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Edward III: February 1334

Parliament Rolls of Medieval England. Originally published by Boydell, Woodbridge, 2005.

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Citation:

In this section

1334 February

Introduction February 1334

York

21 February - 2 March

For the writs of summons see RDP , iv, 422-5; CCR 1333-37 , 304.

(Records of the parliament: Parliament Roll, C 65/4, previously edited in R & S , 232-9.)

C 65/4 is a single membrane measuring approximately 266mm in width and 820mm in length. The condition of the roll is good. The text of the roll, written in an official chancery script, occupies the recto and the upper half of the dorse. The Arabic numerals are later.

Scotland took up most of Edward III's energies in the year between the York parliament of January 1333 and the assembly held there in February 1334. The whole apparatus of royal government had now been moved to the north and for the next four years York was to be the administrative capital of England. Edward III's invasion of Scotland began at the end of April, his objective being Berwick-on-Tweed, the strategically placed border fortress which Edward II had lost under humiliating circumstances in 1318. The siege of Berwick lasted until July and provoked the Scots loyal to David II into sending a relieving army to do battle with the English. On 19 July Edward III won a crushing victory at Halidon Hill near Berwick, whose commander surrendered on the following day. The restored Edward Balliol made Perth his capital, while his defeated rival David II took refuge in Dumbarton castle on the Clyde. Philip VI of France observed events in Scotland with interest and anxiety. His main ambition was still the crusading expedition to which he had committed himself in 1331 and for which extensive preparations were made between then and 1336. Philip was well aware of his obligations to the Scots under the treaty of Corbeil of 1326, and mildly reproved Edward for his actions in Scotland. He did not however want the distraction of military intervention on the side of the Scots and did nothing to antagonise Edward. Philip was even prepared to make concessions in Aquitaine to Edward III, so that the crusade could proceed as planned. Edward III for his part wanted such concessions as the price of his participation in the crusade; but at the same time he took precautions to defend the south coast of England in case the French were tempted to attack. (fn. F1334int-1)

Several other important assemblies, reflecting the current state of the war with Scotland, preceded the York parliament of February 1334. On 6 October 1333 the king ordered the two archbishops to call convocations of clergy for their provinces at London on 22 November and at York on 29 November to discuss giving counsel and aid to the king, who would be going with an army to defend the borders of the realm against attack from the Scots. On 8 November 1333 the king ordered the administrator of the vacant see of Canterbury and the archbishop of York to summon convocations of their provinces at Northampton on 10 January 1334 and at York on 17 January to discuss the necessity of the realm. This again related to the defence of the realm: RDP , iv, 421-2.

Writs of summons were issued at Wallingford on 2 January 1333 for the holding of a parliament at York on 21 February 1334. The writs stated that the king had ordained the holding of a parliament. The writs stated that the king wished to have a 'colloquium et tractatum' with those in attendance; the proposed assembly was described as a parliament both in the writs and in the marginal note on the Close Roll.

The writs of summons gave the purpose of the parliament as 'various arduous affairs touching the king and the state of the realm.'

Writs of summons were sent to the prior of Christchurch, Canterbury (the administrator of the spiritualities of Canterbury, sede vacante), the archbishop of York, nineteen bishops (including the four Welsh bishops), twenty-eight abbots, three priors; twelve earls (Norfolk, Cornwall, Lancaster, Surrey, Richmond, Arundel, Oxford, Hereford, Warwick; and three earls from Scotland, Atholl, Angus, and Buchan), sixty-three barons; twenty royal judges and clerks; and for the election of representatives the knights, burgesses, and lower clergy (the first time the clergy had been summoned since March 1332).

Although Edward Balliol had been summoned to attend the York parliament on 21 February 1334, he was unable to attend because of disturbances in Scotland. The Scottish situation must have been very much in the minds of Edward III and his council but, unlike the parliaments of September and December 1332 and January 1333 when Edward III had sought but not obtained advice on Scotland, there is nothing to suggest that the topic was even raised on this occasion. Scotland does not figure at all in the Parliament Roll (C 65/4) which consists of a list of twenty-one commune petitions together with the replies of the king and the council. The record begins with the statement that various petitions were presented and delivered in parliament by the men of the community. It was agreed that some of the petitions would be made into statutes, that some would be enrolled with the answers given to them to remain in chancery, and that some would not be answered immediately to allow time for better information and advice. Henry of Edwinstowe, clerk of the parliament, delivered the petitions with their answers, to Sir Michael of Wath, keeper of the rolls of the chancery, to be enrolled there and for writs to be issued as appropriate. The official record does not state how the commune petitions were assembled but it is likely that they were the result of discussions between those attending after the start of parliament on 21 February.

The commune petitions consisted of requests for the upholding of Magna Carta, the Charter of the Forest, and the statutes and laws of the land; for the appointment of commissions of the peace; that charters of pardon to felons should be granted only in parliament; that justices should be paid a reasonable fee by the king; that appointments of sheriffs should be made according to the Statute of Lincoln (1316); that the king should act against false jurors and the maintainers of false quarrels; that writs of chancery should be issued without any charge other than the fee for the seal; that cases of bigamy should be tried only in the ecclesiastical courts; the community complained about being required to attend church courts for false and unjust reasons; that justices of assize should not depart before delivering the gaols of all their prisoners; that gaol deliveries should be conducted only by justices of assize; the abuse of wardship of infants; enclosures in the forests; the increase in the price of herrings; the sale of wool (this petition was repeated below); the measurement of cloth; the shortage of money in the realm; the levying of prises; the levying of debts due to the crown; the levying of the green wax; the difficulty in selling wool because alien merchants were not coming to England. These petitions were all answered with reference to the various existing statutes which were appropriate (see C 65/4 and footnotes). Consequently no statute is recorded for this parliament. Royal justices were also assigned to hear felonies in the counties of Yorkshire and Lancashire; Devon and Cornwall; and Herefordshire and Shropshire. It was also agreed that the court of King's Bench should sit in the county of Warwick after Easter.

No arrangements for the receipt and handling of individual petitions are recorded on the Parliament Roll (C 65/4), and no individual petitions were enrolled after 1332. (fn. F1334int-2) It is however possible that some individual petitions were submitted during one or other of the parliaments held in March and September 1334. See PROME , Appendix of Unedited Petitions, 1307 - 1337 , Petitions in Parliament, 8 Edward III (1334-35) , Transcripts of sixty-eight petitions from a manuscript belonging to Sir Matthew Hale , and elsewhere in the Appendix, using the search engine.

No request for or grant of taxation appears to have been made during this parliament.

Text and translation

[p. ix-232]
[memb. 1]
ROTULUS PARLIAMENTI DE ANNO .VIIJ. TEMPORE EDWARDI TERTII APUD EBOR'. THE ROLL OF THE PARLIAMENT FOR THE EIGHTH YEAR IN THE TIME OF EDWARD THE THIRD AT YORK.
Fait a remembrer: qe come au parlement le roi Edward roi d'Engleterre le tierce apres le conqueste somons a Everwyk le lundi proschein devant la feste Seint Pier in Cathedra l'an de son regne uttisme, diverses petitions furent baillez et liverez en dit le parlement par gentz de commune, dont ascuns furent acordez en dit parlement de faire en estatut, ascunes de enrouller ove les responses faites a yceles a demorrer en chauncellerie, et ascunes nient responduz pur avoir ent meilleur information et avis. Et les peticions queles s'ensuent od les responses furent liverez a sire Michel de Wath gardein des roules de la dite chauncellerie, a demorrer y, par Henri de Edenestowe, clerc du dit parlement, pur enrouller et a faire ent briefs quand mester serra. [Petitions presented in the parliament by the community.]
Be it remembered: whereas at the parliament of King Edward, king of England, the third since the conquest summoned at York on Monday next before the feast of St Peter in cathedra in the eighth year of his reign [21 February 1334], various petitions were presented and delivered in the said parliament by the men of the community, of which some were agreed in the said parliament to be made into statutes, some to be enrolled with the answers given to them to remain in chancery, and some not answered in order to have better information and advice. And the petitions with their answers which follow were delivered by Henry of Edwinstowe, clerk of the said parliament, to Sir Michael of Wath, keeper of the rolls of the said chancery, to remain there, in order to be enrolled and for writs to be issued thereupon, when it will be necessary.
1. A nostre seignur le roi prient les bones gentz de la commune: qe la grand chartre et la chartre de la foreste, touz les estatutz et leys de la terre, seient tenuz en touz pointz. [Magna Carta and the Charter of the Forest.]
1. To our lord the king the good men of the community pray: that the Great Charter and the Charter of the Forest, and all the statutes and laws of the land, should be upheld in all points.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soient la grand chartre, la chartre de la forest et les autres estatutz tenuz en touz pointz, et les estatutz qe sont obscurs seient declarez par bon avisement. (fn. ix-232-9-1) Let the Great Charter, the Charter of the Forest and the other statutes be upheld in all points, and let the statutes which are obscure be explained by good advice. (fn. ix-232-9-1)
2. Et purceo qe altre foitz au parlement feust ordine, en seurte et en establisement de la pees, qe en chescun counte d'Engleterre serreient certeins commissions mandez a ascuns grantz du counte de oier et terminer totes maneres de felonies et trespases faites contre la pees, par vertue de queux commissions les uns sistrent et rescevrent enditementz de ascunes gentz et apres sursistrent et rien ne firent, par qoi ceux qe furent issint enditez firent greindre mal, c'est assavoir batirent et manaserent les bones gentz par les queux ils furent enditez. Par qoi prie la dite commune qe tieux commissions [p. ix-233] seient unqore mandez a ascun grant de bone fame et q'il ne soit mie meintenour par lui ne par autre, et a lui associe un homme de ley de meisme le counte pur reuler la place, et qe eux meismes soient ferment chargez, et qe eux sesent continuelment sur la dite commission tanqe issue soit fait en due manere, selonc la ley de la terre, des choses devant eux attamez, qe ceux qe sont enditez soient atteintz par utlagarie ou en autre manere. Et qe meismes les justices soient chargez q'ils retournent a fin del an les choses devant eux terminez devant le roi, issint qe nostre seignur le roi et son conseil puissent expressement veer qe ils ont bonement fait ce qe en eux est, solonc lour garant des choses susdites. [Commissions of the peace.]
2. And because on another occasion it was ordained in parliament, for the security and for establishment of the peace, that in every county of England certain commissions should be issued to some great men of the county to hear and determine all manner of felonies and trespasses committed against the peace, by virtue of which commissions some took and received indictments of some people and then delayed and did nothing, whereby those who were thus indicted caused great evil, that is to say they assaulted and threatened the good people by whom they were indicted. Whereupon the said community prays that such commissions [p. ix-233] should again be issued to another great man of good repute, and that he should not be a maintainer for himself or for another, and a lawyer from the same county should be associated with him in order to preside over the place, and that they themselves should be firmly charged, and that they should sit continuously on the said commission until the issue is done in due manner, according to the law of the land, of things begun before them, that those who are indicted should be attainted by outlawry or in another manner. And that the same justices should be charged that they return before the king at the end of the year the things determined before them, so that our lord the king and his council might expressly see that they have well done what is in them [to do] according to their warrant for the aforesaid things.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi par son bon conseil s'avisera en queux countez il busoigne qe justices soient assignez et y ferra assigner bones et convenables, et le roi voet qe ce q'ils averont termine soit retourne en tresorie a la fin del an. The king will be advised by his good council in which counties it is necessary that justices should be assigned and he will cause good and suitable men to be assigned there, and the king wills that what they will determine shall be returned in the treasury at the end of the year.
3. Et qe chartres de pardon ne soient mes grantez a tieux utlagez par amistez ne par autre cause suggestive, s'il ne soit en parlement come il est conteneu en les estatutz de ceo nadgairs faitz. [Charters of pardon.]
3. And that charters of pardon should not be granted to such outlaws by friendship or for another groundless reason, unless in parliament, as it is contained in the statutes recently made thereupon.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soit l'estatut ent fait tenu. (fn. ix-232-17-1) Let the statute made thereupon be upheld. (fn. ix-232-17-1)
4. Et auxint prient les bones gentz au roi: si lui pleise, qe les justices avantditz eient du roi un certein de qoi ils puissent resonablement estre sustenuz, santz rien prendre du poeple. [The support of the justices.]
4. And the good men also pray to the king: if it pleases him, that the aforesaid justices should have from the king a certain something that they might be reasonably supported, without taking anything from the people.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi ordinera q'ils averont covenable fee solonc lour estat. The king will ordain that they will have a suitable fee according to their estate.
5. Item, prie la dite commune: qe viscontz soient eslutz par chaunceller, tresorer et un des chief justices del un baunk ou de l'autre solonc ceo q'est conteneu en l'estatut de Nicole et auxint au conseil de Wodestok, qe tant come viscontz soient faitz pur de lour donant ils pernent atort et atravers, et pernent .x. marcs, .x. .li. , pur un faux panel, et issint sont les murdrers, felons et recettours acquitez et gentz fausement desheritez. Et qe les viscontz demoergent un an entier et q'ils eient terres et possessions suffisantz en meisme le counte de respondre au roi et as autres qi pleindre se vodrent. [Sheriffs.]
5. Also, the said community prays: that sheriffs should be chosen by the chancellor, treasurer and one of the chief justices of the one Bench or of the other according to what is contained in the statute of Lincoln and also of the council of Woodstock, because sheriffs are appointed by their own payment, they take wrongfully and from all directions, and they take 10 marks £10 for a false panel, and in this way the murderers, felons and receivers are acquitted and people wrongly disinherited. And that the sheriffs should remain in office for a whole year and that they should have sufficient lands and possessions in the same county to answer to the king and to others who will wish to complain of them.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soit l'estatut sur ce fait tenu. Et le chaunceller et autres qi sont deputez par estatut a ce faire facent bons et suffisantz [p. ix-234] viscontz parmy tut le roialme avant lour departir, et qe les ditz viscontz demoergent un an entier et outre, s'ils se portent bien. Let the statute made thereupon be upheld. And let the chancellor and others who are appointed by statute to do this make good and sufficient [p. ix-234] sheriffs throughout the realm before their departure, and the said sheriffs shall remain in office for a whole year or longer if they conduct themselves well. (fn. ix-232-27-1)
6. Item, prie la dite commune: qe le roi ordeine de faux jurours et de meyntenours de faux quereles, solonc ceo q'il verra qe meutz serra pur le roi et en avantage du poeple. [False jurors.]
6. Also, the said community prays: that the king shall ordain concerning false jurors and concerning maintainers of false quarrels according to what he will he will consider will be best for the king and to the advantage of the people.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Les justices de l'un baunk et de l'autre, et les justices as assises prendre assignez, et auxint les justices qi serront deputez d'aler en countez, eient pouer d'enquer et oier et terminer, auxi bien a la seute le roi come d'autre, santz especiale commission par vertue de ceste < acord. > Et soient les ercevesqes et touz les evesqes d'Engleterre requis par lettres du roi en fourme patent q'ils doignent sentence chescun dymenge en chescun eglise parochiele sur felons, meintenours des felons, conspiratours, faux jurours, et destourbours de la pees et lour meintenours, et meintenours et empernours des faux quereles. Et soient auxint requis les ercevesqes q'ils ordinent issint qe la sentence soit pronuncie en lour provinces en la fourme avantdite, si avant come a eux attient etc. Let the justices of the one Bench and of the other, and the justices assigned to hold assizes, and also the justices who will be appointed to go to county courts, have power to inquire and to hear and determine both at the suit of the king and of others, without a special commission, by virtue of this agreement. And let the archbishops and all the bishops of England be requested by letters of the king in patent form that every Sunday in every parish church they shall pronounce sentence on felons, maintainers of felons, conspirators, false jurors, and disturbers of the peace and their maintainers, and the maintainers and instigators of false quarrels. And the archbishops shall also be requested to ordain that the sentence be pronounced in their provinces in the aforesaid form, as belongs to them etc.
7. Item, prie la dite commune: pur ceo qe la chauncellerie est une place la ou homme covient avoir recoverer et comencement par brief a pursuere son droit, q'il puisse avoir les ditz briefs santz rien doner ostre la fee du seal, desicome la grande chartre voet, 'Nulli vendemus, nulli negabimus aut differemus rectum aut justiciam', qar multz des gentz ont este delaiez de lour droit et ascunes desheritez pur ce qe les clerks de la chauncellerie les ont viez [sic: read 'niez'] briefs qi autrefoitz soloient estre grantez santz rien doner, et auxint le roi ad eu de ce grant pert. [Writs of chancery.]
7. Also, the said community prays: because the chancery is a place where it is fitting for a man to have recovery and begin to sue his right by writ, that he might have the said writs without paying anything other than the fee of the seal, as the Great Charter wills, 'We shall sell to no-one, we shall deny to no-one or delay right or justice', because many men have been delayed of their right and some disinherited because the clerks of the chancery have refused them writs which on other occasions used to be granted without paying anything, and also the king has suffered great loss from this.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Les briefs qe sont de cours soient de cours, et des briefs qe sont de grace le roi comandra son chaunceller q'il soit gracious. Let writs which are of the normal process of law be of the normal process, and concerning writs which are of grace the king will command his chancellor that he is gracious.
8. Item, prie la dite commune: qe bigame desoremes ne soit trie nulle part forsqe en la court Cristiene. [Bigamy.]
8. Also, the said community prays: that bigamy should not be tried henceforth except in the court Christian.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Il plest au roi. It pleases the king.
9. Item, purce qe ministres et ordiners de seinte eglise font grant damage au poeple de ceo q'ils les font somondre en divers lieux a [p. ix-235] chapitres, consistories et as autres sessions en divers lieux a un jour par causes feintes et nient dreitureles, et pernent redempcions de eux a lour voluntez, a grant oppression du poeple, et pernent trop grevouses prises pur prove de testamentz, prie la dite commune a nostre seignur le roi et a son conseil qe, vewes les meschiefs et les grevances avantditz, ordeinent remedie qe soit profitable pur lui et pur son poeple. [Church courts.]
9. Also, because ministers and clerks of holy church cause great harm to the people because they cause them to be summoned to various places to [p. ix-235] chapters, consistory courts and to other sessions in various places for false and unjust reasons, and they take redemptions from them at their will, to the great oppression of the people, and they take grievous exactions to prove wills, the said community prays to our lord the king and to his council that, having considered the aforesaid wrongs and grievances, they should ordain a remedy which may be profitable for him and for his people.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi ferra ce qi a lui attient, et priera as prelatz qe eux facent ceo qi a eux attient. The king will do what pertains to him, and he will pray the prelates that they should do what pertains to them.
10. Item, purceo qe ordine feust au parlement a Norhampton' qe < justices assignez a les assises prendre en countez feisont deliverance > des gaoles en meismes les countez a chescun foitz de lour sessions avant leur aler, quele ordinance quant a les deliverances faire ne tiegnent en nul point, par qoi execucions affaire sur les felons et les deliverances de autres fausement et par procurement enditez sont trope targez, a damage de nostre seignur le roi et destruction des enditours et enditez en la manere susdite. [The justices of assize.]
10. Also, because it was ordained at the parliament at Northampton that justices assigned to hold the assizes in the counties should undertake gaol delivery in the same counties at each of their sessions before their departure, which ordinance as regards the undertaking of deliveries they do not observe in any point, on account of which executions to be made on felons and the deliveries of others indicted falsely and by procurement are greatly delayed, to the damage of our lord the king and the destruction of the indictors and the indicted in the aforesaid manner.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Les justices des assises apres la prise des dites assises ne departent point avant ceo q'ils deliverent les gaoles, et en cas qe les justices nel facent solonc l'estatut, perdent lour fee. (fn. ix-232-52-1) Let the justices of assizes after the holding of the said assizes not depart before they deliver the gaols, and in the event that the justices do not act according to the statute, let them lose their fee. (fn. ix-232-52-1)
11. Item, purceo qe ordine fust par estatut de Norhampton' qe nulles deliverances ne se preisent si noun devant les justices assignez a les assises prendre, prie la dite commune qe cele estatut puisse estre tenuz, et qe si nul commission soit grante devant autre q'il puisse < estre > repelle, auxibien a seute de partie come a la seute le roi. [The justices of assize.]
11. Also, because it was ordained by the statute of Northampton that no deliveries should be held except before the justices assigned to hold the assizes, the said community prays that this statute might be upheld, and that if any commission be granted before another person that it might be repealed, whether at the suit of the party or at the suit of the king.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soit l'estatut ent fait tenu, et si nulle deliverance se face par autre manere soit tenue pur nulle. (fn. ix-232-57-1) Let the statute made thereupon be upheld, and if any delivery is made by another manner let it be considered null and void. (fn. ix-232-57-1)
12. Item, la ou gardeins enginent enfantz, qi sont en lour garde par reson de lour noun age, d'avoir lour terres quant ils vendrent a lour age, les font faire reconissances par estatut marchant tant come ils sont dedeinz l'age .xxi. an, par covigne entre les gardeins et les meires de citeez qe sont de lour acorde, par qoi plusours enfantz sont en tieles maneres desheritez. Si prie la commune qe ordine soit qe nul tiel estatut ne soit execut la ou l'enfant quant il viendra a son age tende d'averrer q'il fust dedeinz age a temps de la reconissance faite, mes a tiel averrement soit chescun resceu qe le voudra tendre. [The guardians of infants.]
12. Also, whereas guardians of infants who are in their wardship by reason of their minority, contriving to have their lands when they attain their majority, cause them to make recognizances by statute merchant when they are under the age of 21 years, by agreement between the guardians and the mayors of the cities who are of their faction, whereby many infants are disinherited in such ways. Thus the community prays that it should be ordained that no such statute should be executed until the infant comes to his majority when he can tender an averment that he was he was under age at the time the recognizance was made, and that every such averment should be received when he may wish to tender it.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Il y ad ley qe suffit autre qe par averrement. There is law which is sufficient other than by averment.
[p. ix-236]
13. Item, prie la dite commune: qe la ou nostre seignur le roi ad ses haies severales en ses forestes en diverses counteez, si bestes y entrent par eschape les foresters les tiegnent forfaitz ou pernent raunson a lour voluntez, et a la foitz les foresters pernent bestes de hors et les chacent dedeinz tanqe ils eient fait fin a lour volunte et ne soeffrent viscontz faire deliverance, et si gentz soient illoeqes tuez ne soeffrent le coroner faire son office, par qoi felons et felonies sont faitz, de quoi ils prient remedie. [Enclosures in the forests.]
13. Also, the said community prays: whereas our lord the king has his various enclosures in his forests in several counties, and if beasts escape and enter there the foresters hold them forfeit or take ransom for them at their will, and sometimes the foresters take the beasts from outside and chase them inside until they have made fine at their will and they do not allow the sheriffs to make delivery, and when men are killed there they do not allow the coroner to carry out his office, whereby felons and felonies are made, for which they pray remedy.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Quant a office de coroner et autres offices tochantz felonies, l'entencion le roi est q'ils facent lour offices auxibien deinz forestes et haies come aillours dehors. Quant as autres durtez, soit mande as gardeins des forestes ou a lour lieu tenantz q'ils ne soeffrent oppression estre fait sur le poeple et qe il oie chescuny pleinte, issint touz jours qe l'assise de la foreste soit garde. Et si pleinte viegne au roi qe les gardeins et lour ministres ne facent le mandement le roi, soit fait remedie en chauncellerie par autre voie a chescuny pleinte. [Coroners.]
As regards the office of coroner and other offices touching felonies, the intention of the king is that they should carry out their offices both within forests and enclosures as elsewhere outside. As regards the other duresses, let the keepers of the forests or to their lieutenants b commanded that they should not allow oppression to be made on the people and that they should hear every complaint, provided always that the assize of the forest is protected. And if a complaint comes to the king that the keepers and their officials are not carrying out the king's command, let remedy be made to every complaint in chancery by other means.
14. Item, pur ceo qe plusours damages sont avenuz a nostre seignur le roi et a tut son poeple de ceo qe chescun miler de haranges est en cherre de .xl. deners, par reson de decensions et conteckes qe sont et ont este entre les villes de Grant Gernemuwe et de Petit Gernemuwe, et dont les gentz de Londres, de Cink Ports et des autres villes, et ensement les gentz de estranges terres, ont resceuz grantz mals et pertz, et fait a douter qe greindre mals avendrent si les choses ne soient plus tost apeisez. Par qoi prie la dite commune a nostre seignur le roi, si lui pleise, assigner certeins justices de oier et terminer les pleintes de ceux qi pleindre se voleient des grevances et des damages, et mettre certeins peynes entre < les > villes avantdites. [The price of herrings.]
14. Also, because great damage has befallen our lord the king and all his people because every thousand herrings is raised in price to 40 d. by reason of disputes and quarrels which are and have been between the towns of Great Yarmouth and of Little Yarmouth, and because of which the people of London, of the Cinque Ports and of other towns, and also the people of foreign lands, have suffered great harm and losses, and it is feared that greater harm shall occur unless the matter is quickly settled. Whereupon the said community prays to our lord the king, if it pleases him, to assign certain justices to hear and determine the complaints of those who wish to complain of grievances and of damages, and to impose certain penalties on the aforesaid towns.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Pur ceo qe juggement ad este rendu avant ces houres sur les debatz par entre les deux villes, soit le dit juggement tenu en touz pointz. Et si nul se voille pleindre de trespas fait puis le juggement rendu, soient justices assignez d'oier et terminer sa pleinte, auxibien a la seute le roi come a seute de partie. [editorial note: The following sentence has been added later.] Et assignentur Galfridus le Scrope, Johannes de Stonore et Johannes de Cantebrigg', et duo eorum, justiciarii ad audiendum et terminandum transgressiones in forma predicta. Because judgment has been given in the past on the disputes between the two towns, let the said judgment be upheld in all points. And if anyone shall wish to complain of trespass committed since the judgment was given, let justices be assigned to hear and determine his complaint whether at the suit of the king or at the suit of the party. And let Geoffrey le Scrope, John of Stonor and John of Cambridge, or two of them, be assigned justices to hear and determine trespasses in the aforesaid form.
[15.] [[The following text has been deleted:
Item, pur ceo qe les bones gentz de vostre commune se sentent durement greve de ceo q'ils ne poent vendre lour leines a lour profit, come ils soleient faire, pur ce qe les estranges marchantz ne viegnent de achatre leynes, come ils soleient faire, par tote la terre, et de ceo qe la custume est encrue, par qoi pleise a nostre seignur le roi et a son conseil ordiner de ceo remedie covenable qe soit a profist de lui et en avantage de son poeple, et qe draps se facent en la terre come ordine feust.]] Quia in dorso.
[The sale of wool.]
15. [[The following text has been deleted:
Also, because the good people of your community consider themselves severely grieved because they are unable to sell their wool to their profit as they used to do, because the alien merchants do not come to buy their wool as they used to do, throughout the realm, and because the custom has increased; whereupon may it please our lord the king and his council to ordain a suitable remedy for this which may be to his profit and to the advantage of his people, and that cloth should be made in the realm as it was ordained.]] Because it is on the dorse.
[p. ix-237]
15. [sic: read '16'] Item, pur ce qe les draps ne sont pas de certein muesou [sic: read 'mesour'] en longure et en laioure, come estre deiuent par reson de assise, et sont resceuz et ensealez contre l'assise, a grant damage du roi et du poeple, de qoi ils prient remedie. [The measurement of cloth.]
15. [sic: read '16'] Also, because cloth is not of a certain measurement in length and in breadth as it should be by reason of assize, and it is accepted and sealed contrary to the assize, to the great damage of the king and of the people, for which they pray remedy.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
L'estatut fait en ce cas est assetz bon s'il soit execut et le roi ordinera coment execucion purra meutz estre fait a ees de son poeple. (fn. ix-232-77-1) The statute made on this matter is good enough if it is executed and the king will ordain how execution will be better done to the ease of his people. (fn. ix-232-77-1)
16. [sic: read '17'] Item, prie la dite commune: qe pur la grant defaut qe il y ad en la terre de moneie, qe nulle moneie desoremes soit emporte hors de la terre. [The shortage of money.]
16. [sic: read '17'] Also, the said community prays: that on account of the great shortage of money which there is in the realm, that no money should henceforth be taken out of the realm.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi ordinera par son conseil remedi en ce cas. (fn. ix-232-82-1) The king will ordain remedy on this matter by his council. (fn. ix-232-82-1)
17. [sic: read '18'] Et pur ce qe le poeple est molt greve par diverses prises des autres qe des gentz nostre seignur le roi, si prie la commune qe totes prises soient defenduz sauve les prises le roi, et qe celes prises soient faitz selonc ceo qe ordine fust par estatut. [Prises.]
17. [sic: read '18'] And because the people are most grieved by various prises by others than by men of our lord the king, the community thus prays that all prises should be forbidden save the prises of the king, and that these prises should be made according to what was ordained by statute.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soit l'estatut ent fait garde. (fn. ix-232-87-1) Let the statute made thereupon be observed. (fn. ix-232-87-1)
18. [sic: read '19'] Item, pur ce le tresorer et les barons del escheqer, par somons et estretes de meisme l'escheker, mandent a diverses visconts de lever al oeps le roi dettes de temps le roi Johan et le roi Henri, progenitours nostre seignur le roi, queux dettes homme ne seet ou lever, et les viscontes par garant des celes somons et estretes destreignent en diverses lieux, surmettant a gentz q'ils tiegnent les terres chargez, et les destresces retiegnent tanqe ils eient raunson a lour voluntez, de qoi le poeple est molt tarrie et greve. Pleise a nostre seignur le roi, pur salvete de sa alme et des almes des progenitours nostre seignur le roi, les dites dettes a son poeple pardoner par queux ils sont outrageousement grevez en la manere susdite. [The levying of debts.]
18. [sic: read '19'] Also, because the treasurer and the barons of the exchequer have command several sheriffs by summons and estreats of the same exchequer to levy for the use of the king debts from the time of King John and King Henry, progenitors of our lord the king, which debts no one knows how to pay, and the sheriffs by warrant of these summons and estreats distrain in various places, accuse people that they hold the lands charged, and they retain the distraints until they have been ransomed at their will, whereby the people are most harassed and grieved. May it please our lord the king, for the salvation of his soul and of the souls of our lord the king's progenitors, to pardon the said debts to his people by which they are outrageously grieved in the aforesaid manner.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi s'avisera par son tresorer des dettes queux sont clers et queux nient clers et sur les causes de les demandes entre cy et le proschein parlement, et lour ferra respons covenable. The king will be advised by his treasurer of the debts which are clear and which are not clear and concerning the reasons for the demands between now and the next parliament, and he will give them a suitable answer.
19. [sic: read '20'] Item, prie la dite commune: qe remedie se face sur viscontes et lour resceivours qi font lever la vert cyre et font entendant a grantz et a menes q'ils deivent plus q'ils ne font, et font lever et lour font tailles, et ce est communement usee; par qoi le commune poeple prie qe ascun del escheqer viegne chescun an en les counteez [p. ix-238] d'enquer coment le vert cire est levee, et qe la crie se face a touz ceux qi ont resceuz tailles des viscontes viegnent devant < lui, > et issint serra la malveiste aperceu. [The levying of the green wax.]
19. [sic: read '20'] Also, the said community prays: that remedy should be made concerning sheriffs and their receivers who make levy of the green wax and give great and lesser men to understand that they owe more than they do, and they cause it to be levied and they issue them tallies, and this is common practice; whereupon the common people pray that someone from the exchequer should come every year to the counties [p. ix-238] to inquire how the revenue due to the exchequer is levied, and that proclamation should be made there for all those who have received tallies from the sheriffs to come before him, and in this way the evil will be perceived.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
L'estatut fait en ceo cas soit garde. (fn. ix-232-97-1) Let the statute made on this matter be observed. (fn. ix-232-97-1)
[memb. 1, dorse]
20. [sic: read '21'] Item, pur ce qe les bones gentz de vostre commune se sentent durement greve de ce q'ils ne poent vendre lour leines a lour profit, come ils soleient faire, pur ce qe les estranges marchantz ne viegnent de achatre leines, come ils soleient faire, par tote la terre, et de ceo qe la custume est encrue, par qoi pleise a nostre seignur le roi et a son conseil ordiner de ceo remedie covenable qe soit a profist de lui et en avantage de son poeple, et qe draps se facent en la terre come ordine feust. [The sale of wool.]
20. [sic: read '21'] Also, because the good people of your community consider themselves severely grieved because they are unable to sell their wool to their profit as they used to do, because the alien merchants do not come to buy their wool as they used to do, throughout the realm, and because the custom has increased; whereupon may it please our lord the king and his council to ordain a suitable remedy for this which may be to his profit and to the advantage of his people, and that cloth should be made in the realm as it was ordained.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Pur ce qe les estaples de leines, quirs et pealx lanutz, nadgairs ordinez en roialme d'Engleterre et es terres de Irland et de Gales a la requeste des marchantz, ne furent grantez forqe en manere qe le roi par son bon conseil y poeit ent mettre adressement tot foitz q'il verroit qe serroit a profit de lui et amendement de ses ditz roialme et terres et ses suthimis en yceux, et nostre seignur le roi, a la peticion des gentz de la commune de sa terre moustre en yceo parlement somons a Everwyk, ad entendu qe les dites estaples sont a grant damage de lui et de son poeple, voillant le dit damage eschure et purveier le profit de lui et de son dit poeple par totes bones voies q'il purra, ad grante, a la requeste des prelatz, countes, barons et les ditz gentz de commune, qe meisme les estaples mes ne se tiegnent einz de tout soient oustez. Et voet et grante qe touz marchantz, auxibien estranges come privez, puissent es ditz roialme et terres franchement entrer et venir d'achatre et vendre, paiantz lour custumes dues. Et pur ce qe nostre seignur le roi n'ad mie unqore ordine custumiers de sa custume, tronours, contreroulours, ne trone ne coket ne autres choses qi appendent pur sa dite custume, aillours qe es lieux ou les estaples ore sont, soit mande as touz les viscontes d'Engleterre, et auxint as justices de Gales et d'Irland, q'ils facent crier et defendre deinz fraunchise ne de hors qe nul marchant ne autre, entre cy et la quinzeine de la Trinite proschein avenir, face carier ou passer leynes, pealx et quirs lanutz hors du roialme aillours qe par les ditz lieux ou les estaples unqore sont, sur la forfaiture de meisme les leynes, quirs et pealx lanutz, et qe touz les marchantz qi voillent passer lour leynes, quirs et pealx lanutz les facent venir as dites lieux et passer avant la [p. ix-239] quinzeine avantdite, entre cy et queu temps le roi ordenera ou il voet qe ses custumers, tronours et contrerouleurs, trone et coket et autres choses qi appendent, soient, et apres queu temps le roi voet qe touz marchantz puissent franchement passer et carier leur leynes, quirs et pealx lanutz come ils firent avant le ordinance de les estaples susdite, paiantz lour custumes dues. Et sur les dites choses soient fait briefs ou mestier serra. Because the staples of wool, hides and woolfells recently ordained in the realm of England and in the lands of Ireland and of Wales at the request of the merchants were granted on condition that the king by his good council might make addressment of them when he saw that it would be to his profit and the improvement of his said realm and lands and his subjects in them, and our lord the king, at the petition of the men of the community of his realm presented in this parliament summoned at York, has understood that the said staples are to the great damage of him and of his people, wishing to eschew the said damage and provide for the profit of him and of his said people by all the good means that he can, has granted, at the request of the prelates, earls, barons and the said men of the community, that the same staples should not be valid but should be completely removed. And he wills and grants that all merchants, both aliens and denizens, may freely enter the said realm and lands and come to buy and sell, paying their custom duties. And because our lord the king has not yet appointed customs officers of his custom, troners, controllers, or public balance or cocket or other things which appertain to his said custom in places other than where the staples now are, let all the sheriffs of England, and also the justices of Wales and of Ireland be commanded that they should have it proclaimed and forbidden within franchises and outside that any merchant or other person, between now and the quinzaine of Holy Trinity next following [5 June 1334], should cause to carry or send wool, woolfells and hides out of the realm other than through the said places where the staples are now, on pain of the forfeiture of the same wool, hides and woolfells, and that all the merchants who wish to send their wool, hides and woolfells should cause them to go and be sent to the said places before the [p. ix-239] aforesaid quinzaine, between now and which time the king will ordain where he wishes his customs officers, troners and controllers, public balance and cocket and other things which appertain to be, and after which time the king wills that all merchants may freely send and carry their wool, hides and woolfells as they did before the ordinance concerning the aforesaid staples, paying their custom duties. And let writs be made on the said matters or whatever will seem best. (fn. ix-232-102-1)
[editorial note: Ebor', Lancastr'.] [editorial note: Yorkshire, Lancashire.]
Le seignur de Percy, sire William de Tweng, sire Johan de [[The following text has been deleted:
Storne]] Stonore, Richard de Aldeburgh, justicez, treis [ou deux] de eux, issint qe un des justices soit un.
[The assignment of justices.]
The lord of Percy, Sir William of Tweng [Thwing], Sir John of Stonor, Richard of Aldeburgh, justices, three or two of them, so that one of the justices shall be one.
[editorial note: Devon', Cornub'.] [editorial note: Devon, Cornwall.]
Monsire Hugh de Courteney le peire, sire Robert Beaupel et Elias de Godley, deux, qe Elys soit un. Sir Hugh de Courtenay the father, Sir Robert Beaupel and Elias of Godley, two, of whom let Elias be one.
[editorial note: Hereford', Salop'.] [editorial note: Herefordshire, Shropshire.]
Le seignur de Berkele, sire Roger de Chaundos, < sire > Robert de Aston', et Roger de Hillary, treis ou deux de eux, qe l'un soit Robert de Aston' et < ou > Roger Hillary. The lord of Berkeley, Sir Roger of Chandos, Sir Robert of Aston, and Roger Hillary, three or two of them, of whom let Robert of Aston and or Roger Hillary be one.
Les justicez par amount soient assignez d'oir et terminer touz maneres de felonies [[The following text has been deleted:
dont]] < solonc > la noete demoert devers Benet de Normanton'.
The justices above are assigned to hear and determine all manner of felonies according to the note which remains with Benedict of Normanton.
Item, est acorde qe le bank le roi sesse en le counte de Warr' apres la Pasch. Por ce qe monsire Geffrey le Scrope chef justice, pur autres bosoignes grosses as queux il entend par comandement du roi, ne poet entendre a les plees le roi tenir, soit mande a sire Richart de Wylughby q'il entend en son lieu, et soit sire William de Shareshull assigne une des justices du bank le roi od le dit sire Richart de Wylughby et autres justices illoeqes. [The King's Bench. ]
Also, it is agreed that King's Bench should sit in the county of Warwick after Easter. Because Sir Geoffrey le Scrope, chief justice, on account of other important business to which he is attending by the command of the king, is unable to be present to hold crown pleas, let Sir Richard of Willoughby be commanded that he should be present in his place, and let Sir William of Shareshill be assigned one of the justices of King's Bench with the said Sir Richard of Willoughby and the other justices there.

Footnotes

  • F1334int-1. Sumption, The Hundred Years' War , I, 129-35; Haines, Archbishop John Stratford , 227-8.
  • F1334int-2. Harriss, King, Parliament and Public Finance in England to 1369 , 123.
  • ix-232-9-1. The Great Charter (Magna Carta) and the Charter of the Forest, first issued in 1215 and 1217 respectively, had been reissued and confirmed by Edward I in 1297, and confirmed again by Edward II in article vi of the Ordinances in 1311: SR , i, 114-24, 158. For the Great Charter and the Charter of the Forest in their original forms and for successive reissues down to 1225 see SR , i, 'Charters of Liberties', 9-27.
  • ix-232-17-1. See Statute of Northampton, 1328, cap. ii, and Statute of Westminster, 1330, cap. xiii: SR , i, 257, 264.
  • ix-232-27-1. See Statute of Lincoln, 1316: SR , i, 174-5; Statute of Westminster the Fourth, 1320: SR , i, 180-1. See also Parliament of 1316, SC 9/19, item 49 (Statute of Lincoln); Parliament of 1316, SC 9/20, item 2; Parliament of 1327, C 65/1, item 15; Parliament of 1327, C 49/83, item 18.
  • ix-232-52-1. Statute of Northampton, 1328: SR , i, 257-61.
  • ix-232-57-1. Statute of Northampton, 1328: SR , i, 257-61.
  • ix-232-77-1. Assize of cloth, 1197.
  • ix-232-82-1. See Statute the Second, 1335, which contains various ordinances to do with money: SR , i, 273-4.
  • ix-232-87-1. Statute of Prises, 1309: SR , i, 153-4.
  • ix-232-97-1. This is probably a reference to the Statute of Fines, 1299, cap.2: SR , i, 129.
  • ix-232-102-1. See Statute of Northampton, 1328, cap. ix:, 259.