communes donerent a nostre seignur le roi les neofismes par deux aunz, c'estassaver, des garbes, toisons et aignelx, dont la moite feust levee au profit le roi en cours de neofisme, et pur l'autre moite de neofisme grante feust au roi par les grantz et la commune ..xxx. .m. saks, en recompensacion de la neofisme de la second an; c'estassaver, .xx. .m. le primer an, et .x. .m. le second an, qe estoit une grante raunseon et grevouse charge a eux. Prient les ditz communes qe meismes ces estatutz soient meyntenuz en lour force. [IIII. Restoration of statutes of 1341.]
27. IIII. Also, concerning the last statutes made and ordained by the king's council, the peers of the land and by the commons, [p. ii-140][col. a] to have and to maintain which statutes the great men and the commons gave our lord the king the ninth for two years, that is to say, of sheaves, fleeces and lambs, one half of which was levied for the king's profit in the course of the ninth, and for the other half of the ninth 30,000 sacks were granted to the king by the great men and the commons in compensation for the ninth of the second year; that is to say, 20,000 in the first year and 10,000 in the second year, so that a great burden and grievous charge remains upon them. The said commons pray that the same statutes should be maintained in their force. (fn. ii-135-136-1)
[editorial note: Responsio. ] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi nadgairs apparceivant qe le dit estatut feust contre son serement et en blemissement de sa corone et de sa roialtee, et contre la ley de la terre en plusours pointz, si fist repeller meisme l'estatut. (fn. ii-135-139-1) Mes il voet qe les pointz du dit estatut soient examinez, et ceux qe serront trovez honurables et profitables pur le roi et son poeple soient ore faitz en novel estatut, et gardez desore. (fn. ii-135-139-2) The king formerly acknowledged that the said statute was contrary to his oath and to the detriment of his crown and his royalty, and against the law of the land in many points, so he caused the same statute to be repealed. (fn. ii-135-139-1) But he wills that the points of the said statute should be examined, and those found to be honourable and profitable for the king and his people should now be made into a new statute and observed henceforth. (fn. ii-135-139-2)
28. V. Item, qe la maletoute des leynes se tiegne a demy mark come en temps de ses progenitours ad este usez, et par estatut puis en vostre temps grantee. (fn. ii-135-141-1) Et coment qe les marchandz eient grantez, par eux sanz assent des communes, un subside de .xl. s. de chescun sac de leyne outre la droiturele maletoute de demy mark, voillez s'il vous plest aver regard, qe tut est en charge et a meschief de voz communes. Par qoi cel meschief, si vous plest, ne voillez soeffrir, mes soit amendez a cest parlement; qar ce est encontre reson qe la commune de lour biens soient par marchandz chargez. [V. Subsidy on wool.]
28. V. Also, that the maltolt of wool should be maintained at a ½ mark as was observed in the time of his progenitors, and by statute granted in your time. (fn. ii-135-141-1) And whereas the merchants have granted, by themselves without the assent of the commons, a subsidy of 40s. from each sack of wool in addition to the rightful maltolt of a ½ mark, will it please you to consider that all this is to the burden and misfortune of your commonalty. Wherefore, if it pleases you, you will not suffer this misfortune but have it amended at this parliament, since it is unreasonable for the commonalty to be taxed on their goods by the merchants.
[editorial note: Responsio. ] [editorial note: Answer.]
L'entente de nostre seignur le roi n'est pas de charger les communes par le subside qe les marchandz lui ont grantez, n'en poet estre entenduz en charge des communes, moement desicome les communes ont mys un certein pris sur les leynes par my les counteez; le quel pris le roi voet qe estoise, et qe dedeinz cel pris nulles leynes soient achatees, sur forfaiture de meismes les leynes en les mayns des marchandz qi les issint achatent. It is not our lord the king's intent to burden the commonalty with the subsidy which the merchants have granted to him, nor can he understand that there is a burden on the commonalty, especially since the commons have set a certain price on the wool throughout the counties; which price the king wills should stand, and that no wool should be bought below this price, on forfeiture of the same wool from the hands of the merchants who so buy it.
29. VI. Item, qe remede soit ordeignez ore a cest parlement, par conseil le roi, piers de la terre et les communes, des outrageouses grevances et oppressions faites au commune poeple par purveours le roi et autres ministres le roi; qar si Dieux et vous n'y mettez hastive remede, vostre poeple serra nettement destruit par eux, qar lour malice crest de jour en autre; et qe l'estatut sur ce ordeigne se tiegne. (fn. ii-135-146-1) [VI. Purveyance.]
29. VI. Also, that remedy should now be ordained at this parliament, by the king's council, the peers of the land and the commons, against the outrageous grievances and oppressions done to the common people by the king's purveyors and others of the king's officers; since if God and you do not provide swift remedy, your people will be completely destroyed by them, as their malice increases from day to day; and that the statute ordained thereon should be upheld. (fn. ii-135-146-1)
[editorial note: Responsio. ] [editorial note: Answer.]
Il plest au roi qe les ordynances et l'estatuts faitz en temps de ses progenitours et en son temps, touchantz tieux grevances et oppressions, soient gardez et tenuz en touz pointz, sanz faire desport a nuly. Et auxint il plest au roi qe ascunes ordynances qe sont faites de novel par avys de son conseil outre les dites ordinances et estatutz soient monstrees a la commune. It pleases the king that the ordinances and statutes made in the time of his progenitors and in his own time concerning such grievances and oppressions should be observed and upheld in all points, without sparing anyone. And it also pleases the king that certain ordinances which were recently made by the advice of his council should be declared to the commonalty in addition to the said ordinances and statutes.
30. VII. Item, pur ce qe usez est ore de novel qe la ou un homme est enditez des trespases devant ascuns justices, et ne poet sa deliverance aver si noun par ses enditours, q'est encontre reson a ce q'est avys a la commune; vous pri la dite commune, si vous plest, qe remede de ce soit fait ore a ce parlement, par avisement de vostre bon conseil, des piers de la terre et de la commune. [VII. Challenge to indictors.]
30. VII. Also, because it was recently the practice that when a man was indicted of trespasses before certain justices, and could not have his deliverance except by his indictors, which the commons are advised is unreasonable; the said commons pray you, if it please you, that remedy should now be provided in this matter at this parliament, by the advice of you good council, the peers of the land and the commons.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Il plest au roi pur eese et pur pleisance des prelatz, grantz et communes qe l'aunciene leye usee en tieu cas soit tenue et gardee, issint qe si tielx enditez voillent chalenger lour enditours, soient lour chalenges allowees. It pleases the king, for the ease and pleasure of the prelates, great men and commons, that the ancient law practised in such case should be upheld and observed, so that if any indicted persons will challenge their indictors, their challenges should be allowed.
31. VIII. Item, pur ce qe plusours gentz q'ont affaire en la mareschalsie sont susduitz par defaute de sergeantie, [col. b] par qoi ils sont grevousement endamagez, vous pri, s'il vous pleise, vostre commune qe chescun q'ad ensi affaire en celle place peusse dire sa grosse veritee sanz estre susduit par defaute de sergeant; et qe les execucions de la mareschalsie se peussent faire par le viscont et ses ministres, et nemye par autres. Et q'ils ne purparnent mye plees ne quereles autres qe auncienement soleient estre en la place, et q'ils ne passent mye la verge, et de ce soient estreitement surveu, et la peyne sur ce ordeigne en l'estatut nadgairs fait a Westm' se face sur tieux. [VIII. Court of the verge.]
31. VIII. Also, because many people who have business in the marshalsea are convicted for default of the services of a serjeant at law, [col. b] by which they are grievously harmed, your commons pray you, if it pleases you, that each person who has business in this court might state the substance of the case without being convicted for default of the services of a serjeant at law; and that the actions ordered by the marshalsea might be carried out by the sheriff and his officers and not by others. And they should not take up pleas or quarrels other than those anciently accustomed to be in the court, and they should not go beyond the verge, and they should be strictly overseen in this matter, and the penalty ordained thereon in the statute formerly made at Westminster should be imposed in such cases. (fn. ii-135-156-1)
[editorial note: Responsio. ] [editorial note: Answer.]
Endroit de ce qe chescun peusse dire sa grosse verite, il plest au roi. Et quant a execucion faire par visconts, le roi ne poet ouster les ministres de la mareschalsie de lour office, qi l'ont en fee. Et quant a la purprise, il plest au roi qe defens se face qe nul homme facz contre l'estatut fait en ce cas. As regards each person stating the substance of the case, it pleases the king. And as regards sheriffs carrying out orders, the king cannot remove from office the officers of the marshalsea who hold the same in fee. And as regards the taking up of pleas, it pleases the king that an order be made that no man should act contrary to the statute made on this matter.
32. IX. Item, pri la dite commune: q'il pleise a vostre haut seignurie, et a la pleisance de Dieux, et sovereynement pur vostre honur, qe les estatutz faitz par les piers de la terre et par la commune ne soient repellez ne defaitz, mes meyntenuz en lour force, pur l'estat de vostre corone et salvacion de voz subgitz, piers de la terre et de la commune. Et qe chaunceller et tresorer soient touz jours des piers de la terre, ou des autres sages et < soeffissantz, > come tut temps ad este usez. Et qe nul alien soit eslu a l'un office ne a l'autre pur l'onur de vostre roial estat, et pleisance de vostre commune. Et qe chaunceller ne tresorer ne soient justices, ne a autre office entendantz, mes a ce qe a lour office attient, pur le poeple deliverer et esploiter. [IX. The offices of chancellor and treasurer.]
32. IX. Also, the said commons pray: that it may please your high lordship, at God's pleasure and above all for your honour, that the statutes made by the peers of the land and by the commons should not be repealed or undone, but maintained in their force, for the estate of your crown and the salvation of your subjects, the peers of the land and the commonalty. And that the chancellor and treasurer should always be peers of the land or other wise and sufficient men, as has always been the custom. And that no alien should be elected to either office for the honour of your royal estate and the pleasure of your commonalty. And that neither the chancellor nor the treasurer should be justices or occupied in other offices, but should be attentive to their office for the deliverance and advancement of the people.
[editorial note: Responsio. ] [editorial note: Answer.]
Endroit de l'estatutz, il est responduz par amont au quart article. (fn. ii-135-164-1) Et quant as chaunceller et tresorer, le roi poet faire ses ministres tieux come lui plerra, et sicome lui et ses auncestres ont fait en tut temps passez. Mes il plest a ly de faire tieux ses ministres qi soient bons et suffisantz pur lui et pur son poeple. Et quant a l'entendance, le roi peusse charger son chaunceller et tresorer de faire < le > profit < de > lui et de son poeple, selonc ce qe serra avys a lui et a son bon conseil. As regards the statutes, it was answered above in the fourth article. (fn. ii-135-164-1) And as to the chancellor and treasurer, the king can make any who please him his officers, as he and his ancestors have always done in times past. But it pleases him to appoint as his officers such as are good and sufficient for him and for his people. And as regards being attentive to their offices, the king may instruct his chancellor and treasurer to act for the profit of him and of his people, as he and his good council see fit.
33. X. Item, prie la commune: qe desoremes nul simple chivaler ne sergeant ne soient chargez des commissions qe voillent acompt sanz ce qe ascun grant ensemblement ove le viscont du pays y soient jointz, as queux le poeple serra plus obeissant. [X. Liability of commissioners.]
33. X. Also, the commons pray: that henceforth no mere knight or serjeant should be burdened with commissions for which they must make account unless some great man is associated together with the sheriff of the region, to whom the people will be more obedient.
[editorial note: Responsio. ] [editorial note: Answer.]
Il plest au roi d'assigner tieux commissions as tieux gentz qe soient suffissantes a ce faire, pur le profit de lui et eese et profit de son poeple. It pleases the king to assign such commissions to such people as are sufficient to do this, for his profit and the ease and profit of his people.
34. XI. Item, qe come nadgairs, as pleintes des diverses gentz qe estoient myses en exigende pur extorsions < et > oppressions [...] devant justices assignez d'oier et terminer en divers counteez, contre lei et usage du roialme, estoit ordeignez au darrein parlement par commune assent qe les ditz justices deveroient surseer des tielx exigendes, qi n'estoient mye enditez des felonies ne de trespas faite contre la pees, tanqe au prochein parlement, pur plus plein deliberacion avoir adoncs. (fn. ii-135-171-1) Et par vertue de cel acorde et ordinance plusours briefs isserent hors de la chauncellerie a les justices, de surseer en la forme susdite, et sursistrent longement. Ne mye, pur ce plusours gentz de la commune enditees en la manere susdite sont par ascunes gentz expressement utlagez, en peril de lour vies, et perde de lour chatelx; prient voz communes qe tieles utlageries soient repellees et de tut anientez. [XI. Exigent.]
34. XI. Also, that whereas formerly, at the complaints of various people who were put in exigent for extortions and oppressions . . . before justices assigned to hear and determine in various counties, contrary to the law and custom of the realm, it was ordained at the last parliament by common assent that the said justices should surcease from such exigent on people who were not indicted of felonies or of trespass committed against the peace, until the next parliament, in order to have fuller deliberation. (fn. ii-135-171-1) And by virtue of this agreement and ordinance many writs were issued out of the chancery to the justices to surcease in the aforesaid form, and they surceased for a long time. Despite this, many people of the commonalty indicted in the aforesaid manner are expressly outlawed by various people, in peril of their lives and loss of their chattels; your commons pray that such outlawries should be repealed and completely annulled.
[editorial note: Responsio. ] [editorial note: Answer.]
Acordez est et assentuz qe de ceux qi sont et ont este resceivours des leynes le roi et les parnent du poeple et les aloignent ou detiegnent issint qe nostre seignur le roi ne poet ent estre servi, de ceux qi mesnent les leynes par dela sanz estre cokettees ou sanz paier coustume [p. ii-141][col. a] ou le subside as queux il sont assis, et des custumers < et tronours > qi les soeffrent au damage du roi, des leys ministres qi resceivent les deniers le roi et les retiegnent, des conspiratours, confederatours et meyntenours des faux quereles, et de ceux qi mesnent routes en presence des justices et autres ministres le roi ou aillours es countees en effrai du poeple issint qe la lei ne se poet faire auxibien de ceux qi les mesnent come de ceux qi viegnent en lour compaignie, des ceux qi < portent > la fausse monoie en deceite du poeple, touz ceux, en cas q'ils ne peussent estre trovez ou mesnez en respons par attachement ou par destresce pur le profit le roi, l'exigend soit suy et donez. It was agreed and assented that exigent should be sued and granted upon those who are and have been receivers of the king's wool and took wool from people and eloigned or kept it so that our lord the king could not be provided with it, those who took the wool overseas without being cocketted or paying the custom [p. ii-141][col. a] or the subsidy at which it was assessed, the customs officials and tronagers who allowed this to the damage of the king, the officers who received the king's wool and kept it, the conspirators, confederators and maintainers of false quarrels, those who brought gangs into the presence of justices and other of the king's officials and elsewhere in the counties to the disturbance of the people so that the law could not be done, those who brought them as well as those who came in their company, and those who carry false money in deceit of the people, if they might be found or brought to answer by attachment or by distress for the king's profit.
35. XII. Item, q'il pleise a nostre seignur le roi retenir devers lui terres, rentes et eschetes et autres profitz touchantz sa corone et son droit, ensi q'il peusse de ce mieltz vivre, en descharge de son poeple et pur mieltz meyntenir ses guerres et autres grosses busoignes de son roialme. [XII. Feudal incidents.]
35. XII. Also, may it please our lord the king to keep for himself the lands, rents, escheats and other profits touching his crown and his right, so that he might have a better livelihood, in discharge of his people and the better to maintain his wars and the other important business of his realm.
[editorial note: Responsio. ] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi est en volente de sauver le soen, selonc ce qe a lui serra avys par son bon conseil mieltz pur son profit. The king is willing to live of his own, according to what his good council advises him is best for his profit.
36. XIII. < Item, qe come plusours prisons en diverses gaoles de la terre, qi deviegnent provours, et appellent gentz qe sont de bone fame par faux procurement de lour gardeins, pur avoir raunseon des tielx appelez. Et sur ce les ditz provours, pur alloigner lour vies, fount lour appelx en foreins countees, en lieu ou nul tiel lieu poet estre trove; et issint sont tielx appelez par force de ley mys a pursuir de faire venir > enquestes pur lour deliverances hors du countees ou ils sont appellez, a grante damage de eux et de ceux qi ensi sont fait venir hors de lour pays. Et la ou le viscont fait son retourne al brief de venire facias .xxiiij. de visn' de tiel lieu q'il n'y ad nul tiel lieu en sa vaillie, si sont tieux apelez mys a grande meschief, et a proces infinit, et tut le meen temps demuregent les provours a les gages le roi, a grante damage du roi; dont ils prient remedie. [XIII. Approvers.]
36. XIII. Also, that many prisoners in various gaols of the land become approvers and appeal people who are of good fame by the false procurement of their keepers, who seek to take ransoms from such appellees. And the said approvers, in order to prolong their lives, make their appeals in distant counties in places where no such place can be found; and thus such appellees by force of law are required to have inquests convened for their deliverance outside the counties where they are appealed, to their great damage and that of those who are thus made to appear outside their region. And when the sheriff makes his return to the writ of venire facias of the visne of such a place that there is no such place in his bailiwick, such appellees are put to great misfortune and to unending process, and all the meantime the approvers remain at the king's wages, to the great damage of the king; wherefore they pray remedy.
[editorial note: Responsio. ] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi voet qe les justices qi ferront les deliverances, et qi ont conussance de la leye en ce cas, facent droit a touz. The king wills that the justices who make the deliveries and who have knowledge of the law in this case should do justice to all.
37. XIIII. Item, pri la commune: qe nulle commune fyn < des countiez soit fait desore > en sessions des justices d'oier et terminer des diverses grevances faites au poeple par officers le roi, ou par autres; mes qe chescun soit duement puny selonc son trespas. [XIIII. Common fines.]
37. XIIII. Also, the commons pray: that no common fine of the counties should be made henceforth in the justices' sessions to hear and determine various grievances done to the people by the king's officers or by others; but that each person should be duly punished according to his trespass.
[editorial note: Responsio. ] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi voet qe nulle tiele commune fyn se face desore, mes qe chescun soit puny pur son trespas, ou face fin par lui meismes. The king wills that no such common fine henceforth should be made, but that each person should be punished for his trespass or make fine by himself.
38. XV. Item, pri la dite commune a nostre seignur le roi: qe come il eit de novel grantez as ascuns seignurs franchises queux sont annexes a sa dite corone, come chatelx forfaitz, issues et amerciementz et veues de frankplegge, et les baillifs as ditz seignurs mettont les gentz a trope haut issues pur pler a lour seignurs et pur singuler profit de eux, a grante destruccion du poeple. Par qoi pri la dite commune qe tieux meschiefs soient redrescez. [XV. Charges by franchise-holders.]
38. XV. Also, the said commons pray to our lord the king: that whereas he has recently granted some lords franchises which are annexed to his said crown, such as forfeited chattels, issues, amercements and views of frankpledge, the bailiffs of the said lords charge the people excessively to please their lords and for their individual profit, to the destruction of the people. Wherefore the said commons pray that such misfortunes be redressed.
[editorial note: Responsio. ] [editorial note: Answer.]
Il plest au roy qe la chose soit amendee pur amendement de son poeple, par l'avis des grantz et autres de son bon conseil. It pleases the king that this matter be amended for the improvement of his people, by the advice of the great men and others of his good council.
39. XVI. Item, pri la dite commune: qe bon examinement et punissement soit fait en chescune ville marchande de ceux qi usent fausse mesures, deinz franchises et dehors, et qe nulle commune fyn soit faite des trespassours, mes qe chescun soit puny severalment selonc la quantite de son trespas. [XVI. Weights and measures.]
39. XVI. Also, the said commons pray: that a good examination and punishment should be made in every market town of those who use false measures, inside as well as outside franchises, and that no common fine should be made concerning trespassers, but that each person should be punished individually according to the seriousness of his trespass.
[col. b]
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi le voet, et qe l'estatutz faitz de mesures et de poises soient tenuz en touz pointz, (fn. ii-135-201-1) et qe les trespassantz soient puniz. The king wills it, and the statutes made concerning measures and weights should be upheld in all points, (fn. ii-135-201-1) and the trespassers should be punished.
40. XVII. Item, pri la commune: qe commissions soient faites as bones gentes d'enquer en pays ou miester serra des mesures, aunes et poises, auxi come avant ces heures ad este usez, et sur les defautes meyntenant sanz redempcion, qe remedie soit fait, pur profit le roi et profit de son poeple. [XVII. Commissions of weights and measures.]
40. XVII. Also, the commons pray: that commissions should be made to good people to inquire in those regions where it is necessary into measures, ells and weights, as has been the custom before this time, and into the defaults now committed without redemption, so that remedy is made, for the profit of the king and of his people.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Il plest au roi, (fn. ii-135-206-1) horspris tote foitz l'aunage, dont le roi ad grante certein franchise as gentz de Flandres; et en cas qe defaute y soit, le roi voet q'ils soient appellez, et qe remede ent soit fait. It pleases the king, (fn. ii-135-206-1) always excepting the alnage, for which the king has granted a certain franchise to the people of Flanders; and if there is default, the king wills that they should be accused and that remedy should be made thereon.
41. XVIII. Item, pri la dite commune: q'il pleise a nostre seignur le roi par son conseil ordeigner covenables gages pur les justices assignez en diverses pays, issint q'ils n'eient encheson de rien prendre de ceux qi averont affaire devant eux. [XVIII. Wages for justices.]
41. XVIII. Also, the said commons pray: that it may please our lord the king by his council to ordain suitable wages for the justices assigned in various regions, so that they do not have cause to take anything from those who have business before them.
[editorial note: Responsio. ] [editorial note: Answer.]
Il plest au roi qe ensi soit, et qe les chaunceller et tresorer ordeignent covenable somme pur eux, par qoi ils le peussent faire. It pleases the king that it should be so, and the chancellor and treasurer should ordain a suitable amount for them, by which they might do so.
Mittatur ut patet in tergo. Omitted as it appears on the dorse.
[[The following text has been deleted:
XIX. Item, desicome les aliens tiegnent tantz des benefitz en vostre terre, dont les almoignes sont souztretes qe soloient estre faites, et tresore de vostre terre est molt apporte par dela, en meyntenance de voz enemys, et les privetez de ceste terre descovertz, et voz lieges clers suffissantz pardecea le meyns avances par reson des tieux. Et sur ce ore de novell plusours cardinalx sont faitz, dont le pape par ses bulles ad grantez a deux de eux beneficz en ceste terre, a la montance de .vi. .m. marz au taxe, sur une si generale et coverte manere, qe la somme passera .x. .m. mars avant qe le doun soit accepte, si ce soit suffert. Et issint d'an en an par proluxite de temps la terre par tieux grauntz serra si repleny des aliens, qe a peyne nul clerks pardecea trovera beneficz dont estre avance, fitz des grauntz ne d'autres, a grante damage du roi par cause de reservacions. Dont ils prient remedie, qar la commune ne le poet ne ne voet endurere. Et qe de souz son seal, et des autres grantz piers de la terre, soit mandez, si lui plest, au pape sur ceste charge surseer. Et en cas q'il ne le voille, la commune pri a nostre seignur le roi eide en meyntenance de eux a deffaire celle charge. ]]
[[The following text has been deleted:
XIX. Also, since aliens hold so many benefices in your land, from which the alms which are usually made are withdrawn, and much of the treasure of your land is exported overseas in maintenance of your enemies, and the secrets of this land are disclosed, and your liege clerks of good repute in this realm are less advanced for this reason. And many cardinals were recently made, wherefore the pope by his bulls has granted benefices in this land to two of them, to the amount of 6,000 marks in tax, in so general and secretive a manner that the amount will exceed 10,000 marks before the gift is accepted, if this is allowed. And thus from year to year by the passing of time the land will be so full of aliens as a result of such grants, that only with difficulty will any clerk, be he a son of a great lord or other, find a benefice in this realm in which to be advanced, to the great damage of the king as a result of these reservations. Wherefore they pray remedy, since the commonalty cannot and will not endure this. And, if it pleases him, under his seal and those of other great peers of the land, he should order the pope to surcease in this charge. And if he will not, the commons pray our lord the king to assist in maintaining them in undoing this charge.]]
[editorial note: Responsio. ] [editorial note: Answer. ]
[[The following text has been deleted:
Le roi est avisez de cel meschief, et voet qe entre les grantz et les communes soit ordeignez remede et amendement, et il s'acordra; et semble qe bon serroit qe bones lettres feussent faites au pape sur ceste matiere auxibien depar le roi et les grantz come depar la commune.]] (fn. ii-135-216-1)
[[The following text has been deleted:
The king is informed of this problem, and wills that between the great men and the commons remedy and amendment should be ordained, and he will agree; and it seems that it would be reasonable to send good letters to the pope on this matter on behalf of the king and the great men as well as on behalf of the commonalty.]] (fn. ii-135-216-1)
42. XX. Item, prie la dite commune: qe nul viscont ne seneschal des grantz qi ont franchises ne soient associez a les justices qi serront ore esluz d'oier et terminer felonies et trespas, et sur autres pointz ordeignez et assentuz, ne justices des liverances, mais gentz du pays lealux et de bone fame soient a eux associez. Et qe meismes les justices qi serront esluz, soient jurez, q'ils useront lour commission sanz duresce ou creualtee pur pleer au roi; mes aussi come serra plus pleissantz a Dieu, et a bone lei et a bon foie; et qe lour sessions soient ordeignez en seisons hors du temps d'Augst, et des feyns, en eese de la commune. [XX. Personnel of judicial commissions.]
42. XX. Also, the said commons pray: that no sheriff or steward of the great men who have franchises should be associated with the justices who will now be chosen to hear and determine felonies and trespasses and other matters ordained and agreed, or with the justices of gaol delivery, but that these should be loyal people of good fame from the region. And that the same justices who will be chosen should swear that they will use their commission without force or cruelty to please the king, but also as will be most pleasing to God and to the good law and good faith; and their sessions should be ordained in seasons outside August and hay making, in ease of the commonalty.
[editorial note: Responsio. ] [editorial note: Answer.]
Il plest au roi qe nul viscont soit desore justice, mes qe tieux soient < qi sachent > et voillent faire la ley, et qe gentz du pays de bone fame soient associez a eux, et nemye autres. It pleases the king that no sheriff should henceforth be a justice unless they are such as know and are willing to do the law, and that people of good fame from the region should be considered and not others.
[p. ii-142]
[col. a]
43. XXI. Item, pri la dite commune: qe les briefs qe ja de novel sont ordeignez, de mander as justices des assises de continuer plees de novelle disseisyne, contre commune ley, entre parties, a targer l'accion del demandant, en cas ou les disseisours apres la disseisyne faite se mettent en partie de outre miere, en le service nostre seignur le roi, ou aillours, (fn. ii-135-223-1) et ensi par tieux briefs les disseiours emportent le profit et les issues des dites terres durante lour demure par dela, dont les demandantz en cas pur touz jours serront sanz recoverir; dont ils prient qe remedie soit ordinez ore a cest parlement. [XXI. Delays in pleas of novel disseisin.]
43. XXI. Also, the said commons pray: that the writs which were recently ordained ordering the justices of the assizes to continue pleas of novel disseisin between parties, contrary to common law, delaying the action of the demandant in cases where the disseisors went overseas in the service of our lord the king or elsewhere after the disseisin was made, (fn. ii-135-223-1) so that by such writs the disseisors take the profit and the issues of the said lands during their stay overseas, as a result of which the demandants in such cases will forever be without recovery; wherefore they pray that remedy be ordained now at this parliament.
[editorial note: Responsio. ] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi avant ces heures par assent des grantz ad grantee tielz < briefs > par cause de necessite, et il ne voet mye qe tieux briefs soient grantez desore, si ce ne soit par semblable cause et par assent des grantz. Et si ascun tiel brief isse en autre manere, qe les justices nient contrestant cela facent la ley. Et quant as plees < qe > ont este delaiez par tieux briefs en temps passez, soient grantees briefs en la chauncelerie d'aler avant, nient contrestantz meismes les briefs. The king, by the assent of the great men, has previously granted such writs out of necessity, and he wills that such writs not be granted henceforth, except for similar reasons and by the assent of the great men. And if any such writ is issued in another manner, notwithstanding this the justices should follow the law in this matter. And as regards pleas which have been delayed by such writs in times past, writs should be granted in the chancery to proceed, notwithstanding the same writs.
44. XXII. Item, pri la dite commune: qe es counteez ou communes fyns sont faitz pur diverses excesses et trespas, qe nul de ditz counteez qi estoit partie a ceux fyns < soit > arenez en temps avenir devant justices qi ore serront ordeignez d'oier et terminer sur certeyns pointz ore a cest parlement assentuz, ne devant autres justices des dites excesses et trespas. [XXII. Individual liability for common fines.]
44. XXII. Also, the said commons pray: that in counties where common fines are made for various excesses and trespasses, no-one from the said counties who was party to those fines should be arraigned in times to come before the justices who will now be ordained to hear and determine certain matters now agreed at this parliament, or before other justices concerning the said excesses and trespasses.
[editorial note: Responsio. ] [editorial note: Answer.]
Il plest au roi qe ceux q'ont fait fyn en commune ou soul pur trespas faite par eux soient quitz en cas q'ils soient autre foitz empeschez du dit trespas par mesme la fyn. It pleases the king that those who have made fine in common or individually for a trespass committed by them should be quit if they are convicted again for the said trespass by the same fine.
45. XXIII. Item, pri la dite commune: qe en cas ou un homme serra trove en l'escheqier dettour le roi et nostre seignur le roi en cas en sa dette, qe par voie de equitee, si lui plest, qe la une dette poet < estre > rebatuz en l'autre, come einz ces heures ad este usez, et contenuz est en l'estatut del dit escheqier, et qe deues allowances des aunciens dettes pardonez soient allowez. [XXIII. Debts in the exchequer.]
45. XXIII. Also, the said commons pray: that in cases where a man is found in the exchequer to be the king's debtor and our lord the king is in his debt, by way of equity, if it pleases him, one debt could be deducted from the other, as has previously been the custom and as is contained in the statute of the said exchequer, and due allowance should be made for pardoned ancient debts.
[editorial note: Responsio. ] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi se avisera de faire l'eese a son poeple q'il purra bonement. The king will consider this further to bring as much ease to his people as he can.
[memb. 4]
46. XXIIII. Item, prient les gentz de la commune: qe come acordez feust et establi par l'estatut fait a Everwyk, l'an neofisme, qe justices as assises prendre, gaoles deliverer et d'oier et terminer assignez, touz lour recordes et proces terminez et mandez en execucion mandent a l'escheqier a la Seint Michel chescun an un foitz a liverer illoeqes; (fn. ii-135-238-1) q'ils voillent ordeigner qe les justices q'ont este assignez en divers countees d'oier et terminer diverses extorsions, oppressions et grevances faites au poeple, mandent lour recordes des choses terminees devant eux, selonc la tenoure del dit estatut; et qe sur ce le chaunceller qi ore est, ou pur temps serra, soit chargez par serement de faire briefs, qe punissement soit ordeignez vers les justices qi refurent de mander au dit escheqier les recordes et proces devant eux terminez, come desuis est dit. Et qe attachement soit suiz vers les attournez nostre seignur le roi de l'une place et de l'autre vers tieux justices, s'ils ne signifient causes en la chauncellerie deinz trois symeignes apres ce qe tieux briefs lour vindrent, par qoi ils ne deivent tieux recordes mander; et auxint si la cause par eux mandez soit juggez en meisme la chancellerie meyns suffissante. [XXIIII. Return of judicial records to the exchequer.]
46. XXIIII. Also, the people of the commons pray: that whereas it was agreed and established by the statute made at York in the ninth year [1335] that justices assigned to take assizes, to deliver gaols and to hear and determine should send all their records and processes determined and put in execution to the exchequer at Michaelmas each year to be delivered there; (fn. ii-135-238-1) that they will ordain that the justices who have been assigned in various counties to hear and determine various extortions, oppressions and grievances done to the people should send their records of the things determined before them according to the said statute; and that the present or future chancellor should be charged by oath to make writs thereon, so that punishment is ordained against the justices who refuse to send the records and processes determined before them to the said exchequer, as is aforesaid. And an attachment should be sued against such justices for the attorneys of our lord the king of both courts if they will not give their reasons in the chancery why they should not send such records within three weeks after such writs come to them; and likewise if the reason sent by them should be judged in the same chancery to be less than sufficient.
[editorial note: Responsio. ] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soit l'estatut gardez < et tenuz > en ce cas. The statute should be observed and upheld in this case.
47. XXV. Item, qe l'estatut de Westm' second soit declarez, en quel degree le issue en la taille poet aliener. (fn. ii-135-243-1) [XXV. Alienations.]
47. XXV. Also, that the second statute of Westminster should be clarified, in what degree the issue in the tail can alienate. (fn. ii-135-243-1)
[editorial note: Responsio. ] [editorial note: Answer.]
La lei usee en ce cas decea en arere soit tenue desore. The law previously observed in this case should be upheld henceforth.
48. XXVI. Item, qe nouncleyme des fyns levees sur le rendre, en temps avenir ne barre nul homme de sa accion. [XXVI. Nonclaim of fines.]
48. XXVI. Also, that nonclaim of fines levied upon surrender in times to come should bar no man from his action.
[col. b]
[editorial note: Responsio. ] [editorial note: Answer.]
Il plest au roi qe desore ceste chose soit faite, et qe estatut ent soit fait par avis des grantz et autres de son conseil. (fn. ii-135-251-1) It pleases the king that henceforth this thing should be done, and that a statute should be made thereon by the advice of the great men and others of his council. (fn. ii-135-251-1)
49. XXVII. Item, qe executours de executours eient meisme l'accion qe lour testatour avoit; et en cas qe homme devie intestat, qe ceux qi sont par l'evesqe ordynez en lieu des executours eient meisme l'accion; et auxi ens cas qe ceux qi sont nomez executours et ne voillent administrer. [XXVII. Executors of executors.]
49. XXVII. Also, that the executors of executors should have the same action that their testator had; and if someone dies intestate, those who are ordained by the bishop in place of executors should have the same action; and likewise in cases where those named as executors will not administer.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Endroit des executours d'executours, c'est encontre lay usee en celle terre en temps passez; et quant a ceux qi devient intestat, le roi voet qe l'evesqe eit accion en tieu cas, depuis q'il doit respondre as autres. As regards the executors of executors, this is against the law observed in this land in times past; and as regards those who die intestate, the king wills that the bishop should have action in such cases, since he must answer to others.
50. XXVIII. Item, pri la commune: qe nul de ceux qi sont atteintz de confederacie ou conspiracie n'eit mes office de nostre seignur le roi, ne des roignes, ne des autres grantz de la terre, ne des visconts, ne des eschetours. [XXVIII. Appointment of royal officials.]
50. XXVIII. Also, the commons pray: that no-one who is attainted of confederacy or conspiracy should have an office from our lord the king or from the queens or other great men of the land, or from sheriffs or escheators.
[editorial note: Responsio. ] [editorial note: Answer.]
Il plest au roi. It pleases the king.
51. XXIX. Item, qe nul homme soit tret en plee en courte Christiene pur dismes de boys ou de < souzboys, > si noun en lieux ou tieles dismes soleient estre deue. [XXIX. Tithes of wood.]
51. XXIX. Also, that no man should be taken to court in court Christian for tithes of wood or underwood, except in places where such tithes are usually due.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soit fait de cella auxi come il ad este fait einz < ces > heures. It should be done in this matter as has been observed before this time.
52. XXX. Item, pri la commune: qe la ou plusours parceners usent accion auncestrel, et ascuns sont < somons > et severez, et les autres recoverent; qe ceux qi issint sont somons et severez eient briefs soul sanz nomer les autres q'ont recoveriz. Et en meisme la manere soit fait des jointenantz. [XXX. Recovery by parceners.]
52. XXX. Also, the commons pray: that whereas many parceners use ancestral action, and some are summoned and severed and others recover; that those who are thus summoned and severed should have individual writs without naming the others who have recovered. And it should be done in the same manner concerning joint tenants.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Il semple au conseil q'il fait affaire, pur le meschief q'ad este en tieu cas einz ces heures. It seems to the council that it should be done, because of the misfortune which has existed in such cases before this time.
53. XXXI. Item, pri la dite commune: qe come ordeignez feust par estatut fait a Westm', qe endroit des leynes, qe la pere serroit de .xiiij.li. et .xxvi. petre facent un sak, (fn. ii-135-273-1) les marchandz et autres qi les dites leynes achatent ne voillent ceux leynes resceivre si la < pere ne > passe un livre ou demi au meyns. Dont ils prient remede qe punissement covenable < soit > ordeignez. [XXXI. Weighing of wool.]
53. XXXI. Also, the said commons pray: that whereas it was ordained by the statute made at Westminster concerning wool that the stone should be of 14 pounds and 26 stone should make one sack, (fn. ii-135-273-1) the merchants and others who buy the said wool will not receive this wool unless the stone is 1 pound or at least a ½ pound in excess. Wherefore they pray remedy that suitable punishment should be ordained.
[editorial note: Responsio. ] [editorial note: Answer.]
Il plest au roi. It pleases the king.
54. XXXII. Item, pri la dite commune: qe la ou ordeignez est par estatut qe nul viscont ne serroit outre un an, (fn. ii-135-278-1) qe cel estatutz soit meyntenuz; et si nul tiel y soit, soit en meyntenance del dit estatut remuez ore a ce parlement. [XXXII. Annual replacement of sheriffs.]
54. XXXII. Also, the said commons pray: that whereas it was ordained by statute that no-one should be sheriff for more than one year, (fn. ii-135-278-1) this statute should be observed; and if any such sheriff exists, he should be removed now at this parliament in obversation of the said statute.
[editorial note: Responsio. ] [editorial note: Answer.]
Il plest au roi qe l'estatut ent fait estoise en sa force, issint qe touz les visconts, qi ore sont, soient oustez de lour office a lendemeigne des almes, et adoncs soient autres visconts faitz de novel par chaunceller, et tresorer, justices et barons de l'escheqier, selonc la tenour de meisme l'estatut. (fn. ii-135-281-1) It pleases the king that the statute made thereon should remain in its force, so that all those who are now sheriffs should be removed from their office on the morrow of All Souls' Day, and then others should be newly made sheriffs by the chancellor, treasurer and justices and barons of the exchequer, according to the tenor of the same statute. (fn. ii-135-281-1)
55. XXXIII. Item, pri la dite commune: qe les leis en cest roialme usees, par les queux le poeple est governe, doit estre franche et commune a touz sanz estre denyez ou vendu a nuly, quele est ore destreint qe nul ne le poet atteindre sanz grevouses myses et outrageous coustages; dont ils prient remede. [XXXIII. Costs of justice.]
55. XXXIII. Also, the said commons pray: that the laws observed in this realm, by which the people are governed, should be free and common to all without being denied or sold to anyone, which is now jeopardised in that no one can be successful without grievous outlays and outrageous expenses; wherefore they pray remedy.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Declarent < les communes > ou et en qoi ils se sentent grevez. The commons should explain when and how they feel themselves aggrieved.
56. XXXIIII. Item, pri la dite commune: qe les duresces et oppressions qe sont faites a son poeple par my le roialme par deans et officialx en lour sessions, parnantz conussance des plees q'apertiegnent a vostre corone, et par cause de iceux font travailler le poeple et les mettent a grevouses [p. ii-143][col. a] redempcions, a grande destruccion de eux; et en plusours parlementz le point ad este touche, et nul remede ad este ordeigne. Par qoi ils prient qe ore a ce parlement remede soit fait. [XXXIIII. Cognisance of ecclesiastical courts.]
56. XXXIIII. Also, the said commons pray: that hardships and oppressions are done to his people throughout the realm by deans and officials in their sessions, taking cognisance of pleas which belong to your crown, and as a result of the same the people suffer and are set grievous [p. ii-143][col. a] redemptions, to their great destruction; and the point has been touched upon in many parliaments and no remedy has been ordained. Wherefore they pray that now at this parliament remedy should be made.
[editorial note: Responsio. ] [editorial note: Answer.]
Il plest au roi qe les ministres de seinte esglise eient conussance des choses appertenantes a lour jurisdiccion, et s'ils facent oppression en autre manere, respoignent a ceux qi se vourront pleindre. It pleases the king that the officers of holy Church should have cognisance of things belonging to their jurisdiction, and if they cause oppression in other manner they should answer those who will complain.
57. XXXV. Item, pri la dite commune: qe visconts et ministres le roi resceivent pur paiement de la dette le roi, auxibien des mailles come des esterlyngs. Et touz les grantz et autres de la terre resceivent mailles pur dettes, rentes et services a eux duz; depuis qe ordeignez est par nostre seignur le roi et son conseil qe tieux novelles mailles y courgent, (fn. ii-135-293-1) et qe les mailles soient de tieu pois come attient a l'esterlyng, et de auxi bon argent, ou de tut soit defait; et qe le bon esterling y courge en vostre terre, et soit meyntenuz sovereynement. [XXXV. New halfpennies to be valid currency.]
57. XXXV. Also, the said commons pray: that sheriffs and the king's officers should receive halfpennies as well as sterling for payment of the king's debt. And all the great men and others of the land should receive halfpennies for debts, rents and services due to them; since it was ordained by our lord the king and his council that such new halfpennies be current, (fn. ii-135-293-1) and that the halfpennies should be of such weight as amount to the sterling, and likewise concerning good silver, or it should be completely undone; and good sterling should be current in your land and be maintained above all.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Courge la bone monoie auxi come avant ces heures < ad > fait, tanqe autrement soit ordeignez. Good money should be current as it has been before this time, until it is ordained otherwise.
[memb. 2, dorse]
A nostre seignur le roi et a son conseil; monstrent ses liges marchantz lour avisement des pointz et articles dont ils sont chargez, en amendement de la communaltee de la terre: [Opinion of the merchants and grant of subsidy]
To our lord the king and his council; his liege merchants declare their opinion concerning the points and articles with which they were charged, in amendment of the commonalty of the land:
58. 'Sires, primerement quant au point coment les leynes du roialme poient au meillour pris estre, a greyndre profit et pris pur le roialme, avys lour est qe si l'estaple poet estre de deinz son roialme d'Engleterre, qe le pris des leynes encrestereit en brief temps avenir, au grant profit du people et en salvacion des leynes, qe sovent sont peritz par meer, desrobbez et destrutz, et en meynt autre manere; et si serroit la fauxe monoie qe vient en le roialme en hast destrutz et anyenti par conusance des marchantz usantz la dite estaple. Et si l'estaple ne soit en Engleterre, avys est a eux, pur profit nostre seignur le roi, qe touz les portz du roialme par la ou coket ad este, soient overtz, pur privez et estranges. Et q'ils soient bons et suffisantz custumers esluz par chaunceller et tresorer, sicome estre soleient. Et qe nostre seignur le roi eayt subside de chescun sak de mierleyne .xl. s., et des autres leynes, c'estassaver, aignelyne, leyne des pelitz et cobwolle, solonc le pris q'il vaut a meyndre subside, par un an entier de la nativite Seint Johan le baptistre prescheyn avenir, des toutes maneres des gentz qe passerent en le meen temps, en eide de nostre seignur le roi, et en eide de relever ses marchandz qi sont empoveriz et anyentiz par lour leynes qe furent pris de eux a Dordraght', et des marchandz du roialme d'Engleterre qe sont empoveriz par les compaignies de Peruch' et Bard' et autres compaignies q'ont la greyndre partie de lour biens entre lour mayns par voie d'aprest, des queux biens les ditz compaignies dient q'ils ne poent gree faire saunz eide de nostre seignur le roi. Le quel relevacion et confort des marchandz des leynes achater et passer, prient qe de cel subside grantee lour soit la moite des touz leynes, quirs et pelx q'ils eient a passer durante la dite subside; c'estassaver, .xx. s. du sak, en allowance du dette qe nostre seignur le roi lour est tenuz pur lour leynes issint prises a Durdraght', tanqe ils soient paiez, come ils poent monstrer par lour lettres patentes en ce q'ils poent resonablement monstrer ce qe arere lour est. [Opinion of the merchants and grant of subsidy]
58. 'Lords, first as regards the point as to how the wool of the realm could be at a better price, at the greatest profit and price for the realm, they are advised that if the staple could be within his realm of England, the price of wool should increase in a short time, to the great profit of the people and in salvation of the wool which is often lost at sea, stolen and destroyed in many other ways; and false money that comes into the realm would be quickly destroyed and ruined as a result of the knowledge of the merchants using the said staple. And if the staple is not in England, they consider, for the profit of our lord the king, that all the ports of the realm where the cocket has been should be open to denizens and foreigners. And good and sufficient customs officials should be chosen by the chancellor and treasurer, as is the custom. And our lord the king should have a subsidy of 40s. from each sack of ewes' wool, and from other wool, that is to say, lambs' wool, wool from fells and cob-wool, according to the price which it is worth at the lesser subsidy, for one whole year from the Nativity of Saint John the Baptist next coming, from all manner of people who will cross in the meantime, in aid of our lord the king, in aid of relieving his merchants who were impoverished and ruined because their wool was taken from them at Dordrecht, and in aid of relieving his merchants of the realm of England who were impoverished by the companies of the Peruzzi and Bardi and other companies who had the greatest part of their goods in their hands by way of a loan, for which goods the said companies said that they could not make satisfaction without the aid of our lord the king. For which relief and comfort of the merchants for buying and exporting wool, they pray that from this subsidy half of all wool, leather and woolfells which they should have to export should be granted to them during the said subsidy, that is to say, 20s. from the sack, in allowance of the debt in which our lord the king is bound to them for their wool thus taken at Dordrecht, until they should be paid, as they could declare by their letters patent on this which they can reasonably declare is their arrears.
Item, qe les demy leynes qe furent pris al oeps nostre seignur le roi soient allowez de meisme le subside, en la manere susdite, et auxint a les marchandz d'Engleterre as queux les ditz compaignies sont tenuz, si nostre seignur le roi lour est tenuz par dit acompt; q'il pleise a nostre dit seignur, eiant regard a ses ditz marchandz, portantz suffisantz lettres des ditz compaignies, q'ils poent allowance [col. b] avoir de la moite de lour subside auxi avant come les marchandz des queux lour biens furent pris a Dordraght', s'il pleise a nostre seignur le roi et a son bon conseil. Also, that half of the wool which was taken for the use of our lord the king should be allowed from the same subsidy in the aforesaid manner, and likewise to the merchants of England to whom the said companies are bound, so that our lord the king is bound to them by the said account; may it please our lord the king, having regard for his said merchants who carry sufficient letters from the said companies, to grant them allowance [col. b] of the half of their subsidy as fully as the merchants whose goods were taken at Dordrecht, if it pleases our lord the king and his good council.
Item, les marchandz monstrent a nostre seignur le roi et a son bon conseil: qe come ils furent somons a Notyngham d'enfourmer le pris du sak de mierleyne du sort des contees, les queux marchandz disoient a cel temps un certeyn pris pur meisme le temps qe adonqe feust, (fn. ii-135-302-1) nient eiant regard a nul temps avenir, ne chargez ne furent; par reson, sires, du quele informacion ils ont puis sovent estez acusez et enditez q'ils ont achatez contre cel pris, dont ils ont resceu grandes perdes et damages; dont ils prient remedie, q'ils ne soient desormes empeschez n'endamagez par reson d'ycelle pris, mes prient pur eux et totes maneres des gentz q'ils peussent achater leynes auxi franchement come autres marchandises, solonc ce q'il poet avenir entre le vendour et le achatour. Also, the merchants declare to our lord the king and his good council: that whereas they were summoned to Nottingham to establish the price of a sack of ewes' wool of the sort of the counties, which merchants at that time stated a certain price for that same time, (fn. ii-135-302-1) having no regard for any future time since they were not charged to do so; as a result of which information, lords, they have often since been accused and indicted of buying against this price, as a result of which they have incurred great losses and damages; wherefore they pray remedy, that henceforth they should not be impeached or harmed because of the same price, but they pray for them and all manner of people that they might buy wool as freely as other merchandise, according to what can be decided between the seller and the buyer.
Item, qe les enditementz qe sont faitz sur les marchandz par cause del pris de Notyngham nadgairs fait, q'il pleise a nostre seignur le roi et a son conseil q'il soit repelle qe les marchandz soient saunz damage. Also, may it please our lord the king and his council that the indictments made against merchants because of the price of Nottingham formerly made should be repealed so that the merchants are without prejudice.
Item, pleise a nostre seignur le roi et a son conseil entendre qe les marchandises d'Engleterre sont abessez en Flandres par cause de malveis paiement; qar ils mettent touz les floryns a si haut pris q'ils ne valent del tierce denier et plus en Engleterre, et le quint denier en nul autre terre par dela la meer. Also, may it please our lord the king and his council to recognise that English merchandise is abased in Flanders as a result of bad payment, since they put all the florins at so high a price that they are worth one third of a penny and more in England, and one fifth of a penny in any other land overseas.
Item, pur ce qe l'estaple demoert en la terre de Flandres, ils ont ordeyne entre eux qe nuls gentz estranges qe soleient achater et amenir leynes en dromondz galeys et en grosses niefs qe soleient achater grande somme de leynes en les estaples des marchandz d'Engleterre, par lour ordinance ne volent soeffrir nulles leynes achater, carier ne amener par terre ne par meer, hors del estaple; par quei les leynes sont a meyndre pris, et a grant arerissement du dite marchandise, et serra tanqe cel ordinance dure. Also, because the staple remains in the land of Flanders, they have ordained among them by their ordinances that no foreigners who usually buy and bring wool in transport galleys and in large ships and who usually buy a great amount of wool in the staples from the English merchants, will suffer any wool to be bought, carried or brought by land or by sea out of the staple; wherefore the wool is worth less, to the great detriment of the said merchandise, and will remain so while this ordinance lasts.
Item, la ou les petites villes de Flandres soleient achater grantment des leynes d'Engleterre pur lour overeygne, les troiz villes de Flandres, c'estassaver, Gaunt, Brugg' et Ipre, ont ordeynez et defenduz a les dites villes q'ils n'ovostont nuls draps, et ont ars lour instrumentz, a grant arerissement et abessement des leynes d'Engleterre. Also, whereas the lesser towns of Flanders usually buy a great deal of English wool for their businesses, the three towns of Flanders, that is to say, Ghent, Bruges and Ypres, have ordained and forbidden the said towns to work any cloth, and have burned their looms, to the great detriment and abasement of English wool.
Item, avis est as ditz marchandz, pur profit nostre seignur le roi et de la communaltee, durant la dite subside, qe nul garant ne soit grante, ne par doune ne par achat, au meyndre pris qe ne serra acorde de custume et de la subside par nostre seignur le roi et son conseil. Also, the said merchants are advised, for the profit of our lord the king and of the commonalty, that during the said subsidy no warrant should be granted, by gift or by purchase, at a lesser price than will be agreed for the custom and subsidy by our lord the king and his council.
Item, qe les heirs et les executours des marchandz qi mortz sont peussent aver allowance en ce q'ils ont apasser des leynes, quirs et peux del subside en la manere qe les autres qe en pleyne vie sont.' Also, that the heirs and the executors of merchants who are deceased might have allowance of the subsidy for the wool, leather and woolfells which they have exported in the manner as those who are living.'
Sur quele peticion feust acordez qe les marchandz, as queux le roi fu tenuz en diverses sommes pur leynes prises de eux a Dordraght', averoient .xx. s. del subside grante a nostre seignur le roi de chescun sak qe passera outre miere, tanqe ils soient pleinement paiez de ce qe lour est duz, selonc ce qe plus pleynement est contenuz en une endenture faite parentre nostre seignur le roi et les ditz marchandz. (fn. ii-135-310-1) Upon this petition it was agreed that the merchants to whom the king was bound in various amounts for wool taken from them at Dordrecht should have 20s. from the subsidy granted to our lord the king from each sack which is exported overseas, until they are fully paid what is due to them, as is more fully contained in an indenture made between our lord the king and the said merchants. (fn. ii-135-310-1)
[memb. 3, dorse]
PETICIO COMMUNITATIS. PETITION OF THE COMMONALTY [concerning aliens beneficed in England].
59. Pur ce qe les aliens tiegnent tantz des beneficz en ceste terre, dont les aumoignes sont souztretz qe soleient [p. ii-144][col. a] estre faitz, et le tresore de ceste terre est molt apportez pardela, en meyntenance de voz enemys, et les privetez de ceste terre descovertz, et voz liegez clers suffisantz pardecea le meyns avance, par reson des tieux. Et sur ce ore de novel plusours cardinalx sont faitz dont le pape par ses bulles ad grantez as deux de eux beneficz en ceste terre, a la montance de .vi. .m. mars au tax, sur une si generale et coverte manere qe la somme passera .x. .m. mars avant qe le doun soit accepte, si la chose soit ensi soeffert; et la commune ad entenduz qe l'un des deux cardinalx avanditz, c'est a dire le cardinal de Peragortz, si est le plus fere enemye qe soit en la courte, et plus contrair a les busoignes nostre seignur le roi. Et issient d'an en an par prolixitee du temps par tieux grauntes la terre serra si repleneez des aliens qe purra estre en grant peril de la dite terre, et qe apeyn nul clerk par decea, filtz de grant seignur ne d'autre, ne trovera beneficz dont estre avancez, et ce a graunt damage du roi et de tote la commune par cause des tieles reservacions et provisions. Dont la commune pri remedie, qar la dite commune ne le poet ne le voet plus endurere, par causes qe totes les fundacions, et les avowesons des erceveschies, eveschies, abbeyes, priouries, esglises parochieles et totes rentes espiritueles de ceste terre sont des fundacions des rois, countes, barons et de la commune; et q'il pleise a nostre seignur le roi escrivre a l'apostoile desouz son grant seal, et de souz les sealx des piers et grantz de la terre, et mander au pape q'il voille sur ceste charge surseer, et ce qe est fait repeller. Et s'il y eit nul des piers ou grantz avantnomez qi ne le voille ensealer, la commune ne lui tient mye bienvoillant au profit nostre seignur le roi, ne de la commune. Et en cas qe le pape ne le voille granter en la manere susdite, la commune pri a nostre seignur le roi q'il voille estre en eide et meyntenance de eux a deffaire celle charge, et mettre tieux hors de sa proteccion. Et la commune pri a nostre seignur le roi q'il voille commander as touz les piers et grantz de la terre q'ils demuregent en pees a ce parlement tanqe cestes choses soient parfaites et ensealees, sicome desus est dit. Et pur le gref damage q'en poet avenir en le meen temps, pleise a nostre seignur le roi granter ses prohibicions as executours des graces, evesqes et procurours, qe eux ne se mellent tanqe le pape eit rescrit sa volentee. 59. Since aliens hold so many benefices in this land, from which the alms which are usually made are withdrawn, [p. ii-144][col. a] and much of the treasure of this land is exported overseas in maintenance of your enemies, and the secrets of this land are disclosed, and your liege clerks of good repute in this realm are less advanced for this reason. And many cardinals were recently made, wherefore the pope by his bulls has granted benefices in this land to two of them, to the amount of 6,000 marks in tax, in so general and secretive a manner that the amount will exceed 10,000 marks before the gift is accepted, if this thing is allowed. And the commons have understood that one of the two aforesaid cardinals, that is to say the cardinal of Périgord, is the most bitter enemy that is in the curia, and the most hostile to the business of our lord the king. And thus from year to year by the passing of time the land will be so full of aliens as a result of such grants, which could be to the great peril of the said land, that only with difficulty will any clerk, be he a son of a great lord or other, find a benefice in this realm in which to be advanced, and this to the great damage of the king and of all the commonalty as a result of such reservations and provisions. Wherefore the commons pray remedy, since the commonalty cannot and will not endure this, because all the foundations and advowsons of archbishoprics, bishoprics, abbeys, priories, parish churches and all the spiritual rents of this land were founded by kings, earls, barons and the commonalty; and may it please our lord the king to write to the pope under his great seal and under the seals of the peers and great men of the land, and order the pope to surcease in this charge and to repeal it. And if none of the peers or great men named above will seal it, the commonalty should not hold them well disposed to the profit of our lord the king or of the commonalty. And if the pope will not grant in the aforesaid manner, the commons pray our lord the king that he will assist in maintaining them in undoing this charge, and put such men out of his protection. And the commons pray our lord the king that he order all the peers and great men of the land to remain peacefully at this parliament until these things are accomplished and sealed, as is aforesaid. And for the grave damage which could occur in the meantime, may it please our lord the king to grant his prohibitions to the executors of the graces, bishops and procurators that they not concern themselves until the pope has written back with his will.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi est avisez de cel meschief, et voet qe entre les grantz et les communes soit ordeignez remede et amendement, et il s'acordera. Et aussint le roi voet et assentuz est qe bones lettres soient faites au pape sur ceste matiere aussibien depar le roi et les grantz come depar la commune. The king is informed of this problem, and wills that between the great men and the commons remedy and amendment should be ordained, and he will agree. And the king also wills and is agreed that good letters should be sent to the pope on this matter on behalf of the king and the great men as well as on behalf of the commonalty.
[memb. 4, dorse]
60. Et puis fu priez a nostre seignur le roi en ce parlement, par counts, barouns et autres nobles et tote la communalte du roialme, qe pur eschuir et ouster les damages, grevance et oppression du poeple et de seinte eglise d'Engleterre, qe sont faitz en roialme d'Engleterre par provisions et reservacions de la court de Rome, aussibien des beneficz come des primers fruitz, et par imposicions des dismes et autres charges, en desheretison aussibien de nostre seignur le roi et de sa corone, come des ditz counts, barons et autres nobles, et anientissement des droitz de la corone nostre seignur le roi, il vousist commander de faire regarder ascunes peticions ent donees par counts, barouns et communes du roialme d'Engleterre, en temps de tresnoble roi Edward, ael nostre seignur le roi q'ore est, qi Dieux assoill, en son parlement tenuz a Kardoill, l'an de son regne .xxxv., et aussint l'assent et l'acorde et juggement sur ce faitz en meisme le parlement. Et nostre seignur le roi otreiant a celle requeste, comanda de sercher et regarder les roulles et remembrances du dit parlement de son dit ael. Les queux veuz et regardez, entre autres choses estoit trovez qe a la monstrance des counts, barons et communes en dit parlement de Kardoill, par [col. b] lour dites peticions entre autres choses contenantes qe come seinte esglise en estat de prelacie en dit roialme estoit foundee par l'ael nostre seignur le roi et ses progenitours, counts et barons et lour auncestres, pur informacion avoir de la seinte foie, et oresons et aumoignes et hospitalitees faire es lieux ou les esglises furent foundees, pur les almes des foundours et lour heirs, et de touz Crestiens; et qe certeynes possessions, tant en fee et terres come en avoesons, qe amontent a tresgrante somme d'avoire, estoient assigneez as ercevesqes, evesqes, abbes, priours et autres maisons de religion par le dit ael, et par ses progenitours, et counts et barons et autres grantz du roialme et lour auncestres; et qe meismes l'ael nostre seignur le roi, et counts, barons et autres nobles du roialme, come seignurs et avoes, avoient et deveroient aver en temps de voidance des tieux prelacies et maisons presentementz et collacions de tote manere des beneficz esteantz del avoerie des tieux prelatz, et les doner as denzeins qi graunt lieu tiendrent au dit ael nostre seignur le roi, et as grantz susditz, par lour sen et par lour conseil quant ils avoient affaire de eux. Et qe le pape qi adonqes fu, appropriant a ly les donesons des tieux possessions et beneficz par ses provisions et reservacions, avoit donez et grantez dignitees, provendes et esglises as tieux qi unqes n'avoient demurez en roialme d'Engleterre, et as cardinalx et autres aussibien aliens come denzeins, qi ne y poaient demurer, aussicome il eust este verroi patron et avoe de droit, come il n'estoit pas. Par les queux choses, si eles feussent soeffertes, apeyn nul beneficz demureit regardaunt a la doneson des tieux prelatz q'il ne serroit par tieles provisions mys en la mayn des aliens et denzeins, contre le gree et la volentee des fondours d'icelx, et issint les eleccions des tieux ercevesqes, evesqes et autres religious faudroient, oresons, hospitalitees et aumoignes qe deveroient estre faitz es ditz lieux serroient souztretz, et les ditz ael et autres lays patrons en temps des tieux voidance pardroient lour presentementz et collacions, et le dit conseil perireit, et biens a trope grante plentee serroient emportez hors du dit roialme, en anientissement de l'estat de seinte esglise d'Engleterre, et en desheretison du dit ael et de sa corone et des autres nobles du dit roialme, et en offens et destruccion des leis et droitz de meisme le roialme et tresgraunt damage et depression du dit poeple, et subversion del estat de tut le roialme avandit, et contre la volentee et ordynance des primers fondours. D'assent des counts, barons, nobles et de la dite communaltee, considerez entierment les errours et damages avanditz, en dit parlement de Kardoill estoit purveuz, acordez, ordeignez, juggez et considerez qe les avantnomez grevances, oppressions et autres damages et errours susditz, desadonqes ne serroient soeffertz estre faitz en dit roialme en nule manere; et sur ce estoit defenduz depar le dit ael, par ses briefs as touz as queux il afferoit adonqes, qe riens qe purreit tourner en blemissement de sa roiale dignitee, ou en prejudice des nobles, ou de son poeple, ils ne attempteroient ou feissent en ascune manere estre attemptez. Et ovesqe ce estoit mandez par autieux briefs as touz les visconts du dit roialme qe si par enquestes ent aprendre ascuns purroient estre trovez fesantz a l'encontre, adonqes ils les prendroient par lour corps, et les amesneroient salvement et surement devant le dit ael, a certeyn jour, a respondre, aussibien au dit ael come as autres qi se vousissent pleindre sur eux, et a faire outre, et resceivre ce qe la court agardereit en ce cas. 60. And then the earls, barons and other nobles and all the commonalty of the realm prayed our lord the king in this parliament, in order to avoid and remove the damages, grievances and oppressions of the people and of holy Church in England which occur in the realm of England by the provisions and reservations of the Roman curia, of both benefices and first fruits, and by impositions of tithes and other charges, in disinheritance of our lord the king and of his crown as well as of the said earls, barons and other nobles, and in destruction of the rights of the crown of our lord the king, that he would order that certain petitions be examined which were given by the earls, barons and commons of the realm of England in the time of the most noble King Edward, grandfather of our present lord the king, whom God absolve, in his parliament held at Carlisle in the thirty-fifth year of his reign [1307], and also the agreement, accord and judgment made thereon in the same parliament. (fn. ii-135-318-1) And our lord the king granted this request and ordered the rolls and remembrances of the said parliament of his said grandfather to be searched and examined. When these had been viewed and examined, among other things, it was found that at the remonstration of the earls, barons and commons in the said parliament of Carlisle, by [col. b] their said petitions, containing among other things that holy Church was founded in the state of prelacy in the said realm by the grandfather of our lord the king and his progenitors, the earls and barons and their ancestors, for learning about the holy faith, and for making prayers, alms and hospitality in places where the churches were founded, for the souls of the founders and their heirs and of all Christians; and that certain possessions, as much in fee and lands as in advowsons, which amount to a very great sum of money, were assigned to archbishops, bishops, abbots, priors and other religious houses by the said grandfather and his progenitors, and by the earls and barons and other great men of the realm and their ancestors; and that the same grandfather of our lord the king and the earls, barons and other nobles of the realm as lords and patrons should and ought to have during the vacancy of such prelacies and houses the presentments and collations of all manner of benefices being of the advowson of such prelates, and give them to denizens who, by their good sense and by their counsel, rendered great service to the said grandfather of our lord the king and to the aforesaid great men when they needed it. And the pope at that time, appropriating to himself the advowsons of such possessions and benefices by his provisions and reservations, gave and granted dignities, prebends and churches to men who had never dwelled in the realm of England, and to cardinals and others, aliens as well as denizens, who could not live there, as if he had been the true patron and rightful owner, which he was not. By which things, if they were allowed, hardly any benefice would remain as regards the advowson of such prelates that might not by such provisions be put in the hands of aliens and denizens against the will and wish of the founders of the same, so that the elections of such archbishops, bishops and other religious would be false, prayers, hospitality and alms which should be made in the said places would be withdrawn, the said grandfather and other lay patrons would lose their presentments and collations during such vacancies, the said council would perish, and a very great amount of the wealth would be carried out of the realm, to the detriment of the estate of holy Church in England, in disinheritance of the said grandfather and of his crown and of the other nobles of the said realm, and in offence and destruction of the laws and rights of the same realm and to the very great damage and disadvantage of the said people, and in subversion of the estate of all the aforesaid realm, and against the will and ordinances of the first founders. With the agreement of the earls, barons, nobles and the said commonalty, having wholly considered the aforesaid errors and damages, it was decided, agreed, ordained, judged and considered in the said parliament of Carlisle that the aforenamed grievances, oppressions and other aforesaid damages and errors henceforth should not be tolerated in the said realm in any manner; and thereon it was forbidden on the part of the said grandfather, by his writs to all in whom he trusted, so that nothing would turn to the detriment of his royal dignity or in prejudice of the nobles or his people, if they would attempt or cause this to be attempted in any manner. And in addition to this all the sheriffs in the said realm were ordered by similar writs that if anyone was found acting to the contrary by inquests to be taken thereon, they would take them by their bodies, and bring them safely and surely before the said grandfather on a certain day to answer to the said grandfather as well as to others who would complain about them, and to do further, and to receive what the court awarded in this case.
L'ordynance faite ore. The ordinances [of provisors] now made.
Par qoi nostre seigneur le roi en ce present parlement, a la suite de la dite communaltee de son roialme, fesantz suggescion par lour peticion donee devant nostre dit seignur le roi et son conseil, plusours errours, damages et grevances meintfoitz estre avenuz par tieux provisions et reservacions, tant des tieux beneficz come des primers fruitz, et autres qecunqes, et imposicions des dismes et autres charges faitz par l'apostoill ore tard, en esclandre, [p. ii-145][col. a] deshonure et depression de tote l'esglise d'Engleterre, et desheretison du dit nostre seignur le roi et de sa corone et des autres nobles du dit roialme, et en offens et destruccion des leys et droitz de meisme le roialme, et trope grevouse damage de son poeple, et subversion de l'estat de tut le roialme avandit, et contre la voluntee de Dieu, et la bone disposicion des foundours de meismes les beneficz, et contre les purveance, ordynance, acorde, decree et consideracion avandites, faitz par le dit ael et son conseil, et priantz au dit nostre seignur le roi qe lui pleise aver regard a la dite esglise d'Engleterre, et l'endempnitee et desheretison de lui et des counts, barons et nobles et de la communaltee en celle partie, et y mettre remede covenable, par assent des counts, barons et nobles et de la communaltee de son roialme, ad purveu, ordeignez, acordez, juggez et considerez qe aussibien deinz la franchise des Cynk Portz, come aillours par les coustiers de la mier < de tout le roialme d'Engleterre, et par touz les contez del dit roialme, aussibien deinz franchise come dehors, overtement > soit criez, et depar nostre dit seignur le roi fermement defenduz, qe nul, de quel estat ou condicion q'il soit, soit il alyen ou denzein, port desore, ne facz porter, deinz le roialme d'Engleterre, sur la greve forfaiture du roi, lettres, bulles, proces, reservacions, instrumentz ou ascunes autres < choses > prejudicieles au roi ou a son poeple, pur les liverer as ercevesqes, evesqes, abbes, priours, counts, barouns ou ascuns autres deinz le dit roialme; et qe nul par vertue des tieux provisions ou reservacions resceive beneficz de seinte esglise; et qe nul, sur la forfaiture avandite, resceive ne preigne tielx lettres, bulles, proces < ne > instrumentz, touchantz tieux provisions ne reservacions, ne par vertue d'iceux facz institucion ou induccion, ou autre manere d'execucion d'icelx; et qe nul ne facz, ne soeffre estre fait, autre chose qe purra tourner en prejudice du roi ou de son [col. b] poeple, ou en blemissement des droitz de sa corone, ou des purveances, ordynances, acordes, decretz et consideracion avanditz. Et aussint est acordez qe outre ceo diligent serche se facz es lieux ou miester serra deinz le dit roialme, aussibien deinz franchise come dehors, sur touz et chescuns venantz deinz meisme le roialme d'Engleterre, et qe touz ceux qi serront trovez par tiel serche, ou par enqueste ent aprendre, ou par < autre > informacion, portantz lettres, bulles, proces, reservacions ou instrumentz ou autre chose prejudiclele au roi ou a son poeple, et touz ceux qi par vertue d'icelx resceivent nul beneficz, ou se mettent en ycelles, ou soient resceuz as meismes les beneficz, et aussint ceux qi par autoritee des tieux lettres, bulles, proces, reservacions ou instrumentz serront ou font appelx, citacions ou proces contre les patrons des ditz beneficz, ou lour presentez, ou autres qecunqes, ou les pursuent ou procurent a pursuir en qecunqe court, ou ont fait ou procuront estre fait rien qe soit en prejudice du roi ou des counts, barons, nobles et la communaltee susdite, ou en blemissement des ditz purveances, ordynances, acordes, decretz et consideracion et contre les proclamacion et inhibicion avandites, soient pris et arestuz par lour corps; et les lettres, bulles, proces et instrumentz sur tieux provisions et reservacions soient pris de eux, ou des autres, queu part q'il soient trovez, et envoiees devant le conseil le roi, ensemblement od les corps de ceux qi les averont portez en dit roialme d'Engleterre, Gales, Irlande ou deinz le countee de Cestre, ou ascune execucion d'icelx pursui; et ovesqe les corps de touz autres qi serront pris et arestuz par la cause susdite; pur prendre et resceivre ce qe la court agardera. Et qe sur ceo briefs et lettres soient faitz tantz et tieux come miester serra, et mandez par touz le roialme. Wherefore our lord the king in this present parliament, at the suit of the said commonalty of his realm who suggested by their petition given before our said lord the king and his council that many errors, damages and grievances would often occur because of such provisions and reservations, of such benefices as well as from the first fruits and other things, and the impositions of tithes and other charges recently made by the pope, in slander, [p. ii-145][col. a] dishonour and disadvantage of all the church of England, in disinheritance of our said lord the king and of his crown and of the other nobles of the said realm, in offence and destruction of the laws and rights of the same realm, to the very grievous damage of his people, in subversion of the estate of all the aforesaid realm, against the will of God and the good disposition of the founders of the same benefices, and against the aforesaid decision, ordinance, agreement, decree and consideration made by the said grandfather and his council, praying our said lord the king that it might please him to have regard for the said Church of England and the security and disinheritance of him and of the earls, barons, nobles and the commonalty in this matter, and to set suitable remedy thereon, by the assent of the earls, barons, nobles and the commonalty of his realm, has decided, ordained, agreed, judged and considered that within the liberty of the Cinque Ports as well as elsewhere on the sea coasts throughout the realm of England, and throughout the counties of the said realm, inside as well as outside franchises, it should be publicly announced and strictly forbidden on behalf of our said lord the king that anyone, of whatever estate or condition he may be, be he alien or denizen, henceforth carry or cause to be carried within the realm of England, upon strict forfeiture to the king, letters, bulls, processes, reservations, instruments or any other thing prejudicial to the king or to his people, in order to deliver them to archbishops, bishops, abbots, priors, earls, barons or any others within the said realm; and no-one by virtue of such provisions or reservations should receive benefices of holy Church; and no-one, upon the aforesaid forfeiture, should receive or take such letters, bulls, processes or instruments touching such provisions or reservations, or by virtue of the same make institution or induction or execute the same in any other manner; and no-one should do, or allow to be done, any other thing that can turn in prejudice to the king or to his [col. b] people, or to the detriment of the rights of his crown or of the aforesaid decisions, ordinances, agreements, decrees and consideration. And it was also agreed that in addition a diligent search be made in places where necessary in the said realm, inside as well as outside franchises, of each and every person coming into the same realm of England, and that all those who are found by such search, or by inquest to be taken thereon, or by other information, to be carrying letters, bulls, processes, reservations or instruments or any other thing prejudicial to the king or to his people, and all those who by virtue of the same receive any benefice, or put themselves in the same, or should be received to the same benefices, and also those who by the authority of such letters, bulls, processes, reservations or instruments would be or make appeals, citations or process against the patrons of the said benefices, or their presentees, or any others whatsoever, or sue them or cause them to be sued in any court whatsoever, or have made or procured to be made anything in prejudice to the king or to the earls, barons, nobles and aforesaid commonalty, or to the detriment of the said decisions, ordinances, agreements, decrees and consideration and against the aforesaid proclamation and prohibition, should be taken and arrested by their bodies; and the letters, bulls, processes and instruments on such provisions and reservations should be taken from them or from others, wherever they are found, and sent before the king's council, together with the bodies of those who have carried them into the said realm of England, Wales, Ireland or within the county of Chester, or pursued any execution of the same; and also the bodies of all others who are taken and arrested for the aforesaid reason, for taking and receiving that which the court awards. And writs and letters should be made in this matter as is necessary, and they should be sent throughout the realm.

Appendix 1343

1

Petition of the commonalty of the land of England concerning doubts arising over the intention and effect of the statute de donis (13 Edw I, Statute of Westminster II, c. 1 [ SR , I.71-2]). This may date from the parliaments of either 1341 or 1343.

Source : SC 8/321/E496, printed in full in SCCKB , III.cxx.

2

Letter of 18 May 1343 addressed in the name of the commonalty of England to the pope arising out of the petition in the parliament of 1343 and containing the Ordinance of Provisors also found on the dorse of the parliament roll (items 59-60).

Sources : DL Recorda 42/8, mm. 2b-3; Adam Murimuth, Continuatio chronicarum , and Robert of Avesbury, De gestis mirabilibus regis Edwardii tertii , ed. E.M. Thompson (London, 1889), 138, 353.

3

Writ of chancery dated 3 July 1343, ordering the court of king's bench to supersede proceedings against Raimon, proctor of the archdeacon of Buckingham, because in the last parliament it was agreed that all processes against ecclesiastics in the king's courts in respect of extortions and excessive demands should be superseded until the next parliament.

Source : SCCKB , VI.27-8.

4

Petition of the abbot and convent of Chertsey enclosed in a writ of privy seal to the chancellor, resulting in the appointment of a commission of inquiry dated 12 May 1343 and warranted 'by petition of parliament'.

Sources : CIM 1307-49 , no. 1861; CPR 1343-5 , 89; see also CCR 1343-6 , 192.

5

Various private petitions presented in the parliament of 1344 sent to the exchequer for further investigation and action.

E 13/69, m. 33; E 13/70, m. 9; E 13/71, m. 7; E 159/119, Recorda , Trinity; as noted by G.O. Sayles, The Functions of the Medieval Parliament of England (London, 1988), 442 (n. 2).

6

Petition (not extant) of Robert, brother and heir of Roger de Clifford, resulting in a chancery instrument dated 22 May 1343 and warranted 'by petition of council'.

Source : CCR 1343-6 , 62.

7

Petition (not extant) of the abbot and convent of Croyland, resulting in a chancery instrument dated 16 May 1343 and warranted 'by privy seal and agreement in parliament'.

Source : CCR 1343-6 , 121.

8

Petition (not extant) of merchants of Normandy and Picardy, resulting in a chancery instrument dated 12 September (sic) 1343 and warranted 'by petition of parliament'.

Source : CCR 1343-6 , 228.

9

Petition (not extant) of abbot of Kirkstead for allowance for wools taken from his house in 1341; this petition referred to in 1344 when the abbot petitioned again (this time successfully) and mentioned that nothing had been done from the petition made in parliament in 1343 (see parliament of 1344, Appendix no. 2).

Source : CCR 1343-6 , 322.

10

Petition (not extant) of Alice la Beler resulting in a chancery instrument dated 20 May 1343 and warranted 'by petition of council'.

Source : CPR 1343-5 , 39-40

11

Petition (not extant) of the burgesses of Barnstaple resulting in a chancery instrument dated 18 May 1343 and warranted 'by petition of parliament'.

Source : CPR 1343-5 , 91.

12

Petition (not extant) of the men of the parts of Marshland, Yorkshire and Axholme, Lincolnshire, presented before the king and council in parliament, resulting in a chancery instrument dated 20 May 1343 and warranted 'by petition of parliament'.

Source : CPR 1343-5 , 91.

13

Petition (not extant) of the townsmen of Droitwich resulting in a chancery instrument dated 8 July 1343 and warranted 'by petition of parliament'.

Source : CPR 1343-5 , 92.

14

Petition (not extant) of the upholsterers of London exhibited before the king and council in parliament, resulting in a chancery instrument dated 26 May 1343 and warranted 'by petition of parliament'.

Source : CPR 1343-5 , 93. See also CPR 1343-5 , 278; CPR 1345-8 , 116.

Footnotes

  • f1343int-1. B. Wilkinson, The Chancery under Edward III (Manchester, 1929), 81 (n. 2), 82 (n. 6), where the name appears as 'Brayton'.
  • f1343int-2. RDP , IV.546-8. There are no extant returns of proctors of the lower clergy to this assembly: A.K. McHardy, 'The representation of the English lower clergy in parliament during the later fourteenth century', SCH 10 (1973), 100 (n. 13).
  • f1343int-3. For the background to what follows, see J. Sumption, The Hundred Years War , in progress (London 1990- ), I.370-454.
  • f1343int-4. H.G. Richardson and G.O. Sayles, The English Parliament in the Middle Ages (London, 1981), chap. XXII, 391-3.
  • f1343int-5. G.L. Harriss, King, Parliament and Public Finance in Medieval England to 1369 (Oxford, 1975), 314-20.
  • f1343int-6. E. Déprez, 'La conference d'Avignon (1344)', in Essays in Medieval History Presented to T.F.Tout , ed. A.G. Little and F.M. Powicke (Manchester, 1925), pp. 301-20; C. Taylor, 'Edward III and the Plantagenet Claim to the French Throne', in The Age of Edward III , ed. J.S. Bothwell (Woodbridge, 2001).
  • f1343int-7. For the significance of his role, see J.S. Roskell, The Commons and their Speakers in English Parliaments 1376-1523 (Manchester, 1965), 8, 10.
  • f1343int-8. For what follows, see Harriss, King, Parliament , 309-10, 401-6.
  • f1343int-9. CPR 1340-3, 585-6 ; A.J. Verduyn, 'The attitude of the parliamentary commons to law and order under Edward III', D.Phil. thesis, University of Oxford (1991), 85.
  • f1343int-10. B.H. Putnam, 'The transformation of the keepers of the peace into the justices of the peace', TRHS 4th series 12 (1929), 40-1.
  • f1343int-11. Harriss, King, Parliament , 310.
  • f1343int-12. T.H. Lloyd, The English Wool Trade in the Middle Ages (Cambridge, 1977), 196-8.
  • f1343int-13. Lloyd, Wool Trade , 194.
  • f1343int-14. For discussion of this matter, see Introduction to parliament of 1351.
  • f1343int-15. W.N. Bryant, 'Some earlier examples of intercommuning in parliament, 1340-1348', EHR 85 (1970), 56.
  • f1343int-16. RDP , IV.548-50; Lloyd, Wool Trade , 193-4.
  • f1343int-17. Lloyd, Wool Trade , 194.
  • f1343int-18. W.M. Ormrod, The Reign of Edward III (London, 1990), 206.
  • f1343int-19. G. Unwin, 'The estate of merchants, 1336-1365', in Finance and Trade under Edward III , ed. G. Unwin (Manchester, 1918), 209-10; Lloyd, Wool Trade , 193-4. By contrast, F.R. Barnes, 'The taxation of wool, 1327-1348', in Finance and Trade , 165-6, thought it was to the grant of 1342 that the commons alluded in 1343.
  • f1343int-20. 14 Edw III st. 1 c. 21: SR , I.289.
  • f1343int-21. Harriss, King , Parliament , 420-34.
  • f1343int-22. Lloyd, Wool Trade , 194.
  • f1343int-23. Ormrod, Reign of Edward III , 206.
  • f1343int-24. 35 Edw I: SR , I. 150-2.
  • f1343int-25. A.D.M. Barrell, 'The Ordinance of Provisors of 1343', HR 64 (1991), 264-77.
  • f1343int-26. Barrell, 'Ordinance'.
  • f1343int-27. Harriss, King, Parliament , 359-60.
  • f1343int-28. CCR 1343-6 , 136-7.
  • ii-135-64-1. See CPR 1343-6 , 97-8 for commissions issued shortly after the parliament, though note that these did not respond in all respects to the recommendations made in parliament
  • ii-135-85-1. Printed from the parliament as a 'statute' in SR , I.299; see also parliament of 1346, item 29, no. XVIII.
  • ii-135-113-1. This represents a parliamentary confirmation of the revocation of the statute of 1341 ( SR , I.295-6 [st. 1]) made on 1 October 1341 and recorded on the statute roll ( SR , I.297 [st. 2])
  • ii-135-113-2. No such statute was made. See also below, item 27, no. IV
  • ii-135-136-1. SR , I.295-6 (st. 1), 297-8 (st. 3)
  • ii-135-139-1. SR , I.297 (st. 2)
  • ii-135-139-2. See also above, item 23
  • ii-135-141-1. SR , I.289 (c. xxi)
  • ii-135-146-1. The most recent statute on purveyance was that of 1340: SR , I.288 (c. xix). The crown's reply indicates that the issue was more general.
  • ii-135-156-1. SR , I.138 (c. iii) (1300) gives the fullest statement on this matter, but see also statutes of 1331 and 1340: SR , I.266 (c. ii), 277 (c. i)
  • ii-135-164-1. See above, item 27, no. IIII
  • ii-135-171-1. See parliament of 1341, item 65
  • ii-135-201-1. The most recent statute was that of 1340: SR , I.285 (c. xii)
  • ii-135-206-1. Commissions to enforce the statute of 1340 ( SR , I.285 [c. xii]) were issued throughout 1343: CPR 1343-5 , 72
  • ii-135-216-1. See below, item 59
  • ii-135-223-1. Writs delaying judgment in such circumstances had been authorised by the great council held at Nottingham in September 1336, and had been issued regularly thereafter: CCR 1333-7 , 725-6, etc.
  • ii-135-238-1. SR , I.272 (c. v)
  • ii-135-243-1. A reference to the Statute of Westminster II (1285): SR , I.71-2 (c. i)
  • ii-135-251-1. No statute resulted in this parliament
  • ii-135-273-1. SR , I.289 (c. xxi) (1340)
  • ii-135-278-1. The most recent statutory statement was that of 1340: SR , I.283 (c. vii)
  • ii-135-281-1. Compare the shrieval appointments of 1342 and 1343: CFR 1337-47 , 300-1, 348-50
  • ii-135-293-1. For the coinage reform of 1343, see A.E. Feavearyear, The Pound Sterling , 2nd edn (Oxford, 1963), 17-20
  • ii-135-302-1. CPR 1334-8 , 480-2
  • ii-135-310-1. Cf. CCR 1343-6 , 138-56, 214
  • ii-135-318-1. SR , I.150-2