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Henry IV: January 1410

Parliament Rolls of Medieval England. Originally published by Boydell, Woodbridge, 2005.

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In this section

1410 January

Introduction 1410

Westminster

27 January - 9 May

(C 65/71. RP , III.622-46. SR , ii.162-6)

C 65/71 is a roll of seventeen membranes, each approximately 310 mm. (12 ins.) wide, numbered at the head and foot in a later hand. They are mostly sewn together in chancery style, although some are stitched in a different way, and membranes 4 and 5 seem to have been glued together. There is no writing on the versos apart from a note on each membrane identifying the parliament as 'Parl. XI H. IIII', sometimes with the words 'pars unica' added. The text on the rectos is written in a neat and legible chancery hand, often leaving wide gaps between the items. The headings to the main business of parliament are contemporary: those to the commons' petitions are later, and the numbering of items is also later. The roll is in good condition, although the text on m. 1 has been covered with gallic acid: however, almost all of it can still be read easily.

Having promised the Gloucester parliament of October 1407 that he would make no further request for taxation until March 1410 at the earliest, Henry IV very nearly succeeded in keeping his word. That he was almost able to do so was due to a combination of circumstances. In military terms, the years 1407-9 were certainly the turning-point of the reign. The assassination of the French king's brother, Louis duke of Orleans, in November 1407, set France on the road to civil war (which eventually broke out in the winter of 1410-11) and effectively nullified the threat to Gascony for the foreseeable future. It also rendered the Franco-Welsh alliance of 1404 virtually worthless, and from this time onwards Glendower was always on the defensive. Aberystwyth was recaptured by the English in September 1408, and Harlech in February 1409, by which time 'Wales was no longer a society in revolt'. (fn. f1410int-1) The fortuitous capture of James I in March 1406 had also reduced the threat from Scotland, and when Henry's inveterate opponent, the earl of Northumberland, was killed, rebelling yet again, at Bramham Moor (Yorkshire) in February 1408, the way was open for the restoration of royal authority in the north. Along with this abatement of the crown's military commitments came a consequent easing of the financial pressure, coupled with a more determined effort on the king's part to reduce expenditure. The cost of the royal household continued to fall, and with Archbishop Arundel as chancellor (from January 1407) and John Tiptoft as treasurer (from July 1408), there were unmistakable signs of a more responsible attitude to crown finance among the king's ministers. More worrying, however, was the state of Henry's health. From about 1405 onwards, some form of (probably) circulatory disorder rendered him decreasingly capable of taking an active part in government, and increasingly prone to periodic and occasionally life-threatening attacks, the most severe of which, during the winter of 1408-9, even induced the king to make his will on 21 January 1409. (fn. f1410int-2) By March he had recovered, but the uncertainty over his well-being was bound to lead to unwelcome speculation, not to say jockeying for position. It is against this background that the political crisis which erupted in late 1409, and was not fully resolved until the king's death three and a half years later, needs to be viewed.

The central figure in this crisis was Prince Henry, the future Henry V, now twenty-two years old and largely free of the responsibilities in Wales which had kept him occupied for the previous five years or so. (fn. f1410int-3) Spurred on by both his father's incapacity and his own natural propensity for leadership, the prince was determined to play a more active part in the government of England, and there were many in the kingdom who wished such a role upon him. Among his principal supporters were his half-uncles, the Beauforts, and some of the younger earls such as Arundel and Warwick. Against him stood Archbishop Arundel, the chief representative, along with the king, of the old order. (fn. f1410int-4) Writs summoning a parliament were first issued on 26 October 1409, the date and place of the assembly being specified as 27 January at Bristol, but it seems likely that at a great council held in London in early December the king was forced to change the location of the assembly to Westminster. This council was also evidently the scene of a clash between Henry's ministers and the prince's supporters over the question of military and financial priorities, with the security of Calais - which the duke of Burgundy was preparing to assault - a particular cause of dispute. The upshot, at any rate, was the resignation of both the king's chief ministers. Tiptoft resigned as treasurer on 11 December; on 18 December new writs were issued revising the summons of parliament to Westminster, and three days later Arundel resigned as chancellor. On 6 January, as soon as the Christmas festivities were over, the king appointed Henry Lord Scrope of Masham (a committed follower of the prince, for now) (fn. f1410int-5) as treasurer, but he declined for the moment to appoint a new chancellor, instead retaining the great seal in his own hands until 19 January, when he was obliged to repudiate some of his own signet letters and to commit the great seal - temporarily - to John Wakering, clerk of the rolls of chancery. Thus when parliament met on 27 January, there was still no chancellor, and while the transfer of power to the prince's party may well have seemed inevitable, it was not yet complete.

The names of the lords spiritual who received summonses included that of Benedict Nicholls, the new bishop of Bangor, but were otherwise the same as in 1407. Among the lords temporal there were three newcomers: firstly, Thomas Montague earl of Salisbury, who in 1409, having proved his age, had been restored to the title which his father had forfeited by his rebellion in 1400; secondly, John Talbot, who had married Maud, daughter of Thomas Nevill Lord Furnivall, the former treasurer of England who had died in 1407, and who was thus now summoned as John Talbot Lord Furnivall; and thirdly, John Oldcastle, a former knight of the shire for Hereford who was married to Joan, grand-daughter and heiress of John Lord Cobham, who had died in January 1408. Much the most interesting of the three is Oldcastle: a close friend and servant of the prince of Wales (he is said to have provided the model for Shakespeare's Falstaff), he was also a devout and persistent heretic, who, in January 1414, would lead the Lollard rising against his former master, and eventually lose his life in the cause of heresy. Although there is no direct evidence to link Oldcastle with the anti-clerical schemes put forward by the commons in 1410, it was surely not by happenstance alone that his first appearance among the lords coincided with the most vociferously pro-Lollard parliament yet witnessed.

The returns for the elected members are far from complete: the names of only twenty-nine of the (presumed) seventy-four knights of the shire are known, plus ninety-two burgesses. Nevertheless, analysis of these 121 names is suggestive: (fn. f1410int-6) at least one in six of them, and probably more, had significant connections with either Prince Henry, the Beauforts, or Thomas Chaucer, who was once again chosen as speaker. Whether, as has been suggested, Chaucer had engaged in 'a certain amount of electoral manipulation' in order to secure their return, cannot be known for sure, but the presence of this substantial minority of well-wishers among the commons must surely have helped the prince's party to consolidate their victory over the old order. Probably just as pivotal, though, was the personal role of Chaucer; he was, through his mother, first cousin to the Beaufort brothers, and there is no doubt as to where his sympathies lay. According to Cardinal Henry Beaufort's most recent biographer, 'Thomas and Henry Beaufort, and their cousin Thomas Chaucer, were the real architects of the prince's emergence into politics' (fn. f1410int-7) - and it was the parliament of 1410 which signalled that emergence.

The parliament was divided into two sessions, with a break for Easter (which fell on 23 March). The first lasted from 27 January to 15 March, the second from 7 April to 9 May. The initial session opened on Monday 27 January, in the Painted Chamber, with the usual speech, given on this occasion ('because there was no chancellor of England at that time') by Henry Beaufort, bishop of Winchester. Despite the truces currently in operation, he pointed out that the duke of Burgundy, 'who currently had the government of the realm of France', was at that very moment preparing to attack Calais, and went on to cite the advice given by Aristotle to Alexander the Great on how to ensure the security of 'a great city'. The commons were then told to elect their speaker, and on the following day they presented Chaucer, who, despite his declared reluctance to assume the post, was told by the king to do so. Following this, the roll records only two items of business before the adjournment on 15 March: a petition on Friday 7 February that assizes might be postponed while parliament was sitting, and, on Saturday 8 February, a request from the commons that 'a petition delivered into parliament by them concerning the statute formerly made about the Lollards might be returned to them, and that nothing should be recorded concerning this'. The king agreed to this, although only on condition that his decision would not be taken as a precedent.

The reticence of the official record is explicable by the controversial nature of the debates during this first session. Fortunately, other sources go some way towards filling the gap. Matters began, as usual, with a request from the king for money, (fn. f1410int-8) to which the commons' reply was to produce a bill setting out a radical scheme for the disendowment of the church. (fn. f1410int-9) There is general agreement that the ideas expressed in this 'Lollard Disendowment Bill' had been in circulation for a good while before 1410, and it is far from impossible that the bill, or something like it, had provided the basis for the attack on clerical wealth in the parliament of October 1404. However, according to both the St Albans chronicler and The Great Chronicle of London , it was to the parliament of 1410 that it was actually presented as a petition from 'all the true commons'. The scheme which was outlined was radical in the extreme. From the temporalities 'occupied and proudly wasted' by the bishops, abbots and priors, it declared, the king would be able to secure enough income to support fifteen new earls, 1,500 knights, 6,200 esquires and 100 new almshouses, and still be left with an annual income of £20,000. Each new earl would be guaranteed an annual income of 3,000 marks (£2,000), each knight 100 marks (another version says 300 marks), each esquire 40 marks, and each new almshouse 100 marks 'under the good administration of faithful secular ministers', whereby they would also be able to provide the welfare for paupers which, by a statute of 1388, had been designated as the responsibility of each town in the realm. The calculations upon which these figures were based were then set out. The temporalities of the bishops, abbots and priors, so it was claimed, amounted to 332,000 marks (£221,333) a year (a breakdown of the figures for several of the major cathedrals and religious houses was provided). This was not all, however. A further £100,000 a year could be raised from 'more temporalities wasted and occupied by worldly clerks' and used to support 10,500 'priests and clerks' (unworldly ones, presumably), each of whom would receive £2 a year. The revenues thus raised would also support fifteen new universities with 15,000 scholars. In addition, consideration should be given to the disendowment of colleges, chantries and various other kinds of religious foundation, the value of which the commons did not attempt to estimate. 'And therefore', the bill concluded, 'all the true commons' asked that 'these worldly clerks, bishops, abbots and priors, that are such worldly lords, should be obliged to live on their spiritualities', since the life which they lived at present was 'an evil example', and had 'been for so long vicious, that all the common people, both lords and simple commons, are now so vicious and infected through the boldness of their sin that hardly any man dreads either God or the devil'.

The underpinning mathematics certainly left something to be desired, (fn. f1410int-10) but there was no doubting the seriousness of the threat to the church. The Great Chronicle of London reports simply that 'to [this] bill at that time no answer was given, for the king wished to be advised'. The St Albans chronicler was less reticent: (fn. f1410int-11) the bill, he declared, had been concocted out of malice by knights 'not so much of parliament as of Pilate', whose real aim was to promote 'the community of Lollards'. (fn. f1410int-12) The king, however, would have none of it, and prohibited the commons from ever putting forward such schemes in the future, a measure for which, not surprisingly, he received strong support from Archbishop Arundel. The St Albans chronicler also singles out John Norbury, the Lancastrian esquire who had held office as Henry IV's first treasurer, and whom he described as 'one man in a thousand', for his opposition to the scheme. Yet the knights were not finished yet. Seeing that they could make no progress with their plan for disendowment, they turned to the question of persons arrested on suspicion of heretical sympathies, asking for some modification of the clause in the statute against Lollards (of 1401) whereby all those arrested for spreading erroneous doctrines were to be incarcerated, without any writ from the king, in the nearest royal gaol. This may have been the petition which, according to the roll, the commons asked to be returned to them on 8 February, but if so it was not deleted from the record as the commons requested, for a copy of it, or something very similar, is included among the petitions submitted to the parliament. (fn. f1410int-13) To this request they once again received short shrift, however, the king replying that he was more inclined to stiffen the penalties prescribed in the statute than to alleviate them.

Although the chronology of these events is far from clear, the debate over clerical disendowment appears to have occupied most of the first session of the parliament. (fn. f1410int-14) Before the adjournment on 15 March, however, there was another matter to be dealt with - the fate of a heretical artisan from Evesham by the name of John Badby. (fn. f1410int-15) Badby, whose views were manifestly heretical (he insistently denied the miracle of transubstantiation), had been under arrest for over a year, but there had been no attempt as yet to bring his case to a conclusion. Now, however - presumably as a way of reminding the knights of parliament of the fate that awaited those who pursued their anti-clerical instincts too far - it was decided that he must be dealt with. On 1 March he was interrogated in London by Archbishop Arundel, in the presence of several lords spiritual and temporal. He was utterly unrepentant, and, after a final examination in convocation on 5 March, during which he once again steadfastly maintained that the eucharist was 'worth less than a toad or a spider, which are living animals' (fn. f1410int-16) , he was immediately handed over to the secular authorities and a royal writ was issued that he be burned. The sentence was carried out the same day at Smithfield, in the presence of the prince of Wales. At the last moment - after the faggots had been lit, but before the fire had consumed him - the prince tried once more to induce Badby to change his mind, ordering the faggots to be pulled back in order to enable him to speak with the heretic, but yet again Badby refused to recant; the fire was accordingly relit, and he was 'burned to cinders'. He was only the second English heretic to have suffered this fate, the first, William Sawtre, also having been burned in similar circumstances - in other words, during a parliament (that of 1401) in which the questions of Lollardy and anti-clericalism formed a major part of the agenda.

The first session of parliament may have witnessed the decisive rebuttal of those who felt tempted to use Lollard ideas as a stick with which to beat the church, but it had come no nearer to resolving the crown's financial predicament. According to the St Albans chronicler, the king had at one point requested that he be granted each year, for the rest of his life, without having to seek parliament's assent, one clerical tenth and one fifteenth from the laity, but the commons rejected this idea out of hand. (fn. f1410int-17) To have agreed to it would have been to surrender their only real bargaining-counter. With Easter approaching, therefore, Henry agreed to allow the commons to return to their homes for three weeks, 'trusting in their goodwill and diligence on their return'. They duly returned on Monday 7 April, and for the next two weeks seem to have spent their time discussing the sort of questions with which Henry IV's parliaments were perennially concerned: the composition of the council, purveyance for the royal household, the proper management of the resources of the crown, corruption and misappropriation of supply by the king's ministers, the decline in customs revenue, security on the Welsh and Scottish marches, the safeguarding of the sea, and so forth. All these matters and more were enumerated in a list of eighteen articles presented by them to the king on 23 April, (fn. f1410int-18) to which Henry gave his responses three days later. Most of his replies were of the usual sort - that is, general agreement without specific commitment - but in one case (the fifteenth article) a note was added to the effect that the matter had been dealt with by the prince and the council. It was an admission of what must by now have been becoming clear to all - namely, that the transfer of power to the prince and his party had in effect taken place. (fn. f1410int-19)

That this was how matters would turn out was evident from early in the first session. On 31 January, four days after Henry Beaufort had delivered the opening speech, his brother Sir Thomas Beaufort was appointed chancellor - the only layman to hold the chancellorship between 1386 and 1454. The choice was a surprising one: Henry Beaufort, who had already occupied the post for two years (1403-5), was in many ways the obvious candidate, but he was probably regarded as virtually the archetype of the 'worldly clergy' towards whom the commons were manifesting such hostility. At any rate, with Henry Scrope at the treasury and Thomas Beaufort at the chancery, the prince need fear no hindrance to his policies from the chief departments of state, and when, on Friday 2 May, in response to the commons' request, the schedule of the king's new councillors was delivered into parliament, it read much like a roll-call of the prince's chief supporters. The new councillors were: the prince himself, the bishop of Winchester (Henry Beaufort), the bishop of Durham (Thomas Langley), the bishop of Bath and Wells (Nicholas Bubwith), the earls of Arundel and Westmorland, and Hugh Lord Burnell. However, for the prince to secure the councillors he wanted was one thing; to secure the means to govern effectively was another. No sooner had the new council been announced than the prince, speaking on both his own behalf and that of his fellow councillors, declared that if a suitable grant was not forthcoming from the commons, he and all the other councillors would refuse to serve once the parliament had ended. Brinksmanship of this sort had been successful before (in 1406, when the newly-appointed council made the same threat), and it seems to have left the commons with little option. Thus on Thursday 8 May they agreed to vote the king one and a half tenths and fifteenths plus the renewal for two years of the wool subsidy and tunnage and poundage, and on the following day, the last day of the parliament, they came before the king and the lords formally to announce their grant. It was not done willingly, (fn. f1410int-20) however, and nor was it done without conditions: nothing of the lay subsidy was to be raised until November 1410, at which time only half a tenth and fifteenth would fall due, while the remaining whole tenth and fifteenth was to be raised in equal portions in November 1411 and November 1412. Thus, whereas the king had originally hoped to extract a whole tenth and fifteenth each year, he was now being obliged to make do with half that, for the next three years at least. Nevertheless, the commons did agree that, from the yield of all these taxes together, the king could have 20,000 marks (£13,333) 'to do with and dispose of as you wish' - in other words (it is usually assumed), to pay the debts of his household. They also now took the opportunity to assure themselves that the new council was indeed willing to serve. Since the councillors had only sworn their oath of office the previous week on condition that taxation was granted, and since the requisite taxation had now been granted, Chaucer promptly asked that they repeat their oath, this time unconditionally. This they did. At the same time, the prince took the opportunity to strengthen his own hand, requesting his father that since the bishop of Durham and the earl of Westmorland (the two councillors least likely to be sympathetic to the prince's faction) were likely to be heavily engaged on the northern border for the foreseeable future, two further names might be added to the list. The king agreed, and the bishop of St Davids (Henry Chichele) and the earl of Warwick were nominated, making the council now 'the preserve of the prince's friends'. (fn. f1410int-21)

The defeat of the clerical disendowment bill and the transfer of effective power to the prince of Wales's party were undoubtedly the two most significant outcomes of the parliament, and few of the statutes which were enacted were of lasting importance. Parliamentary elections were still a cause for concern: justices of assize were now given the power to enquire into the way sheriffs conducted them, and to impose a fine of £100 on those found guilty of malpractice. Servants and labourers were once again enjoined - as they had been in several earlier parliaments - to practice archery rather than indulging in 'ball games played either with the hand or with the foot', or 'quoits, dice, stone-throwing, skittles, and other such useless games' - the penalty for such frivolity being now set at six days' imprisonment, with monetary fines for local officials who declined to enforce it. Galley-halfpennies (coins apparently introduced to England by Genoese mariners) were banned, and various measures were introduced to regulate the cloth trade. The author of the Continuatio Eulogii , himself a friar, singled out two statutes for special mention: a decree ordering all curates to remain in their churches in order to provide hospitality, 'as a result of which many of them withdrew from the king's court, from the houses of bishops and other lords, and from their residences in London'; and the decision to allow friars of any of the four orders freedom to preach publicly against the Lollards anywhere in the realm, without special episcopal licence and notwithstanding any restrictions previously imposed upon them. (fn. f1410int-22) The former appears among the common petitions, but is noted there as a matter pertaining to the church, which had dealt with it at its last convocation. The latter is not to be found on the roll, but would also have been a matter for convocation rather than parliament. Chroniclers frequently confused parliamentary statutes with decrees issued in convocation.

Following the dissolution of parliament on 9 May, it is generally agreed that the prince, with his chosen councillors, now took full control of the government, which he retained for the next eighteen months, until the parliament of November 1411. (fn. f1410int-23) When that parliament met, however, Henry IV was able to reassert his authority. He complained to the commons of 'a certain article' which had been enacted in 1410, and which had placed some 'restriction' on his authority, insisting that this now be rescinded and his full 'liberty and prerogative' restored. Precisely what he was referring to is not clear, but it was probably something more than the nomination of the council in parliament, distasteful as that undoubtedly was to him. (fn. f1410int-24) It had been a bruising twelve weeks for Henry - much more bruising than the official record implies - and, given the far from negligible military and financial achievements of the years 1407-9, that is a little ironic; in the end, the decisive factor may well have been the king's health. For Prince Henry, however, the door to power had opened; it remained to be seen how he would enter into his inheritance.

Text and translation

[p. iii-622]
[col. a]
[memb. 17]
ROTULUS PARLIAMENTI XI HENRICI IV. THE ROLL OF THE PARLIAMENT OF THE ELEVENTH YEAR OF HENRY IV.
ROTULUS PARLIAMENTI TENTI APUD WESTMONASTERIUM, IN QUINDENA SANCTI HILLARII, ANNO REGNI REGIS HENRICI QUARTI POST CONQUESTUM UNDECIMO. THE ROLL OF THE PARLIAMENT HELD AT WESTMINSTER ON THE QUINZAINE OF ST HILARY, IN THE ELEVENTH YEAR OF THE REIGN OF KING HENRY, THE FOURTH SINCE THE CONQUEST.
Pronunciacioun de parlement. [The opening of parliament].
Lundy, en la quinszeine de Seint Hiller, qe feust le .xxvij. jour de Janver, et le primer jour de parlement, en la Chambre Depeynte deins le paleys royal de Westm', partaunt qe neavoit alors nulle chanceller d'Engleterre, l'evesqe de Wyncestr', frer au roy, en presence de mesme nostre seignur le roy, et des seignurs et communes venuz a parlement, pronuncea et declara la cause de somons de mesme le parlement, en la fourme q'ensuyt. Primerment, coment nostre dit seignur le roy luy avoit comandez a dire et publier as toutz seignurs espirituelx et temporeles, et toutz les chivalers, citizeins, et burgeises venuz pur les communes du roialme a mesme le parlement, q'il est la voluntee de roy qe seint esglise soit maintenue et sustenue come ele ad estee en temps de ses nobles progenitours et predecessours roys d'Engleterre, et qe seint esglise eit et enjoise entierment toutes ses libertees et franchises, come ele ad eue et use en soun temps et en temps de mesmes ses progenitours et predecessours; et qe toutz les seignurs espirituelx et temporeles, citees, et burghes, aient et enjoient toutes les libertees et franchises queux ils ont euez et usez raisonablement de soun grante ou de grante de ses ditz predecessours et progenitours, ou par luy mesme confermez. 1. Opening of parliament. On Monday the quinzaine of St Hilary, which was 27 January, and the first day of parliament, in the Painted Chamber in the royal palace of Westminster, because there was no chancellor of England at the time, the bishop of Winchester, the king's brother, in the presence of our same lord the king and of the lords and commons who had come to parliament, announced and explained the reason for the summons of the same parliament in the following form. Firstly, how our said lord the king had commanded him to say and make known to all the lords spiritual and temporal, and to all the knights, citizens and burgesses who had come to the same parliament on behalf of the commons of the realm, that it is the will of the king that holy church should be maintained and upheld as it was in the time of his noble progenitors and predecessors the kings of England, and that holy church should fully have and enjoy all its liberties and franchises, as it has had and exercised them in his time and in the time of his same progenitors and predecessors; and that all the lords spiritual and temporal, cities and boroughs should have and enjoy all the liberties and franchises which they have reasonably had and exercised by his grant or by the grant of his said predecessors and progenitors, or which he has confirmed himself.
2. Et sur ceo mesme l'evesqe de Wyncestre enpreignant a soun theame les parols ensuantz, c'est assavoir, Decet nos implere omnem justiciam , (fn. iii-622-7-1) molt discretement et sagement monstra et declara, coment la cause de somons de mesme cest parlement feust pur deux causes, c'est assavoir, l'un touchant la gouvernance de soun roialme dedeins, coment ses loies feurent et sont gardez et obeiez; et l'autre touchant la gouvernance de soun roialme dedeins et dehors, c'est assavoir, touchant les trieues prises parentre le roialme d'Engleterre et le roialme d'Escoce, en cas q'ils ne < se > tiendront pluys avant, qe bone et sufficiante ordinance ent purra estre faite par bone advys, et ceo par temps. Et ceo sibien pur celles parties come pur autres parties et paiis esteantz dessouthe l'obeisseance et l'enheritance nostre dit seignur le roy. Et monstra outre mesme l'evesqe, coment le duc de Burgoigne, q'ad a present la gouvernance de roialme de Fraunce, s'ad purpose en tout le forsible manere q'il purra de venir devers Caleys, pur y faire le male q'il purra, qe Dieu defende, s'il ne soit le pluys en hast succurrez et remediez. 2. Whereupon the same bishop of Winchester, taking as his theme the following words, that is, 'It is fitting for us to fulfil all justice', (fn. iii-622-7-1) most judiciously and wisely explained and made clear that the cause of the summons of this same parliament was for two reasons, as follows: firstly, it was concerned with the government of his realm within its borders, and how his laws had been and were kept and obeyed; and it was also concerned with the government of his realm within and without its borders, that is, with the truces made between the realm of England and the realm of Scotland, in case they are not kept in the future; so that a good and adequate ordinance could be made on this through good advice, and this soon. And this both with regard to those regions and with regard to other regions and countries which were under the obedience and of the inheritance of our said lord the king. And furthermore the same bishop explained how the duke of Burgundy, who currently had the government of the realm of France, was proposing to move against Calais, in as much strength as possible, to do all the ill he could there - which God forbid - if it were not succoured and relieved as quickly as possible.
3. Et outre ceo, entre autres choses le dit evesqe molt discretement rehercea deux maneres de gouvernance, l'un de jure regiminis , et l'autre de jure subjectionis . Et auxi, coment le roy Alexander avoit conquis plusours diverses regions, terres, et citees, et entre autres il avoit conquise un grande citee, et demanda conseille de Aristotille coment y purroit pluys surement fortifier mesme la citee, par mure ou autrement. A qi le dit Aristotille respondi, et dist, qe la soveraigne seurtee et garde de chescun roialme et citee est, d'avoir l'entier et cordial [col. b] amour de poeple, et de lour garder en lour loies et droitures. 3. And furthermore, among other things, the said bishop most wisely set out two methods of government, the one by right of government, and the other by right of subjugation. And also, how King Alexander had conquered many different regions, lands and cities, and, among others he had conquered a great city, and asked for advice from Aristotle on how he could most securely fortify the same city, by a wall or otherwise. To whom the said Aristotle replied by saying that the best security and guard for each realm and city is to have the whole and cordial [col. b] love of the people, and to maintain them in all their laws and rights.
4. Et qe mesme le poeple deusse de droit faire a chescun roy troys choses, c'est assavoir, honour et obedience, reverence et benevolence, et cordial assistence. Et pur ceo qe les matires dessuisditz demandent en especiale cordial assistence et hastif esploit et execucioun, come devant est declarez, nostre dit seignur le roy avoit envoiez pur les ditz seignurs et communes pur assister ove luy pur avoir lour bone et discrete advys es choses necessaries a luy et a soun roialme. 4. And that the same people should by right give each king three things, that is, honour and obedience, reverence and goodwill, and cordial help. And because the aforesaid matters demand especially cordial help and swift resolution and execution, as has been made clear above, our said lord the king has sent for the said lords and commons to help him and to have their good and wise advice in the things which are necessary to him and to his realm.
5. Et sur ceo mesme l'evesqe pria as ditz seignurs et communes deprendre cestes matires tendrement a coer; et pria a Dieux, q'il lour durroit grace de ensy conseiller le roy come il serroit mieulx plesant a nostre seignur Ihesu Crist, et aide et salvacioun du nostre dit seignur le roy et de soun roialme, et des toutz ses lieges. Et sur ceo chargea les ditz communes depar le roy d'estre lendemayn ensuant en lour lieu acustume deins l'abbey de Westm', a oept de clok, pur y faire eleccioun de lour commune parlour, come le manere est, et de luy presenter devaunt le roy et les seignurs en parlement mesme lendemayn, a noef del clok a pluys tarde. Et pur ceo qe mesme nostre seignur le roy voet, qe bone et oele justice se face a ceux qi se veulleint compleindre d'ascunes grevances ou injuries a eux faitz, sibien depardecea la mier, come pardelea, ad ordeignez et assignez certeins receivours et triours des peticions, en la fourme q'ensuyt. 5. Whereupon the same bishop requested the said lords and commons to take these matters dearly to heart; and he asked God to give them grace to counsel the king in the way that would be most pleasing to our lord Jesus Christ, and the greatest help and protection to our said lord the king and to his realm, and to all his lieges. Whereupon he commanded the said commons, on behalf of the king, to be in their accustomed place in Westminster abbey the next day at eight o'clock in order to choose their common speaker there, as is the custom, and to present him before the king and the lords in parliament on the same day at nine o'clock at the latest. And because our same lord the king wishes that good and impartial justice should be done to those who wish to complain of any grievances or injuries done to them, both on this side of the sea and abroad, he has ordained and appointed certain receivers and triers of petitions, in the following form.
6. Receivours des peticions d'Engleterre, Irland, Gales, et Escoce:

  • Sire Johan Wakeryng
  • Sire Johan Roderham
  • Sire Johan Rome.
6. Receivers of petitions from England, Ireland, Wales and Scotland:

  • Sir John Wakering
  • Sir John Roderham
  • Sir John Rome.
7. Receivours des peticions de Gascoigne, et des autres terres et paiis pardelea la meer, et des Isles:

  • Sire Johan Chitterne
  • Sire Johan Hertilpole
  • Maistre Johan Kyngeton'.
7. Receivers of petitions from Gascony and the other lands and countries overseas, and from the Channel Islands:

  • Sir John Chitterne
  • Sir John Hartlepool
  • Master John Kington.
Et ceux qi veullent liverer lour peticions les baillent avant parentrecy et le jour de Chandelour proschein. And those who wish to submit their petitions should deliver them to the aforesaid between now and the feast of Candlemas next [2 February].
[p. iii-623]
[col. a]
8. Et sont assignez triours des peticions d'Engleterre, Irland, Gales et Escoce:

  • L'ercevesqe de Canterbirs
  • L'evesqe de Wyncestre
  • L'evesqe de Duresme
  • L'abbe de Seint Alban
  • L'abbe de Westm'
  • Le cont de Warrewyk
  • Le cont de Westmerl'
  • Le seignur de Burnell'
  • Le seignur de Morley
  • William Gascoigne
  • Mounsire William Thirnyng
  • Robert Tirwhit.
8. The following are assigned to be triers of petitions for England, Ireland, Wales and Scotland:

  • The archbishop of Canterbury
  • The bishop of Winchester
  • The bishop of Durham
  • The abbot of St Albans
  • The abbot of Westminster
  • The earl of Warwick
  • The earl of Westmorland
  • Lord Burnell
  • Lord Morley
  • William Gascoigne
  • Sir William Thirning
  • Robert Tirwhit.
Toutz ensemble, ou .vi. des prelatz et seignurs avauntditz au meins; appellez a eux les chanceller, tresorer, seneschalle, et chamberleyn, et auxint les sergeantz du roy quaunt y bosoignera. Et tiendront lour place en la Chambre de Chamberlein, pres de la Chambre Depeinte. To act all together, or at least six of the aforesaid prelates and lords, consulting with the chancellor, treasurer, steward and chamberlain, as well as the king's serjeants when necessary. And their session shall be held in the Chamberlain's Chamber, near the Painted Chamber.
9. Et sont assignez triours des peticions de Gascoigne, et des autres terres et paiis depardela le meer, et des Isles:

  • L'ercevesqe d'Everwyk
  • L'evesqe d'Ely
  • L'evesqe de Bathe
  • L'abbe de Waltham
  • L'abbe de Wynchecombe
  • Le cont de Somers'
  • Le cont d'Arundell'
  • Le seignur de Roos
  • Le seignur de Berkeley
  • Mounsire Hughe Huls
  • Mounsire William Hankeford
  • Robert Hulle.
9. The following are assigned to be triers of petitions for Gascony and the other lands and countries overseas, and for the Channel Islands:

  • The archbishop of York
  • The bishop of Ely
  • The bishop of Bath
  • The abbot of Waltham
  • The abbot of Winchcombe
  • The earl of Somerset
  • The earl of Arundel
  • Lord Roos
  • Lord Berkeley
  • Sir Hugh Huls
  • Sir William Hankford
  • Robert Hull.
Toutz ensemble, ou .vi. des prelatz et seignurs avauntditz au meins; appellez a eux les chanceller, tresorer, seneschalle, et chamberleyn, et auxint les sergeantz du roy qaunt y bosoignera. Et tiendroient lour place en la Chambre Marcolf. To act all together, or at least six of the aforesaid prelates and lords, consulting with the chancellor, treasurer, steward and chamberlain, as well as the king's serjeants when necessary. And their session shall be held in the Marcolf Chamber..
[memb. 16]
Presentacioun de parlour. [The Presentation of the Speaker].
10. Item, maresdy le .xxviij. jour de Janver, les communes viendrent devaunt le roy et les seignurs en parlement, et presenterent Thomas Chaucer pur lour commune parlour; a qi le roy s'agrea bien, et luy chargea q'il l'emprendroit sur luy. A quel le dit Thomas luy vorroit aver excusez; mes par tant qe le roy luy avoit comandez de ceo faire, il pria a roy q'il purroit parler desoutz protestacioun, qe si riens serroit dit par luy autrement qe ne feust assentuz et accordez par ses compaignons, q'il purroit aver resort a ses ditz compaignons de luy corriger et refourmer par bone deliberacioun; et qe si riens serroit parlez par luy en displesance du roy, qe Dieu defende, qe le roy luy vorroit aver pur excusez. A quoy feust responduz par le roy mesmes, q'ils aueroient lour protestacions en manere come il ad estee acustumez devant ces heures. Et outre ceo lour dist, qe toutz les estates du parlement feurent venuz pur commune bien et profit du roy et de roialme, et pur unite et unioun faire d'un assent et d'un acorde. Et par tant il feust bien certein, qe les ditz communes ne voudroient riens attempter ou parler autrement qe ne serroit de honestee, et pur norrer bone amour et concorde des toutz parties. Et porce lour feust comandez, d'aler ensemble, et d'entrecommuner des matires bosoignables et profitables pur le roy et le roialme, et pur bone esploit de parlement. 10. Presentation of the speaker. Also, on Tuesday 28 January, the commons came before the king and the lords in parliament and presented Thomas Chaucer as their common speaker; whom the king readily accepted, and commanded him to take it upon himself. From which office the said Thomas wished to excuse himself, but since the king had ordered him to undertake it, he begged the king that he might speak under protestation: namely that, if anything should be said by him to which his companions had not given their agreement and assent, he could have resort to his aforesaid companions so that they, after due deliberation, could correct him and set him right; and that if anything should be said by him which displeased the king, which God forbid, the king should hold him excused for it. To which reply was made by the king himself that they would be allowed their protestations, as had previously been the custom. And furthermore he said to them that all the estates of parliament had come for the common good and profit of the king and the realm, and with one assent and one accord to bring about unity and union. And therefore it was quite certain that the said commons would not wish to attempt or to say anything that was not honest, and would nurture true love and concord among all parties. And therefore they were commanded to go away together, and to confer on those matters which were necessary and profitable for the king and for the realm and for the successful accomplishment of the parliament.
Diverses requestes faites par les communes. [Various requests made by the commons].
11. Item, vendredy le septisme jour de Feverer, les communes vindrent devant le roy et les seignurs en parlement, et entre autres choses prierent, qe les assises soient prorogez durant le parlement. Sur quoy le roy, [col. b] eue deliberacioun et advys ovesqe les seignurs et les justices, le samady enseuant s'agrea bien. 11. Various requests made by the commons. Also, on Friday 7 February, the commons came before the king and the lords in parliament, and among other things requested that the assizes should be prorogued during parliament. Whereupon the king, [col. b] after deliberation and advice from the lords and the justices, on the following Saturday agreed willingly.
12. Item, samady le viij me jour de Feverer, mesmes les communes vindrent devant le roy et les seignurs en parlement, et entre autres choses prierent a mesme nostre seignur le roy, q'ils purroient reavoir une peticione par eux liverez en parlement touchant l'estatut nadgairs fait des Lollardes, et qe riens ensoit enactez. A quoy le roy respondi, q'a lour request il vorroit de sa grace especiale q'ils aient liveree de la dite peticione a cest foitz, parainsi q'il ne soit traiez en ensample en temps advenir. 12. Also, on Saturday 8 February, the same commons came before the king and the lords in parliament, and among other things requested of our same lord the king that a petition delivered into parliament by them concerning the statute formerly made about the Lollards might be returned to them, and that nothing should be enacted concerning this. To which the king replied that at their request he wished of his special grace that they should be given the said petition at this time, provided that it would not be taken as a precedent in the future.
< Adjournement de parlement. > < [The adjournment of parliament, 15 March]. >
13. Item, samady le xv e jour de Marce, qe feust la veile de Palmes, les communes viendrent devaunt le roy et les seignurs en parlement, et le parlour pria au roy d'avoir consideracioun, coment le solempne fest de Pasqe, qe vient sy apres, a quel fest chescun bone Cristien deveroit desirer d'estre a soun esglise parochiel, et a soun maisoun propre, principalment sur toutz autres festes del an, pur entendre a service de Dieu, et d'amender ses trespasses par luy faitz en autres temps del an, qe luy pleise de sa grace especiale, al reverence de Dieu, et pur les causes suisdites, et pur soveraigne ease et consolacioun de les communes suizditz, granter a les ditz communes prorogacioun de dit present parlement, tanqe a la quinszeine de Pasqe proschein avenir: a quel temps de lour revenue, ils ferront tout lour diligence et poair de entrecommuner de tielx matires qe serront expedientz et necessaries, sibien pur saufte du roy come pur defense du roialme, et des marches a yceo adjoignantz; et issint, par l'aide de Dieu, proceder tanqe al fyn de parlement si hastifement come ils purront bonement, en qanqe qe en eux serront affaire. La quel prier le roy, considerez les suisdites causes, et en affiance de lour bone voloir et diligence a lour revenue, ottroia. Et sur ceo dona congie as seignurs et communes suisditz de departier a celle foitz ou lour plerroit tanqe a la quinszeine suisdite. 13. Adjournment of parliament. Also, on Saturday 15 March, which was the eve of Palm Sunday, the commons came before the king and the lords in parliament, and the speaker requested of the king to consider how the solemn feast of Easter was approaching, at which feast every good Christian ought to want to be in his parish church, and in his own home, more than at any other feast in the year, to hear divine service and to correct the trespasses committed by him at other times of the year; and that it might please him of his special grace, out of reverence for God, and for the aforesaid reasons, and for the greater comfort and consolation of the aforesaid commons, to grant to the said commons the prorogation of the said present parliament until the quinzaine of Easter next [7 April]: on their return at which time, they would devote all their efforts and abilities to discussing such matters as would be expedient and necessary both for the safety of the king and for the defence of the realm and of the marches adjoining it; and thus, with God's help, they would proceed until the end of parliament as swiftly as they could, doing whatever might be necessary for them to do to achieve this. Which request the king, having considered the aforesaid reasons, and trusting in their goodwill and diligence on their return, granted. Whereupon he gave leave to the aforesaid lords and commons to leave at that time for wherever they pleased until the aforesaid quinzaine.
A quele quinszeine, c'estassavoir, le vij e jour d'April, mesmes les seignurs et communes reviendrent en parlement, et illeoqes entrecommunerent des diverses matires pur l'esploit de parlement, come en apres y purra apparoir. At which quinzaine, that is, on 7 April, the same lords and commons returned to parliament, and there discussed various matters for the accomplishment of parliament, as can be seen below.
< Certeins articles baillez par les communes en parlement, ovesqe leur responses. > < [Certain articles delivered into parliament by the commons, with their answers]. >
Item, mesquardy le .xxiij. jour de Marce [sic: read 'April'] , les communes baillerent en parlement certeines articles: les queux, ove lour responses, cy enseuent. Certain articles delivered into parliament by the commons, with their answers. Also, on Wednesday 23 [April], the commons delivered into parliament certain articles, which follow here with their answers.
Plese a nostre tresredoute et tresgracious seignur le roy, pur le bien et profit de roy et de roialme, en descharge et supportacioun de ses poveres lieges d'Engleterre, grantier les peticions q'ensuent. May it please our most dread and most gracious lord the king, for the profit and advantage of the king and of the realm, and in deliverance and support of his poor lieges of England, to grant the following petitions.
I. I. [Lords of the council]
14. Primerement, qe plese a nostre dit seignur le roy ordeigner et assigner en cest present parlement les pluis vaillantz, sages, et discretes seignurs espirituelx et temporelx de soun roialme, pur estre de soun counseille, en eide et supportacioun del bone et substancialle gouvernance, et la bien de roy et de roialme; et qe les ditz seignurs de counseille, et les justices de roy, soient overtement sermentez en y cest present parlement, de eux bien et loialment en lour counseille et faitz acquiter pur le bien de roy et de roialme en toutz pointz, sanz favour, pur, affeccioun, ou affinite faire a ascun manere de persone. Et qe plese a nostre dit seignur le roy, en presence de toutz les estates de parlement comander les ditz seignurs et justices, sur lour foy et ligeance qe luy devont, q'ils ferront [p. iii-624][col. a] < pleyne justice > et droit ouelment a chescuny sanz tariance, si bonement come ils purront, sanz ascun comandement ou charge de qeconqe persone acontrarie. 14. Firstly, may it please our said lord the king to ordain and appoint in this present parliament the most worthy, wise, and discreet lords spiritual and temporal of his realm to be on his council, for the aid and support of good and effective govenment and for the good of the king and of the realm; and that the said lords of the council and the king's justices should be publicly sworn in this present parliament to acquit themselves well and loyally in their advice and deeds, for the good of the king and of the realm in all points, without showing favour, fear, partiality or affinity to any kind of person. And that it may please our said lord the king, in the presence of all the estates of parliament, to command the said lords and justices, on their faith and allegiance which they owe to him, that they will do [p. iii-624][col. a] full justice and right impartially to everyone without delay, as well as they can, without any command or charge from any person to the contrary.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roy le voet. The king wills it.
II. II. [Wrongful indictments]
15. Item, qe plese a nostredit seignur le roy considerer la request de vostre commune en cest present parlement, touchant les procurours, fautours, et abettours, des enditementz ore tarde pris en vostre bank nounduement, q'ils soient punys et chastiez en cest present parlement, solonc lour demeryt et desert. 15. Also, may it please our said lord the king to consider the request of your commons in this present parliament concerning the procurers, supporters, and abettors of the indictments recently wrongfully brought in your bench, that they should be punished and chastised in this present parliament in accordance with their merits and deserts.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roy voet qe ceux qe purront estre trovez coupables soient puniz solonc lour desert. The king wills that those who may be found guilty should be punished in accordance with their deserts.
III. III. [Royal Household]
16. Item, qe plese a nostre dit seignur le roy considerer les grandes grevez qe voz ditz communes emportent par prises de lour biens a vostre hostielle, chambre, et garderobe, par voz purveiours, officers, et autres ministres, sanz paiement a voz ditz communes ent faitz, encontre les ordeinances et estatuitz avaunt ces heures ent purveux; et sur ceo, par advys de vostre dit counseille ordeiner et establier, de vostre bone grace, tieux voies et remedies qe vous poiez vivre de voz biens propres, en ease de vostre poeple; et ceo qe a vous aviendra de les vostres, qe vous plese de les garder pur vostre sustenance, et pur mayntenance de vostre hostielle, chambre, et garderobe avauntditz. 16. Also, may it please our said lord the king to consider the great troubles which your said commons suffer because of the taking of their goods for your household, chamber and wardrobe, by your purveyors, officers, and other ministers, without payment being made to your said commons for them, contrary to the ordinances and statutes previously decreed on the matter; and with regard to this, on the advice of your said council, to ordain and establish, of your good grace, such means and remedies so that you will be able to live on your own possessions, for the benefit of your people; and may it please you to keep what comes to you from your own possessions for your sustenance, and for the upkeep of your aforesaid household, chamber and wardrobe.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roy vorroit volunters vivre de seons, et voet si tost come il poet: et voet, qe les revenuz et profitz de roialme, a quel temps q'ils escherront as mayns du roy, soient gardez pur les expenses del hostielle du roy, et de ses chambre, et garderobe. The king would very much like to live off his own possessions, and wishes to do this as soon as he can; and he wills that the revenues and profits of the realm, whenever they fall into the hands of the king, should be kept for the expenses of the king's household, and of his chamber and wardrobe.
IIII. IIII. [Uprisings and disturbances]
17. Item, qe plese a nostre dit seignur le roy et a soun dit counseille ordeigner et establier en ycest present parlement, qe toutz les rumours et riotes faitz et perpetrez de jour en autre encontre la corone, la pees, et la ley, en chescune partie de soun roialme, soient par ses justices ove autres suffisantz seignurs a ceo assigners et a illeoqes envoiers, d'oier et terminer, sibien a suyte de roy come de partie, et sur les offendours et trespassours due execucioun faire sanz favour de nulle part: et nomement en les countees de Northumbr', Westmerl', Cumbr', d'Everwyk, Lancastr', Stafford', Derby, Notyngham, Salop', et Devenshire, ou les greindres rumours ont estez, a ceo q'est dit. 17. Also, may it please our said lord the king and his said council to ordain and establish in this present parliament that all the uprisings and disturbances which are committed and perpetrated from day to day against the crown, the peace, and the law, in every part of his realm, should be dealt with by his justices, together with other capable lords, who will be appointed to do this and will be sent there to hear and determine, both at the king's suit and at that of the party, and to execute the judgments on the offenders and trespassers without favour on any side: and particularly in the counties of Northumberland, Westmorland, Cumberland, Yorkshire, Lancashire, Staffordshire, Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire, Shropshire, and Devon, where the greatest uprisings have been, so it is said.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Pur tant q'il appartient au roy de granter tielx commissions de ses droitz et prorogatif, il voet, qe commissions d'oier < et terminer soient faitz atant de > foitz, et en tielx lieux, come semblera bosoignable, solonc l'advys de conseille du roy, et en especial en les countees de Northumbr', Westmerl', Everwyk, Staff', Derby, et Notyngham. Since it pertains to the king as his right and prerogative to grant such commissions, he wills that commissions of oyer and terminer should be made as often, and in such places, as it seems necessary, in accordance with the advice of the king's council, and especially in the counties of Northumberland, Westmorland, Yorkshire, Staffordshire, Derbyshire, and Nottinghamshire.
V. V. [Enforcement of statutes]
18. Item, qe les communes leys, estatutz, et bones ordeignances faitz et usez, nient repellez, sibien en temps de nostre dit seignur le roy come de ses nobles progenitours, pur le bien et profit de roy et de roialme, soient tenuz et executz solonc droit ley et reasoun par ses jugges, officers, et ministres a ceo ordeignez et assignez, sanz restreint ou impediment en ascun manere: nient referant lour peticione a ascun estatuit par voz communes en cest presentparlement requys d'estre adnullez. 18. Also, that the common laws, statutes, and good ordinances made and used, and not repealed, both in the time of our said lord the king and in that of his noble progenitors, for the good and advantage of the king and of the realm, should be kept and put into execution in accordance with true law and reason by his judges, officers, and ministers ordained and appointed for this, without any kind of restriction or impediment: however, this petition does not include any statute which your commons in this present parliament ask to be annulled.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roy voet, qe toutz les bones estatuitz et ordeinances devaunt ces heures faitz, et nient repellez, soient tenuz et gardez. The king wills that all the good statutes and ordinances made before now and not repealed should be kept and observed.
[col. b]
VI. VI. [Scottish marches]
19. Item, qe bone et substancialle gouvernance et ordeinance soient faitz et establiz en ycest present parlement pur les marches sur Escoce en chescune parte par temps, al resistence de les ennemys d'Escoce et de lour adherantz. Et qe ceux qe ont chastielx, seignuries, ou villes, en enheritance ou en governance, sur les marches avantditz, soient chargez et comandez overtement en cest present parlement, sur lour foy et ligeance, de eux traier et repairer en lours propres persones, et la demurrer, sur peyn ent apurvoier par le roy et soun conseille, et sur le perille q'appent as ditz chastelx, seignuries, et villes, q'ils ont en enheritance ou en governance, pur les governer et defender, si qe le roy ne le roialme n'enportent charge, perde, ne damage, par lour negligence et defaut, come ils ont suffert pur temps passe, al tresgrand damage et arrerisment du roy, et enpoverissement de soun roialme. 19. Also, that good and effective government and ordinance should be made and established in this present parliament for every part of the Scottish marches, and soon, in order to resist the Scottish enemies and their adherents. And that those who have castles, lordships or towns, either by inheritance or under their command, in the aforesaid marches, should be publicly charged and commanded in this present parliament, on their faith and allegiance, to occupy and dwell in them in their own persons, and to remain there, on pain of a penalty to be decreed for this by the king and his council; because of the danger threatening the said castles, lordships and towns, which they have by inheritance or under their command in order to govern and defend them; so that neither the king nor the realm should suffer expense, loss or harm through their negligence and fault, as has been the case in the past, to the very great harm and injury of the king and the impoverishment of his realm.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roy, veullant purvoir pur la bone governance de la marche d'Escoce, voet, qe touchant la garde de toutz les chastelx et villes en la dite marche esteantz dedeins le roialme d'Engleterre, les estatuitz et bones ordinances faitz en temps de ses nobles progenitours, et en soun temps demesne, soient tenuz et gardez. Et touchant la garde de les chastelx et villes quelx les subgitz du roy ont en la suisdite marche dedeins le roialme d'Escoce, qe les seignurs des ditz chastelx et villes y demoergent en lour persones, ou mettent sufficient estuf de gentz d'armes et archers pur la sauf garde d'icelx, come ferront les seignurs en paiis de Gales touchant les chastelx et villes illeoqes. The king, wishing to provide for the good government of the Scottish march, wills that, touching the defence of all the castles and towns in the said march which are within the realm of England, the statutes and good ordinances made in the time of his noble progenitors and in his own time should be kept and observed. And touching the defence of the castles and towns which the king's subjects have in the aforesaid march within the realm of Scotland, that the lords of the said castles and towns should remain there in their own persons, or place there a sufficient garrison of men at arms and archers for their safe-keeping; as the lords in the land of Wales will do touching the castles and towns there.
[memb. 15]
VII. VII. [Welsh marches]
20. Item, qe suffisant ordeignance soit fait en y cest present parlement pur la resistance et rebellioun de rebelx Galoys et lour adherantz par temps, et especialment qe toutz les seignurs marches, sibien espirituelx come temporelx, et autres eiantz chastelx ou villes en Gales, ou sur les marches d'icelle, come en enheritance ou governance, soient chargez et comandez overtement en cest present parlement, sur lour foy et ligeance, et autre peyn ent a purvoier par le roy et soun counseille, de eux traier et repairer, et demurrer en lour propres persones, a lour peril, as chastelx, seignuries, et villes avauntditz, de les garder et saver, si qe les communes ne le roialme n'enportent charge ne damage par lour negligence et defaut, en maner avauntdit: forspris nostre seignur le prince, et les chiefs officers de roy, parissint q'ils trovent suffisant estuf en lour chastelx celle partie. Considerant, qe al conquest d'icelle, voz tresnobles progenitours illeoqes conquerours firont et establiront les chastelx et villes murez dedeins et sur les marches avauntditz, et les dona as auncestres et predecessours des seignurs avantditz pur garder et tener la dite terre en ferme obeisance et subjeccioun a lour aligeance, eiantz consideracioun al ordeignance et lour lienceafaitz a nostre dit seignur le roy a son counseille tenuz a Wyrcestre; et qe nully nees Galoys de pier et de meer soit constable, gardeyn, ministre, ou officer queconqe d'ascun des chastelx, seignuries, ou villes suisditz, sur peyn par le roy et soun counseille ent alimiter. Et qe les estatuitz faitz l'an quart nostre seignur le roy q'orest, pur la bone governance de Gales, soient tenuz en toutz pointes, sur resonable peyn ent a mettre en cest present parlement, al oeps et profit nostre dit seignur le roy. Et semblablement soit fait touchant les estatuitz pur la governance de Gales a darrein parlement a Gloucestre. 20. Also, that an effective ordinance should be made in this present parliament to counter the resistance and rebellion of the Welsh rebels and their adherents, and soon; notably that all the marcher lords, both spiritual and temporal, and others who have castles or towns in Wales or in the Welsh marches, either by inheritance or under their command, should be publicly charged and commanded in this present parliament, on their faith andallegiance, and on pain of another penalty to be decreed on the matter by the king and his council, to occupy and dwell in them, and to remain there in their own persons, at their own risk, in the said castles, lordships and towns, and to defend and preserve them, so that neither the commons nor the realm will incur any expense or harm through their negligence and fault, in the aforesaid manner: except for our lord the prince and the king's chief officers, provided that they find a sufficent garrison for their castles in that region. Considering that when it was conquered, your most noble progenitors the conquerors there built and established castles and walled towns in Wales and on the aforesaid marches, and gave them to the ancestors and predecessors of the aforesaid lords to keep and hold the said land in firm obedience and subjection to their allegiance; considering also the ordinance and their bond previously made to our said lord the king at his council held at Worcester. And that no-one born Welsh through both father and mother should be a constable, warden, minister, or officer of any kind in any of the aforesaid castles, lordships or towns, on pain of a penalty to be specified for this by the king and his council. And that the statutes made in the fourth year of our lord the present king [1402] for the good government of Wales should be kept in all points, on pain of a reasonable penalty to be determined in this present parliament, for the advantage and profit of our said lord the king. And it should similarly be done with regard to the statutes for the government of Wales made in the last parliament at Gloucester [1407].
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soient les estatutz sur ceo faitz tenuz et gardez; et enoutre, al reverence du roy, et par soun commandement, les seignurs marches ont grantez de lour voluntee, sanz ceo q'ils soient compellez de novelle, defaire lour demure sur les ditz chastelx et terres en Gales par un an, parissint qe suffisant estuff de gentz soit purveu en autres parties de Gales a eux adjoignantz, et qe toutz autres q'ont chastelx, [p. iii-625][col. a] villes, ou seignuries, de doun, ou par voie de garde, en les parties suisditz, soient auxint tenuz par le dit temps defaire semblablement. Let the statutes made on this be kept and observed; and furthermore, out of reverence for the king, and at his command, the marcher lords have granted voluntarily, without further compulsion, to live in the said castles and lands in Wales for a year, provided that adequate garrisons are provided in the other parts of Wales adjoining them, and that all the others who have castles, [p. iii-625][col. a] towns, or lordships as a gift or in their keeping in the aforesaid parts should also be bound to do likewise during the said period.
VIII. VIII. [Keeping of the sea]
21. Item, qe bone et sage governance soit mys et establys par nostre dit seignur le roy et soun dit counseille, devant la departier de cest present parlement, pur la bone et sure garde de la mere en toutz parties environ, sibien sur les parties de est et northe, come sur les parties de west et southe par temps, al resistance de malice des enemys en chescune partie, et al defence et save governance de roialme d'Engleterre et la terre de Gales, sanz ascun maner particuler treue, ou ascun autre treue si ne soit sibien par terre come par mere, et ceo pur long terme. Considerantz, qe les curts et particulers trewes ont tournez devant ces heures a tresgrand damage et destruccioun, sibien a voz marchantz come a grand parte de vostre roialme. 21. Also, that good and wise government should be brought into effect and established by our said lord the king and his said council, before this present parliament is ended, for the good and secure defence of the sea in all the surrounding areas, both in the parts of the east and north, and in the parts of the west and south, soon, to resist the hostility of enemies in all parts, and for the defence and safe government of the realm of England and the land of Wales, without any private truces, or any truces which do not cover both land and sea and are not valid in the long term. Considering that short-term and private truces have before now caused very great harm and destruction, both to your merchants and to a great part of your realm.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Touchant la garde de meer, le roy voet, qe sufficeant ordinance soit fait si tost come il purra bonement. Et qant a les trieues, le roy voet, q'ils soient desorenavant prises en tiel manere come luy semble pur le mielx de luy et de soun roialme, par advys de soun counseille. Regarding the defence of the sea, the king wills that a suitable ordinance should be made as soon as it can be done satisfactorily. And concerning truces, the king wills that they should henceforth be made in such a way as seems to him will be best for him and for his realm, on the advice of his council.
IX. IX. [Calais, Guyenne, Ireland]
22. Item, qe bone, sage, suffisant, seure ordenance et governance soit fait et establie par nostre dit seignur le roy et soun dit conseille, devant la departir de cest present parlement, pur la bone et save garde del ville et marche de Caleys, et les terres de Guyen, et d'Irland; et qe toutz maners des profitz et revenuz sourdantz des ville, marches, et terres suisditz, qe soloient d'ancien temps a roy estre duez, ore levables, ou qe purront estre levez, soient levez et resceuz par les officers et ministres du roy illeoqes, accomptables et emploiez sur la paiement des gages des soudeours illeoqes. Ou autrement, qe les persones qe ont les profitz et revenuz avauntditz, de doune ou grant de nostre seignur le roy q'orest, ou de darrein roy Richard, soient chargez, sur peyn de forfaiture d'icelles, affaire lour personelle demurre illeoqes, solonc lour degre et afferant, sanz gages prendre, en defense des parties avantditz, en discharge de partie des costages de roy et de roialme; forspris moun sire Thomas, fitz a roy, capitayn de Guyens. Et qe nully illeoqes soit fait officer a roy inmediate accomptable, a terme de vie par patent. Et qe ceux qe sont accomptablez a tresorer de Caleys soientfaitz par le tresorer de Caleys, et nient par patent de roy. Et si ascuns patentes soient faitz avant ces heures a contrarie, soient voidez, et pur nulles tenuz. 22. Also, that a good, wise, appropriate, and secure ordinance and governance should be made and established by our said lord the king and his said council, before this present parliament is ended, for the good and secure defence of the town and march of Calais and the lands of Guyenne and of Ireland; and that all kinds of proceeds and revenues arising from the aforesaid town, marches, and lands, which used from ancient times to be due to the king, and which can still be levied, or which may in future be levied, should be levied and received by the king's officers and ministers there, who are accountable for and employed in the payment of the wages of the soldiers there. Or otherwise, that the persons who receive the aforesaid proceeds and revenues by gift or grant of our lord the present king, or of the former King Richard, should be commanded, on pain of forfeiting them, to reside there personally, in accordance with their status and the proportion they receive, without taking wages, to defend the aforesaid regions, thereby relieving the king and realm of part of the expenses; except for my lord Thomas, the king's son, captain of Guines. And that no-one there should be made an officer directly accountable to the king, for the term of his life by letter patent. And that those who are accountable to the treasurer of Calais should be appointed by the treasurer of Calais, and not by letter patent from the king. And if any letters patent have been issued before now to the contrary, they should be invalidated and held to be null.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Touchant les revenuz et profitz contenuz deins ceste peticione, le roy < le voet > pur troys ans, si avaunt come les ditz revenuz et profitz a tielx persones donez purront suffire. (fn. iii-622-97-1) Et qe nully soit fait oficer a roy illeoqes inmediate accomptable, a terme de vie par patent. Et qant a ceux qe sont accomptables a tresorer de Caleys, etc. le roy voet ent estre advisez. Regarding the revenues and proceeds mentioned in this petition, the king wills it to be so for three years, to the extent that the said revenues and proceeds when given to these persons will be able to suffice. (fn. iii-622-97-1) And that no-one should be made an officer directly accountable to the king there, for the term of his life, by letter patent. And with regard to those who are accountable to the treasurer of Calais etc., the king wishes to consider this further.
X. X. [Restraints on the king]
23. Item, qe nulles chastelx, honoures, seignuries, manoirs, villes, terres, tenementz, franchises, reversions, libertees, forestes, fees, advowesons, eschetes, forfaitures, gardes, mariages, ou autres revenuz queconqes, ove lour appurtenances, forspris offices et baillies en temps ensuant as mayns nostre dit seignur le roy, ou a ses heirs roys d'Engleterre a escheiers ou aveners, ne soient en nulle manere donez ne grantez a ascune persone, sy ne soit al profit et oeps nostre dit seignur le roy, pur la sustenance de soun hostielle, chambre, et garderobe, tanqe toutz ses dettes a ses liges a present duez soient pleynement parpaiez. Et delors enavant [col. b] continuelment resonable substance remaynant es mayns nostre dit seignur le roy, et ses heirs roys d'Engleterre, pur la sustenance et supportacioun de l'hostielle, chambre, et garderobe suisditz, devant ascun doune ou grant fait al contrarie d'icelle, en discharge de nostre dit seignur le roy et de soun roialme en temps avenir. Et si ascun manere de persone, de quelle estat ou condicione q'il soit, eit ou resceyve en temps avenir, de doune ou de grant nostre dit seignur le roy, ou de ses heirs roys d'Engleterre, ascuns des revenuz desuys nomez, a contrarie de cest peticione, qe l'avauntdit doune ou grant soient outrement voidez, et come nulles tenuz, et le roy respondu en soun escheqer des issues en le mesne temps d'icelle provenantz, et en temps ensuant a proveners. Parissint, qe le chanceller d'Engleterre qe pur le temps serra soit tenuz a certifier en l'escheqer nostre dit seignur le roy des dounes et grantes avantditz, atant defoitz come il bosoigne. 23. Also, that no castles, honours, lordships, manors, towns, lands, tenements, franchises, reversions, liberties, forests, fees, advowsons, escheats, forfeitures, wardships, marriages, or other revenues of any kind, with their appurtenances, except for offices and posts which in future fall or come into the hands of our said lord the king or of his heirs kings of England, should in any way be given or granted to anyone, if it is not for the profit or advantage of our said lord the king for the upkeep of his household, chamber and wardrobe, until all his debts owed at present to his lieges are entirely paid in full. And henceforward [col. b] a reasonable amount should always remain in the hands of our said lord the king, and of his heirs kings of England, for the upkeep and support of the aforesaid household, chamber, and wardrobe, before any gift or grant is made to the contrary from that sum, so that our said lord the king and his realm may be relieved in future. And if any kind of person, of any estate or condition, should in future have or receive, by gift or grant of our said lord the king, or of his heirs kings of England, any of the revenues mentioned above, contrary to this petition, then the aforesaid gift or grant should be utterly invalidated, and held to be null, and the king paid in his exchequer the proceeds arising from it in the meantime, or which arise in future; on such terms that the chancellor of England at the time should be obliged to report in the exchequer of our said lord the king concerning the aforesaid gifts and grants as often as will be necessary.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roy voet, qe toutz les chastelx, honoures, seignuries, manoirs, villes, terres, tenementz, fraunchises, reversions, libertees, forestes, fees, advoesons, eschetes, forfaitures, gardes, mariages, ou autres revenuz qeconqes, ove lour appurtenances, forspris offices et baillies qe escherront decyenavaunt es mayns nostre dit seignur le roy, ne soient en nulle manere donez ne grantez a ascune persone, s'il ne soit al oeps et profit nostre dit seignur le roy, pur la sustenance de soun hostielle, chambre, et garderobe. Et si ascune manere persone, de quelle estat ou condicione q'il soit, eit ou resceyve, de iceste .xxvi. jour d'April en temps avenir, ascun tiel doune ou graunt au contraire de ceste ordinance, qe l'avauntdit doune et grant soient outrement voidez et tenuz pur nulles. Forspris qe recompensacioun soit fait au roigne, solonc la tenure de ses lettres patentes; et forspris les fitz du roy. Et auxint forspris qe recompensacioun soit fait a duc d'Everwyk, et a sire de Grey, solonc la fourme de lour lettres patentes. The king wills that none of the castles, honours, lordships, manors, towns, lands, tenements, franchises, reversions, liberties, forests, fees, advowsons, escheats, forfeitures, wardships, marriages, or other revenues of any kind, with their appurtenances, except for offices and posts, which will henceforth fall into the hands of our said lord the king, should in any way be given or granted to anyone, if it is not to the advantage and profit of our said lord the king for the upkeep of his household, chamber and wardrobe. And if any kind of person, of any estate or condition, should have or receive, from this day, 26 April, henceforward, any such gift or grant contrary to this ordinance, then the aforesaid gift and grant should be utterly invalidated and held to be null. Excepting that compensation should be made to the queen in accordance with the tenor of her letters patent; and excepting the king's children. And also excepting that compensation should be made to the duke of York, and to Lord Grey, in accordance with the form of their letters patent.
XI. XI. [Courts of the constable, marshal and admiral]
24. Item, pur ceo qe les jugges des courtes de constable, et marchalle, et d'amyralte, sy attreient devaunt eux conusance et jurisdiccioun des choses triables par la commune ley, et dont la cause de querelle se comence de matier move et comencez deins le corps de roialme d'Engleterre, noun obstant diverses estatutz et ordenances et commune ley ent faitz et usez a contrarie, a tresgrandes damages et perils de voz lieges. 24. Also, since the judges of the courts of the constable and marshal and of the admiralty bring before themselves cognizance and jurisdiction of things determinable by the common law, and for which the reason for the suit arises from a matter initiated and begun in the body of the realm of England, notwithstanding various statutes and ordinances and common law on the subject made and used to the contrary, to the very great harm and danger of your lieges.
Que pleaise faire suffisant appointement en cest present parlement, sur grandes peynes, qe en temps avenir ils n'attempterent ne traherent devant eux conisance de nulle chose dont la conisance appent as autres courtes de roy deins soun roialme, ou dont la sours de la querelle sy comence de chose fait ou perpetrez dedeins le roialme d'Engleterre. May it please you to make a suitable provision in this present parliament, under great penalties, so that in future they do not attempt to or bring before them the cognizance of anything of which the cognizance pertains to other courts of the king's within his realm, or of which the cause of action began with something done or perpetrated within the realm of England.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soient l'estatutz ent faitz tenuz et gardez, ovesqe les peynes en ycelles contenuz. Let the statutes made on the matter be kept and observed, with the penalties contained in them.
XII. XII. [Customs officials]
25. Item, plese a nostre dit seignur le roy et a soun dit counseille entendre, q'en le temps de Richard nadgairs roy d'Engleterre qe darrein morust, entour l'an de soun regne quatorzisme, il fuist respondu a soun escheqer de clx milleli. et pluis par an del subside et custumes des layns et pealx lanutz, outre le pondage, tonage, aunage, pellage, et d'autres marchandises, dementiers qe les subside et custume suisditz estoient grauntez a dit seignur le roy par ses communes par auctoritee de parlement; les queux sont en molt de meyndre value par an a present, a cause qe les custumers, fermours, sercheours, et contrerollours, sovent ont este faitz par brocage, et des gentz meyns suffisantz, queux n'ount bien ne loialment faitz ne gardez lours ditz offices en due fourme a profit du roy, pur singuler profit et avantage q'ils ont pris, et de jour [p. iii-626][col. a] en autre preignent, a lours uses propres, a grand deceyt, et a tresgrand damage a nostre seignur le roy suisdit; et si aveigne qe en temps avenir ascun subside a vous, tressoveraigne seignur, soit grantez par voz communes par auctoritee de parlement, de ordeigner et establier en cest present parlement, qe toutz les sercheours, controllours, et poisours, soient faitz par nostre tressoveraigne seignur le roy et soun counseille; et les custumers par le tresorer d'Engleterre pur le temps esteantz; de les pluys loialx et suffisantz hommes qe voillent et purront en lours propres persones a cels offices mielx attendre, pernantz pur lour ditz offices en ycelle partie affaire sicome entre le dit counseille et mesmes les officers purra estre accordez. Issint qe en cas qe les custumers, poisours, contrerollours, et sercheours avauntditz font ascun deceyt ou damage a nostre dit seignur le roy en lour ditz offices, ou en lour defautes suffrent d'estre faitz, et de ceo soient convictz, q'ils respondent a nostre dit seignur le roy de la treble de soun perde et damage, et lour corps a prisone, tanqe ils ont fait fyn et raunsoun a voluntee de roy. Et qe nully soit fermour des custume ou subside avauntditz d'aunage, ne de nulle parcelle d'ycelle. Et qe nulle custumere, contrerollour, ne sercheour, tiegne nulles hostes [sic: read ' hostels'] pur marchantz aliens, n'autres qeconqes. 25. Also, may it please our said lord the king and his said council to understand that in the time of Richard formerly king of England, now dead, around the fourteenth year of his reign [1390-1], £160,000 and more was answered for in his exchequer each year from the subsidy and customs on wools and woolfells, in addition to poundage, tunnage, alnage, pellage, and the taxes on other merchandise, for as long as the aforesaid subsidy and custom was granted to the said lord the king by his commons by authority of parliament; yet these are of much less value annually at present, because the customs officers, tax-farmers, searchers and controllers have often been appointed through bribery, and from among people who are not of good standing, who have not well or loyally fulfilled or performed their said offices in due form for the king's profit, but rather for their personal profit and advantage, which they still take [p. iii-626][col. a] every day, for their own uses, to the great deception and very great injury of our aforesaid lord the king; and if in future it should happen that any subsidy is granted to you, most sovereign lord, by your commons by authority of parliament, may it please you to ordain and establish in this present parliament that all the searchers, controllers, and weighers should be appointed by our most sovereign lord the king and his council, and the customs officers by the treasurer of England at the time, from the most loyal men of good standing who will and can best attend to those offices in their own persons, taking, for the performance of their said offices, whatever is agreed between the said council and the same officers. Provided that if the aforesaid customs officers, weighers, controllers and searchers deceive or injure our said lord the king in any way in their said offices, or through their fault suffer such deceit or injury to take place, and are convicted of this, they should pay our said lord the king his loss and injury threefold, and their bodies should be delivered to prison until they have paid a fine and redemption at the king's pleasure. And that no-one should be a farmer of the aforesaid custom or subsidy of alnage, or of any part of it. And that no customs officer, controller or searcher should keep any lodgings for alien merchants, or for any others.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Qant a la peine contenue en la dite peticione, le roy le voet: et voet auxi, qe nulle custumer, contrerollour, ne sercheour, tiegne nulles hostielx pur merchantz aliens, n'autres qeconqes. Et quaunt a le remenant de dit article, le roy soy voet adviser. With regard to the penalty contained in the said petition, the king wills it: and he wills also that no customs officer, controller or searcher should keep any lodgings for alien merchants, or for any others. And with regard to the rest of the said article, the king wishes to consider this further.
[memb. 14]
XIII. XIII. [Alien merchants. Subsidy on cloth]
26. Item, par la ou nostre dit seignur le roy en ad la subside et custume en la fourme contenue en le grant de ses communes; et entre autres, de chescun drape de scarlet, et autre drape d'entier grayn, une certeyn custume, ore est il ensy, qe certeyns merchantz aliens en la citee de Londres, et en autres villes demurrantz, ont prys et teignont grandes hostielx et meaisons, en les queles ils sont sole enhabitantz, et achatent ascun foitz come en un an mille ou deux mille draps de blanket fyne ou pluys, et les font teyntrere de lour grayn demesne, en scarlet, en sangwyn, et en autres colours d'entier grayn, ou de demy grayn, et puis font trenchier tieux draps a petites peces de .v. ou .vi. verges, ou de pluis ou de meyns, et ent font diverses garnementz, et les enpackent en lour ditz hostielx, et en mesmes les packes sotelment enpackent layn fyne, or et argent en plate, et ascun foitz ils mettent tiels layn, or, et argent en barrelx, et autres vesselx, et les amesnont hors de roialme sanz ascun custume ou subside paier pur ycelle, desouthe le colour de tielx garnementz issint faitz, par cause qe tielx garnementz ne sont pas custumables. Et issint nostre dit seignur le roy par tielx marchantz aliens, ensy en lour hostielx solement demurrantz, est de jour en autre grandement de soun custume et subside defraude et deceu, a grande damage et prejudice de luy en celle partie. 26. Also, whereas our said lord the king has the subsidy and custom in the form contained in the grant from his commons; and among other things he has a certain custom on each cloth of scarlet and each other cloth of whole grain; it is now the case that certain alien merchants residing in the city of London and in other towns have taken and maintain great lodgings and houses, in which they are the sole inhabitants, and they sometimes buy about a thousand or two thousand cloths of fine blanket, or more, in a year, and they cause them to be dyed with their own grain, such as scarlet, and sanguine, and other colours of whole grain or half grain; and then they cause such cloths to be cut into little pieces of five or six yards, or more, or less, and they make several garments from them, and they pack them in their said lodgings, and in the same packs they deceitfully pack fine wool, gold and silver plate, and sometimes they put this wool, gold and silver into barrels or other vessels, and they take them out of the realm without paying any custom or subsidy on them, under the guise of such garments made in this way, because such garments are not subject to custom. And thus our said lord the king is every day greatly cheated and defrauded of his custom and subsidy by such alien merchants who live thus alone in their lodgings, to his great injury and detriment in this matter.
Soit ordeigne, qe toutz marchantz aliens desorenavaunt paient la subside et custume pur tielx garnementz solonc l'afferant: c'est assavoir, cy .iiij. ou .v. ou .vi. tielx garnementz conteigne un drap d'entier grayn, q'adonqes ils paient la custume et subside come pur un drape de scarlet, sy meyns meyns, et si pluis pluis. Et de les damages et deceytes par eux faitz a nostre dit seignur le roy avant ces heures soient commissions sur ceo faitz as certeins loialx et vaillantz hommes, par le counseille nostre dit seignur le roy assigners, pur enquerer et examiner par toutz maneres des voies qe la verite mielx purra estre trove, et de certifier en la chancellerie de cest matire en due fourme, pur le profit nostre dit seignur le roy; par consideracioun, qe les subside et custume sont de cy petit value come ils < sont > ore a cause suisdite. Let it be ordained that henceforth all alien merchants should pay the subsidy and custom for such garments according to what is appropriate: that is, if four or five or six such garments contain cloth of whole grain, then they should pay the custom and subsidy as for cloth of scarlet; if less, less, and if more, more. And concerning the injuries and deceptions previously committed by them against our said lord the king, let commissions on this be issued to certain loyal and worthy men, to be appointed by the council of our said lord the king, to inquire and examine by all manner of ways by which the truth might best be found, and to report on this matter in the chancery in due form, for the advantage of our said lord the king; considering that the subsidy and custom are of as little value as they now are for the aforesaid reason.
[col. b]
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roy voet, qe cest article soit tenuz decyenavant en toutz pointz; et ceo auxibien des draps graynez come de toutz autres draps de layne. Et si rien soit fait ou attemptez devaunt ces heures a contraire de les estatutz sur ceo faitz, soient commissions faitz d'enquerre, et d'ent certifier en la chancellerie. (fn. iii-622-120-1) The king wills that henceforth this article should be kept in all points; and this both for cloth of grain and for all other woollen cloth. And if anything has previously been done or attempted against the statutes made on this, let commissions be issued to inquire into this, and report be made on it in the chancery. (fn. iii-622-120-1)
XIIII. XIIII. [Provisors. Export of bullion, etc.]
27. Item, par l'ou les elitz as ercevesqes, ou crees evesqes par le seint piere le pape, et autres clerks par mesme le pape avancez ou avancers as dignites ou autres benefices queconqes de seinte esglise par l'appostoille, font lour eschanges ove certeins Lumbardes ou Albertynes en la citee de Londres demurrantz, les quelles resceyvent or et argent en plate, en vesselles, et en coigne, de tielx elitz ou avancez, et d'autres, queles passent le mere pur mesmes les causes et autres, et mesmes les or, argent, vesselles, et plate, amesnent hors de roialme, encontre les estatuitz en tielx cases devaunt ordeignez, a grand arrerisment de roy, et empoverissement de soun roialme en cest partie. 27. Also, whereas those who are elected as archbishops or created bishops by the holy father the pope, and other clerics advanced or to be advanced by the same pope to dignities or other benefices of holy church, of any type, through the pope, make their exchanges with certain Lombards or Albertines residing in the city of London, who receive gold and silver in plate, in vessels, and in coin from those elected or promoted clerics, and from others who cross the sea for this or other reasons; and they take the same gold, silver, vessels and plate out of the realm, contrary to the statutes previouly ordained for such cases, to the great injury of the king and the impoverishement of his realm in this matter.
Plese a nostre dit seignur le roy, par advys de soun counseille ordeigner et establier en cest present parlement, qe toutz tieux eschanges d'or, d'argent, vesselles, ou plate, soient oustez, et nient usez desorenavaunt, sur la peyn depaier a nostre dit seignur le roy a taunt come les chaunges ent faitz amontent. Et ensement, qe mesmes les Lumbardes, Albertynes, et autres resceyvours d'icelles, paient atant: savant a chescune persone, a qi attient tiel eschange affaire en temps avenir, de le faire come en layns, draps, et autres merchandises de les commoditees de cest roialme; par consideracioun, qe les ditz commodites sont suffisantz et profitables assez en toutz autres parties par chescun manere de paiement affaire. Et qe les ditz eschanges soient faitz par controllement des loialx et suffisantz persones Englois neez, a ceo assigners par le counseille avantdit, en absence de qi nulle eschange soit fait. Et qe en chescun brief d'eschange affaire soit fait mencioun de la fourme et manere avantditz. May it please our said lord the king on the advice of his council to ordain and establish in this present parliament that all such exchanges of gold, silver, vessels or plate should be abolished and henceforth not permitted, on pain of paying to our said lord the king as much as the exchanges made on this amount to. And similarly, that the same Lombards, Albertines and others who receive them should pay the same amount: saving to each person for whom it is necessary to make such an exchange in the future, to make it in such things as wool, cloth and other merchandise of the commodities of this realm; considering that the said commodities are perfectly suitable and profitable in all other countries to make any kind of payment. And that the said exchanges should be made under the control of loyal and competent English-born persons, who should be appointed to do this by the aforesaid council, in the absence of whom no exchange should be made. And that in each writ of exchange which is made, mention should be made that it has been done in this manner.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soit l'estatuit sur ceo fait l'an xiiij me le roy Richard tenuz et gardez; (fn. iii-622-127-1) adjoustant a icelle, qe le chanceller d'Engleterre pur le temps esteant, de quinszeine en quinszeine envoie les estretes des briefs d'eschange en l'escheqer nostre seignur le roy, et qe les tresorer et barons du dit escheqer aient poair par auctoritee de parlement d'examiner les custumers en ceo cas, et ceux q'ils trovent coupables encountre la fourme de dit estatuit, de eux punir solonc la contenue de dit estatuit. (fn. iii-622-127-2) Let the statute made on this in the fourteenth year of King Richard [1390] be kept and observed; (fn. iii-622-127-1) adding to this, that the chancellor of England at the time should send the estreats of the writs of exchange into our lord the king's exchequer fortnightly, and that the treasurer and barons of the said exchequer should have power by authority of parliament to examine the customs officers in this case, and to punish those whom they find guilty of acting contrary to the form of the said statute, in accordance with the content of the said statute. (fn. iii-622-127-2)
XV. XV. [Bribes. Royal Officers]
[editorial note: Respectatur per dominum principem et consilium. ] [editorial note: This is deferred by the lord prince and the council.]
28. Item, qe nulle chanceller, tresorer, gardein de prive seal, counseiller du roy serementez a counseille du roy, ne nulle autre officer, jugge, ne ministre du roy, pernant fees ou gages de roy pur lour ditz offices ou services, preigne en nulle manere en temps avenir ascun manere de doune ou brocage de nully pur lour ditz offices et services affaire, sur peyn de respondre a roy de la treble de ceo qe issi preignont, et de satisfier la partie, et punys al voluntee de roy, et soit dischargez de soun office, service, et counseille pur toutz jours. Et qe chescun qe vorra pursuer en la dite matire, eit la suit sibien pur le roy come pur luy mesmes, et eit la tierce partie del somme de qi la partie soit duement convict. 28. Also, that neither the chancellor, treasurer, keeper of the privy seal, any king's counsellor sworn to the king's council, nor any other officer, judge or minister of the king who takes fees or wages from the king for his said offices or services, should in any way take in any time to come any kind of gift or bribe from anyone to perform his said office and service, on pain of paying to the king three times what he thus took, and of satisfying the party, and being punished at the king's will; and he should be discharged from his office, service and counsel forever. And that anyone who wishes to sue concerning this matter should have his suit both for the king and for himself, and should have the third part of the sum of which the party is duly convicted.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer..]
Le roy le voet. The king wills it.
XVI. XVI. [Arrests at the request of the clergy]
29. Item priont les communes, qe plese a nostre soveraigne seignur le roy grauntier, qe si ascun soit ou serra arestu par force de l'estatuit fait l'an de vostre regne seconde al request des prelats et clergie de vostre roialme d'Engleterre, (fn. iii-622-136-1) q'il purra estre lesse a mainpris, et faire sa purgacioun, franchement sanz destourbance d'ascuny, en [p. iii-627][col. a] mesme le conte ou il est arestu; et qe tiels arestes soient desorenavaunt faitz en due fourme de ley, par le viscont, mairs, baillifs, ou constables nostre seignur le roy, sanz violent affray ove force et armes, ou depredacioun delour biens, en [sic: read 'ou'] autre extorcioun ou injurie queconqe en celle partie affaire. 29. Also, the commons pray that it please our sovereign lord the king to grant that if anyone is or shall be arrested under the statute made in the second year of your reign [1401] at the request of the prelates and clergy of your realm of England, (fn. iii-622-136-1) that he may be granted mainprise, and allowed to make his compurgation freely without hindrance by anyone in [p. iii-627][col. a] the same county in which he was arrested; and that such arrests should henceforth be made in due form of law by the sheriff, mayors, bailiffs or constables of our lord the king, without a violent affray with force and arms, or the seizure of their goods, or any other extortion or injury of any kind being committed in this matter.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roy se voet ent aviser. The king wishes to consider this further.
XVII. XVII. [Subsidies for the defence of the realm]
30. Item, qe plese au roy nostre seignur soveraigne, de considerer, qe en temps passe en diverses parlementz ont diverses appointementz et ordinances estez faites, par advys de roy et des seignurs espirituelx et temporelx, ove l'assent des communes en les ditz parlementz esteantz, sibien pur le bien et bone governance de roialme, come pur les subsides a roy grauntez en mesmes les parlementz, sur certeyns condicions, d'estre despenduz pur la defence de roialme, nient observez ou gardez; de ordeigner, par advis des seignurs espirituelx et temporelx, et assent des communes en cest present parlement, appointementz et ordinances de bone et seure governance de toutz les matires desuys declarez, et d'autres matires bosoignables pur le profit et bone governance de roialme, d'estre seurement tenuz et gardez. Et si aveigne, qe en cest present parlement ascun chose a roy serra grante pur la defence de roialme, qe tiel appointement soit fait, tenuz, et gardez, qe les communes avauntditz soient seurez qe les deniers ent provenantz ne soient autrement dispenduz, ne autry oeps mys, mais tantsoulement al effect et entent qe la chose serra grantee. 30. Also, may it please the king, our sovereign lord, to consider that in the past in various parliaments various decrees and ordinances have been made, through the advice of the king and of the lords spiritual and temporal, by the assent of the commons present in the said parliaments, both for the good and proper government of the realm and for the subsidies granted to the king in the same parliaments on certain conditions to be spent for the defence of the realm, which have not been observed or kept; and to ordain, on the advice of the lords spiritual and temporal, and by the assent of the commons in this present parliament, decrees and ordinances for the good and proper accomplishment of all the matters related above, and for other matters necessary for the advantage and good government of the realm, which should be securely kept and observed. And if it should happen that in this present parliament anything is granted to the king for the defence of the realm, that a similar provision should be made, kept, and observed, so that the aforesaid commons can be sure that the money arising from it will not be spent otherwise nor put to any other use, but used only for the purpose and intention for which it is granted.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roy le voet. The king wills it.
XVIII. XVIII. [Aliens]
31. Item, plese au roy nostre tressoveraigne seignur, pur ceo q'il est vraisemble qe la guerre doit comencer parentre vous et vostre adversarie de France, et qe estrangers veignont de beaucope de parties, et lem ne poet bonement savoir toutz lour entencions: pur qoy plese a roy, q'il poet estre overtement proclamez, qe nulle estrangier ne veigne ademurer en vostre roialme, forspris ceux qe voillent tener vostre partie, et viver et morer ovesqe vous, parissint q'ils soient laborantz et demurrantz en voz guerres pur defense de vous et de vostre roialme: et forspris merchantz venantz ove lour merchandises en le roialme, les queles pur le temps de lour demure soient en hostielx des Engloises, nient eiantz hostielx propres pur lour demure demesne. Et qe lour hostes soient loialx et suffisantz persones, et jurez devant les chiefs officers de contee, citee, burghe, ou ville, ou ils sont recettes en host, de loialment surveir, qe les ditz marchantz ne ferront nulle deceit ne damage a roy, ne a le roialme, et s'ils < le > font, qe lour ditz hostes ent certifient a les custumers, controllours, et sercheours, d'ent certifier a roy et a soun conseille. Et qe nully soit brogour ne autre officer queconqe s'il ne soit Englois nees. Et qe les brogours ne soient merchantz a lour oeps propres. Et qe ceux aliens qe sont a present demurrantz deins le roialme, soient voidez, ou auterement governez et reulez en manere et fourme suisditz. 31. Also, may it please the king our most sovereign lord, since it seems likely that war must break out between you and your adversary of France, and that foreigners arrive from many parts whose real intentions are unknown to you: therefore may it please the king publicly to proclaim that no foreigner should come to reside in your realm apart from those who are willing to take your part, and to live and die with you, and to work and take part in your wars for the defence of you and of your realm: with the exception of merchants coming into the realm with their merchandise, who should live in lodgings run by English people during their stay, rather than residing in their own hostels. And that their hosts should be loyal and suitable people, and sworn before the chief officers of the county, city, borough, or town where they are accepted as hosts, to check loyally that the said merchants do not commit any deception or injury against the king, and if they do so, their said hosts should make it known to the customs officers, controllers and searchers, for them to make it known to the king and to his council. And that no-one should be a broker or other officer of any kind who is not English born. And the brokers should not be merchants on their own account. And those aliens who are presently living in the realm should be deported, or otherwise supervised and ruled in the aforesaid manner and form.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Qant a ceux aliens qe sont avenirs, le roy le voet. Et qant a ceux qe sont demurrantz ore en Engleterre, le roy voet, qe ceux qe ne sont pas jurez d'estre loialx a roy et au roialme, q'ils soient jurez d'estre loialx au roy et au roialme. Et qe ceux qe purront laborer en la guerre usent la guerre, et les autres artificers usent lour artifice. With regard to those aliens who will come, the king wills it. And with regard to those who are now resident in England, the king wills that those who have not been sworn to be loyal to the king and to the realm should be sworn to be loyal to the king and to the realm. And that those who can take an active part in the war should do so, while other craftsmen should work at their crafts.
Ordinaunce pur Caleys etc. [Ordinance for the defence of Calais etc].
32. Accordez est par le roy et les seignurs en parlement, qe les troys parties de la subside des layns, quirs, et pealx lanutz, si ascun serra grantez en cest present parlement, aprendre en toutz les portz d'Engleterre, [col. b] soient assignez pur la sauf gard de les ville et chastiel de Caleys, et de la novelle tour sur Risebank, et des autres chastelx et lieux es marches de Caleys, et pur certeins dettes apaiers illeoqes, adurer pur le temps de mesme la grante. Et qe sur ceo sufficeantes garantes soient faites, solonc ceo qe bosoigne serra, pur le temps desuisdit. 32. Ordinance for Calais etc. It has been agreed by the king and the lords in parliament that three quarters of the subsidy on wools, hides and woolfells - if one is granted in this present parliament - to be taken in all the ports of England, [col. b] should be assigned for the safeguarding of the town and castle of Calais and of the new tower on Risebank, and of the other castles and places in the marches of Calais, and for certain debts which are owed there, to last for the time of the same grant. And that sufficient guarantees should be made on this matter, according to what is necessary, for the time specified above..
33. Et puis apres, sur la grante de subside des leynes, quirs, et pealx lanutz, faite par les communes d'Engleterre en mesme le parlement, accordez estoit, qe les trois parties de mesme le subside, alevers en toutz les portz d'Engleterre de la fest de Seint Michel proschein advenir en deux ans lors proschein ensuantz, soient assignez pur paiement des gages et regardes sibien de le capitain de la ville de Caleys, et de les soldeours, arblastres, gonners, masons, et carpenters, et des autres officers et laborers de mesme la ville, come des capitains du chastel de mesme la ville, et des soldeours illeoqes, et auxi des capitains et soldeours de la novelle tour sur Risebank, et des autres chastelx et lieux en les marches de Caleys, et pur les vitaillement, artillerie, et autre estuffure d'icelles: c'estassavoir, pur les gages et regardes du dite capitain de Caleys, et les soldeours de mesme la ville, et de les arblastres, gonners, masons, et carpenters, et des autres officers et laborers de mesme la ville, de la xvi me jour de Marce darrein passe tanq'al dit fest de Seint Michel proschein advenir, et de le dit fest de Seint Michel en deux ans lors proschein ensuants; et pur les arrirages des gages et regardes de mesmes les soldeours du dite ville de Caleys, et auxi des arblastres, gonners, masons, et carpenters, et des autres officers et laborers de mesme la ville de Caleys, a eux arere esteant devant le dit xvi me jour de Marce; et pur les gages et regardes de les autres soldeours et capitains, sibien du dite chastel de Caleys, come de toutz autres chastelx et lieux avantdites, de le fest de Pasqe darrain passe tanq'al dit fest de Seint Michel proschein advenir, et de mesme le fest de Seint Michel en deux ans lors proschein ensuantz. Et en cas qe les dites trois parties du dite subside ne purront suffisre pur les paiements, vitailementes, artillerie, et estuffure dessuisdites pur le temps suisdit, q'adonqes sufficientes assignements soient faitz paraillours pur ycelles de tout ceo qe faudra ou remeyndra nient paiez, ou mieultz y purra estre accordez par advis de conseil. 33. And then afterwards, when the grant of the subsidy on wools, hides and woolfells was made by the commons of England in the same parliament, it was agreed that three quarters of the same subsidy, to be levied in all the ports of England from the feast of Michaelmas next [29 September 1410] for the following two years, would be assigned for the payment of the wages and remuneration both of the captain of the town of Calais and of the soldiers, crossbowmen, gunners, masons, and carpenters, and of the other officers and workmen in the same town, and of the captains of the castle of the same town, and the soldiers there, and also the captains and soldiers at the new tower on Risebank, and in the other castles and places in the marches of Calais, and for their victuals, artillery and other equipment: that is, for the wages and remuneration of the said captain of Calais, and the soldiers of the same town, and of the crossbowmen, gunners, masons, and carpenters, and of the other officers and workmen in the same town, from 16 March last until the said feast of Michaelmas next, and from the said feast of Michaelmas for the following two years; and for the arrears in the wages and remuneration of the same soldiers in the said town of Calais, and also of the crossbowmen, gunners, masons, and carpenters, and of the other officers and workmen in the same town of Calais, which are in arrears to them from before the said 16 March; and for the wages and remuneration of the other soldiers and captains, both in the said castle of Calais, and in all the other aforesaid castles and places, from the feast of Easter last until the feast of Michaelmas next, and from the same feast of Michaelmas for the following two years. And in case the said three quarters of the said subsidy are not sufficient for the aforesaid payments, provisions, armaments and equipment for the aforesaid time, then adequate assignments should be made elsewhere for them for everything which is lacking, or which remains unpaid; however, this can best be agreed by the advice of the council.
[memb. 13]
Touchant un enditement. [False indictments].
34. Item, joefdy le xiij e jour de Feverer, les communes baillerent au roy une peticion en la fourme q'enseute: 34. Concerning an indictment. Also, on Thursday 13 February, the commons delivered to the king a petition in the following form:
Item monstrent les communes, qe come ore tarde les justices nostre tressovereigne seignur le roy pristrent a Westm' enquestes des persones a eux denomez, saunz due retourne de viscount, des queux ascuns estoient utlagez pur tresons et felonies, et autres al seintuarie fuez d'avoir tuycioun de seinte esglise, pur lour horibles malfaitz perpetrez encountre nostre dit seignur le roy et soun roiale mageste, par queux sibien plusours malfaisours estoient enditez, come autres loialx lieges nostre dit seignur l e roy nient coupables, par conspiracie, abbettement, et faux ymaginacion d'autres persones, pur lour special avauntage et lucres propres, encountre la cours de la commune ley avant ces heures usez et acustomez: et semblablement purposerent les abettours suisditz de proceder en mesme la manere, pur lour avantage et profit demesne, encountre graunt partie des loialx lieges nostre seignur le roi avauntdit de chescun estat du roialme, a tresmalveys ensample, et lour destruccioun et perpetuel anientisment, s'il ne fuisse par la resistance et especial grace nostre dit seignur le roy, par la bone mediacioun de lour redoute seignur le prince. Also, the commons complain that whereas recently at Westminster the justices of our most sovereign lord the king, without due return by the sheriffs, took inquests of people who had been denounced to them, some of whom had been outlawed for treasons and felonies, while others had fled to sanctuary to have the protection of holy church for their horrible crimes perpetrated against our said lord the king and his royal majesty; as a result of which not only were many malefactors indicted, but also other loyal lieges of our said lord the king who were not guilty, through the conspiracy, instigation and false scheming of other persons, for their singular advantage and private gain, contrary to the course of the common law used and practised until now: and the aforesaid abettors similarly proposed to proceed in the same way, for their own advantage and profit, against a great number of the loyal lieges of our aforesaid lord the king from every estate of the realm, which was a very evil precedent, and might have led to their destruction and perpetual ruin, had it not been for the opposition and special grace of our said lord the king, through the good mediation of their dread lord the prince.
Que pleise a nostre seignur le roi suisdit, par avys de ses seignurs espirituelx et temporelx, et assent de ses communes, ordeigner et establier par estatuit en cest present parlement affaire, qe [p. iii-628][col. a] nulles tielx enditementz al denominacion de nulles maneres persones soient prisez en temps advenir, et nomement des persones suspecionouses, de ley utlagez, ou pur tresons et felonies al seintuarie pur refuit fuez, eyns par enquestes des loialx lieges nostre avauntdit seignur le roy par ses viscountz duement retournez, sanz ascun manere denominacioun as ditz viscontz devant fait des nouns queux serront par luy enpanellez, s'il ne soit par ses ministres a ceo faire jurez et commys. < Et qe > processe soit fait en temps advenir envers les enditez suisditz par briefs de capias, capias alias, et capias pluries, devaunt l'exigent envers eux agarde, as resonables jours solonc la discrecioun des justices, par overt et solempne proclamacioun en les ditz briefs de capias, come usez en est en les briefs d'exigent, al entent qe chescun des ditz enditez purra avoir notice de lour enditementz eux a rendre a la ley et respounse, en salvacioun de lour vies, terres, tenementz, biens, et chatelx, s'ils yveullent. Et qe nul manere des justices, ne commissioner nostre dit seignur le roy, preignent enquestes en autre manere en temps advenir; et si ascuns enditementz ysoient prisez a contraire, q'ils soient outrement voidez, et tout pur nul tenuz. Purveux toutefoitz, qe les persones qe conspirerent, procurerent, et abetterent les erroyns enditementz avauntditz, pur profit et avauntage prendre a lour oeps demesne, ou le procurent en temps advenir, en subvercioun de la ley, destruccioun et anientisment des loialx lieges nostre seignur le roy suisdit, aient tiel punisement ordeignez par l'estatuit suisdit pur lour nient veritables congeccions, qe soit ensample a toutz autres d'eschuir tielx fauxes ymaginacions, encountre la ley et les loialx lieges nostre seignur le roy avantdit, en oevre de charite. May it please our aforesaid lord the king, by the advice of the lords spiritual and temporal and the assent of the commons, to ordain and establish, by a statute to be made in this present parliament, that [p. iii-628][col. a] no such indictments should be made on the nomination of persons of any kind in the future, and especially by suspicious personswho have been outlawed by law, or who for treasons and felonies have fled for refuge to sanctuary; but rather through inquests of loyal lieges of our aforesaid lord the king, duly returned by his sheriffs, without any kind of nomination having been made previously to the said sheriffs of the names of those to be empanelled by him, unless it be by his ministers sworn and directed to do this. And that process should be made in the future against the aforesaid indicted persons by writs of capias, capias alias and capias pluries before the exigent is awarded against them, returnable on reasonable days according to the discretion of the justices, with public and solemn proclamation in the said writs of capias, as is customary in writs of exigent, so that eachof the indicted persons will receive notice of their indictments to surrender to the law and make response for the protection of their lives, lands, tenements and goods if they wish. And that no justice of any kind, nor any commissioner of our said lord the king, should in future hold inquests in any other manner; and if any indictments are held in any other way, they should be completely annulled and held to be quite invalid. Provided always that those persons who have plotted, procured or incited the aforesaid erroneous indictments, to acquire profit and advantage for themselves, or who procure them in the future, in subversion of the law and to the destruction and ruin of the loyal lieges of our aforesaid lord the king, should have such punishment ordained by the aforesaid statute for their false conspiracies that they become an example to all others to avoid such devious scheming against the law and the loyal lieges of our aforesaid lord the king; by way of charity.
Quelle peticione lue et entendue feust respondue par le roy et les seignurs en les paroles q'ensuent: When this petition had been read and heard, reply was given by the king and the lords in the words which follow:
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Qant a le primer article contenuz deinz ceste peticione, nostre seignur le roy, pur ceo q'il ad bien entenduz par ses justices qe le dit enditement feust fait encontre la commune ley devaunt usez en temps de ses nobles progenitours, par tant qe ascuns des persones par queux mesme l'enditement feust fait feurent utlagez devaunt les ditz justices de record, et ascuns fuez al seintuarie pur tresoun, et ascuns pur felonie, pur illoeqes avoir refuit, voet, del assent des seignurs espirituelx et temporelx, et a la request des ditz communes, qe mesme l'enditement, ove toutz les circumstances d'icelle, soit revoke, adnullez, voide, et tenuz pur nul pur toutz jours. Et qe desore enavaunt nul enditement soit fait par ascuns tielx persones, eyns par enquestes des loialx lieges nostre dit seignur le roy, en manere come feust use en temps de ses nobles progenitours, par les viscontz ou baillifs de fraunchises duement retournez, sanzascune manere denominacion as ditz viscontz ou baillifs de fraunchises devaunt fait par ascune persone des nouns queux serront par luy enpanellez, s'il ne soit par les ministres des ditz viscontz ou baillifs de fraunchises a ceo faire jurez et commys, et les autres ministres as queux il appartient de ceo faire solonc la ley d'Engleterre. Et si ascun enditement soit fait en temps advenir en ascun manere au contraire, soit mesme l'enditement auxint voide, adnullez, revokez, et tenuz pur nul a toutz jours. Et qant al secunde article touchant le chaunge del processe en tresoun et felonie, le roy voet q'il soit use en mesme la manere coms il mesmes et ses nobles progenitours a tout temps ont este possessionez en tielx cases. Et qant al tierce article touchant la punissement de ceux q'avoient conspirez le dit enditement estre fait, le roy voet qe ceux persones < qe purront > estre trovez coupables soient puniz, solonc lour desert, en cest present parlement. (fn. iii-622-160-1) With regard to the first article contained in this petition, our lord the king, since he has been given to understand by his justices that the said indictment was brought contrary to the common law in use previously in the time of his noble progenitors - inasmuch as some of the persons by whom the same indictment was brought were outlawed before the said justices in a court of record, and some had fled to sanctuary for treason, and some for felony, to have refuge there - wills, by the assent of the lords spiritual and temporal and at the request of the said commons, that the same indictment, with all its adjuncts, should be revoked, annulled, quashed, and perpetually held to be invalid. And that henceforth no indictment should be brought by any such persons, but rather by inquests of the loyal lieges of our said lord the king, in the way that it was done in the time of his noble progenitors, duly returned by the sheriffs or bailiffs of franchises, without any kind of nomination made beforehand to the sheriffs or bailiffs of franchises by any person of the names of the people to be empanelled by him, unless it is by the ministers of the said sheriffs or bailiffs of franchises, sworn and directed to do this, or the other ministers whose duty it is to do this according to the law of England. And if any indictment is made in any way to the contrary in the future, let the same indictment also be quashed, annulled, revoked and held to be invalid perpetually. And with regard to the second article concerning the change of process in treason and felony, the king wills that it should be done in the same way as he himself and his noble progenitors have always been possessed of in such cases. And with regard to the third article concerning the punishment of those who conspired to have the said indictment brought, the king wills that those persons who can be found guilty should be punished in accordance with their desert in this present parliament. (fn. iii-622-160-1)
[col. b]
Pur monsire Johan Trebeel. [Petition from Sir John Trebeel, captain of an English galley].
35. Item, samady le viij e jour de Marce, les communes baillerent au roy une peticione pur Johan Trebeel, chivaler, en la fourme q'enseute. 35. On behalf of Sir John Trebeel. Also, on Saturday 8 March, the commons delivered to the king a petition on behalf of John Trebeel, knight, in the following form:
As tresgraciouses et tressages sires, chivalers, et communes de cest present parlement supplie treshumblement Johan Trebeel, chivaler, qe come le dit suppliant esteant sur le meer, ove un sa galey armez en destruccioun des enemys nostre tresredoute seignur le roy, et en espectant et agaitant des certeins vesselx de Saint Malous, de l'isle, (fn. iii-622-162a-1) et des autres plusours lieux, chargez ove esteyn a l'Isle de Garnesey, la faisant lour estaple secretement, encountre l'ordinance et estatuitz ent faitz, et en arerissement del profit et custume del staple de Caleys: le dit suppliant purposant d'eux prendre et amesner a nostre dit seignur le roy, en redressement et correccioun de lour defaute; si avient, q'en la veille del assumpcioun de Nostre Dame darrein passe, vient un vesselle de les adversaries de nostre dit seignur le roy de Saint Malous, charge de canveys, le quel vesselle le dit suppliant prist, et amesna en Engleterre al port de Portesmuth' par voie de guerre, et la fist vendre tout le dit canveys as diverses marchantz. Apres quel temps, vient un des ditz marchantz al dit suppliant, monstrant un saufconduyt de monsire Richard de York, et le dit suppliant merveilant de ceo, demanda des ditz marchantz la cause q'ils ne monstroient le dit saufconduyt al dit suppliant al temps del prise de dit vesselle, ou devaunt la vendue des ditz biens. Et ils disoient a luy, q'ils ont ublie. Considerantz, tresgraciouses sires, qe tost apres la monstraunce du dit saufconduyt le dit suppliant, en reverence de mon dit sire Richard, lessoit aler frankement, saunz ascun raunsoun paier, les ditz marchantz, ensemblement ove lour vesselle, et eux vitailloit de ses costages propres; et puis apres par accorde parentre le dit suppliant et les ditz merchantz, ils relesseront et quitclaymeront al dit suppliant tout lour droit et accioun; le quelle relesse le dit suppliant est prest de monstrer. Et noun obstant ceo, le dit suppliant feust pris par vertue d'une commissioun del seute nostre dit seignur le roy, et mys en le tour de Loundres, ou il est et ad este depuis le fest de Seint Thomas l'appostoille darrein passe. To the most gracious and most wise lords, knights, and commons of this present parliament, John Trebeel, knight, begs most humbly that whereas the said supplicant, when he was at sea with a galley of his, armed to destroy the enemies of our most dread lord the king, and watching and lying in wait for certain vessels from St Malo, from the island, (fn. iii-622-162a-1) and from various other places, loaded with tin for the island of Guernsey, which they were secretly using as their staple, contrary to the ordinance and statutes made on the matter and to the detriment of the profit and custom of the staple of Calais: the said supplicant's plan being to arrest them and to bring them to our said lord the king for the redress and correction of their fault; it happened that on the eve of the Assumption of Our Lady past [14 August], a vessel belonging to the enemies of our said lord the king came from St Malo loaded with canvas, which vessel the said supplicant seized and brought to England to the port of Portsmouth by right of war, and there he caused all the said canvas to be sold to various merchants. Following which, one of the said merchants came to the said supplicant, showing him a safe-conduct from my lord Richard of York, and the said supplicant, amazed at this, asked the said merchants why they did not show the said safe-conduct to the said supplicant at the time of the arrest of the said vessel, or before the sale of the said goods. And they told him that they had forgotten. Considering, most gracious lords, that immediately after being shown the said safe-conduct, the said supplicant, out of reverence for my said lord Richard, let the said merchants go free, without paying any ransom, together with their vessel, and provisioned them at his own cost; and that later, by agreement between the said supplicant and the said merchants, they released and quitclaimed to the said supplicant all their right and action; which release the said supplicant is ready to exhibit. Yet despite that, the said supplicant was arrested by virtue of a commisiion at the suit of our said lord the king and sent to the Tower of London, where he has been since the feast of St Thomas the Apostle last [21 December].
Qe pleise a voz tresgraciouses et tressages discrecions d'avoir en remembraunce ceste bille parentre voz autres billes, et de supplier nostre tresredoute seignur le roy, qe le dit suppliant puisse estre en cest present parlement a soun respounse devaunt nostre dit seignur le roy touchant la matire avauntdit, come ley et reasoun demandent, et ceo pur Dieu, et en oevre de charite. May it please your most gracious and most wise judgments to remember this bill among your other bills, and to request of our most dread lord the king that the said supplicant be permitted in this present parliament to make his response before our said lord the king concerning the aforesaid matter, as law and reason demand; and that for God, and by way of charity.
Quelle peticione lue devaunt le roy et les seignurs en parlement, et entendue, < et le dit Johan amesnez en plein parlement, > il feust dit a dit monsire Johan par nostre dit seignur le roy, qe combien qe la dite vesselle le quelle il prist feust de l'adversaire de nostre dit seignur le roy de Seint Malous en Fraunce, en manere come il ad confesse par sa dite peticione, nientmeins il avoit malement fait; pur ceo qe certeins trieus feurent prisez parentre nostre dit seignur le roy et soun dit adversaire, a durers par certein temps sibien par terre come par mere, longe temps devaunt la veille de l'assumpcioun de Nostre Dame avauntdite; a quelles trieues mesme nostre seignur le roy feust assurez in verbo regio de bien et loialment tenir par luy et ses lieges, et la dite vesselle feust pris durantz les dites trieus encontre la fourme d'icelles, et auxint encountre sa ligeaunce. De quelles choses demande feust de dit Johan, coment il se vorroit excuser. A qi mesme monsire Johan disoit, q'il ne savoit autre excusacioun, mes conusa soun trespasse, et q'il avoit malement fait; et humblement engenulant pria nostre dit seignur le roy de pardoun, et de mercy; et outre pria toutz les seignurs espirituelx et temporelx, et les communes < suizditz, > de prier pur luy a mesme nostre seignur le roy, qe luy plerroit de sa tresbenigne grace luy pardoner la dite trespas. La quelle chose issint fait par les seignurs et communes suisditz, mesme [p. iii-629][col. a] nostre seignur le roy, endisant q'il voloit monstrer a ses lieges pluis de grace et mercy qe de duresse et reddure, de sa grace especiale, et a la request des seignurs et communes avauntditz, pardona a mesme monsire Johan Trebeel la dite trespasse, et tout ceo q'il luy avoit mespris encontre luy, sibien de ceo q'il avoit fait encountre la fourme de les trieus suis ditz, come de la saufconduyt de monsire Richard de York avauntdit. Purvieu toutfoitz, qe le dit monsire Johan face gree as marchantz, et autres parties suisditz, pur lour biens avauntditz, et auxint pur lour damages en celle partie sustenuz. When this petition had been read before the king and the lords in parliament, and heard, and the said John had been brought into full parliament, it was said to Sir John by our said lord the king that, although the said vessel which he took belonged to the enemy of our said lord the king, coming from St Malo in France, as he had admitted in his said petition, he had nevertheless done wrong; because certain truces had been made between our said lord the king and his said enemy to last for a certain time both on land and on sea, a long time before the aforesaid eve of the Assumption of Our Lady; to which truces our said lord the king had given surety, by his royal word, that they would be well and truly kept by himself and by his lieges, yet the said vessel was seized during the said truces, contrary to their tenor, and also against his allegiance. With regard to which things it was asked of the said John how he wished to excuse himself. To which the same Sir John said that he could offer no other excuse, but that he admitted his trespass, and that he had done wrong; and, kneeling humbly, he begged our said lord the king for pardon and for mercy; and furthermore he requested all the lords spiritual and temporal, and the aforesaid commons, to pray for him to our same lord the king, that it might please him of his most benign grace to pardon the said trespass. And when the aforesaid lords and commons had done this, our same [p. iii-629][col. a] lord the king, saying that he wished to treat his lieges with more grace and mercy than harshness and rigour, of his special grace, and at the request of the aforesaid lords and commons, pardoned the same Sir John Trebeel the said trespass, and everything that he had done wrong against him, both what he had done against the form of the aforesaid truces and the matter of the safe-conduct of my aforesaid lord Richard of York. Provided always that the said Sir John provided compensation for the merchants and the other parties aforesaid for their aforesaid goods, and also for their damages sustained in that matter.
[memb. 12]
Pur Johan Bartrame. [Petition of John Bertram against Sir Robert Ogle].
36. Item, fait aremembrer, qe le xiij e jour de Feverer les communes baillerent en parlement a nostre seignur le roy une peticione pur Johan Bartrame del counte de Northumbr', en la fourme q'enseute: 36. On behalf of John Bertram. Also, be it remembered that on 13 February the commons delivered to our lord the king in parliament a petition for John Bertram of the county of Northumberland, in the following form:
A les tressages communes en cest present parlement monstre Johan Bartrame, del counte de Northumbr', qe come Robert de Ogle, chivaler, pier le dit Johan, jadis feust seisi en soun demesne come de fee de les chastelle et manoir de Bothall', ove les appurtenances, en le dit counte; le quel Robert, par licence de nostre tressovereigne seignur le roy, les ditz chastelle et manoir, ove les appurtenances, dona a William Themulby, Johan Redshawe, et William Shirburne, chapelleins, a eux et a lour heirs a toutz jours; les quelles William, Johan, et William, les ditz chastelle et manoir, par vertue del dite licence, redonerent a dit Robert pur terme de sa vie, le remaindre apres sa mort au dit Johan Bartrame, et a les heires males de soun corps engendrez, sicome par les chartres ent faitz pluis pleinement appiert; et puis le dit Robert murrust. Apres qe morte, le dit Johan Bartrame en les ditz chastelle et manoir, ove les appurtenances, entra, par force de la remaindre avauntdite, et ent feust peisiblement seisez, tanqe un Robert de Ogle, chivaler, fitz le dit Robert, ore tarde en le fest de Toutz Seintz darrein passe, a myenoet, ove deux centz hommes d'armes et archiers arraiez affaire de guerre, des quelles hommes d'armes et archiers ascuns feurent soudiours et ascuns gentz d'Escoce et pleines enemys a nostre seignur le roy et a soun roialme, venoient ove escales, pavises, hurdises, et autres ordinances de guerre, et la dit chastelle assegeront; gisant tout le < dit > noet illoeqes privement pur avoir emble ou escale le dit chastelle. Et au matyn ensuant, le dit Robert assura les servantz le dit suppliant sur le foie et loialte de soun corps, esteantz dedeins le dit chastelle, pur savement venir et parler ove luy hors du dit chastelle, et savement retourner sanz estre endamagez ou grevez. Sur quoi le dit Robert, Thomas Wodall', et Thomas Coward, servantz le dit suppliant, qant ils feurent venuz a luy hors du dit chastelle sur la dite assurance, prist, retenoit, et emprisona les loialx lieges nostre dit tressoveraigne seignur le roy, et celle assege issint continuerent par quatre jours et pluis, tanqe le dit chastelle, par force et assaut et doute de morte, ovesqe biens et chateux le dit suppliant dedeins esteantz a la value de ccli., feust renduz, et ses maisons illoeques debruseront et arderont, et ses blees en graunges et autres choses a la value de cc li. illoeqes trovez degasteront. Le quel Robert les ditz chastelle et manoir tanqe encea issint, ove les biens et chatelx suisditz dedeins esteantz, forciblement, come avaunt est dit, prises, ad continuelment, ove ascuns des ditz soldiours occupie, tenu, et a present ocupie et tient, non obstant qe a temps des ditz asseges et assaute Johan de Wodryngton', chivaler, et Sampsoun Hardyng, justices de pees nostre seignur le roy en le dit counte, viendroient a les hommes d'armes et archiers avauntditz, eux commandantz et chargeantz depar nostre seignur le roy, pur cesser les dites assautes, et remuer la dite assege. A quel temps, les malfaisours [col. b] avauntditz contemptuousement come rebelx a nostre dit seignur le roy, disoient, qe ceo pur eux faire ne voillent; pur quy ils n'oseront pluis outre faire lour office celle partie, pur doute de morte. To the most wise commons in this present parliament, John Bertram of the county of Northumberland declares that whereas Robert de Ogle, knight, father of the said John, was formerly seised in his demesne as in fee of the castle and manor of Bothal, with their appurtenances, in the said county; which Robert, by licence of our most sovereign lord the king, gave the said castle and manor, with their appurtenances, to William Themulby, John Redshaw, and William Sherburn, chaplains, for them and for their heirs forever; which William, John, and William, by virtue of the said licence, gave the said castle and manor back to the said Robert for the term of his life, with remainder after his death to the said John Bertram and to the heirs male engendered of his body, as is plainly apparent from the charters made on this; and then the said Robert died. After his death, the said John Bertram, by virtue of the aforesaid remainder, entered into the said castle and manor with their appurtenances, and remained peacefully seised of them, until one Robert de Ogle, knight, son of the said Robert, recently, on the feast of All Saints last [1 November], at midnight, with 200 men at arms and archers arrayed for war, of which men at arms and archers some were soldiers and some were from Scotland and manifest enemies of our lord the king and of his realm, came with ladders, pavises, palisades and other engines of war, and they besieged the said castle, lying in wait secretly there all night in order to take the said castle by stealth or by scaling. And the following morning the said Robert promised the servants of the said supplicant, who were in the said castle, on his faith and loyalty, by his body, that they could safely come and speak with him outside the said castle, and return safely without being harmed or molested. Whereupon, when Thomas Woodall and Thomas Coward, servants of the said supplicant, had come out of the said castle to him on the basis of the said promise, the said Robert seized, kept, and imprisoned these loyal lieges of our said most sovereign lord the king; and thus they continued their siege for four days and more, until the said castle, through force and assault and fear of death, with the goods and chattels of the said supplicant which were in it to the value of £200, was surrendered; and they broke into and burned his buildings there, and they laid waste his corn in the barns, and other things to the value of £200 which they found there. And this Robert, having thus, as has been said above, forcibly taken the said castle and manor, with the aforesaid goods and chattels within them, has until now continually occupied and held them, and at present occupies and holds them, with some of the said soldiers, notwithstanding that at the time of the said siege and assault John de Woodrington, knight, and Sampson Hardyng, justices of the peace of our lord the king in the said county, came to the aforesaid men at arms and archers, charging and commanding them on behalf of our lord the king to stop the said assaults and to raise the said siege. At which time the aforesaid [col. b] malefactors, contemptuously, like rebels against our said lord the king, said that they had no intention of doing so; as a result of which the justices did not dare to perform their office any further in that matter, for fear of death.
Qe pleise a voz tressages discrecions de faire especial request a nostre dit seignur le roy, qe le dit suppliant soit restitute a sa possessioun de les chastelle et manoir avantditz par auctorite de parlement, et de comander a le viscont de dit counte par ses lettres ent affaires, q'il face remuer la dite force, et mette le dit suppliant en possessioun de les ditz chastelle et manoir. Et s'il trove ascun resistence, q'il sur ceo face proclamacioun a les portes du dit chastelle, qe le dit Robert fitz Robert, et les autres maufesours deins le dit chastelle, deliverent le dit chastelle au dit suppliant, sur peine de forfaiture de lour vies, terres, tenementz, biens, et chateux a nostre < dit > seignur le roy, et qe le dit viscont eit poair par les dites lettres patentes, s'il trove ascun resistence ou rebellion en celle partie, q'il, pris ove luy sibien le poair de soun counte come autres lieges nostre dit seignur le roy, mette le dit suppliant en possessioun des ditz chastelle et manoir, et q'il face arester sibien le dit Robert fitz Robert, come les autres malfaisours et rebelles deinz le dit chastelle adonqes esteantz, et les mettre et garder en prison tanqe il eit autre mandement du roy. Et qe le dit viscont eit poair par les ditz lettres patentes de seiser toutz lour terres, tenementz, biens, et chateux es mains nostre dit seignur le roy, et a soun oeps, et ent respoundre a nostre dit seignur le roy; tanqe il soit declare devaunt nostre dit seignur le roy et soun conseil, si le dit Robert fitz Robert eit droit en ycelle, ou nemye. Et qe le conseil nostre dit seignur le roy eit, par auctorite de parlement, poair d'oier et terminer toutz les matires contenuz en ceste peticione, et d'appeller devaunt eux sibien le dit Robert fitz Robert, come le dit suppliant, et de faire droit solonc lour bone discrecioun et advys, et de agarder damages a dit suppliant, si soun droit devaunt eux soit prove. Considerantz, qe les ditz chastelle et manoir sont sy pres le estmarche d'Escoce, qe sufficeant remedie au dit suppliant par cours de la commune ley illoeqes ne poet estre fait; en oevre de charite. May it please your most wise discretion to make a special request to our said lord the king that the said supplicant should be restored to his possession of the aforesaid castle and manor by authority of parliament, and to command the sheriff of the said county, by letters to be drawn up on this matter, to have the said force removed, and to put the said supplicant in possession of the said castle and manor. And if he encounters any resistance, that he should then make proclamation at the gates of the said castle that the said Robert son of Robert, and the other malefactors within the said castle, should deliver the said castle to the said supplicant, on pain of forfeiture of their lives, lands, tenements, goods and chattels to our said lord the king, and that the said sheriff should have power through the said letters patent, if he encounters any resistance or rebellion in this case, to take with him both the power of his county and other lieges of our said lord the king in order to put the said supplicant in possession of the said castle and manor, and to have both the said Robert son of Robert, and the other malefactors and rebels then within the said castle, arrested, and to put and keep them in prison until he receives further orders from the king. And the said sheriff should have power through the said letters patent to seize all their lands, tenements, goods and chattels into the hands of our said lord the king, and to his use, and to answer for them to our said lord the king, until it has been made clear before our said lord the king and his council whether the said Robert son of Robert has a right in this or not. And the council of our lord the king should have, by authority of parliament, power to hear and determine all the matters contained in this petition, and to call before them both the said Robert son of Robert and the said supplicant, and to do justice in accordance with their good judgment and advice, and to award damages to the said supplicant if his right is proved before them. Considering that the said castle and manor are so close to the east march of Scotland that adequate remedy cannot be made to the said supplicant there by recourse to the common law; by way of charity.
La quelle peticione lue et entendue, ordeigne est par le roy et les seignurs en cest present parlement, a la requeste de les communes avauntditz, en la fourme qe s'enseute: When this petition had been read and heard, it was ordained by the king and the lords in this present parliament, at the request of the aforesaid commons, in the following form:
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soit brief direct a le viscont le Northumbr', pur prendre les ditz chastelle et manoir en les maynes nostre seignur le roy devaunt la quinszeine de Pasqe proschein avenir, et pur saufment garder lez ditz chastelle et manoir, ove les appurtenances, et ovesqe les biens et chatelx en ycelle esteantz, sans gast ou destruccioun affaire, tanqe al oeptaves del Trinite proschein ore venant. Et qe par mesme le brief soit proclamacioun fait as portes de dit chastelle, qe les ditz monsire Robert Ogle, et les autres deinz nomez, et toutz les autres gentz deins les ditz chastelle et manoir esteantz, soi voident hors de mesmes les chastelle et manoir sanz delaie; sur peine de forfaiture de vie et de membre, et de lour terres, tenementz, biens, et chateux. Et outre soit contenuz en mesme la proclamacioun, qe le dit monsire Robert soit en sa propre persone devaunt le conseil nostre seignur le roy a les oeptaves de la Trinite suisdites, pur respondre sibien a nostre dit seignur le roy, come a le dit Johan Bartrame, de les tortz et grevances en la dite supplicacioun contenuz. Et qe mesme le conseil eit poair, par auctorite de parlement, pur oier et terminer la matire contenuz en la dite supplicacioun solonc lour bone discrecioun. Et si le dit monsire Robert ne veigne en propre persone devaunt le dit conseil as dites oeptaves, pur respondre au dit suppliant de la matire en la dite supplicacioun contenuz, q'adonqes le dit monsire Robert soit convict del matire contenuz en mesme la peticione, et qe le dit Johan Bartrame par mesme l'auctorite soit restitut a sa possessioun de mesmes les chastelle et manoir, ove lour appurtenances, ovesqe [p. iii-630][col. a] les issues et profitz, biens et chateux en ycelle trovez, et en le mesne temps prises par le dit viscont. Et qe ses damages soient agardez a luy par mesme le conseil, solonc mesme lour discrecioun. Et qe les ditz monsire Robert, et les autres malfaisours soient prises par lour corps, et detenuz en prisone, tanq'ils ont fait fyn et raunsoun a nostre seignur le roy, et gree de les damages au dit suppliant; et outre, tanq'ils trovent sufficeant seurete de la pees au dit suppliant, ses hommes, tenantz, et servantz, et qe rien n'attempteront ne ferront au dit suppliant encontre le dit juggement en temps advenir, sinoun par due processe de ley. Et qe le dit viscont face retorne de dit brief el chauncellarie nostre dit seignur le roy as dites oeptaves, ove tout soun fait en celle partie. Let a writ be addressed to the sheriff of Northumberland to take the said castle and manor into the hands of our lord the king before the quinzaine of Easter next, and to safely keep the said castle and manor, with their appurtenances, and with the goods and chattels within them, without causing waste or destruction, until the octave of Trinity next [25 May]. And by the same writ proclamation should be made at the gates of the said castle that the said Sir Robert Ogle, and the others named above, and all the other people within the said castle and manor, should leave the said castle and manor without delay; on pain of forfeiture of life and of limb, and of their lands, tenements, goods and chattels. And furthermore it should be specified in the same proclamation, that the said SirRobert should be in his own person before the council of our lord the king on the aforesaid octave of the Trinity, to reply both to our said lord the king and to the said John Bertram concerning the wrongs and grievances contained in the said petition. And the same council should have power, by authority of parliament, to hear and determine the matter contained in the said petition, in accordance with their good judgment. And if the said Sir Robert does not come in his own person before the council on the said octave to reply to the said supplicant concerning the matter contained in the said petition, then the said Sir Robert should be convicted of the matter specified in the same petition, and the said John Bertram should be restored by the same authority to his possession of the same castle and manor, with their appurtenances, with [p. iii-630][col. a] the issues and profits, goods and chattels found therein, and taken in the meantime by the said sheriff. And his damages should be awarded to him by the same council, according to their same judgment. And the said Sir Robert and the other malefactors should be taken bodily and held in prison, until they have paid a fine and redemption to our said lord the king and have made compensation for the damages to the said supplicant; and remain there until they have provided adequate security to keep the peace with regard to the said supplicant, his men, tenants and servants, and that they will not attempt or do anything against the said supplicant in time to come, contrary to the said judgment, except by due process of the law. And the said sheriff should make a return of the said writ to the chancery of our said lord the king at the said octave, with a report of all his doings in this matter.
Touchant un riote fait en le conte de Staff', etc. [Disturbances perpetrated in the county of Staffordshire, etc., by Hugh de Erdswick and others]
37. Item, fait aremembrer qe le xvi e jour de Feverer les communes baillerent au roy une peticione touchant diverses trespasses, mesprisions, et felonies en les countees de Staff' et Derby faitz, en la fourme q'enseute: 37. Concerning a disturbance perpetrated in the county of Staffordshire, etc. Also, be it remembered that on 16 February the commons delivered to the king a petition concerning various trespasses, crimes and felonies perpetrated in the counties of Staffordshire and Derbyshire, in the following form:
Pleise a nostre sovereigne seignur le roy d'ordeigner en ceste present parlement, qe due et covenable remedie et hastif punisshement soient faitz pur les diverses grandes horribles trespasses, mesprisions, felonies, rebellions, insurreccions, et disobeisances faites par diverses persones es countes de Staff' et Derby, solonc ceo q'est contenu en ceste bille, encontre vous, vostre corone, ley, et dignite. Considerant, tresredoute seignur, qe diverses voz briefs soutz vostre graund seal ount este directz as certeines des persones avauntditz, d'avoir comparuz devaunt vous et vostre conseil pur les causes suisdites. Les quelles persones ount disobeiez voz dites commandementz, nient voillantz comparoir devaunt vous et vostre conseil, solonc le tenure de voz mandementz avauntditz. May it please our sovereign lord the king to ordain in this present parliament that due and fitting remedy and swift punishment should be provided for the various great and horrible trespasses, crimes, felonies, rebellions, insurrections and acts of disobedience perpetrated by various persons in the counties of Staffordshire and Derbyshire, as specified in this bill, against you, and your crown, law and dignity. Considering, most dread lord, that various of your writs under your great seal have been addressed to certain of the aforesaid persons to appear before you and your council for the aforesaid reasons. Which persons have disobeyed your said commandments, not wishing to appear before you and your council in accordance with the tenor of your aforesaid commands.
En primes, come Hughe de Erdeswyk, et Thomas de Swynerton', venoient le x e jour del moys de Feverer ove grand nombre des gentz des countes de Cestre et Staff' a le Novell' Chastell' south' Lyne, l'an du regne le Roy Henry quart puis le conquest ix e , et illoeqes debruseront une shope et maisoun de Sibille de le Domp', une povere view, et tenaunt de le dit duche, et gettoient dehors les biens qe la dite view avoit en la dite maisoun, a grand damage de dit view, tenaunt du roy, come trove est par enquest pris devaunt Robert de Waterton', chief seneschalle de le dit duche de Northetrent, a jour de lete tenuz a Novell' Chastell' soutz Lyne, le xx e jour d'Octobre, l'an du dit nostre seignur le roy disme. Firstly, whereas Hugh de Erdswick and Thomas de Swinnerton went on 10 February in the ninth year of the reign of King Henry the fourth since the conquest [1408], with a great number of people of the counties of Cheshire and Staffordshire, to Newcastle under Lyme, and there they broke into a shop and house belonging to Sybil de le Dompe, a poor widow, and tenant of the said duchy [of Lancaster], and threw out the goods which the said widow had in the said house, to the great injury of the said widow, the king's tenant, as has been found by an inquest held before Robert de Waterton, chief steward of the said duchy north of the Trent, on a leet day held at Newcastle under Lyme on 20 October in the tenth year of our said lord the king [1408].
Item, apres cella, Johan Blount, seneschalle et conestable de l'avauntdit Novell' Chastell', venoit pur tenir un jour du lete illoeqes, le xx e jour de May, l'an du regne le roy q'orest noefisme; et mesme le jour feurent faitz grandes compleintes a dit Johan Blount des plusours grandes tortz, et nomement de les tortz faitz au dite Sibille, en grand offence a nostre seignur le roy: et celle jour le dit Johan Blount commandoit, par vertue de soun office, a Thomas Thykenasse, mair de la dit Novell' Chastell', et as autres bones gentz de la dite ville, pur faire due inquisicioun des ditz offences, et toutz autres offences et tortz faitz deins la dite ville. Et apres celle temps, le dit Johan Blount demanda de le dit Thomas Thykenasse, pur quoi le dit inquisicioun pur le roy ne feust mye fait. Et il respondist al dit Johan Blount, et disoit, q'ils feurent manassez de lour vies par les ditz malfaisours qe fesoient les ditz offences, ensi q'ils n'osent dire la verite pur le roy. Also, after that, John Blount, steward and constable of the aforesaid Newcastle, came to hold a leet day there on 20 May in the ninth year of the present king [1408]; and on the same day great complaints were made to the said John Blount concerning various great wrongs, and particularly concerning the wrongs committed against the said Sybil, in manifest contempt of our lord the king: and that day the said John Blount, by virtue of his office, commanded Thomas Thickness, mayor of the said Newcastle, and other good people of the said town, to conduct a full inquiry into the said offences and all other offences and wrongs perpetrated in the said town. Later, however, the said John Blount asked the said Thomas Thickness why the said inquiry on the king's behalf had not been held. And he replied to the said John Blount by saying that their lives had been threatened by the said malefactors who committed the said offences, so that they did not dare to speak the truth for the king.
[memb. 11]
Item, apres celle temps vient Robert Waterton', chief seneschalle de la dite duchie de Northtrent, a dit Novell' Chastell', le suisdit xx e jour d'Octobre, l'an du dit roy disme, et devaunt luy a une lete tenuz illoeqes feurent prises diverses enquestes, come appartient a [col. b] soun office, et trove feust devaunt luy par diverses enquestes diverses offences a nostre dit tressovereigne seignur le roy par les ditz malfaisours, come le dit Robert sciet bien declarer. Also, after that time, Robert Waterton, chief steward of the said duchy north of the Trent, came to the said Newcastle, on the aforesaid 20 October in the tenth year of the said king [1408], and before him at a leet held there various inquests were held, as pertains to [col. b] his office; and before him, at these inquests, various offences against our said most sovereign lord the king by the said malefactors were discovered, as the said Robert will be fully able to make clear.
Item, l'an du regne le roy x e , le dit Hughe de Erdeswyk, Johan Myners, et autres des freres de dit Johan Myners, ove autre grand companie des gentz, venoient a Lichefeld, et illoeqes gisoient en agaite, et en la maisoun de Richard Chambre voudrent avoir murdre le dit Johan Blount, noun sachant a dit Johan Blount, mes come il feust garny lendemayne apres par un gentille homme de honour sanz cause mes qe le dit Hughe de Erdeswyk, et autres, feurent enditez dedeins son office a le Novell' Chastell', devaunt Robert de Waterton'. Also, in the tenth year of the king's reign, the said Hugh de Erdswick, John Myners, and some of the brothers of the said John Myners, with a great company of other people, went to Lichfield and there, unknown to the said John Blount, they lay in wait, and would have murdered the said John Blount in the house of Richard Chamber, had he not been warned the next day by a gentleman of honour, for no other reason than that the said Hugh de Erdswick and others had been indicted during his period of office at Newcastle before Robert de Waterton.
Item, l'avauntdit Johan Blount avoit une garant de Robert de Waterton', come chief seneschalle de celle part, pur prendre les avauntditz Hughe de Erdeswyk, et autres diverses gentz, qe feurent enditez a le Novell' Chastell' le xxx e jour d'Octobre, l'an du dit roy disme: par vertue de quelle garant le dit Johan Blount chivacha a Rydeware, pur prendre le dit Hughe de Erdeswyk, et autres qe feurent enditez, et illoeqes prist seurete du dit Hughe, et il trova plegge pur luy et pur autres qe feurent ove luy: c'estassavoir, Thomas Triffith', come il mesmes concessa devaunt nostre dit seignur le roy, d'estre devaunt le counseil du roy, qant ils feurent requisez par le dit roy ou par soun conseille, pur respondre a ceo qe serra dit par le dit conseille du roy a luy. Et mesme le jour apres celle seurte, le dit Hughe de Erdeswyk, Johan Myners, et autres des frieres de dit Johan Myners, ove autre companye armez en plates, ove launces, maheymeront et bateront deux tenantz de nostre dit tressoveraigne seignur, c'estassavoir, Johan Caldewell' mahaymeront, et Robert Hauke de Dunstall' baterount. Also, the aforesaid John Blount had a warrant from Robert de Waterton, as chief steward of that area, to arrest the aforesaid Hugh de Erdswick and various other people who were indicted at Newcastle on 30 October in the said king's tenth year: by virtue of which warrant, the said John Blount rode to Ridware to arrest the said Hugh de Erdswick and the others who were indicted, and there he took security from the said Hugh, who found a pledge for himself and for the others who were with him - namely, Thomas Triffith, as he himself admitted before our said lord the king - that they would be before the king's council when they were summoned by the said king or by his council, to answer to what would be said to him by the king's said council. And on the same day, after giving that pledge, the said Hugh de Erdswick, John Myners, and some of the brothers of the said John Myners, with others, in plate armour, with lances, maimed and wounded two tenants of our said most sovereign lord, that is, they maimed John Caldwell, and they assaulted Robert Hauke of Dunstall.
Item, le dit Hughe de Erdeswyk, Johan Myners, Thomas et William friers au dit Johan Myners, et autres gentz, venoient le .xij. jour d'Octobre, l'an suisdit, a Stone et illoeqes voudrent avoir tue Johan Boughay, esquier, tenant de la dite duchie de Lancastre, s'il n'avoit pris l'esglise, a cause, come le dit Hughe disoit, qe le dit Johan Boughay devoit enditer le dit Hughe et ses compaignons a lete tenuz a Novell' Chastell'. Also, the said Hugh de Erdswick, John Myners, Thomas and William, brothers of the said John Myners, and other people, went on 12 October in the aforesaid year to Stone, and there they would have killed John Boughay, esquire, tenant of the said duchy of Lancaster, if he had not fled to the church, because, as the said Hugh said, the said John Boughay intended to indict the said Hugh and his companions at a leet held at Newcastle.
Item, Johan Myners, et William soun frier, de la companie de Hughe de Erdeswyk, a Robert Swynerton' venoient, le .xij. jour de Janver, l'an suisdit, armez, ove autres gentz ovesqe eux, a Staff', et la trovoient deux receivours de la Chace de Nedewode, l'un a noun Johan Gardyner receyvour de Yoxhalewarde, et l'autre a noun Johan Hoppekynson' receyvour de Barton'warde, et un autre tenant de la dite duchie a noun Richard Pasmere, et illoeqes les bateront, et voudroient eux avoir tue, sinoun feust pas q'ils eux mesmes bien defendoient. Also, John Myners and William his brother, who are of the company of Hugh de Erdswick, went to Robert Swinnerton on 12 January in the aforesaid year, armed and with other people with them, at Stafford, and there they found two receivers of Needwood Chase, one called John Gardiner, receiver of Yoxall ward, and the other called John Hopkinson, receiver of Barton ward, and another tenant of the said duchy called Richard Pasmere, and there they assaulted them, and would have killed them had they not defended themselves so well.
Item, Johan Myners de la companie de dit Hughe de Erdeswyk, venoit < en > Marchyndon' desouth' Nedewode, en le counte de Staff', le .xx. jour de moys de Janver, l'an suisdit, et la encontroit un tenant a sire Nichol Mountgomery, et luy batoit malement, a cause q'il feust en la companie du dit Johan Blount a Rydeware, d'enforcer soun maundement. Also, John Myners, of the company of the said Hugh de Erdswick, went to Marchington under Needwood, in the county of Staffordshire, on 20 January in the aforesaid year [1409], and there he found a tenant of Sir Nicholas Montgomery and assaulted him badly, because he had been in the company of the said John Blount at Ridware, helping him to enforce his orders.
Item, vient le dit Hughe de Erdeswyk, Johan Myners, Thomas et William friers du dit Johan Myners, a Uttoxestre, le lundy proschein apres le feste de Seint Mathie l'appostle, en une ville de la dit duchie de Lancastre, l'an suisdit, a un maisoun de Johan Passemere, foister et tenaunt de la dite duchie, ove quatrevintz [p. iii-631][col. a] archiers araiez a foer de guerre, et qe ad servy moun sire de Lancastre, qe Dieu absoille, et a nostre dit tressoveraigne seignur le roy .xlvi. ans de tresbone service, et la huis, les fenestres de veer, ses pelves, lavres, pottes, pannes, fornays, et autres plumbes, et autres necessaires de sa maisoun, a la destruccioun de dit vadlet, ove lour espees et haches ses cofres debruseront, et ses munimentz alloignerent, et mesme le jour feurent a Rocestre en alant a Cobeley le manoir de monsire Nichol Mountgomery, la de luy faire tout le damage q'ils purroient faire, s'ils avoient este fortz assetz de gentz, pur nulle cause qe le dit monsire Nichol savoit, mes q'il tenoit ovesqe les tenauntz de nostre dit tressoveraigne seignur le roy de soun duchie de Lancastre. Also, the said Hugh de Erdswick, John Myners, and Thomas and William brothers of the said John Myners went, on the Monday after the feast of St Mathias the Apostle in the aforesaid year [25 February 1409], with eighty archers arrayed in a warlike manner, to Uttoxeter, a town of the said duchy of Lancaster, to a house belonging to John Pasmere, carpenter and tenant of the said duchy [p. iii-631][col. a] (who had served my lord of Lancaster, whom God absolve, and our said most sovereign lord the king with forty-six years of very good service), and they smashed the door, the glass windows, his basins, water-jugs, pots, pans, ovens and other lead utensils, and the other belongings in his house, to the destruction of the said valet, and with their swords and battle-axes they broke open his chests and stole his documents; and on the same day they went to Rochester, on the way to Cobley, the manor of Sir Nicholas Montgomery, in order to do him all the damage that they could, had they had enough people with them, for no reason that the said Sir Nicholas knew except that he took the part of the tenants of our said most sovereign lord the king of his duchy of Lancaster.
Item, le dit Hughe de Erdeswyk, Johan Myners, Thomas et William friers a dit Johan Myners, gisoient en la feste de Seindres, l'an disme nostre tressoveraigne seignur le roy, a Ridewarebrigge sur le haut chemyn, en agait de les tenauntz de dit duchie, en alant al feire de Lichefeld; et la preignoient un prisoner q'ad a noun Robert Shephurd, servaunt a un esquier tenaunt a nostre dit tressoveraigne seignur le roy de le dit duchie de Lancastre, et luy comandoit dire a soun meistre, qe par sa foie jammes il ne serra a ese tanqe il avoit le teste de soun meistre. Auxint il jurroit par sa foie, qe le primer temps q'il encontroit ovesqe soun dit meistre il voudroit avoir soun teste. Et ensi il luy commandoit dire a soun meistre. En celle mesme jour ils chasoient et batoient un servant a ladame de Hamstall' Rydeware. Also, the said Hugh de Erdswick, John Myners, and Thomas and William brothers of the said John Myners, on Ash Wednesday in the tenth year of our most sovereign lord the king [20 February 1409], at Ridware Bridge on the high road, lay in wait for the tenants of the said duchy who were going to the fair at Lichfield; and there they took a prisoner who was called Robert Shepherd, servant to an esquire holding of our said most sovereign lord the king of the said duchy of Lancaster, and he ordered him to say to his master that by his faith he would never rest easy until he had the head of his master. He also swore by his faith that the first time he met with his said master he would have his head. And he commanded him to say this to his master. On that same day they also pursued and assaulted a servant of the lady of Hamstall Ridware.
Item, vient l'avauntdit William Myners, ove autres gentz de la companie de dit Hughe de Erdeswyk, le x e jour de le mois de Marche, l'an du roy x e , a un molyn du roy a Uttoxsater de le dit duchie, le quelle molyn rent par an xli. a nostre tressovereigne seignur le roy, et la malement batoient le molyner du roy, et chargeront qe nul molyner serroit si hardy de servier a dit molyn sur peyne de sa vie, ensy qe nulle molyner n'osa servier a la molyne suisdit, tanqe Johan Clerk, fermer de la dite ville en le dit duchie, avoit purchace une lettre de dit Hughe de Erdeswyk, pur avoir licence qe les charues de la dite ville et de le dit duchie, et le molyner d'icelle, purront aler. Also, the aforesaid William Myners went, with other people of the company of the said Hugh de Erdswick, on 10 March in the king's tenth year, to a mill belonging to the king at Uttoxeter in the said duchy, which mill pays £10 a year to our most sovereign lord the king, and there they grievously assaulted the king's miller, and commanded that no miller should be so bold as to work the said mill on pain of his life, with the result that no miller dared to work the aforesaid mill until John Clerk, farmer of the said town in the said duchy, had purchased a letter from the said Hugh de Erdswick giving permission for the plough teams of the said town and of the said duchy, and its miller, to work.
Item, vient William Myners, servant a Hughe de Erdeswyk, en le chaumpe de Uttoxsater, a un Thomas Coupere tenant du roy de la dite ville en la duchie suisdit, l'an suisdit, le .xvi. jour de le moys de Marche, et luy comaunda d'aler a la ville suisdite, eux enchargeaunt qe nulle charue soit si hardy d'aler en le chaumpe de la dite ville, et nomement a Johan Clerk, fermer de la dite ville, q'il ne feust pas sy hardy de lesser sa charue aler en l'avauntdit chaumpe, sur peyne de perdre soun teste, les jaumbes de soun fitz, ses servantz, et ses biens. Also, William Myners, a servant of Hugh de Erdswick, went into the fields of Uttoxeter, to one Thomas Cooper, tenant of the king of the said town in the aforesaid duchy, in the aforesaid year, on 16 March, and commanded him to go to the aforesaid town, instructing them that no plough team should be so bold as to work the land of the said town, and especially telling John Clerk, farmer of the said town, that he should not be so bold as to let his plough team go into the aforesaid fields, on pain of losing his head, the legs of his son, his servants and his goods.
Item, le dit William Myners vient al maisoun Thomas de Belton', tenaunt de le dit duchie, le jour de Trois Rois, l'an du roy disme, trois foitz, ove diverses gentz armes ovesqe luy, pur avoir tue le dit Thomas de Belton'. Also, the said William Myners went to the house of Thomas de Belton, tenant of the said duchy, on the day of Epiphany in the king's tenth year [6 January 1409], three times, with various armed men with him, to kill the said Thomas de Belton.
Item, Johan Gilbert, et Henry Gilbert, de la companie de dit Hughe de Erdeswyk et de les frieres de Myners, cochauntz en agait a Merston' Wodehous, en la counte de Stafford, le secounde jour de le moys d'Aprille, l'an du roy disme, pur les tenauntz du roy de soun duchie suisdit, et la encountrerount un veille homme Johan Walker par noet, et luy baterount, et luy voudrent avoir tue s'il n'avoit fue fortement. Also, John Gilbert and Henry Gilbert, of the company of the said Hugh de Erdswick and the Myners brothers, lying in wait at Marston Woodhouse in the county of Staffordshire, on 2 April in the king's tenth year, for the king's tenants of his aforesaid duchy, found there an old man, John Walker, at night, and they assaulted him, and would have killed him if he had not fled swiftly.
[col. b]
Item, Johan Gilbert, et autres gentz ovesqe luy de la companye de dit Hughe de Erdeswyk et les friers de Myners, venoient, le viij e jour de le moys d'Aprille, l'an du roy disme, et gisoient en agait en le Boys de Bromley, en le counte de Staff', et la encountreront ovesqe Johan Pasmere, tenaunt de la dite duchie, en Tuttebury, et luy batoient, et luy lessoient cochaunt en le chaump pur mort. Also, John Gilbert and other men with him of the company of the said Hugh de Erdswick and the Myners brothers went, on 8 April in the king's tenth year, and lay in wait in Bromley Wood in the county of Staffordshire, and there they met with John Pasmere, a tenant of the said duchy, in Tutbury, and they beat him and left him lying in the field for dead.
Item, William Myners, ove autres gentz ovesqe luy del companye de dit Hughe de Erdeswyk et de les friers de Myners, venoient, le xvi e jour d'Aprille, l'an suisdit, en le champe de Uttoxsater Wodelond, en le counte suisdit, de le dit duchie, et la trovoient un tenant du roy appelle William Waleys, et sa charue, et la le dit William Myners ove soun < espee > ferrist le dit William Waleys sur le teste, et luy commandoit q'il fesoit ouster ses boefs de la charue, et luy chargeaunt sur peyne de soun teste q'il ne aloit pas a nulle charue en celle chaumpe de celle temps en avant. Also, William Myners, with other people with him of the company of the said Hugh de Erdswick and the Myners brothers, went, on 16 April in the aforesaid year, into the fields of Uttoxeter Woodland, in the aforesaid county of the said duchy, and there they found a tenant of the king's called William Waleys, and his plough, and the said William Myners wounded the said William Waleys in the head with his sword and ordered him to remove his oxen from the plough, and commanded him on pain of his head not to take any plough into that field from that time onward.
Item, vient Hughe de Erdeswyk, William Venables le baroun de Kynderton', Johan Delves, Hughe Damport, Thomas Stanley, Johan Kyngeley, Thomas Swynerton', William Egerton', Roger Milnes del paroche de Chetell', Hughe Holyns, Johan Holyns soun frier, et plusours autres de les countes de Cestre et de Staff', ovesqe Johan Myners et toutz ses friers, a foer de guerre, a Rocestre, le mesquerdy devaunt le Dymenge Flory, en enforceant le dit Hughe de Erdeswyk encountre la commission du roy, le quel certeins chivalers avoient de luy prendre, et auxi en l'entent, s'ils ussent este fortz assetz du gentz, de venir a Barton', a le manoir de dame Sanche Blount, meer a Johan Blount, en lecounte de Derby, la pur avoir destrue le maisoun du dite dame Sanche Blount, et toutz ses tenauntz, et tue Johan Blount, fitz a dite dame Sanche. Et mesme le jour vient Johan Delves, come il feust charge de toutz les avauntditz esquiers, come il disoit, < et la disoit > a toutz les chivalers et esquiers qe feurent ovesqe monsire Johan Blount en cest querel, qe les avauntditz esquiers feurent venuz a Rocestre, en dishonour de dit monsire Johan Blount, et de toutz les chivalers et esquiers et de toutz ceux qe tenoient ove le dit monsire Johan Blount en ceste querelle: et si le dit monsire Johan Blount voudroit venir sa propre persone pur combatre Hughe de Erdeswyk, luy voudroit assurer pur toutz autres persones sinoun pur luy mesmes pur combater ovesqe luy; ou autrement s'il voudroit avoir ovesqe luy .vi. pur .vi. gentille hommes, .xij. pur .xij., ou .xx. pur .xx., il troveroit tant de gentille hommes pur combater ovesqe eux; qar ils avoient pris lour terre a Rocestre, et la voudroient attendre tanqe le solail levoit en matyn. Et en ycelle mesme jour venoient dedeins le counte de Derby les currours de l'avauntdit companie, c'estassavoir, William Myners, et Walter Gilbert, servantz a dit Hughe de Erdeswyk, et la trovoient deins le dit duchie a Marchynton'park Thomas Boteler, et Johan Northeron', et robberont le dit Johan, et preignoient le dit Thomas Boteler prisoner, deux vadletz de monsire Nicholle Mountgomery. Also, Hugh de Erdswick, William Venables the baron of Kinderton, John Delves, Hugh Damport, Thomas Stanley, John Kingley, Thomas Swinnerton, William Egerton, Roger Milnes of the parish of Cheadle, Hugh Hollins, John Hollins his brother, and many others from the counties of Cheshire and Staffordshire, with John Myners and all his brothers, went in a warlike manner to Rochester, on the Wednesday before Palm Sunday [27 March], to help the said Hugh de Erdswick to oppose the king's commission which certain knights had to deliver to him, and also with the intention, had they had enough people, of going to Barton, to the manor of Lady Sancha Blount, the mother of John Blount, in the county of Derbyshire, in order to destroy the houses of the said Lady Sancha Blount and of all her tenants, and to kill John Blount, son of the said Lady Sancha. And on the same day John Delves went there, as he was told to by all the aforesaid esquires, so he says, and there he said to all the knights and esquires who were with Sir John Blount in this dispute that the aforesaid esquires had come to Rochester in order to dishonour Sir John Blount and all the knights and esquires and the others who took the part of the said Sir John Blount in this dispute: and if the said Sir John Blount would come in his own person to fight Hugh de Erdswick, he promised that he would fight no-one but himself, and all the others would be excluded; alternatively, they could have six gentlemen on each side, or twelve, or twenty - he could find that number for a fight - because they had taken their stand at Rochester, and intended to remain there until the sun rose in the morning. And on that same day various associates of the said company went into the county of Derbyshire, namely William Myners and Walter Gilbert, servants of the said Hugh de Erdswick, and they found there in the said duchy at Marchington Park Thomas Butler and John Northeron, valets of Sir Nicholas Montgomery, and they robbed the said John and took the said Thomas Butler prisoner.
Et en mesme l'an, le xxx e jour de le moys d'Aprille, vient Johan Myners ovesqe plusours autres a Uttoxsater en le plein marche, et illoeqes troverent un Johan atte Wode, qe feust officer a nostre seignur le roy en coillant les deniers le dit roy appelle taxsilver; et la sauns cause arere luy trois foitz ferroient < ove > une dagge a coer, dount tost morust. And in the same year, on 30 April, John Myners went with many others to Uttoxeter into the open market, and there they found one John atte Wode, who was an officer of our lord the king's for the collection of the said king's money called taxsilver; and there without any provocation they struck him three times in the heart with a dagger, whereupon he died immediately.
Et puis le jour devaunt la veille de Nowelle, mesme l'an, venoient Walter Gilbert et Henry Gilbert, et plusours del companie de Hughe de Erdeswyk, par noet a Abbotesbramley, a maisoun de Johan Norman, et pur [p. iii-632][col. a] ceo qe le dit Johan chivacha ove le viscont pur eux prendre par commissioun nostre seignur le roy, la ils luy tueront. And then, the day before Christmas eve in the same year, Walter Gilbert and Henry Gilbert, and many of the company of Hugh de Erdswick, went at night to Abbots Bromley, to the house of John Norman, and because [p. iii-632][col. a] the said John had ridden with the sheriff to arrest them by commission of our lord the king, they killed him there.
Quele peticione lue et entendue devaunt le roy et les seignurs en parlement, ordeigne est par mesme nostre seignur le roy et les seignurs suisditz, en la fourme q'enseute. When this petition had been read and heard before the king and the lords in parliament, it was ordained by our same lord the king and the aforesaid lords in the following form:
38. Ordeigne est et accorde par le roy et les seignurs en cest present parlement, qe un brief soit direit a le viscount de Staff', retornable en bank le roy a la quinszeine de la Trinite proschein avenir, de prendre les corps des ditz Hughe de Erdeswyk, Thomas de Swynerton', Thomas Stanley, William Egerton', Johan Kyngeley, William Venables, Johan Myners, William Myners, Thomas Myners, Walter Gilbert, Henry Gilbert, Johan Gilbert, Hughe del Holyns, Johan del Holyns, Roger Milnes, Johan Delves, et Hughe Damport, s'ils purront estre trovez: et q'en le mesne temps le dit viscont, a un counte tenuz < devaunt > la dite quinszeine, face overt proclamacioun en plein counte, q'ils appiergent, et chescun par soi appierge, et soy rende en le dit bank, pur illoeqes estere a l'agarde des justices de dit bank. Et si les ditz Hughe, Thomas, Thomas, William, Johan, William, Johan, William, Thomas, Walter, Henry, Johan, Hughe, Johan, Roger, Johan, et Hughe, ne soient prises, ou ascun de eux ne soit pris, par le dit viscount devaunt la dite quinszeine, ne appiergent, ou ascun de eux ne appierge, a mesme la quinszeine en la dite bank, et illoeqes soi rende pur estere a dite agarde, et la proclamacioun retourne par le dit viscount en fourme avauntdite, q'adonqes les ditz Hughe, Thomas, Thomas, William, Johan, William, Johan, William, Thomas, Wauter, Henry, Johan, Hughe, Johan, Roger, Johan, et Hughe, soient convictz de les trespasses, mesprisions, et felonies contenuz en la dite peticione: et toutz lour biens et chateux, terres et tenementz, queux ils avoient, et chescun de eux avoit, ovesqe les biens et chateux, terres et tenementz, q'autres avoient, ou ascun autre avoit, a lour oeps, ou al oeps de ascun de eux, au jour de comencement de cest present parlement, ou de lour doun ou feoffement, ou ascun de eux, soient forfaitz. Et si les ditz Hughe, Thomas, Thomas, William, Johan, William, Johan, William, Thomas, Wauter, Henry, Johan, Hughe, Johan, Roger, Johan, et Hughe, au dite quinszeine lour rendent, ou ascun de eux soi rende, el dit bank, ou autrement s'ils soient prises, ou ascun de eux soit pris, et maundez en le dit bank par le dit viscount, adonqes demourgent lour corps en seure prisone, sanz estre lesse en baille, ou par mainprise, tanq'a la dite quinszeine. A quel quinszeine eient les ditz justices poair, par auctorite de parlement, de mettre les ditz Hughe, Thomas, Thomas, William, Johan, William, Johan, William, Thomas, Wauter, Henry, Johan, Hughe, Johan, Roger, Johan, et Hughe, et chescun de eux, de respoundre a les articles contenuz deins mesme ceste peticione, ou a chescun de eux, si avaunt come ils estoient este enditez de les dites matires comprisez en la peticione avaunt dite: ascun estatuit ou ordinaunce fait au contrarie non obstant. 38. It is ordained and agreed by the king and the lords in this present parliament that a writ should be addressed to the sheriff of Staffordshire, to be returned to the King's Bench at the quinzaine of Trinity next [2 June 1410], to seize bodily the said Hugh de Erdswick, Thomas de Swinnerton, Thomas Stanley, William Egerton, John Kingley, William Venables, John Myners, William Myners, Thomas Myners, Walter Gilbert, Henry Gilbert, John Gilbert, Hugh del Hollins, John del Hollins, Roger Milnes, John Delves, and Hugh Damport, if they can be found: and that in the meantime the said sheriff, at a county court held before the said quinzaine, should make a public proclamation in full county court that they should appear, and that each of them should appear for himself, and surrender himself before the said bench, to await there the judgment of the justices of the said bench. And if the said Hugh, Thomas, Thomas, William, John, William, John, William, Thomas, Walter, Henry, John, Hugh, John, Roger, John and Hugh are not arrested, or if any of them is not arrested, by the said sheriff before the said quinzaine, or if they do not appear, or any of them does not appear, at the same quinzaine before the said bench, and does not surrender himself there to await the said judgment, once the proclamation has been made by the said sheriff in the aforesaid form, then the said Hugh, Thomas, Thomas, William, John, William, John, William, Thomas, Walter, Henry, John, Hugh, John, Roger, John, and Hugh should be convicted of the trespasses, crimes, and felonies specified in the said petition; and all their goods and chattels, lands and tenements which they had, and which each of them had, with the goods and chattels, lands and tenements which others had, or any other had, for their use, or for the use of any of them, on the day of the commencement of this present parliament, or of their gift or feoffment, or the gift or feoffment of any of them, should be forfeit. And if the said Hugh, Thomas, Thomas, William, John, William, John, William, Thomas, Walter, Henry, John, Hugh, John, Roger, John and Hugh surrender themselves at the said quinzaine, or if any of them surrenders himself, before the said bench, or if they are otherwise arrested, or any of them is arrested and sent before the said bench by the said sheriff, then let their bodies remain in a secure prison, without being released on bail or on mainprise until the said quinzaine. At which quinzaine the said justices should have power, by authority of parliament, to order the said Hugh, Thomas, Thomas, William, John, William, John, William, Thomas, Walter, Henry, John, Hugh, John, Roger, John and Hugh, and each of them, to reply to the articles contained in this same petition, and to each of them, since they have been indicted of the said matters included in the aforesaid petition: any statute or ordinance made to the contrary notwithstanding.
[memb. 10]
Les seignurs assignez de consail du roy. [Appointment of the king's councillors].
39. Item, vendredy le secounde jour de May, les communes vindrent devant le roy et les seignurs en parlement, et illeoqes prierent d'avoir conussance des nouns des seignurs qi serront de soun consail continuel, pur executer les bons appointements et ordinances faitz en cest present parlement. A quoy le roy respondi, qe certeins des seignurs queux il avoit esluz et nomez d'estre de soun dit consail soy avoient excusez par diverses causes raisonables; pur queles causes il lour avoit pur bien excusez. Et quant a les autres seignurs queux il avoit ordeignez d'estre de soun dit consail, les nouns cy ensuent: mounsire le Prince, l'evesqe de Wyncestre, l'evesqe [col. b] de Duresme, l'evesqe de Bathe; le count d'Arundell', le count de Westmerl', et le sire de Burnell'. Et sur ceo moun dit seignur le Prince, en noun de luy et de les autres seignurs suisditz, pria, de lour avoir pur excusez en cas qe ne purroit estre trovez de quoi pur supporter les charges necessairs: et qe nonobstant aucun charge par eux apprendre en cest parlement, q'ils purroient estre deschargiez au fin de parlement, en cas qe riens ne soit grantez pur supporter les charges dessuisdites. Et porce qe moun dit seignur le prince ne serroit jurrez a cause del hautesse et excellence de son honurable persone, les autres seignurs et les officers feurent jurrez et serementez, sur la condicione suisdite, de eux governer et acquiter en lour counsail bien et loialment, solonc la tenure del primere article entre les autres articles baillez par les ditz communes. Et semblablement feurent jurrez et serementez les justices de l'un bank et de l'autre, de garder les loies, et defaire justice et droit owelment solonc le purport de mesme le primer article. 39. The lords appointed to the king's council. Also, on Friday 2 May, the commons came before the king and the lords in parliament, and there they asked to know the names of the lords who would be of his continual council and thus put the good decisions and ordinances made in this present parliament into effect. To which the king replied that certain of the lords whom he had chosen and named to be on his said council had excused themselves for various acceptable reasons; for which reasons he held them to be fully excused. And with regard to the other lords whom he had ordained to be on his said council, their names were as follows: my lord the prince, the bishop of Winchester, the bishop [col. b] of Durham, the bishop of Bath, the earl of Arundel, the earl of Westmorland and Lord Burnell. Whereupon my said lord the prince, on his own behalf and that of the other lords aforesaid, requested that they might be held excused should the means to support the necessary expenses not be forthcoming: and that, notwithstanding any task to be undertaken by them in this parliament, they might be discharged at the end of parliament should it happen that nothing was granted to support the aforesaid expenses. And since my said lord the prince should not be sworn because of the highness and excellence of his honourable person, the other lords and the officers were sworn and took their oath, on the aforesaid condition, to govern and acquit themselves well and loyally in their counsel, in accordance with the tenor of the first article among the other articles delivered by the said commons. And the justices of one bench and the other were similarly sworn and took their oath to preserve the laws and to do justice and right impartially in accordance with the tenor of the same first article.
Pur monsire Wauter Hungerford. [On behalf of Sir Walter Hungerford].
40. Item, mesme le jour, une peticione feust baille par les communes en parlement pur mounsire Wauter Hungerford, en la fourme q'enseute: 40. On behalf of Sir Walter Hungerford. Also, on the same day, a petition was delivered into parliament by the commons on behalf of Sir Walter Hungerford, in the following form:
Plese a les tressages communes du cest present parlement assavoir, qe trove est par enquest procure devaunt certeins commissioners, par lettres patentz nostre seignur le roy deputes en le countee de Wiltes', qe Wauter Hungerford, chivaler, deust avoir fait diverses wastes, destruccioun, et dilapidacioun en la priorie de Farley, et en les terres et tenementz appurtenantz a dit priorie, en le temps q'il et William Stourton' avoient la gard del dit priorie ove les appurtenances ore tarde par lettres patentz nostre dit seignur le roy: quele chose et presentement il soy purpose de travarsere, come il bien et clerement poet. Sur quoy plese as ditz tressages communes defaire especial request a nostre dit seignur le roy, qe ordeyne soit par auctoritee de cest parlement, qe le viscont de dite countee, en l'enquest affairs sur le dit travers, ne retourne le noun de nulle homme s'il n'eyt a meyns vint livers de terre deins mesme le countee; et ceo sur peyne de cc livers appaiers a nostre dit seignur le roy: et si autrement soit par le viscont retournee, qe la retourne ensi retournee soit voide et tenuz pur nulle. May it please the most wise commons of this present parliament to know that it has been found by an inquest held before certain commissioners appointed by letters patent of our lord the king in the county of Wiltshire, that Walter Hungerford, knight, was alleged to have committed various wastes and acts of destruction and dilapidation at the priory of Farley, and on the lands and tenements belonging to the said priory, during the time that he and William Stourton recently had the custody of the said priory with its appurtenances by letters patent of our said lord the king: which deeds and presentment he intends to deny, as he undoubtedly can. Whereupon may it please the said most wise commons to make a special request to our said lord the king that it should be ordained by authority of this parliament that the sheriff of the said county, by a fixed inquest into the said denial, should not return the name of any man if he does not have at least twenty pounds' worth of land in the same county; and this on pain of £200 to be paid to our said lord the king: and if the sheriff should make his return otherwise, the return thus returned should be quashed and held to be null.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Quele peticione lue et entendue feust respondue en les parols q'enseuent: Le roy le voet. When this petition had been read and heard, reply was given in the following words: The king wills it.
Pur la roigne. [Petition from the queen concerning her dower].
41. Item, une peticione feust baille en parlement depar ma dame la roigne, dont la tenure s'enseute: 41. On behalf of the queen. Also, a petition was delivered into parliament on behalf of my lady the queen, of which the tenor follows:
A moun tressoveraigne seignur le roy supplie tout la vostre Johanne roigne d'Engleterre, qe come vous, tressoveraigne seignur, avez graunte au dite suppliaunte diverses chastelx, manoirs, villes, seignuries, rentes, terres, tenementz, fee fermes, gardes des terres et mariages, gardes des priories alienez, fermes et apportes des priories alienes, petitz custumes et de graundes custumes, fraunchises, libertees, et autres diverses choses et possessions, a avoir au dite roigne, en noun de sa dower, ou autrement, sicome par diverses voz lettres patentz, moun tressoveraigne seignur, au dite roigne ent faitz appiert pluis au plein. To my most sovereign lord the king, she who is all yours, Joan, queen of England, begs that whereas you, most sovereign lord, have granted to the said supplicant various castles, manors, towns, lordships, rents, lands, tenements, fee-farms, wardships of lands and of marriages, custody of alien priories, farms and tributes of alien priories, little customs and great customs, franchises, liberties and various other things and possessions to the said queen to hold under the name of her dower, or otherwise, as appears more fully in various letters patent of yours, my most sovereign lord, issued to the said queen on this matter.
Y plese a vostre hautesse, qe toutz les grauntz avauntdites, l'estate et possessioun quele la dite roigne ad en les chastelles, manoirs, villes, seignuries, rentes, terres, tenementz, fee fermes, gardes des terres, mariages, et possessions, gardes des priories alienes, fermes et apportes des priories alienez, < graundes custumes et petitz custumes, > franchises, libertes, et autres diverses choses et possessions suisdites, come desuis est dit, soient au dite roigne approve, ratifie, et conferme par vous en cest present parlement, solonc les tenures et purportes de voz lettres patentz avauntdites, par auctoritee de vostre dit [p. iii-633][col. a] parlement. Et auxi, moun tressoveraigne seignur, qe vous plese ordeigner et grauntier en cest present parlement, qe a quele heure q'ascuns des chastelx, manoirs, villes, seignuries, rentes, terres, tenementz, fee fermes, gardes des terres, mariages, et possessions, gardes des priories alienes, fermes et apportes des priories alienes, graundes custumes et petitz custumes, fraunchises, libertees, et toutz autres choses et possessions suisdites, queux mesme la roigne ad en noun de sa dower, ou en noun de partie de sa dower, soient prises, evictes, deregnes, ou recoveres hors de la possessioun du dicte roigne durant sa vie, < ou > qe l'estate qe la dite roigne ad en ascuns des chastelx, manoirs, villes, seignuries, rentes, terres, tenementz, fee fermes, gardes des terres, mariages, et possessions, gardes des priories alienes, fermes et apportes des priories alienes, graundes custumes et petitz custumes, fraunchises, libertes, et autres diverses choses et possessions suisdites, ou parcelle d'icelles, par ascun cause cesse, ou soit defait ou adnulle, ou qe les dites priories alienes, fermes, et gardes, et apportes des priories alienes, soient evictes, prises, ou resumes hors de possessioun du dite roigne, ou seisez es voz mayns, ou de voz heirs, par qeconqe cause, durant la vie du dite roigne, ou durant l'estate qe la dite roigne ad en ycelles, qe ordeigne soit et graunte en mesme ceste parlement, q'adonqes autres terres, tenementz, et possessions, de mesme la value, soient ordeignes, dones, grauntes, et assignes par vous ou voz heirs au dite roigne, a avoir et tenir a mesme la roigne a toute sa vie, en noun de dower. Et qe cestes supplicacioun et prier soient enactes en cest present parlement. May it please your highness in this matter that all the aforesaid grants, and the estate and possession which the said queen has in the castles, manors, towns, lordships, rents, lands, tenements, fee-farms, wardships of lands, marriages and possessions, custody of alien priories, farms and tributes of alien priories, great customs and little customs, franchises, liberties, and various other things and possessions aforesaid, as noted above, should be approved, ratified and confirmed to the said queen by you in this present parliament, in accordance with the tenors and purports of your aforesaid letters patent, by authority of your said [p. iii-633][col. a] parliament. And also, my most sovereign lord, may it please you to ordain and grant in this present parliament that whenever any of the castles, manors, towns, lordships, rents, lands, tenements, fee-farms, wardships of lands, marriages and possessions, custody of alien priories, farms and tributes of alien priories, great customs and little customs, franchises, liberties, and all other things and possessions aforesaid which the same queen has under title of her dower, or under title of part of her dower, are seized, removed, won by legal action or recovered from the possession of the said queen during her life; or if the estate that the said queen has in any of the castles, manors, towns, lordships, rents, lands, tenements, fee-farms, wardships of lands, marriages and possessions, custody of alien priories, farms and tributes of alien priories, great customs and little customs, franchises, liberties, and various other things and possessions aforesaid, or part of them, should for any reason cease, or be made void or annulled; or if the said alien priories, farms and custodies, and tributes of alien priories, should be removed, seized or resumed from the possession of the said queen, or seized into your hands, or those of your heirs, for any reason, during the life of the said queen, or during the estate which the said queen has in them; it should be ordained and granted in this same parliament, that at that time other lands, tenements and possessions of the same value should be ordained, given, granted, and assigned by you or your heirs to the said queen, for the same queen to have and to hold for her whole life, under title of her dower. And that this petition and request should be recorded in this present parliament.
Quele petitione lue et entendue feust respondu en les parols q'ensuent: Le roy le voet. (fn. iii-622-233-1) When this petition had been read and heard reply was given in the following words: The king willsit. (fn. iii-622-233-1)
Pur Richard Hastynges. [Petition from Richard Hastings concerning his inheritance].
42. Item, une peticione feust baille < par les communes en > parlement pur Richard Hastynges, dont la tenure s'enseute: 42. On behalf of Richard Hastings. Also, a petition was delivered into parliament by the commons for Richard Hastings, of which the tenor follows:
< Au roy nostre tressoveraigne seignur supplie humblement Richard de Hastynges, qe come Rauf de Hastynges soun frere, qe mort est sanz issue, > a temps de sa muriant feust seise en soun demesne come de fee de diverses manoirs, terres, tenementz, rentes, services, reversions, fees, avowesons, vieues < de > frankeplegge, hundredes, et autres diverses seignuries, libertees, fraunchises, et commoditees deins vostre roialme d'Engleterre, ascune en fee simple, ascun en fee taille; les queles manoirs, terres, tenementz, rentes, services, reversions, fees, avowesons, vieues de frankeplegge, hundredes, et autres diverses seignuries, libertees, fraunchises, et commoditees, sibien par cause de forfaiture de dit Rauf envers vous et vostre roial mageste, come par cause de juggement done devers luy de tresoun devaunt monsire William Fulthorp', chivaler, et autres ses compaignons voz justices assignez, le xx e jour de Juylle, l'an de vostre regne sisme, sur quoy le dit Rauf feust adjugge a mort et decolle, furent a vous forfaitz, dount ascunes furent es voz mayns seisez, ascuns par vous as autres persones grauntez. To the king our most sovereign lord, Richard de Hastings begs humbly that whereas Ralph de Hastings, his brother, who is dead without issue, at the time of his death was seised in his demesne as of fee of various manors, lands, tenements, rents, services, reversions, fees, advowsons, views of frankpledge, hundreds, and various other lorships, liberties, franchises and commodities within your realm of England, some in fee simple, others in fee tail; the which manors, lands, tenements, rents, services, reversions, fees, advowsons, views of frankpledge, hundreds, and various other lordships, liberties, franchises and commodities were forfeited to you, both because of the forfeiture of the said Ralph to you and your royal majesty, and because of the judgment given against him for treason before Sir William Fulthorpe, knight, and his fellow justices assigned, on 20 July in the sixth year of your reign [1405], for which the said Ralph was condemned to death and beheaded; and of them some were seized into your hands, and others granted by you to other people.
Qe plese a vous, de vostre habundante grace de grauntier en vostre present parlement, par advys de toutz les seignurs espirituelx et temporelx en le dit parlement esteantz, qe le dit suppliant a le noun et abilitee d'estre frere et heir le dit Rauf, et de toutz ses ancestres, poet estre restore et restituit. Et q'il et ses heires desorenavant soient heires au dit Rauf, et ables d'avoir, user, et enjoier chescune accioun, clayme, ou pursuyte, demande, chalange, et avantage, come heire au dit Rauf et toutz ses ancestres, sibien des manoirs, terres, tenementz, rentes, services, reversions, fees, avowesons, vieues de frankeplegge, hundredes, et autres diverses seignuries, libertes, franchises, et commoditees, dont le dit Rauf, ou ascunes de ses ancestres, ou autres a lour oeps, joyntement ou severalment feurent seisez, en fee simple ou en fee taille. Et qe le dit suppliant poet estre restitut [col. b] en vostre dit parlement, et fait able d'avoir, come heire le dit Rauf et toutz ses ancestres, toutz les manoirs, terres, tenementz, rentes, services, reversions, fees, avowesons, vieus de frankeplegge, hundredes, et autres diverses seignuries, libertes, fraunchises et commoditees, queles furent le dit Rauf a temps de sa mort, ou ascune de ses ancestres, et dont il, ou autres a soun oeps furent seisez ou enfeoffez joyntement ou severalment, sibien en fee symple come en letaille: et qe le dit suppliant en toutz tiels manoirs, terres, tenementz, rentes, services, reversions, fees, avowesons, vieues de frankeplegge, hundredes, et autres diverses seignuries, libertes, fraunchises, comoditees, quels furent a dit Rauf, ou autres a soun oeps, a temps de soun murreant, come heire a dit Rauf, poet entrer, et les reteigner a luy et a ses heires, sanz estre mys a autre suyte; les ditz juggement et forfaiture, ou ascun autre juggement ou forfaiture grauntes par vous, faitz, ou ceo qe le sanc parentre le dit suppliant et le dit Rauf par les causes suisditz fuist corumpuz, nient contresteant. May it please you of your abundant grace to grant in your present parliament, on the advice of all the lords spiritual and temporal present in the said parlaiment, that the said supplicant be restored and reinstated to the name and right of being brother and heir of the said Ralph, and of all his forebears. And that he and his heirs henceforth should be heirs to the said Ralph, and able to have, use and enjoy any action, claim or suit, demand, challenge and advantage, as heir to the said Ralph and all his forebears, with regard to both the manors, lands, tenements, rents, services, reversions, fees, advowsons, views of frankpledge, hundreds, and the various other lordships, liberties, franchises and commodities of which the said Ralph, or any of his forebears, or others to their use, were jointly or individually seised, in fee simple or in fee tail. And that the said supplicant be reinstated [col. b] in your said parliament and declared able to hold, as heir to the said Ralph and to all his forebears, all the manors, lands, tenements, rents, services, reversions, fees, advowsons, views of frankpledge, hundreds, and various other lordships, liberties, franchises and commodities which belonged to the said Ralph at the time of his death, or to any of his forebears, and of which he, or others to his use, were seised or enfeoffed jointly or individually, either in fee simple or in fee tail: and that the said supplicant may enter into all such manors, lands, tenements, rents, services, reversions, fees, advowsons, views of frankpledge, hundreds, and various other lordships, liberties, franchises and commodities which belonged to the said Ralph, or to others for his use, at the time of his death, as heir of the said Ralph, and keep them for himself and his heirs, without being obliged to bring any other suit; notwithstanding the said judgment and forfeiture, or any other judgment or forfeiture awarded by you, which has been made, or that the blood was corrupted between the said supplicant and the said Ralph through the aforesaid causes.
Quele peticione lue et entendue feust respondue en les parols q'enseuent: When this petition had been read and heard, reply was given in the following words:
Le roy, de sa grace especiale, et de l'advys et assent des seignurs sibien espirituelx et temporelx come de les communes de roialme esteantz en parlement, ad ottroiez ceste peticione en toutes choses, solonc la contenue d'icelle. (fn. iii-622-239a-1) The king, of his special grace, and by the advice and assent of the lords both spiritual and temporal, and of the commons of the realm present in parliament, has granted this petition in all matters, in accordance with its content. (fn. iii-622-239a-1)
[memb. 9]
Pur William Doyly, et Isabelle sa femme. [Dispute between William Doyly and Isabella his wife, and John Lord Lovell].
43. Item, fait aremembrer, qe le xv me jour de Marce les communes baillerent en parlement a nostre seignur le roy une peticione el noun de William Doyly et Isabelle sa femme, en la fourme q'enseute: 43. On behalf of William Doyly and Isabella his wife. Also, be it remembered that on 15 March the commons delivered into parliament to our lord the king a petition in the name of William Doyly and Isabella his wife, in the following form:
A tressages communes de cest present parlement supplient humblement William Doyly, et Isabelle sa femme, mendivantz, et prisonerez a cause de cest suite, qe come ils estoient nadgairs seisez de le manoir de Hynton' joust Brackele en le countee de Northampton' par .xxij. anz et pluis, come ils le droit et fee du dite Isabelle par discent de heritage apres le mort d'un Cristiane Cheyne, a quy cusyn et heire la dite Isabelle ent est, c'est assavoir, file a Elizabethe soer Richard de Hynton': et auxint estoient seisez d'un toft, deux charues de terre, .xij. mesis, .xij. verges de terre, .xij. acres de pree, ove la vousoun de l'esglise de mesme la ville, come de lour purchace, come les ditz suppliantz purront monstrer et declarer par lour evidencez pluis au plein; tanqe Johan sire de Lovell' desirant d'avoir le dit manoir et la vousoun, et les autres terres et tenementz suisditz, pur luy colourer entre fist un Thomas de Hynton' pursuir, en temps de Richard nadgairs roy d'Engleterre, un brief de diem clausit extremum, direct a Johan Welton', adonqes eschetour en mesme le countee. Par vertue de qel brief inquisicioun fuist pris devant le dit eschetour, par gentz procurez nient de la veisine, par nominacioun des adversaries de ditz suppliantz: par la quel inquisicioun fuist trove, qe un Richard de Hynton', pier le dit Thomas, morist seisez et tenoit jour de sa moriant deux mees et deux verges de terre de nostre seignur le roy en chief en la ville de Farnyngho; et auxint, qe le dit Richard morust seisi de le manoir avauntdit ove la vousoun de la glise de mesme la ville, l'ou les ditz deux mees et deux verges de terre ne sont pas tenuz de nostre dit seignur le roy en chief, ne le dit Richard fuist unqes en possessioun d'icelles, ne de le manoir suisdit, ne unqes rien en ycelles, come trove fuist par un commissioun en celle partie grante par gentz suffisantz pris de mesme le hundrede. Et sur ceo, par aide, maintenance, et comfort du dit sire de Lovell', le dit Thomas de Hynton' entra en le dit manoir, et en les autres terres et tenementz suisditz, ove grant force des gentz, servantz et tenantz le dit sire de Lovell', et enfeffa en ycelles manoir, terres et tenementz, Johan l'eisne fitz de dit sire de Lovell', le sire de la Zouche, et sire Henry Grene qe mort est, et pluis autres, en maintenance de les torcionouses [p. iii-634][col. a] et mavesse possessioun avauntditz. To the most wise commons of this present parliament, William Doyly and Isabella his wife, who are destitute and prisoners because of this suit, humbly beg that whereas they were formerly seised of the manor of Hinton near Brackley in the county of Northamptonshire for twenty-two years and more, which they held by right and fee of the said Isabella by descent of inheritance following the death of one Christian Cheyne, to whom the said Isabella is cousin and heir in this matter - that is, daughter to Elizabeth the sister of Richard de Hinton; and they were also seized of a toft, two carucates of land, twelve messuages, twelve virgates of land, and twelve acres of meadow, with the advowson of the church of the same vill, which they had purchased, as the said supplicants will be able to demonstrate and show more fully through their evidence; until John Lord Lovell, wishing to have the said manor and the advowson and the other lands and tenements aforesaid, in order to provide a pretext for his entry, caused one Thomas de Hinton to sue, in the time of Richard formerly king of England, a writ of diem clausit extremum addressed to John Welton, then escheator in the same county. By virtue of which writ, an inquisition was held before the said escheator, with people who had been procured from outwith the neighbourhood, through nomination by the opponents of the said supplicants: by which inquisition it was found that one Richard de Hinton, father of the said Thomas, died seised of and held on the day of his death two messuages and two virgates of land of our lord the king in chief in the town of Farthinghoe, and also that the said Richard died seised of the aforesaid manor with the advowson of the church of the same vill, whereas the said two messuages and two virgates of land are not held of our said lord the king in chief, nor was the said Richard ever in possession of them, nor of the aforesaid manor, nor ever of anything in them, as was found by a commission issued concerning this matter taken by people of good standing of the same hundred. Whereupon, through the aid, maintenance and help of the said Lord Lovell, the said Thomas de Hinton entered into the said manor and into the other lands and tenements aforesaid, with a great force of men, servants and tenants of the said Lord Lovell, and enfeoffed John, the eldest son of the said Lord Lovell, the Lord de la Zouche, and Sir Henry Green who is dead, and then others, with the same manor, lands and tenements, in maintenance of the aforesaid wrongful [p. iii-634][col. a] and wicked possession.
Sur qoy plese a voz sages discrecions considerer le longe pursuite touchant les ditz tortes, perdes, et diseases, les queux le dit sire de Lovell' ad fait as ditz suppliantz en la mater avauntdit. Et auxi les promisses par luy faitz as diverses parlementz devaunt ces heures; c'est assavoir, le dit sire de Lovell' al primer parlement promist, qe soun title et droit, q'il soy pretende d'avoir en le dit manoir, soit trove par les pluis suffisantz gentz de la dit pais a la primer sessioun a tenir apres le dit parlement. Et al secunde parlement il promist, d'estre al ordinance et juggement de trois ou quatre justicez a sa propre denominacioun. Et puis apres al parlement tenuz a Coventre, le dit sire de Lovell' et les ditz suppliantz lour surmettent d'estre al agarde, et ordinance de nostre tressoverein seignur le roy, ou al agarde de certeins persones: c'estassavoir, Thomas Grene, chivaler, Rauf Parles, Thomas Chaucers, Johan Tyndale, Johan Warrewyk, et Aleyn Ayot; les quelx promesses et profres, ou ascun de eux, le dit sire de Lovell' n'ad mye unqore parforne. Et ore tarde, al darrein parlement tenuz a Westm' devaunt le fest de Pentecost, nostre dit seignur le roy agarda, qe le dit sire de Lovell' monstra et declara soun title et droit q'il soy pretende d'avoir en le dit manoir; la quel agarde le dit sire de Lovell' n'ad mye parfourne. (fn. iii-622-242b-1) Et par auctoritee del dit darrein parlement les ditz persones furent chargiez, defaire fyn parentre les ditz parties devaunt le fest de Seint Pier advincula alors prochein ensuant. A qel jour limitee par force de brief nostre dit seignur le roy en sa chancellarie, sur ceo appareront Thomas Chaucers, et Aleyn Ayot. Et pur tant qe les persones avaunt nommez n'appareront, l'erchevesqe de Cauntirbirs, et le duc d'Everwyk, et l'evesqe de Wyncestre, pristeront en lour mayns les maters suisditz, et graunteront defaire fyn entre les parties avauntditz. Et nonobstante le continuelle pursuite < par les ditz suppliantz ensuy fait, rien > est accomplie ou parforne en celle partie: et sur ceo avoir pite de les ditz suppliantz, et de lour longe et continuelle pursuite, et de prier et faire vostre especial request a nostre dit seignur le roy, qe luy plese ordiner en cest present parlement, qe les ditz suppliantz purront avoir un final juggement en cest present parlement, sanz outre estre delaiez; et ceo pur Dieu, et en oevre de charite. Whereupon may it please your wise discretion to consider the long suit concerning the said wrongs, losses and injuries, which the said Lord Lovell has inflicted upon the said supplicants in the aforesaid matter. And also the promises made by him to various parliaments before now; that is, the said Lord Lovell promised at the first parliament [1399], that his title and right, which he claims to have in the said manor, should be determined by the most capable people of the said country at the first session to be held after the said parliament. And at the second parliament [1401] he promised to abide by the ordinance and judgment of three or four judges of his own nomination. And afterwards, at the parliament held at Coventry [October 1404], the said Lord Lovell and the said supplicants agreed to abide by the decision and ordinance of our most sovereign lord the king, or by the decision of certain persons - namely, Thomas Green, knight, Ralph Parles, Thomas Chaucer, John Tyndale, John Warwick, and Aleyn Ayot; which promises and proposals, or indeed any of them, the said Lord Lovell has not yet carried out. And recently, at the last parliament held at Westminster before the feast of Pentecost, our said lord the king decreed that the said Lord Lovell show, demonstrate and explain his title and right which he claims to have in the said manor; which decree the said Lord Lovell has not complied with. (fn. iii-622-242b-1) And by authority of the said last parliament the said persons were commanded to make a definitive resolution between the said parties before the feast of St Peter ad Vincula then following [1 August 1406]. On this day, which was determined by virtue of a writ of our said lord the king in his chancery, there appeared on this matter Thomas Chaucer and Aleyn Ayot. And because the persons named above did not appear, the archbishop of Canterbury and the duke of York and the bishop of Winchester took the aforesaid matters into their hands and agreed to make a definitive resolution between the aforesaid parties. And notwithstanding the continual suit thus brought by the said supplicants, nothing has been accomplished or done in this matter: whereupon may you have pity on the said supplicants because of their long and continual suit, and pray and submit your special request to our said lord the king that it might please him to ordain in this present parliament that the said supplicants might have a final judgment in this present parliament, without being further delayed; and that for God, and by way of charity.
Quele peticione lue devaunt le roy et les seignurs, ordeigne feust par le roy et les ditz seignurs, qe certeins briefs soient faitz et directz a sire de Lovell', sire de la Zouche, Maude qe feust la femme Johan sire de Lovell' qe mort est, et Thomas Grene, chivaler, d'estre devaunt le roy et les seignurs en parlement, a la quinszeine de Pasqe lors proschein avenir, portantz ovesqe eux toutz lour chartres et evidences quielconqes touchantz le manoir de Hynton' joust Brakley. A quelle quinszeine le dit sire le Lovell' apparust en parlement, et illeoques, devaunt le roy et les ditz seignurs furent nommez, par assent sibien de dit sire de Lovell' come des ditz William et Isabelle, certeins persones, pur passer en une assise especiale ent aprendre, des queles persones les nouns cy ensuent: Johan Pilkyngton', chivaler, Johan Holand, chivaler, Johan Seint Johan chivaler, Nichol Lillyng, chivaler, Johan Trussell', chivaler, Avereye Trussell', chivaler, Thomas Alisbery, chivaler, Thomas Wake, Johan Lungwyle, Rauf Grene, Thomas Wydevyle, Robert Veer, Laurence Dyve, Johan Harwedon', Robert Haldenby, et William Harwedon'. Sur quoy ordeigne feust par le roy et les seignurs suisditz, qe un brief soit direct a le viscont de Norht', luy chargeant sur peyne de cccli. q'il empanelle mesmes les persones de passeren la dite especiale assise, aprendre devant certeins justices anomers par le roy et soun conseill, parentre le dit sire de Lovell' et les autres tenantz en fait, et les ditz William et Isabelle, del dit manoir ove les appurtenances. Et auxint qe mesmes les persones soient prestez a certeins jour et lieu par les ditz justices alimiters a mesme le jour q'ils [col. b] soient primerement somonez, pur illeoqes passer en la dite assise chescun sur peyne de ccli., et qe a icelle jour .xii. des dites persones soient chargez par les ditz justices de passer sur le droit du dit manoir parentre les ditz parties, sanz ascun excepcioun ou delaie ent affaire depar le dit sire le Lovell' et les autres tenantz suisditz pur lour partie. Et si ascun excepcioun ou delaye soit fait depar le dit sire le Lovell' et les ditz tenantz a dit jour, q'adonqes mesme la matere soit remys au roy et son counseille. Et que le roy et soun conseille aient poair par auctorite de parlement d'examiner mesme la matiere, et sur ceo faire fyn solonc ceo qe reasoun et bone foy demandent. Et auxint, q'en le mesne temps le dit sire de Lovell' delivere au chanceller d'Engleterre les nouns des feoffez el dit manoir de Hynton', sur soun perille demesne. Et sur ceo priez feust illeoqes par le consaille le dit sire de Lovell', qe les tenantz en la dite assise purroient avoir < lour plees en > bare, si ascuns y feussent. A quoy le roy et les seignurs s'accorderent et < agrererent bien. > (fn. iii-622-244-1) When this petition had been read before the king and the lords, it was ordained by the king and the said lords that certain writs should be issued addressed to Lord Lovell, Lord de la Zouche, Maude who was the wife of John Lord Lovell who is dead, and Thomas Green, knight, to be before the king and the lords in parliament at the quinzaine of Easter then following [7 April], bringing with them all their charters and documents of any kind touching the manor of Hinton near Brackley. At which quinzaine the said Lord Lovell appeared in parliament and there, before the the king and the said lords, certain persons were named, by the assent both of the said Lord Lovell and of the said William and Isabella, to sit on a special assize to be held on the matter, the names of which persons follow here: John Pilkington, knight, John Holand, knight, John St John knight, Nicholas Lillyng, knight, John Trussell, knight, Avery Trussell, knight, Thomas Alisbery, knight, Thomas Wake, John Lungwyle, Ralph Green, Thomas Woodville, Robert Veer, Laurence Dyve, John Harwedon, Robert Haldenby, and William Harwedon. Whereupon it was ordained by the king and the aforesaid lords that a writ should be addressed to the sheriff of Northamptonshire commanding him, on pain of £300, to empanel the same persons to sit on the said special assize, to be held before certain justices to be named by the king and his council, between the said Lord Lovell and the other de facto tenants, and the said William and Isabella, concerning the said manor with its appurtenances. And also that the same persons should be ready at a certain day and place to be specified by the said justices, on the same day when they [col. b] are first summoned, to sit at that time on the said assize, each one on pain of £200, and that on that day twelve of the said persons should be commanded by the said justices todetermine the right to the said manor between the said parties, without any exception or delay to be made on the matter on the part of the said Lord Lovell and the other aforesaid tenants for their part. And if any exception or delay is made on the part of the said Lord Lovell and the said tenants on the said day, then the same matter should be sent back to the king and his council. And that the king and his council should have power by authority of parliament to examine the same matter, and to determine the matter in accordance with what reason and good faith demand. And also that in the meantime the said Lord Lovell should deliver to the chancellor of England the names of the feoffees of the said manor of Hinton, on his own peril. Whereupon it was requested there by the counsel of the said Lord Lovell that the tenants in the said assize should be able to have their pleas at the bar, should there be any. To which the king and the lords willingly agreed and assented. (fn. iii-622-244-1)
44. Item, vendredy le ix me jour de May, qe feust le darrein jour de parlement, les communes vindrent devaunt le roy et les seignurs en parlement, et illeoqes le parlour pur les communes, en nouns de mesmes les communes, pria au roy, d'avoir pleine conussance des nouns des seignurs de soun consail; et par tant qe les seignurs qi feurent nomez pardevant d'estre de mesme le consail avoient fait lour serements sur certeine condicione, come devant est declarrez, qe mesmes les seignurs de consail soient ore de novel chargiez et serementez sanz condicione. Et sur ceo mounseignur le prince pria a mesme nostre seignur le roy, sibien pur luy mesmes come < pur les > autres seignurs de consail, qe partant < q'y covient > qe l'evesqe de Duresme, et le cont de Westmerl', queux sont ordeinez d'estre de mesme le consail, ne purront continuelement entendre a ycelle, sibien pur pleuseurs diverses causes quelx sont bien semblables advenires en les marches d'Escoce, come pur l'enforcement d'icelles marches, qe pleaise a mesme nostre seignur le roy d'assigner autres seignurs d'estre de mesme le consail ovesqe les seignurs pardevant assignez. Et sur ceo mesme nostre seignur le roy en plein parlement assigna l'evesqe de Seint David, et le cont de Warrewyk, d'estre de mesme soun consail ovesqe les autres seignurs dessuisnomez; et q'ils soient chargiez semblablement come les autres seignurs sanz < aucune > condicione. [Further appointment of king's councillors]
44. Also, on Friday 9 May, which was the last day of parliament, the commons came before the king and the lords in parliament, and there the speaker for the commons, in the name of the same commons, requested of the king that he might be fully informed as to the names of the lords of his council; and, since the lords who were named earlier to be on the same council had taken their oaths upon a certain condition, as noted earlier, that the same lords of the council should now be charged and sworn again without condition. Whereupon my lord the prince requested of our same lord the king, both for himself and for the other lords of the council, that since it happened that the bishop of Durham and the earl of Westmorland, who were appointed to be on the same council, would not be able to devote themselves continually to it - not only because of what is likely to happen on the Scottish marches, but also for the reinforcement of those marches - it might please our same lord the king to appoint other lords to be on the same council with the lords previously appointed. Whereupon our same lord the king in full parliament appointed the bishop of St David's and the earl of Warwick to be on his same council with the other lords named above, and instructed that they should be charged in a similar way to the other lords, without any condition.
Certeins requestes faites par les communes. [Further requests made by the commons].
Item, mesme le jour, le dit parlour, en noun des toutz les ditz communes, pria a nostre dit seignur le roy d'avoir ma dame la roigne especialment pur recomendez; dont le roy remercia molt entierment. Certain requests made by the commons. Also, on the same day, the said speaker, in the name of all the said commons, requested our said lord the king to accept a special commendation on behalf of my lady the queen; for which the king thanked them most earnestly.
Item, mesme le jour, le dit parlour monstra < depar > les ditz communes, coment as diverses foitz en mesme cest parlement ils avoient monstrez a mesme nostre seignur le roy de la grande nobleie et honur de monseignur le prince, et de soun honurable estat; et auxi de les honurables estats de mes treshonures seignurs ses freres, c'estassaver, messeignurs Thomas, Johan, et Humfrey: qe considerez leur neestre, et < les > vaillance, humanitee, et vertue en lour honurables persones reposantz, et auxi coment Dieux ad mys en eux tout ceo q'appente pur faire resistence a les esnemys et rebealx mesme nostre seignur le roy et de soun roialme, y pleaise a mesme nostre seignur le roy de mettre mesmes messeignurs Thomas, Johan, et Humfrey, en honur et estate, noun et degree, tielx come luy plerra, pur l'onur de luy et de soun roialme. De quoy mesme nostre seignur le roy lour remercia molt entierment, et leur dist, q'il le vorroit faire si tost come y purra bonement. Also, on the same day, the said speaker explained on behalf of the said commons how on various occasions during this same parliament they had demonstrated to our same lord the king the great worth and honour of my lord the prince, and concerning his honourable estate; and also concerning the honourable estates of my most honoured lords his brothers, that is, my lords Thomas, John, and Humphrey: that, considering their birth, and the valour, humanity and virtue reposing in their honourable persons, and also how God had imbued them with all the qualities necessary for resisting the enemies and rebels of our same lord the king and of his realm, it might please our same lord the king to promote my same lords Thomas, John, and Humphrey to such honourand estate, name and degree as would please him, for his honour and that of his realm. For which our same lord the king thanked them most earnestly, and said to them that he wished to do it as soon as it could well be done.
[p. iii-635]
[col. a]
La grante des communes faite en parlement. [The grant of the fifteenth and tenth and the subsidy].
45. Al honour de Dieux, et pur le grand amour et entier affeccioun queux voz poveres communes de vostre roialme d'Engleterre ont a vous, nostre tresredoubte seignur le roy, pur le bien de roialme, et bone governance en temps avener, voz ditz poveres communes, par l'assent des seignurs espirituelx et temporelx, le .viij. jour de May, l'an de vostre regne unzisme, grauntont a vous, nostre seignur soveraigne, en cest present parlement tenuz a Westm', pur defens de vostre dit roialme, une entier xv me , et une entier x me , et une demi xv me et une demi x me , pur estre levez en maner accustume: c'est assavoir, une moite del dite entier xv me et x me a la fest de Seint Martyn en yvere proscheyn avener, et l'autre moite de dit entier xv me et x me a la fest de Seint Martyn en yvere alors proschein ensuant; et la dite moite de xv me et x me qe remaynt, a la fest de Seint Martyn en yvere adonqes proscheyn ensuant. Et auxint voz ditz poveres communes, par assent suisdit, grauntont a vous, nostre tresredoubte seignur, pur la defens de vostre dit roialme, la subside des layns, quyres, et peaux lanutz, pur estre levez de la fest de Seint Michel proscheyn avener en deux ans lors proscheyns ensuantz, en la fourme q'ensuyt: c'estassavoir, de merchantz denzeins pur le sak de layn xliij s. iiij d.; et de chescuns < .ccxl. > peautz lanutz xliij s. iiij d.; et de chescun last de quyres c s.. Et de merchantz aliens pur le sak de layn l s.; et de .ccxl. peaux lanutz l s.; et de chescun last de quyres [col. b] cvi s. viij d.. Et ensement voz ditz communes, pur la defens suisdit, grantont a vous, nostre tresredoubte seignur, iij s. de chescun tonelle de vyn, entrant en le dit roialme et passant hors d'icelle; forpris les tonelx de vyn prisez pur le prise a vostre oeps. Et auxint les ditz communes grauntont a vous, pur la cause avauntdite, xij d. de la livre de chescun maner de merchandise venantz en le dit roialme et passant hors d'icelle; forpris layns, quyres, et peaux lanutz, et vyns; et forpris chescun maner de blee, floure, et pessoun rees, et bestaille, entrant en le dit roialme. Et forpris cervoise q'est amesne hors de roialme pur vitailler vostre ville de Caleys, par gentz des villes de Baudesey, Faltenham, et Alderton' sur Gosford, et aillours, come ils sont chargez et assignez puys le conquest du dite ville de Caleys. Aprendre et resceiver mesmes les iij s. de tonelle, et xij d. de la livre, de le fest de Seint Michel proscheyn avener en deux ans entiers alors proscheyns ensuantz. Et qe les commissioners assigne [sic: read 'assignes'] pur coiller les ditz xv me et x me , et demi xv me et x me , ne facent ent nulle leve sinoun apres le terme de Seint Michel chescun an durant le dit grant: et qe lour commissioun ent face mencioun en expresse. Des quex xv me et x me , et demi xv me et x me , et subside, et tonnage et pondage, voz ditz poveres communes, de lour frank volunte, grauntont a vous, nostre tresredoubte seignur le roy, .xx. mille marcz, a prendre et resceyver as termes suisditz, pur ent disposer et faire a vostre plesir. 45. The grant made by the commons in parliament. To the honour of God, and because of the great love and entire affection which your poor commons of your realm of England have for you, our most dread lord the king, for the good of the realm and good government in times to come, your said poor commons, by the assent of the lords spiritual and temporal, on 8 May in the eleventh year of your reign, grant to you, our sovereign lord, in this present parliament held at Westminster, for the defence of your said realm, a whole fifteenth and a whole tenth, and a half fifteenth and a half tenth, to be raised in the accustomed manner: that is, half of the said whole fifteenth and tenth at the feast of Martinmas next winter [11 November 1410], and the other half of the said whole fifteenth and tenth at the feast of Martinmas in the following winter; and the remaining half fifteenth and tenth at the feast of Martinmas in the winter after that. And also your said poor commons, by the aforesaid assent, grant to you, our most dread lord, for the defence of your said realm, the subsidy on wools, hides and woolfells, to be levied from the feast of Michaelmas next [29 September 1410] for two years then following, in the following form: that is, from native merchants, for each sack of wool, 43s. and 4d.; and for each 240 woolfells, 43s. and 4d.; and for each last of hides, 100s.. And from alien merchants, for each sack of wool, 50s., and for 240 woolfells, 50s., and for each last of hides, [col. b] 106s. and 8d. And likewise your said commons, for the aforesaid defence, grant to you, our most dread lord, 3s. on each tun of wine entering or leaving the said realm; except for the tuns of wine taken by your right of prise. And the said commons also grant to you, for the aforesaid reason, 12d. in the pound on any kind of merchandise entering or leaving the said realm; except for wools, hides and woolfells, and wines; and except for any kind of corn, flour and fresh fish, and cattle, entering the said realm. And except for ale which is taken out of the realm for the provision of your town of Calais by the people of the towns of Bawdsey, Falkenham, and Alderton on Gosford, and elsewhere, as they have been commanded and appointed to do since the conquest of the said town of Calais. The same 3s. per tun, and 12d. per pound, are to be taken and received from the feast of Michaelmas next for two whole years then following. And the commissioners assigned to collect the said fifteenth and tenth, and the half fifteenth and tenth, should not attempt to levy them until after the Michaelmas term each year during the said grant: and their commission should make express mention of this. Of which fifteenth and tenth, and half fifteenth and tenth, and subsidy, and tunnage and poundage, your said poor commons, of their free will, grant to you, our most dread lord the king, 20,000 marks, to be taken and received at the aforesaid terms, to do with and dispose of as you wish.
ET PUIS APRES LES DITZ ARTICLES, OVESQE LOUR RESPONSES DESSUISDITES, LES COMMUNES PETICIONES OVESQE LOUR RESPONSES FEURENT LUES EN LA FOURME Q'ENSEUTE. [THE COMMON PETITIONS].
AND THEN, FOLLOWING THE SAID ARTICLES, WITH THEIR AFORESAID ANSWERS, THE COMMON PETITIONS WITH THEIR ANSWERS WERE READ IN THE FOLLOWING FORM:
[col. a]
[memb. 8]
PLEASE A NOSTRE TRESREDOUBTE ET TRESGRACIOUS SEIGNUR LE ROY, EN EASE ET SUPPORTACIOUN DE SES POVERES LIEGES LES COMMUNES DE SOUN ROIAUME D'ENGLETERRE, GRAUNTIER LES PETICIONS Q'ENSUENT. MAY IT PLEASE OUR MOST DREAD AND MOST GRACIOUS LORD THE KING, FOR THE BENEFIT AND SUPPORT OF HIS POOR LIEGES THE COMMONS OF HIS REALM OF ENGLAND, TO GRANT THE PETITIONS WHICH FOLLOW.
I. < Chivalers etc. des countees d'Essex et Hertford. > I. < [Accounts of the sheriffs of the counties of Essex and Hertfordshire]. >
< 46 > . Supplient les chivalers, esquiers, et les comunaltes des comitees d'Essex' et Hertf', qe come es estatuitz faitz, sibien en temps tresnoble Roy Edward tierce, l'an de soun regne primer, come en temps nostre tresredoubte seignur le roy q'orest, l'an de soun regne primer, a les peticions de comunes du roiaume fuist purveu et ordeigne, Qe toutz les viscontz d'Engleterre, et en especial les viscontz d'Essex' et Hertford, a cause qe la comunalte del counte d'Essex' paierent au Roy Richard nadgairs roy d'Engleterre deux mille marcz, n'ascounterent en l'escheqer nostre seignur le roy de nulles denirs a lever de nully, synoun par lour serementz; (fn. iii-622-261-1) nient contristeantz les ordinances avauntditz, les viscontz d'Essex' et Hertf' unqore sont chargez en le dit escheqer des diverses graundes sommes des denirs nient levables dedeins les countees suisditz: c'estassaver, de ccxxi li. ix s. ij d. del ferme des countees suisditz puis terres donez; et de l marcz del ferme des profitz de mesmes les countees, en graund destruccioun des viscountz avauntditz, et oppression des communes des ditz countees. < 46 > .46. Knights etc. of the counties of Essex and Hertfordshire. The request of the knights, esquires and communities of the counties of Essex and Hertfordshire: whereas in the statutes made both in the time of the most noble King Edward the third, in the first year of his reign [1327], and in the time of our most dread lord the present king, in the first year of his reign [1399], in answer to the petitions of the commons of the realm, it was decided and ordained, That none of the sheriffs of England, and especially not the sheriffs of Essex and Hertfordshire, because the community of the county of Essex paid King Richard formerly king of England 2,000 marks, should account in the exchequer of our lord the king for any sum of money to be raised from anybody, except on oath; (fn. iii-622-261-1) notwithstanding the aforesaid ordinances, the sheriffs of Essex and Hertfordshire are still burdened in the said exchequer with various great sums of money which cannot be raised in the aforesaid counties: that is, with £221 9s. 2d. of the farm of the aforesaid counties excluding lands granted out; and with fifty marks of the farm of the profits of the same counties; to the great destruction of the aforesaid sheriffs, and the oppression of the commons of the said counties.
Please a nostre dit seignur le roy considerer les matiers avauntditz, et dischargier les < ditz > viscontz desore enavaunt, par auctorite de cest parlement, de les sommes avauntditz, forsqe d'atant de mesmes les sommes [col. b] come les ditz viscontz eux voudrent charger par lour serementz affaire en le dit escheqer, issint q'ils n'eient miester de suir a nostre seignur le roy ou a soun conseil, pur ascune pardoun avoir de les ditz sommes au temps avenir. Ou autrement, qe les viscountz du ditz countees, sur leur accomptees arendre desorenavaunt, tant soulement soient chargez pur les deux fermes avauntditz de .c. marcz, sanz pluis. Et qe les ditz viscountz eient allouance chescun an en lour accomptees des aunciens almoignes, fees, et annuitees, qe amontent a lxvli. v s. queux soleient devaunt ces heures estre alloues deins les deux fermes suisditz. May it please our said lord the king to consider the aforesaid matters, and to release the said sheriffs henceforth, by authority of this parliament, from the aforesaid sums, except for whatever part of the same sums [col. b] the said sheriffs are willing to be charged with by their oath to be sworn in the said exchequer, so that they will have no need to sue to our lord the king or to his council in order to be pardoned the said sums in the future. Or alternatively, the sheriffs of the same counties, in their accounts to be rendered henceforth, should only be charged for the two aforesaid farms of 100 marks, and no more. And the said sheriffs should have an allowance each year in their accounts for the ancient alms, fees and annuities, which amount to £65 5s., which used previously to be allowed in the aforesaid two farms.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Monstrent les viscontz ensi grevez, chescun an sur lour accompt, a nostre seignur le roy et soun conseil lour grevances et perdes en especial: et eit mesme le conseil poair, par auctorite du parlement, et par commaundement du roy, defaire as mesmes les viscountz tieux mitigacioun et pardoun de temps en temps come lour semblera resonable en le cas. (fn. iii-622-265-1) Let the sheriffs thus aggrieved explain their specific grievances and losses to our lord the king and his council every year in their account; and let the same council have power, by authority of parliament, and by the king's command, to allow the same sheriffs whatever mitigation and pardon, from time to time, will seem reasonable to them in this case. (fn. iii-622-265-1)
II. < Gentes des countees de Surr' etc. > II. < [Accounts of the sheriffs of the counties of Surrey and Sussex]. >
Item suppliont les chivalers, esquiers, et communaltees des countees de Surr' et Sussex', qe come en estatuitz faitz si bien en temps tresnoble Roy Edward tierce, l'an de soun regne primer, come en temps de nostre tresredoubte seignur le roy q'orest, l'an de soun regne primer, a les peticions des communes du roialme fuist purveu et ordeigne, 'Qe toutz les viscontz d'Engleterre n'ascounteront en l'escheqer nostre seignur le roy de nulles denirs a lever de nulluy, sinon par lour serement'; nient contristeant les ordinances avauntditz, les viscontz [p. iii-636][col. a] de Surr' et Sussex' unqore sont chargez en le dit escheqer des diverses graundes sommes de denirs nient levables dedeins les countees suisditz: c'estassaver, de xvili. vij s. vi d. quart, del ferme des countees suisditz puis terres donez; et de cli. del ferme des profitz des mesmes les countees, en graunt destruccioun des viscontz avauntditz, et oppression des communes des ditz countees. Also, the request of the knights, esquires, and communities of the counties of Surrey and Sussex: whereas in statutes made both in the time of the most noble King Edward the third, in the first year of his reign, and in the time of our most dread lord the present king, in the first year of his reign, in answer to the petitions of the commons of the realm it was decided and ordained, That none of the sheriffs of England should account in the exchequer of our lord theking for any sum of money to be raised from anybody, except on oath; notwithstanding the aforesaid ordinances, the sheriffs [p. iii-636][col. a] of Surrey and Sussex are still burdened in the said exchequer with various great sums of money which cannot be raised in the aforesaid counties: that is, with £16 7s. 6d. and a farthing, of the farm of the aforesaid counties (excluding lands granted out); and with £100 of the farm of the profits of the same counties; to the great destruction of the aforesaid sheriffs, and to the oppression of the commons of the said counties.
Please a nostre dit seignur le roy considerer les matiers avauntditz, et discharger les ditz viscountz desore enavaunt, par auctoritee de cest parlement, de les sommes avauntditz, forsqe a tant de mesmes les sommes come les ditz viscountz eux vorront charger par lour serement affaire en le dit escheqer; issint q'ils n'eient mestier de suir a nostre [seignur] [editorial note: The sign for an interlineal addition, clearly 'seignur', is here, but there is no sign of a word ever having been added.] le roy, ou a soun conseille, pur ascune pardoun avoir de les ditz sommes en temps avenir. Et qe les tresorer et barons del escheqer pur le temps esteantz dischargent sibien les viscontz queux sont ore devaunt eux accomptantz, come toutz autres en apres pur le temps esteantz, et a eux faire allouance en lour accomptz par lour serementz, sanz delaie ou difficultee queconqe. May it please our said lord the king to consider the aforesaid matters, and to release the said sheriffs henceforth, by authority of this parliament, from the aforesaid sums, except for whatever part of the same sums the said sheriffs are willing to be charged with by their oath to be sworn in the said exchequer; so that they will have no need to sue to our lord the king or to his council in order to be pardoned the said sums in the future. And that the treasurer and barons of the exchequer at the time should release both the sheriffs who are now accounting with them, and all others who will hold the post in the future, and to make allowance to them in their accounts by their oath, without any delay or difficulty.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Monstrent les viscountz ensi grevez, chescun an sur lour accompt, a nostre seignur le roy et soun conseil lour grevances et perdes en especial; et eit mesme le conseil poair, par auctorite de parlement, et par commaundement le roy, de faire as mesmes les viscontz tieux mitigacioun et pardoun de temps en temps come lour semblera resonable en le cas. Let the sheriffs thus aggrieved explain their specific grievances and losses to our lord the king and his council every year in their account; and let the same council have power, by authority of parliament, and by the king's command, to allow the same sheriffs whatever mitigation and pardon, from time to time, will seem reasonable to them in this case.
III. < Gentes de countee d'Everwyk. > III. < [Accounts of the sheriff of the county of Yorkshire]. >
Item suppliont les chivalers, esquiers, et communaltees de counte d'Everwyk, qe come es estatuitz faitz sibien en temps tresnoble Roy Edward tierce, l'an de soun regne primer, come en temps le tresredoubte seignur le roy q'orest, l'an de soun regne primer, a les peticions des communes du roiaume fuist purveu et ordeigne, 'Qe toutz les viscountz d'Engleterre n'ascompterent en l'escheqer nostre seignur le roy de nulles denirs a lever de nulluy, sinon par lour serement'; nient contristeant les ordinances avauntditz, les viscountz de counte suis dit unqore sont chargez en le dit escheqer des diverses graundes sommes des denirs nient levables dedeins le counte suisdit: c'estassavoir, de iiij xx xiiijli. del ferme del counte suisdit puis terres donez, en graund destruccioun des viscountz avaunt ditz, et en oppression des communes du dit countee. Also, the request of the knights, esquires, and communities of the county of Yorkshire: whereas in the statutes made both in the time of the most noble King Edward the third, in the first year of his reign, and in the time of our most dread lord the present king, in the first year of his reign, in answer to the petitions of the commons of the realm it was decided and ordained, That none of the sheriffs of England should account in the exchequer of our lord the king for any sum of money to be raised from anybody, except on oath; notwithstanding the aforesaid ordinances, the sheriffs of the aforesaid county are still burdened in the said exchequer with various great sums of money which cannot be raised in the aforesaid county: that is, with £94 of the farm of the aforesaid county (excluding lands granted out); to the great destruction of the aforesaid sheriffs, and to the oppression of the commons of the said counties.
Please a nostre dit seignur le roy considerer les matiers suisditz, et discharger les viscountz suisditz desore enavaunt, par auctorite de cest parlement, de les sommes avauntditz, forsqe d'atant de mesmes les sommes come les ditz viscontz eux voudront chargerpar lour serement affaire en le dit escheqer; issint q'ils n'eient mestre de suir a nostre seignur le roy, ou a soun conseil, pur ascun pardoun avoir de les ditz sommes en temps avenir. May it please our said lord the king to consider the aforesaid matters, and to release the said sheriffs henceforth, by authority of this parliament, from the aforesaid sums, except for whatever part of the same sums the said sheriffs are willing to be charged with by their oath to be sworn in the said exchequer; so that they will have no need to sue to our lord the king or to his council in order to be pardoned the said sums in the future.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Monstrent les viscountz ensy grevez, chescun an sur lour accompt, a nostre seignur le roy et soun conseil lour grevances et perdes en especial; et eit mesme le conseil poair, par auctorite de parlement, et par commaundement < de > roy, de faire as mesmes les viscountz tieux mitigacioun et pardoun de temps en temps come leur semblera resonable en le cas. Let the sheriffs thus aggrieved explain their specific grievances and losses to our lord the king and his council every year in their account; and let the same council havepower, by authority of parliament, and by the king's command, to allow the same sheriffs whatever mitigation and pardon, from time to time, will seem reasonable to them in this case.
IV. < Gentes de counte de Devounshere. > IV. < [Account of the sheriff of the county of Devon]. >
Item suppliont les chivalers, esquiers, et comunaltee del countee de Devenshire, qe come es estatuitz faitz sibien en temps tresnoble Roy Edward tierce, l'an de soun regne primer, come en temps nostre tresredoubte seignur le roy q'orest, l'an de soun regne primer, fuist purveu et ordeigne par estatuit, Qe toutz les viscontz d'Engleterre n'ascounterent en l'escheqer nostre seignur le roy de nulles denirs a lever de nully, sinon par lour serement; nient contristeantz les ordeinances avauntditz, les viscountz des countee suisdit unqore sont chargez en le dit escheqer des diverses graundes sommes des denirs nient levables dedeins le counte suisdit: c'estassavoir, d'un somme, sub titulo, de vicecomite de remissione firmarum post terras [col. b] datas, xxli.. Et sub alio titulo, de eodem vicecomite de firmis et proficuis comitatus predicti, .c. marcz appellez blauncheferme; en graund destruccioun des viscountz avauntditz, et en oppressioun des communes du dite countee. Also, the request of the knights, esquires, and community of the county of Devon: whereas in the statutes made both in the time of the most noble King Edward the third, in the first year of his reign, and in the time of our most dread lord the present king, in the first year of his reign, it was decided and ordained by statute, That none of the sheriffs of England should account in the exchequer of our lord the king for any sum of money to be raised from anybody, except on oath; notwithstanding the aforesaid ordinances, the sheriffs of the aforesaid county are still burdened in the said exchequer with various great sums of money which cannot be raised in the aforesaid county: that is, with a sum, under the title - Concerning the remission of the sheriff's farms, excluding lands [col. b] granted out - £20; and under another title - Concerning the farms and profits of the same sheriff from the aforesaid county - 100 marks, called the White Farm; to the great destruction of the aforesaid sheriffs, and the oppresion of the commons of the said county.
Please a nostre dit seignur le roy considerer les matiers avauntditz, et discharger les ditz viscountz disore enavaunt, par auctorite de cest parlement, de les sommes avaunt ditz, forsqe d'atant de mesmes les sommes come les ditz viscountz eux voudront charger par lour serement affaire en la dit escheqer; issint q'ils n'eient miestre desuir a nostre seignur le roy, ou a soun conseille, pur ascun pardoun avoir de les ditz sommes en temps avenir. May it please our said lord the king to consider the aforesaid matters, and to release the said sheriffs henceforth, by authority of this parliament, from the aforesaid sums, except for whatever part of the same sums the said sheriffs are willing to be charged with by their oath to be sworn in the said exchequer; so that they will have no need to sue to our lord the king or to his council in order to be pardoned the said sums in the future.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Monstrent les viscountz ensi grevez, chescun an sur lour accompt, a nostre seignur le roy et soun conseil lour grevances et perdes en especial; et eit mesme le counseil poair, par auctoritee de parlement, et par commaundement le roy, defaire as mesmes les viscountz tieux mitigacioun et pardoun < de temps en temps > come lour semblera resonable en le cas. Let the sheriffs thus aggrieved explain their specific grievances and losses to our lord the king and his council every year in their account; and let the same council have power, by authority of parliament, and by the king's command, to allow the same sheriffs whatever mitigation and pardon, from time to time, will seem reasonable to them in this case.
V. < Gentes de countees de Norff' et Suff'. > V. < [Accounts of the sheriffs of the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk]. >
Item suppliont les chivalers, esquiers, et les communaltees des countees de Norff' et Suff', qe come en estatuitz faitz sibien en temps tresnoble Roy Edward tierce, l'an de soun regne primer, come en temps nostre tresredoubte seignur le roy q'orest, l'an de soun regne primer, a les peticions des communes de roiaume fuist purveu et ordeigne, Qe toutz les viscountz d'Engleterre n'accomptront en l'escheqer nostre seignur le roy de nulle denir a lever de nully, sinon par lour serementz; nient contristeant les ordinances avauntditz, les viscountz de Norff' et Suff' unqore sont chargez en le dit escheqer des diverses graundes sommes des denirs nient levables deins les ditz countees de Norff' et Suff': c'estassavoir, de cli. appellez de veteri incremento, dont homme ne sciet ou ascune denier serra leve; et des diverses autres sommes, fermes, et profitz des ditz countees de Norff' et Suff', les queux ne sont ausi levables, a cause qe diverses hundredes, et autres profitz de mesmes les countees, sont donez as diverses seignurs et autres persones; et autres certeins hundredes des countees suisditz furent d'auncien temps extenduz as certeins graundes sommes, et ne sont a present de tiel value come l'auncien extent amount; en graund destruccioun des viscountz avauntditz, et oppression des < communes des > ditz countees. Also, the request of the knights, esquires, and communities of the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk: whereas in statutes made both in the time of the most noble King Edward the third, in the first year of his reign, and in the time of our most dread lord the present king, in the first year of his reign, in answer to the petitions of the commons of the realm it was decided and ordained, That none of the sheriffs of England should account in the exchequer of our lord the king for any sum of money to be raised from anybody, except on oath; notwithstanding the aforesaid ordinances, the sheriffs of Norfolk and Suffolk are still burdened in the said exchequer with various great sums of money which cannot be raised in the aforesaid counties of Norfolk and Suffolk: that is, with £100, called - Of the ancient increment (and no-one knows where one penny of this will be raised) - and with various other sums, farms and profits from the said counties of Norfolk and Suffolk, which likewise cannot be raised, because various hundreds and other profits of the same counties have been given to various lords and other persons; and also because certain other hundreds in the aforesaid counties were in ancient times assessed at certain great sums, and are not at present of such value as the ancient assessment amounts to; to the great destruction of the aforesaid sheriffs, and to the oppression of the commons of the said counties.
Please a nostre dit seignur le roy considerer les matiers avant ditz, et discharger les ditz viscountz de Norff' et Suff' q'ore sont, et pur le temps serront, par auctoritee de cest parlement, de les sommes avauntditz, forsqe d'atant de mesmes les sommes come les ditz viscountz de Norff' et Suff' eux voudrent charger par lour serementz affairs en le dit escheqer, solonc la fourme des ordinances avauntditz; issint q'ils n'eient mestier desuir a nostre seignur le roy desorenavaunt, ou a soun counseille, pur ascune pardoun avoir de les ditz sommes. May it please our said lord the king to consider the aforesaid matters, and to release the said current and future sheriffs of Norfolk and Suffolk, by authority of this parliament, from the aforesaid sums, except for whatever part of the same sums the said sheriffs of Norfolk and Suffolk are willing to be charged with by their oath to be sworn in the said exchequer, in accordance with the form of the aforesaid ordinances; so that they will have no need to sue to our lord the king or to his council in order to be pardoned the said sums.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Monstrent les viscountz ensi grevez, chescun an sur lour accompt, a nostre seignur le roy et soun conseil lour grevances et perdes en especial; et eit mesme le conseil poair, par auctoritee du parlement, et par commaundement du roy, defaire as mesmes les viscountz tieux mitigacioun et pardoun < de temps en temps > come lour semblera resonable en le cas. Let the sheriffs thus aggrieved explain their specific grievances and losses to our lord the king and his council every year in their account; and let the same council have power, by authority of parliament, and by the king's command, to allow the same sheriffs whatever mitigation and pardon, from time to time, will seem reasonable to them in this case.
VI. < Comunes de countee de Salop'. > VI. < [Account of the sheriff of the county of Shropshire]. >
Item priont les comunes del countee de Salop', q'ils et lour auncestres viscountz du dit countee annuelment emportent tresgraund perde et damage sur lour accompt en l'escheqer nostre seignur le roy, par sommons del pipe sur eux chargez, nient levables deins le countee suisdit: c'estassavoir, d'un somme, sub titulo, de vicecomite de remissione firmarum comitatus post terras datas, xxxixli. x d. obole; de quele somme nulle homme sciet < lever > deins le dit countee i d.. Et sub alio titulo, de eodem vicecomite de firma et proficuo comitatus, lli.; de quele somme les viscountz suisditz sount si entierment chargez a present, [p. iii-637][col. a] sanz allouance, come ils furent devant la rebellioun de rebelles Galoys, coment qe par lour rebellioun et arsure la greindre partie de cynk hundredes du dit counte adjoignantz al marche de Northgales en est degastez, destruit, et disenabitees, ou nulle manere de profit pur le temps ent purra estre levez par le ditz viscontz a l'oeps nostre seignur le roy. Also, the request of the commons of the county of Shropshire: they and their forebears, sheriffs of the said county, suffer great loss and injury each year in their account in the exchequer of our lord the king through the summons of the pipe with which they are burdened, which cannot be raised in the aforesaid county: that is, of a sum under the title - Concerning the remission of the sheriff's farms, excluding lands granted out - £39 10d. halfpenny; and no man knows how to raise one penny of this sum in the said county. And under another title - Concerning the farms and profits of the same sheriff from the aforesaid county - £50; for which sum the aforesaid sheriffs are as fully charged at present, [p. iii-637][col. a] without allowance, as they were before the rebellion of Welsh rebels, although as a result of their rebellion and arson the greater part of five hundreds of the said county adjoining the north Welsh march is wasted, destroyed and uninhabited, and, for the time being, no kind of profit will be able to be raised from it by the said sheriffs for the benefit of our lord the king.
Que please a nostre seignur le roy, considerer les mieschiefs, perde, et damage suisditz qe les viscontz avauntditz a present d'an en an emportent, ordeigner et establier par estatuit affaire en cest present parlement, qe les viscountz suisditz accomptantz en le dit escheqer eient allouance par les tresorer et barons nostre dit seignur le roy, sur lour accompt en l'escheqer, del dit somme de xxxixli. x d. obole, dount ils sount annuelment en manere suisdit surchargez. Et eux faire resonable mitigacioun et allouance, solonc lour sage discrecioun, de partie des ditz lli. pur le temps qe les hundredes avauntditz en fourme suisdit gisont arcez, gastez, et destruitz, tanqe ils soient relevez et reenabetez, ou altreremede covenable ordeiner de sa grace especial pur les ditz viscountz, devaunt dissolucioun de cest present parlement. May it please our lord the king to consider the aforesaid misfortunes, loss and damage which the aforesaid sheriffs presently suffer each year, and to ordain and establish by a statute to be made in this present parliament that the aforesaid sheriffs, when they account in the said exchequer, have an allowance from the treasurer and barons of our said lord the king, on their account in the exchequer, of the said sum of £39 10d. halfpenny, with which they are annually overburdened in the aforesaid manner. And to allow them a reasonable mitigation and allowance, in accordance with their wise judgment, of part of the said £50 for as long as the aforesaid hundreds lie burnt, wasted and destroyed in the aforesaid manner, until they are restored and reinhabited, or to ordain another suitable remedy of his special grace for the said sheriffs before the dissolution of this present parliament.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Monstrent les viscountz ensi grevez, chescun an sur lour accompt, a nostre seignur le roy et soun conseil lour grevances et perdes en especial; et ait mesme le conseil poair, par auctoritee de parlement, et par commaundement du roy, defaire as mesmes les viscountz tieux mitigacioun et pardoun de temps en temps come leur semblera resonable en le cas. Let the sheriffs thus aggrieved explain their specific grievances and losses to our lord the king and his council every year in their account; and let the same council have power, by authority of parliament, and by the king's command, to allow the same sheriffs whatever mitigation and pardon, from time to time, will seem reasonable to them in this case.
VII. < Tenants par service de chivaler. > VII. < [Tenants by knight service] >
47. Item priount les communes, qe come plusours seignurs et communes de roialme teignent lour terres et tenementz du nostre seignur le roy immediate par service de chivaler, et autres services, paront apres lour deces les mariages de lour heirs apparteignent a nostre dit seignur le roy, ove la garde de leur ditz terres et tenementz tanqe au plein age de leure heires susditz, c'estassavoir, des heires mals tanqe ils soient del age de vynt et un an, et des heirs femals tanqe ils soient del age de qatorse ans; la sovent avient, qe qe [sic] par enquestes d'offices prises devaunt l'eschetours nostre seignur le roy apres la deces des tenantz avauntditz, al foithe par ignorance des enquestes, et meintfoithe par brocage [memb. 7] et maintenance des persones queux purposent d'avoir les mariages des heirs, et la garde des terres et tenementz suisditz, de done et graunt nostre dit seignur le roy a lour oeps et profit demesne, trovez en est, qe lour heirs avauntditz sount de pluis tendre age q'ils en verite ne sount. Et coment qe les heirs suisditz a lour dit plein age pursuent en la chauncerye nostre dit seignur le roy d'avoir livere de lour heritage avauntdit, come droit reasoun et conscience demaundent, endemandantz briefs de etate probanda, directz as eschetours des countees en lesqueux les ditz heirs sount neez, queux meulx purrount avoir conusance de lour age, unqore ils sount restreintz des ditz briefs, et del livere de lour heritages avauntditz par les offices suisditz, en manere avauntdit nient veritablement prisez et al dit chauncerye retournez, a graund meschief, damage, et enpoverissement des heirs suisditz. 47. Also, the commons pray that, whereas many lords and commons of the realm hold their lands and tenements immediately from our lord the king by knight service and other services, as a result of which after their deaths the marriages of their heirs belong to our said lord the king, along with the wardship of their said lands and tenements until the majority of their aforesaid heirs: that is, of male heirs until they reach the age of twenty-one years, and of female heirs until they reach the age of fourteen years; it often happens, that through ex officio inquests held before the escheators of our lord the king after the deaths of the aforesaid tenants - sometimes through the ignorance of the inquests, more often through bribery [memb. 7] or maintenance by persons who hope to have the marriages of the heirs and the wardship of the aforeaid lands and tenements by gift and grant of our said lord the king, for their own use and profit - it is stated there that their aforesaid heirs are younger than in truth they are. And although the aforesaid heirs, when they reach their said majority, sue in the chancery of our said lord the king to have livery of their aforesaid inheritances, as true reason and conscience demand - demanding writs de etate probanda on the matter addressed to the escheators of the counties in which the said heirs were born, who are best able to have cognizance of their age - yet they are still denied the said writs, and thus denied also livery of their aforesaid inheritances by the aforesaid officers, because they have been incorrectly held and returned to the said chancery in the aforesaid manner, to the great injury, wrong and impoverishment of the aforesaid heirs.
Que please a nostre dit seignur le roy, par advys des seignurs, et assent des communes du cest present parlement, ordeigner par estatuit afaire en ycelle, qe les heirs en manere suisdit grevez, et endamagez par tielx nient veritables offices et enquestes, soient resceux en la chauncerye a lour plein age d'avoir briefs de etate probanda, directes as eschetours suisditz, de prover lour age, nient obstant les enquestes avauntditz en fourme suisdit prisez acountraie [sic: read 'acountrarie'] en la chauncerie retournez. Parissint qe les heirs suisditz pursuent briefs de scire facias envers eux q'ount possession en les mariages et garde des terres et tenementz suisditz, de done et graunt nostre dit seignur le roy, ou de done des autres, retournable en le dit chauncerye al jour de retourne des ditz briefs de etate probanda, [col. b] a faire instaunce et travers encountre l'office pris sur les ditz briefs de etate probanda, s'il ysemble que serra affaire: et les ditz briefs de scire facias servys, et en la chauncerye retournez, et nulle instance ne travers fait acontrarie au dit temps, qe livere soit fait as ditz heirs de lour heritages. Et en cas qe au dit temps travers soit fait, q'adonqes la triale ent soit fait en le counte deins le quele les briefs de etate probanda sont pursuez; et si trove soit par verdit d'enquest sur le dit travers, que les heirs suisditz sount de pleyn age,q'ils eient livere de lour heritages avauntditz. Et qe les heirs a present deins age esteantz, si bien aient l'avantage et benefice de cest estatuit, come les < heirs > que serrount trovez deins age en temps avenir. May it please our said lord the king, by the advice of the lords and the assent of the commons of this present parliament, to ordain, by a statute to be made in it, that heirs who are deprived in the aforesaid manner and wronged by such untruthful offices and inquests should be allowed in the chancery to have writs de etate probanda at their majority, addressed to the aforesaid escheators, to prove their age, notwithstanding the aforesaid inquests held to the contrary in the aforesaid manner and returned in the chancery. Provided that the aforesaid heirs also sue writs of scire facias against those who have possession in the aforesaid marriages and wardship of the lands and tenements by gift and grant of our said lord the king, or by gift of others, which are to be returned in the said chancery on the day of the return of the said writs de etate probanda, [col. b] whereby an objection and traverse against the office held on the said writs de etate probanda may be made, if it seems that this should be done: and when the said writs of scire facias have been served and returned to the chancery, and no objection or traverse has been made against them at the said time, then livery should be made to the said heirs of their inheritances. But if a traverse is made at the said time, then the trial concerning it should be held in the county in which the writs de etate probanda have been sued; and if it is found through the verdict of an inquest on the said traverse that the aforesaid heirs are of age, they should have livery of their aforesaid inheritances. And heirs presently under age should have the advantage and benefit of this statute, as well as heirs whoare found to be under age in the future.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soit fait come ad estee usee devant ces heures. Let it be done as has been the custom before now.
VIII. < Mayor et communialltee de Norwicez. > VIII. < [Petition from the mayor and community of Norwich concerning cloth]. >
48. Item priount les communes pur les mair, viscountz, et communalte de la citee de Norwicz, qe come devaunt ces heurs les draps de worstedes, qe soloient en la dit citee, sibien come en le countee de Norff', estre bien et covenablement faitz, et soloient tener lour duez mesures et assises en toutz pointz: c'estassavoir, les draps de worstedes appellez boltes, autrement appellez Thretty Elnys, de deux assises; c'est assavoir, l'un assise doit contenir .xxx. alnes en longure, et .ij. quarters d'un alne en laeure, les queles sount appellez Thretty Elnys streites; et l'autre assise doit contenir .xxx. alnes en longure, et .iij. quarters d'un alne en laeure, les queles sont apellez Thretty Elnys brodes; et les worstedes appellez mantelles sengles, demy doubles, et doubles, sibien les motles, paules, chekeres, raies, flores, pleynes, monkesclothes, et autres queconqes mantelles, doient tenir en longure .vi. alnes, ou .vij. alnes, ou .viij. alnes, ou .ix. alnes, ou .x. alnes plenerement, et en laeure un alne et .i. quarter d'alne; et les worstedes appellez chanonclothes, c'estassaver, sengles, demy doubles, et doubles, doient tenir .v. alnes en longure, et un alne et .iij. quarters d'un alne en laeure; et les worstedes appellez worsted beddes, doubles, et sengles, de trois assises, d'ont un assise doit contenir en longure .xiiij. alnes, et en laeure .iiij. alnes, les queles sount appellez an holeworstedbed of tho most assise; un autre assise doit tenir .xij. alnes en longure, et en laeure .iij. alnes, les quelles sount appellez an holworstedbed of the mydle assise; et le tierce assise doit tenir .x. alnes et dimy en longure, et en laeure .ij. alnes et dimy, les quelles sount appellez an holworstedbed of le lest assise. Les quelles worstedes avaunt nommez sount ore de novelle si disseyvablement faitz par les overours d'icelle, sibien en fesure come en mesure suisditz, en graund esclaundre et arerisment sibien de les loialx merchauntz de la dit citee et de la paiis envyroun, come a grand damage des seignurs, gentielx, et autres gentz queconqes de la roiaulme, qe soloient achatier worstedes pur lour oeps, et en overt destruccioun des merchantz qe passent ovec les worstedes suisditz devers Flaundres, Selond, et autres diverses lieux pardela. Si qe les merchauntz aliens sount en purpos defaire serchier et alner toutz les worstedes venantz depar dela, et celles qe sount trovez defectyfs deforfaire; et outrement ordeigner horribles et esclaundreus peyns as vendours des ditz worstedes, qe serroit graund esclaundre et reprof a la roiaume, sibien come a la dite citee et a la countee de Norff', et final destruccioun des merchauntz, come a la dite citee, qe ne usent autres merchandise en substance, forsqe soulement les ditz worstedes, si ent ne soit competent remede purveu. 48. Also, the request of the commons on behalf of the mayor, sheriffs and community of the city of Norwich: whereas previously worsted cloths used to be well and properly made in the said city, as in the county of Norfolk, and used to keep their proper measures and sizes in all points: - that is, worsted cloths called bolts, otherwise called Thretty Elnys, of two sizes (that is, one size should be thirty ells long and half an ell wide, and they are called narrow Thretty Elnys, and the other size should be thirty ells long and three quarters of an ell wide, and they are called broad Thretty Elnys); and the worsteds called single, half double and double mantels, as well as motley, striped, checked, hooped, flowered, plain, monkscloth and other mantels of any kind, should be six ells long, or seven ells, eight ells, nine ells, or ten ells maximum, and in breadth one and a quarter ells; and the worsteds called canoncloths, that is, singles, half-doubles and doubles, should be five ells long and one and three quarter ells broad; and the worsteds called worsted beds, double and singles of three sizes, of which one size should be fourteen ells long and four ells wide, and they are called a whole worsted bed of the largest size; another size should be twelve ells long and three ells wide, and they are called a whole worsted bed of the middle size; and the third size should be ten and a half ells long and two and a half ells wide, and they are called a whole worsted bed of the smallest size - these worsteds named above have recently been very deceitfully made by the workers in that trade, both in their quality and in their aforesaid size, to the great disgrace and detriment both of the loyal merchants of the said city and of the countryside around, and to the great injury of the lords, gentlemen and all other people of the realm who used to buy worsteds for their use; and to the manifest ruin of the merchants who cross with the aforesaid worsteds to Flanders, Zeeland, and various other places overseas. With the result that the alien merchants intend to have all the worsteds which are taken overseas examined and measured, and those which are defective forfeited, or alternatively to ordain dreadful and shameful penalties for the sellers of the said worsteds, which would be a great disgrace and reproach to the realm, as well as to the said city and to the county of Norfolk, and would result in the total destruction of the merchants and of the said city, who do not produce any other merchandise in quantity, but only the said worsteds, if a suitable remedy is not provided for this.
Que please a nostre dit seignur le roy considerer, coment les overours des ditz worstedes ount repairez, et repairont continuelment, a la dite citee, et communement a un lieu appelle le worstede selde deins la dite citee, d'auncien temps ordeigne et use pur les ditz draps de worstede illoeqes vendre, et delors sont outrez et venduz [p. iii-638][col. a] sibien par les ditz merchauntz de la dite citee, come par autres gentz en diverses lieux sibien deins la roiaume come dehors. Et par l'assent de seignurs de cest parlement grauntier as mair et viscountz, et le communaltee du dite citee, et a lour successours as toutz jours, qe le mair du dit citee qe soit pur le temps, et ses deputees, eient plein poair de serchier et alner toutz maners worstedes avauntditz, et autres queconqes, en la dite citee de Norwycz, et en la countee de Norff', sibien deinz fraunchise come dehors, avaunt q'ils serrount mys a vendre, et ceux quelles serrount trovez sufficeauntment faitz, et teignont lours mesures avaunt ditz, q'ils serront enseales par le dit mair ou ses deputees ovec un seal a icelle par le dit mair a ordiner; et qe toutz les suisditz draps de worstede qe soient mys a vendre, ou venduz, devaunt q'ils soient enseales dessouthe le seal suisdit, soient a nostre dit seignur le roy forfaitz; et qe les ditz mair et ses successours eient la moite des ditz forfaitures, de done et graunt nostre dit seignur le roy: et qe le dit mair respoundra a mesme nostre seignur le roy del value del autre moite d'icelles draps de worstede issint forfaitz, par accompt ent affaire chescun an en l'escheqer nostre seignur le roy, par soun attourne, affaire southe le commune seal du dite citee, mesme le jour qe les viscountz de mesme la citee en averont d'an en an en le dit escheqer; et auxint grauntier as mair, viscountz, et communalte de citee avaunt dit, et a lour successours, pur le serchie et alnage de chescun pece de worstede appelle boltes, et altrement appelle Thretty Elnys, streites, ou brodes, un quart; et de chescun pece de toutz maners des autres draps de worstede desuis nommez, un obole; a avoir et prendre les ditz obole et quart, ensemblement ove le dit moite, as ditz mair, viscountz, et communalte, et a lour successours a toutz jours, de done nostre dit seignur le roy, en sustenance et reparacioun des mures du dite citee, et amendement del haute ryver illoeqes appelle Wensom', q'est en poynt d'estre destruitz, en final anientisement del citee avauntdit; pur Dieu, et en oevere du charitee. May it please our said lord the king to bear in mind that the makers of the said worsteds have repaired, and still repair, to the said city, usually to a place called the worsted stall in the said city, which has been ordained and used from ancient times to sell the said worsted cloths there, whereupon they are taken away and sold [p. iii-638][col. a] either by the said merchants of the said city or by other people in various places both within the realm and outside it. And, by the assent of the lords of this present parliament, to grant to the mayor and sheriffs and to the community of the said city, and to their successors forever, that the mayor of the said city at the time and his deputies should have full power to examine and measure all the aforesaidworsteds of any kind, and all others, in the said city of Norwich, and in the county of Norfolk, whether within a franchise or outside, before they are put up for sale; and those which are found to be adequately made, and keep to the aforesaid measurements, should be sealed by the said mayor or his deputies with a seal to be provided for this by the said mayor; but that any of the aforesaid worsted cloths which are put up for sale, or sold, before they are sealed under the aforesaid seal, should be forfeited to our said lord the king; and that the said mayor and his successors should have half the said forfeitures as a gift and grant from our said lord the king; and that the said mayor will answer to our same lord the king for the value of the other half of those worsted cloths thus forfeited, through an account to be presented on this each year in our lord the king's exchequer, through his attorney, to be sealed under the common seal of the said city, on the same day that the sheriffs of the same city take it each year to the said exchequer; and also to grant to the mayor, sheriffs and community of the aforesaid city, and to their successors, in return for examining and measuring each piece of the worsteds called bolts, and otherwise called Thretty Elnys, narrow or broad, a farthing; and for each piece of all other kinds of worsted cloths mentioned above, a halfpenny; the said farthing and halfpenny, together with the said half, to be had and taken by the said mayor, sheriffs and community, and by their successors forever, as a gift of our said lord the king, for the upkeep and repair of the walls of the said city and the repair of the high river there called the Wensum, which is on the point of destruction, to the complete ruin of the aforesaid city; for God, and by way of charity.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roy < le voet > , adurer pur les .vii. ans proscheins ensuantz le demy an apres la proclamacioun de cest ordinance. (fn. iii-622-312-1) The king wills it, to last for the next seven years, starting half a year after the proclamation of this ordinance. (fn. iii-622-312-1)
IX. < Ulnage des draps. > IX. < IX. [Alnage of cloth]. >
49. Item priont les comunes, coment vostre tresnoble aiel le Roy Edward tierce, qe Dieu assoile, l'an de soun regne vynt et seoptisme, eu bone deliberacioun ove prelats, ducs, counts, barons, chivalers, et communes, sommonez a soun graund counseille tenuz a Westm' l'an suisdit, pur remissioun et relees queux il, al request des prelatz, ducs, counts, barons, chivalers, et communes, fist des forfaitures a luy del ulnage des draps laignez deins soun roialme appurtenantz: pur queux remission et relees les ditz prelats, ducs, counts, barons, chivalers, et communes, graunteront a vostre dit aiel un subside, aprendre de chescun drap laigne vendable, a lever al oeps vostre dit aiel par les mains des alneours, es countees, citees, burghes, et villes, parmy tout le roialme d'Engleterre a yce deputees, pur ent respoundre a vostre dit aiel annuelment en soun escheqer, come ad estee fait, et unqore est, et piert de record; issint toutfoitz, q'apres qe l'alneour ad pris subside et alnage pur ascune drap solonc le graunt avaunt dit, pluis pur icelle ne soit demaunde, pris, ou resceux, come par ordinance ent fait, come devaunt est dit, pluis au plein est contenuz. (fn. iii-622-315-1) Et, tresexcellent seignur, ore tarde diverses gentz pur lour singuler profit ont purchacez lettres patentes roialx,pur lever un novel tolt de chescun drape laigne, et de canevas, et l'appellent mesurage, a nulle avauntage de vous, tresgracious seignur, einz damage commune a tout le roialme, et double charge as vendours des ditz draps, encountre l'ordinance suisdit. 49. Also, the commons pray that, as your most noble grandfather King Edward the third, whom God absolve, in the twenty-seventh year of his reign [1353], after due deliberation with the prelates, dukes, earls, barons, knights and commons whom he had summoned to his great council held at Westminster in the aforesaid year to discuss a remission and release which he, at the request of the prelates, dukes, earls, barons, knights and commons granted in relation to the forfeitures belonging to him of the alnage on woollen cloth in his realm - for which remission and release the said prelates, dukes, earls, barons, knights and commons granted to your said grandfather a subsidy to be taken on every saleable woollen cloth, and received by your said grandfather, to his use, by the hands of the alnagers appointed to do this in the counties, cities, boroughs, and towns throughout the whole realm of England, who were to answer for this to your said grandfather annually in his exchequer, as has been done, and still is, and appears on record, provided always that once the alnager had taken the subsidy and alnage for each cloth in accordance with the aforesaid grant, no more was to be demanded, taken or received for it, as is clearly explained in the ordinance relating to this, (fn. iii-622-315-1) as has been said above - however, most excellent lord, recently various people for their own profit have bought royal letters patent to raise a new tax on each cloth of wool, and of canvas, and they call it mesurage, which is of no benefit to you, most gracious lord, but rather to the general harm of thewhole realm and a double burden to the sellers of the said cloths, contrary to the aforesaid ordinance.
Si please a vostre treshaut roial magestee, ove l'assent des seignurs en icest present parlement assemblez, pur bien commune [col. b] de tout le dit roialme, toutz < tielx > lettres patentes revoker, et pur toutz jours adnuller; et ottroier, qe nulles tielx lettres patentes deceo enavaunt soient grauntez. May it please your most high royal majesty, by the assent of the lords assembled in this present parliament, for the common good [col. b] of all the said realm, to revoke and annul forever all such letters patent, and to grant that no such letters patent be henceforth granted.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soit l'estatuit ent fait tenuz et gardeuz. Let the statute made on the matter be kept and observed.
X. < Gentes de countees d'Oxenford et Berk'. > X. < [Petition from the people of the counties of Oxfordshire and Berkshire, concerning the University of Oxford]. >
50. Item suppliount tres humblement sibien les chivalers, esquiers, et autres gentiels des countees d'Oxenford et Berk, come les mair et burgeyses del ville d'Oxenford, qe come nostre seignur le roy ore tarde, par disloial suggestioun, ad graunte par ses lettres patentes al chaunceller et escolers de l'universitee illoeqes, et a lour successours a toutz jours, q'ils, ne lour servantz, ne nulle qe soit dessouthe lour privilege, ne serroit mys a respoundre devaunt ascune jugge nostre seignur le roy, de tresone, felonie, ou maheme par eux fait deins la ville ou countees suisditz, sinon devaunt lour seneschal demesne, et en mesme la ville. Et s'ilz pledent al issue de paiis, qe la moite de l'enquest serra pris par gentz queux sount dessouthe lour privilege, et lour servantz, retournez par les bedelles du dite universitee. Et qe chescun jugge et ministre nostre seignur le roi doit liverer a eux les appelles et enditementz des matiers suisditz quant ils sount par eux requis, sur peyne de ccli.. Le quele est molt encountre commune droit, la ley du terre, et la regalie nostre seignur le roy, et overt matier pur faire debate et discencioun entre l'escolers illoeqes et les suppliantz avauntditz et autres lieges nostre dit seignur le roy. 50. Also, the most humble request both of the knights, esquires and other gentlemen of the counties of Oxfordshire and Berkshire, and of the mayor and burgesses of the town of Oxford: whereas our lord the king recently, acting on false information, granted by his letters patent to the chancellor and scholars of the university there, and to their successors forever, that neither they nor their servants, nor anyone who is under their privilege, should be made to answer before any judge of our lord the king for treason, felony, or mayhem committed by them in the aforesaid town or counties, but should answer before their own steward, and in the same town. And that if they put themselves on the country, then half the inquest will be taken by people who are under their privilege, and their servants, who will be returned by the beadles of the said university. And that every judge or minister of our lord the king ought to deliver to them the appeals and indictments relating to the aforesaid matters when they are asked by them to do so, on pain of £200. Which is very much against common right, the law of the land, and the regality of our lord the king, and a manifest cause of dispute and dissension between the scholars there and the aforesaid supplicants and other lieges of our said lord the king.
Please a nostre seignur le roy considerer la matier avauntdit, et les meschiefs queux purrount avenir en icelle partie, et qe les ditz lettres patentes en icest present parlement soient < repellez > , adnullez, revokez, et tout outrement cassez, et de ce enavaunt pur nulles tenuz. May it please our lord the king to consider the aforesaid matter and the grievances which are likely to arise from it, and that the said letters patent should in this present parliament be repealed, annulled, revoked and quite utterly quashed, and henceforth be held to be null.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soit brief direct a chaunceller d'Oxenford, d'estre devaunt le counseil du roy a Westm' a les oeptaves de la Trinite proscheins, pur y monstre les charters de libertees et fraunchises grauntees a la universitee d'Oxenford; et ait mesme le conseil poair, par auctorite de parlement, appellez a eux les justices et les sergeantz du roy, d'examiner le graunt fait de les ditz libertees et fraunchises: et qe surce tielx libertees et fraunchisees come lour semble molt prejudicielx au roy, soient modifiez et refourmez, solonc lour sages discrecions. Et quant a les autres libertees et fraunchisees comprisez en lour ditz charters, queux sont prejudiciels a moun seignur le prince, ou a l'evesqe de Wyncestre, ou as autres persones q'ont libertees celles parties, soient les counseils sibien de moun dit seignur le prince come de le dit evesqe, et de les autres persones dessuisditz, devaunt le dit conseil; appellez a eux les justices et sergeantz dessuisditz. Et oiez et entenduz lour reasons d'ambepart, face mesme le counseil, par auctorite de parlement, ce qe meultz leur semblera en les matiers dessuisdites. Let a writ be adressed to the chancellor of Oxford to be before the king's council at Westminster on the octaves of Trinity next [26 May], to show there the charters of the liberties and franchises granted to the university of Oxford; and let the same council have power, by authority of parliament, having summoned before them the king's justices and serjeants, to examine the grant made of the said liberties and franchises: and that, following this, such liberties and franchises as seem to them seriously prejudicial to the king should be modified and corrected in accordance with their wise discretion. And with regard to the other liberties and franchises included in their said charters, which are prejudicial to my lord the prince or to the bishop of Winchester, or to other persons who have liberties in those parts, let the councils both of my said lord the prince and of the said bishop, and of the other persons mentioned above, come before the said council; having summoned before them the aforesaid justices and serjeants. And when the arguments on both sides have been heard and considered, let the same council, by authority of parliament, dowhat seems best to them in the aforesaid matters.
[memb. 6]
XI. < Pour la ville de Truru. > XI. < [Taxes paid by the town of Truro]. >
51. Item supplient humblement les communes pur les poveres burgeys et hommes de la ville de Truru en le countee de Cornwaile, qe come la dite ville est si empoveres par pestilence et mort des persones, et par invasioun et perde par les enemys sur la meer, et nommement par le surcharge del disme de xij li. et xxij d. qe fuist pris d'icelle ville a chescun temps quaunt disme fuist leve; qe pur defaut des inhabitantz en mesme la ville, et a cause du dit surcharge, ele est devenuz si povere, q'ele ne poet porter icelle charge de xijli. et xxij d. Quele disease fuist monstre a sire Richard nadgairs roy, second puis le conquest: par advys de soun counseil un brief issist a le viscount de mesme le countee, pur enquerer combien ele purroit paier, et trove fuist par les pluis sufficeantz chivalers et esquiers de tout la paiis, qe suffist a la dite ville paier chescun foitz quaunt le disme serra leve cynkant souldes soulement, sicome en la chauncerye pleinement appiert. Et sur ce le dite nadgairs roy par [p. iii-639][col. a] ses lettres patentes graunta, q'ele paieroit pur .xx. ans ensuantz en chescun graunt cynkant souldes soulement. Et nostre seignur le roy < q'orest > , par advys de soun counseil, ad graunte a la dite ville pur sys ans en semblable manere, sicome par les lettres patentes ent faitz pleinement appiert, les queux sys ans sount ore tout passez. Et par cause q'ils ount la dite graunt sinoun par patent pur certeins ans, ils ne fount ascuns reparations de lour measons, eins purposent de guerpre la ville, et lour enhabiter en autry lieu, si covenable remede et aide ne soit purveu celle partie. 51. Also, the humble request of the commons on behalf of the poor burgesses and men of the town of Truro in the county of Cornwall: whereas the said town is so impoverished by pestilence and mortality, and by invasion and loss from enemies at sea, and especially by the surcharge on the tenth of £12 and 22d. which has been taken from that town whenever a tenth has been levied; so that, because of the lack of inhabitants in the same town, and because of the said surcharge, it has become so poor, that it cannot bear that charge of £12 and 22d. These misfortunes were explained to lord Richard formerly king, the second since the conquest, and on the advice of his council a writ was issued to the sheriff of the same county to inquire as to how much it could pay, and it was found by the most competent knights and esquires of the whole country that it was enough for the said town to pay, whenever the tenth was levied, fifty shillings only, as plainly appears in the chancery. Whereupon the said former king granted by [p. iii-639][col. a] his letters patent that it should pay at each grant for the following twenty years, fifty shillings only. And our lord the present king, on the advice of his council, has made a similar concession to the said town for six years, as plainly appears in the letters patent made on this; which six years have now completely passed. Yet because they have the said grant by patent only for a certain number of years, they are not making any repairs to their houses, but rather intending to abandon the town and move to another place if suitable relief and help is not provided in this matter.
Please a vostre tres gracious seignurie considerer, coment la dit ville est key et defens del paiis envyroun a la venu des e [sic] enemys, et de vostre treshabundant grace grauntier a les burgeys et hommes du dite ville, et a lour successours et heirs burgeys et hommes de mesme la ville, qe en chescun graunt de les disme et quinzisme qe desorenavaunt serra a vous graunte, ou voz heirs, q'ils paient cynkant souldes soulement, et qe tout le remanant, c'estassaver, ixli. xi s. x d., soient outrement dischargez pur toutz jours. May it please your most gracious lordship to consider how the said town is the key to the defence of the countryside around against invasion by enemies, and, of your most abundant grace, to grant to the burgesses and men of the said town, and to their successors and heirs as burgesses and men of the same town, that at each grant of a tenth and fifteenth which is henceforth granted to you, they should pay fifty shillings only, and that all the remainder, that is, £9 11s. 10d., should be utterly discharged forever.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roy le voet, adurer pur les .x. ans proscheins advenirs. (fn. iii-622-333-1) The king wills it, to last for the next ten years. (fn. iii-622-333-1)
XII. < Pour les countees de Lancastre, et Chester. > XII. < [On behalf of the counties of Lancashire and Cheshire, for the keeping of the sea]. >
52. Item suppliont les communes pur les countees de Lancastre, Chestre, et Cumbr', come plusours roberies, depredacions, et prise des niefs et gentz Engleys prys prisoners sur la meer par les coustees des countees suisditz, par les enemys de Fraunce et Escoce, et rebelles de Gales, a cause q'il y ad nulle admiralle ne gardeyn sur la dit meer, en graund destruccioun, anientisment, et oppression de les countees suisditz. 52. Also, the request of the commons on behalf of the counties of Lancashire, Cheshire, and Cumberland: whereas many robberies, depredations and seizures of ships and English people, who are taken prisoner at sea along the shores of the aforesaid counties, are committed by French and Scottish enemies and by Welsh rebels, because there is no admiral or guardian on the said sea, to the great destruction, ruin and oppression of the aforesaid counties.
Que please considerer les meschiefs suis ditz, et surce, pur profit du roy et du roiaume, ordeigner, qe l'admiralle d'Engleterre face assigner soun depute, ove suffisant navee et gentz d'armez et archiers, pur la sauf garde du meer, et countees suisditz. May it please you to consider the aforesaid grievances, and thereupon, for the profit of the king and of the realm, to ordain that the admiral of England should assign his deputy, with an adequate fleet and men at arms and archers, to the safeguarding of the sea, and of the aforesaid counties.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Remede ent serra purveux en l'ordinance affaire pur la sauf garde de la meer. A remedy will be provided for this in the ordinance to be made for the safeguarding of the sea.
XIII. < Pour la ville de Melcombe. > XIII. < [Fee-farm and taxes paid by the town of Melcombe]. >
53.Item suppliont humblement les poveres burgeys et tenantz nostre seignur le roy de sa ville de Melcombe en le counte de Dors', q'est adjoignant sur la cost du meer, qe soloit rendre au Roy < [Edward] > nadgairs roy d'Engleterre, aiel nostre seignur le roy q'orest, a < fee ferme .viii. marcz annuelment > , et paier pur les dismes quaunt ils serront grauntez par la communalte au roy, ixli. et x s.. Et apres ce, la dite ville, sibien en temps le dit Roy Edward come en temps le Roy Richard nadgairs roy d'Engleterre, par sodains assautes de Fraunceys fuist en tant ars et destruiz, qe les burgeys, et autres en la dit ville a celle temps demurantz, alerent hors du dit ville ovec lour biens et chateux, et ycelle lesseront desolat pur la greindre partie, a cause de la dit destruccioun, et par enchesone de importable charge de l'annuel fee ferme et dismes avauntditz. Et apres, le dit Roy Richard consideraunt la destruccioun et poverte du dite ville, le .xx. jour de May, l'an de son regne xi me , par l'advys de soun counseil, en supportacioun del estat de les burgeys illoeqes a celle temps esteantz, et a cause qe merchantz et autres purroient venir illoeqes et demurer ovec le greindre volunte, en relevement de l'avauntdit ville, de sa grace especial pardonast, pur luy et ses heirs, a les avauntditz burgeys, lour heirs et successours, les arrerages de fee ferme, et des dismes avauntditz, qe furent grauntez a luy devaunt la dite .xx. jour du May, et luy duez pur la dite ville. Et outre ce, le dit nadgairs roy Richard graunta, pur luy et ses heirs, a les ditz burgeys, q'ils, lour heirs et lour successours, serroient quites et discharges de la dite annuel ferme de .viii. marcz, et de toutz dismes touchantz la dite ville, durant le terme de .xx. ans apres le dit .xx. jour du May proschein ensuant. Et le quele graunt fuist conferme par nostre dit seignur le roy q'orest, le ix me jour de Novembre, l'an de soun regne [col. b] primer, sicome par les lettres du dit Roy Richard et confirmacion nostre dit seignur le roy ent faitz, pluis pleinement appiert. Les queux suppliantz, et autres enhabitantz la dit ville, ount este destreinez apres ce qe le dit terme de .xx. ans fuist passe, sibien pur la dite annuel ferme, come pur les dismes duez au roy pur la dit ville. Sur quoy unqore les ditz burgeys, et autres tenantz, a parlement darreigne tenuz a Gloucestr' faisoient lour compleint, qe la dite ville ne fuist unqes si povere ne si desolat come fuist a temps de lour compleint, et prierent a roy, defaire grace a eux en celle partie. Et nostre dit seignur le roy eiant compassion de lour dit compleint, par advys de soun conseil grauntast un commission, qe fuist direct a monsire Humfrey Stafford, Johan Rolland, clerk, et autres persones, pur faire inquisicion, de la verite de la matier avauntdit, et d'autres articles et circumstances contenuz en la dit commission, et d'ent certifier en la chauncerye nostre seignur le roy. Par vertue de quele commissioun fuist trove, qe n'estoient a temps qe le dit enquest fuist pris outre .viij. burgeys et tenantz demurantz deins la dit ville, les queux ne purront paier par an a roy pur la dite fee ferme outre .xx. solds, ne pur les ditz dismes quant ils serrount grauntez outre vi s. viijd., par l'enchesons avauntditz. 53. Also, the humble request of the poor burgesses and tenants of our lord the king in his town of Melcombe in the county of Dorset, which lies on the coast of the sea, and which used to pay to King Edward [III], formerly king of England, grandfather of our lord the present king, eight marks annually in fee-farm, and to pay for each tenth that was granted to the king by the community, £9 10s.. More recently, however, both in the time of the said King Edward and in the time of King Richard formerly king of England, the said town has, by sudden attacks from the French, been so completely burnt and destroyed, that the burgesses and others living in the said town at that time abandoned the said town with their goods and chattels, and left it deserted for the greater part, because of the said destruction, and on account of the unbearable burden of the aforesaid annual fee-farm and tenths. And afterwards, the said King Richard, considering the destruction and poverty of the said town, on 20 May in the eleventh year of his reign [1388], on the advice of his council, in aid of the estate of the burgesses living there at that time, and so that merchants and others would be more willing to come and live there, in relief of the aforesaid town and of his special grace, pardoned, for himself and his heirs, the aforesaid burgesses, their heirs and successors the arrears of the fee-farm, and of the aforesaid tenths, which were granted to him before the said 20 May, and due to him for the said town. And besides this, the said former King Richard granted, for himself and his heirs, to the said burgesses that they, their heirs and successors, should be quit and discharged of the said annual farm of eight marks and of all the tenths payable by the said town, for a term of twenty years following the said 20 May next. Which grant was confirmed by our said lord the present king on 9 November in the first year of his [col. b] reign [1399], as appears more fully in the letters of the said King Richard and the confirmation of our said lord the king, made on this. The which supplicants, and other inhabitants of the said town, have, however, since the end of the said term of twenty years, been distrained both for the said annual farm and for the tenths due to the king for the said town. Whereupon the said burgesses and other tenants, at the last parliament held at Gloucester, once again complained that the said town had never been so poor or so desolate as it was at the time of their complaint, and they requested of the king to show grace to them on that matter. And our said lord the king, showing compassion because of their said complaint, on the advice of his council granted a commission which was addressed to Sir Humphrey Stafford, John Rolland, clerk, and other persons, to hold an inquisition into the truth of the aforesaid matter, and of the other articles and circumstances mentioned in the said commission, and to report on it in our lord the king's chancery. By virtue of which commission it was found that at the time when the said inquest was held there were no more than eight burgesses and tenants living in the said town, who will not be able to pay the king for the said fee-farm more than 20s. annually, nor for the said tenths when they are granted more than 6s. 8d., for the aforesaid reasons.
Plese a nostre seignur soveraigne, qe luy plest de sa grace especial de pardoner et relesser par ses lettres patentes a les ditz suppliantz, lour heirs et lour successours, l'avauntdit fee ferme annuel de viii marcz, et les ditz dismes de ixli. et x s., quaunt ils serrount grauntez en temps advenir; ensemblement ove toutz les arrerages a luy duez, sibien pur le dit fee ferme annuel de .viij. marcz, come del dismes devaunt ces heures a nostre dit seignur le roy ou a ses progenitours grauntez. Et outre ce, de grauntier a eux la dite ville a fee ferme, a avoir a eux, lour heirs et successours pur toutz jours, ovec les libertees et fraunchises aycelle appurtenantz: rendant a nostre dit seignur le roy et ses heirs pur icelle enapres xx s. annuelment, as termes de Seint Michel et Pasqe par ouels porcions, et paiantz a nostre dit seignur le roy et a ses heirs a chescun disme quaunt ele serra graunte par la comunalte vi s. viij d. tantsoulement, solonc l'extent de l'enquest avauntdit, pur Dieu, et en oevere du charitee. Considerantz le graund perde qe purroit estre a roy de ses custumes et subsides, qe amountent par an a mille marcz a meins en la port du dit ville, a cause q'est verisemblable, qe merchauntz ne vuillent venir au dit port enapres, come ils soleient faire, ovesqe lour merchandisees, si la dit ville serroit desolat par encheson des importables charges avauntditz. May it please our sovereign lord, of his special grace, please topardon and release the said supplicants, their heirs and their successors, by his letters patent, from the aforesaid annual fee-farm of eight marks, and the said tenths of £9 10s., when they are granted in the future, together with all the arrears due to him, both for the said annual fee-farm of eight marks and for the tenths previously granted to our said lord the king or to his progenitors. And furthermore to grant to them the said town in fee-farm, to be held by them, their heirs and successors in perpetuity, with the liberties and franchises belonging to it: henceforth paying to our said lord the king and to his heirs for it 20s. annually at the terms of Michaelmas and Easter in equal portions, and paying to our said lord the king and to his heirs at every tenth when it is granted by the community 6s. 8d. only, in accordance with the assessment made by the aforesaid inquest; for God, and by way of charity. Bearing in mind the great loss which might be incurred by the king of his customs and subsidies, which amount annually to 1,000 marks at least in the port of the said town, since it is probable that merchants will not want to come to the said port in future, as they used to do, with their merchandise, if the said town becomes deserted as a result of the aforesaid unbearable charges.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roy le voet, adurer par .x. ans proscheins avenirs. (fn. iii-622-347-1) The king wills it, to last for the next ten years. (fn. iii-622-347-1)
XIIII. < Eschetours. > XIIII. < [Escheators' inquests]. >
54. Item priount les communes, pur la graund meschief qe avient as diverses gentz du roialme par diverses offices queux sount pris par voz commissioners et par vostre eschetours; queux offices ascunes sount retournez en vostre chauncerye, et ascunes en vostre escheqer, et les parties qe par tielx offices soy sentent grevez, en cas come ils veignent en vostre dit escheqer devant vostre tresorer et barouns, et tiels offices traversent, accordent a la ley, et surce proces est fait envers l'enquest tanq'al graund distresse, voz ditz tresorer et barouns diverses foitz ne vuillent mye grauntier ascune nisi prius pur le dit traverse trier come ley et reason demandent, einz les parties et enquest delaient d'an en an, a lour tresgraund empoverissement et destruccioun. 54. Also, the commons pray that, because of the great trouble that has been caused to various people of the realm as a result of various ex officio inquests which have been held by your commissioners and by your escheators; some of which are returned in your chancery, and some in your exchequer; and if the parties who feel themselves to be injured by such inquests come into your said exchequer before your treasurer and barons and traverse such inquests, thereby complying with the law, whereupon a process is made against the inquest up to the grand distress, your said treasurer and barons are nevertheless often unwilling to grant any nisi prius to try the said traverse as law and reason demand, but rather delay the parties and the inquest from year to year, to their very great impoverishment and destruction.
Qe desorenavaunt, en tielx plees, et toutz autres, apres l'issue joint, et la graund distresse ent retourne devaunt voz ditz tresorer et barouns devers la jurre, si ascuns des parties, ou des jurrours issint retournez, voudra demandre d'avoir un nisi prius devaunt justices d'assises, ou devaunt justice de l'un banc ou de l'autre, qe soient grauntez a trier par le record du dit escheqer, sanz commission issant hors du dit escheqer, ensemblable manere [p. iii-640][col. a] q'est usee et fait en banc le roy, ou en commune banc, parissint qe le querelle ou matier soit mys au fyn sanz delaie, solonc ceo qe le cas requiert, et la ley demaunde. That henceforth, in such pleas, and all others, after issue has been joined and the grand distress has been returned before your said treasurer and barons with regard to the jury, if any of the parties, or of the jurors thus returned, wishes to demand a nisi prius before the justices of assizes, or before a justice of one bench or the other, that this should be granted, to be tried by the record of the said exchequer, without a commission being issued from the said exchequer, in the same way [p. iii-640][col. a] as it is commonly done in the King's Bench, or in the Common Bench, with the result that the dispute or matter should be resolved without delay, in accordance with what the case requires, and the law demands.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soient les estatuitz en ceo cas faitz tenuz et gardez. Let the statutes made in this case be kept and observed.
XV. < Pour la ville de Lyme. > XV. < [Fee-farm and taxes paid by the town of Lyme Regis]. >
55. Item suppliont humblement les poveres burgeys et tenantz nostre seignur le roy de sa ville de Lyme en le countee de Dors', q'est adjoignant sur la cost de meer, laquele ville soloit rendre au Roy Edward nadgairs roy d'Engleterre, aiel nostre seignur le roy q'orest, a fee ferme .xxxij. marcz annuelment, et de paier pur lour dismes quant ils serront grauntez par le communialte au roy viijli. x s.; et apres ce la dit ville, sibien en temps le dit Roy Edward come en temps le Roy Richard nadgairs roy d'Engleterre, par sodeins assautz des enemys Fraunceys fuist en tant arz et destruiz, qe les burgeys et autres illoeqes a celle temps demurantz eux departirent hors du dite ville ovesqe lour biens et chateux, et icelle lesseront desolat pur la greindre partie, a cause de la dit destruccion; et par encheson de importable charge del annuel ferme et dismes avauntditz. Et puis apres, le dit Roy Richard considerant qe la dite annuel fee ferme de .xxxij. marcz ne purroit estre leve et paie a luy par les burgeys de la dite ville a cause de l'avauntdit destruccion, par ses lettres patentes del date de le tierce jour de Marcz l'an de soun regne xiij me , [memb. 5] grauntast a un Walter de Merston' la fee ferme du dite ville, a avoir ove toutz choses a icelle ferme appurtenantz del fest du Pasqe proschein puis le dit tierce jour de Marcz tanqe a fyn de .x. ans pleinement estre accomplez. Et puis apres, mesme le Roy Richard le .xx. jour d'August l'an de soun regne .xvij., de sa grace especial pardonast a les ditz burgeys, et autres hommes du dite ville, du chescun disme qe serroit graunte a luy ou ses heirs del dit .xx. jour d'August durant la terme de .vij. ans vi < li. > x s., issint qe ou les ditz burgeys soloient paier a chescun disme viijli. x s. ne serroient chargez envers le dit Roy Richard pur chescun disme outre la somme de xl s.; et pur chescun moite de disme, outre la somme de xx s. tantsoulement, durant le terme de .vij. ans; sicome par les lettres patentes le dit Roy Richard ent faitz pluis pleinement appiert. Et depuis, les ditz burgeys, et autres enhabitantz la dite ville, sibien apres le dit terme de .x. ans pur les arrerages de la dit auncien fee ferme, come apres le dit terme de .vij. ans pur les arrerages d'icelles dismes, tanq'en cea, ount estee destruitz, a graund damage, perde, et empoverissement de toutz enhabitantz la dit ville. Et surce, < les ditz > unqore burgeys nadgairs complenantz et empriantz del eide et comfort nostre dit seignur le roy en celle partie, mesme le roy, par l'advys de soun conseil grauntast un commission, qe fuist direct a moun sire Humfrey Stafford, et sire Thomas Brook, et autres, pur faire inquisicioun de la matier avauntdit, et d'autres articles et circumstances contenuz en la dit commission, et d'ent certifier le chaunceller nostre seignur le roy. Par vertue de quele comissioun fuist trove, qe la dite ville est si desolate, qe les ditz burgeys ne purront paier a roy pur la dite annuel ferme outre c s. a quele somme le dit annuel fee ferme est extenduz par la dit enquest; ne pur les dismes quant ils serront grauntez a roy outre la somme de xiij s. iiij d., par l'enchesons avauntditz. 55. Also, the humble request of the poor burgesses and tenants of our lord the king of his town of Lyme Regis in the county of Dorset, which is on the coast of the sea; which town used to pay to King Edward [III], formerly king of England, the grandfather of our lord the present king, thirty-two marks annually in fee-farm, and to pay for their tenths when they were granted to the king by the community £8 10s.; recently, however, both in the time of the said King Edward and in the time of King Richard formerly king of England, the said town has been so burnt and destroyed by sudden attacks by the French enemy, that the burgesses and others living there at that time moved out of the said town with their goods and chattels and left it deserted for the most part, because of the said destruction, and because of the unbearable burden of the aforesaid annual farm and tenths. Following this, the said King Richard, considering that the said annual fee-farm of thirty-two marks could not be raised and paid to him by the burgesses of the said town because of the aforesaid destruction, by his letters patent dated 3 March in the thirteenth year of his reign [1390], [memb. 5] granted to one Walter de Merston the fee-farm of the said town, to be held, together with everything pertaining to that farm, from the feast of the next Easter after the said 3 March until ten whole years had elapsed. Afterwards, the same King Richard, on 20 August in the seventeenth year of his reign [1393], of his special grace pardoned the said burgesses and other men of the said town from any tenth which might be granted to him or to his heirs from the said 20 August for the term of seven years, £6 10s., with the result that, whereas the said burgesses used to pay for each tenth £8 10s., they would not now be charged by King Richard for each tenth more than the sum of 40s.; nor for each half tenth, more than the sum of 20s. only, for the next seven years; as plainly appears in the letters patent of the said King Richard relating to this. Since then, however, the said burgesses and other inhabitants of the said town have been oppressed by demands for arrears, both since the end of the said term of ten years, for the arrears of the ancient fee-farm, and since the end of the said term of seven years, for the arrears of tenths, and this continues still, to the great injury, loss, and impoverishment of all the inhabitants of the said town. Whereupon, when the said people who are still burgesses recently complained and requested the help and assistance of our said lord the king in this matter, the same king on the advice of his council granted a commission which was addressed to Sir Humphrey Stafford and Sir Thomas Brooke and others to hold an inquisition into the aforesaid matter, and into the other articles and circumstances mentioned in the said commission, and to report on it to our lord the king's chancellor. By virtue of which commission it was found that the said town is so deserted that the said burgesses will not be able to pay the king for the said annual farm more than 100s., at which sum the said annual fee-farm is assessed by the said inquest; nor for the tenths, when they are granted to the king, more than the sum of 13s. 4d., for the aforesaid reasons.
Que please a nostre seignur le roy, de sa grace especial de pardoner et relesser par ses lettres patentes a les suppliantz, lour heirs et lour successours, l'avauntdit annuel fee ferme de .xxxij. marcz, et les ditz dismes de viij li. x s. quant ils serront grauntez en temps avenir: ensemblement ove toutz les arrerages a nostre dit seignur le roy duez, sibien de la dite annuel ferme de .xxxij. marcz, come del dismes avaunt ces heures < a roy > ou a ses progenitours grauntez. Et outre ce, de grauntier a eux la dit ville a fee ferme, a avoir a eux, lour heirs et successours, pur toutz [col. b] jours, ovec les libertees et fraunchisees a icelle appurtenantz: rendant a nostre dit seignur le roy et ses heirs pur icelle enapres c s annuelment, as termes de Seint Michel et Pasqe par ouels porcions, et paiantz a nostre dit seignur le roy et a sesheirs a chescun disme, quant il serra graunte par le communialte, xiij s iiij d tant soulement, solonc l'extent de l'enquest avaunt dit; pur Dieu, et en oevere du charitee. Considerantz coment la port du dit ville est outrement destruiz par tempest du meer, et les ditz suppliantz ount commencez defaire un novelle port illoeqes, le quele ne poet estre parfournez sanz especial grace de nostre dit seignur le roy; et le quele porte, s'il purra estre fait, serra graund profit < sibien > a nostre dit seignur le roy et tout la dit ville come a tout la paiis envyroun. May it please our lord the king of his special grace to pardon and release by his letters patent the supplicants, their heirs and their successors, from the aforesaid annual fee-farm of thirty-two marks, and from the said tenths of £8 10s. when they are granted in future: together with all the arrears due to our said lord the king, both of the said annual farm of thirty-two marks and of the tenths previously granted to the king or to his progenitors. And furthermore, to grant to them the said town in fee-farm, to be held by them, their heirs and successors forever, [col. b] with the liberties and franchises belonging to it: henceforth paying to our said lord the king and his heirs for it 100s. annually at the terms of Michaelmas and Easter in equal portions, and paying to our said lord the king and to his heirs for every tenth, when it is granted by the community, 13s. 4d. only, in accordance with the assessment made by the aforesaid inquest; for God, and by way of charity. Bearing in mind that the port of the said town has been utterly destroyed by a storm at sea, and the said supplicants have begun to build a new port there, which cannot be finished without the special grace of our said lord the king; which port, if it can be built, will be of great profit both to our said lord the king and all the said town and to all the countryside around.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roy le voet, adurer par .x. ans proscheins avenirs. (fn. iii-622-361-1) The king wills it, to last for the next ten years. (fn. iii-622-361-1)
XVI. < Pour la ville de Hacche. > XVI. < [Taxes paid by the village of Hatch, or West Hatch]. >
56. Item priont les comunes pur les poveres lieges nostre seignur le roy de la ville de Hacche, autrement appelle Westhacche en le countee de Somers'; qe come en temps du tresnoble Roy Edward aiel nostre seignur le roy q'orest, l'an de soun regne oeptisme, le quele an les dismes et quinzismes furent grauntez au dit Roy Edward, la dite village, par necgligens des taxours ordeinez pur icelles dismes et quinzismes assesser par villages et burghes, estoit deux foitz, et a deux diverses sommez, taxes et chargez: c'est assavoir, par le noun de Hacche, a xxxi s. ij d. et par le noun de Westhacche, a xxxiij s. ij d. en manere come ils estoient un village par soy mesmes appelle Hacche, et un autre village appelle Westhacche, la ou en verite ele est tout < un > mesme village, et nounpas deux diverses villages, sicome il est tout pleinement conuz par tout la paiis envyroun. Et issint par celle encheson les ditz suppliantz sount deux foitz chargez a la quinzisme, et en diverse manere, pur un mesme cause; laquele charge ils ne poient porter ne sustener pluis longement, mez lour covient de lesser la dit ville tout desolat, et aler a demurer en ascune autre lieu, s'ils ne soient remedez en celle partie. 56. Also, the request of the commons for the poor lieges of our lord the king of the village of Hatch, also known as West Hatch, in the county of Somerset: whereas in the time of the most noble King Edward, the grandfather of our lord the present king, in the eighth year of his reign [1334], in which year tenths and fifteenths were granted to the said King Edward, the said village, through the negligence of the tax assessors appointed to assess those tenths and fifteenths in villages and boroughs, was assessed and charged twice, for two different sums: that is, under the name of Hatch, for 31s. 2d., and under the name of West Hatch, for 33s. 2d., as if there were a village on its own called Hatch, and another village called West Hatch, whereas in truth it is all one and the same village, and not two different villages, as is perfectly well known by all the countryside around. And thus for this reason the said supplicants are charged twice for each fifteenth, and in different ways, for the same reason; which charge they cannot bear or support any longer, otherwise they will be obliged to abandon the said town entirely and go to live in some other place, if they do not have some remedy for this.
Que please a nostre tresgracious seignur le roy, de sa grace especial degrauntier un brief hors de sa chauncerye, direct a soun tresorer d'Engleterre, et as barouns de l'escheqer, eux commaundant a faire un due inquisicion en le dit counte, par la quele s'il soit loialment trove qe Hacche et Westhacche soit tout un village, deux foitz charge en diverse manere as diverses sommes pur un mesme cause, lors par commaundement nostre dit seignur le roy q'ils facent discharger les ditz suppliantz, et toutz autres qe demuront en l'avauntdit village enapres a toutz jours, de la dit surcharge de xxxi s. ij d.: paiantz toutz diz a nostre dit seignur le roy, et a ses heirs, en temps avenir quaunt le quinzismes serront grauntez par la communalte d'Engleterre, la dit taxe de xxxiij s. ij d.; considerantz qe la dit village est ore pres desolate pur la cause du dit surcharge. May it please our most gracious lord the king of his special grace to grant a writ from his chancery addressed to his treasurer of England, and to the barons of the exchequer, ordering them to take a proper inquisition in the said county; and if it is truly found by this that Hatch and West Hatch are all one village, charged twice in different ways with different sums for the same reason, then, by command of our said lord the king, let them cause the said supplicants, and all others who shall henceforth live in the aforesaid village forever, to be released from the said surcharge of 31s. 2d., but still paying to our said lord the king, and to his heirs, whenever in future fifteenths are granted by the community of England, the said tax of 33s. 2d.; considering that the said village is now almost deserted because of the said surcharge.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
De cest matire est un record en l'escheqer, et par tant aient les barons de l'escheqer poair, par auctoritee du parlement, d'examiner le dit record, et surce faire ce qe meulx leur semblera en le cas par lour discreciouns pur le roy et pur la partie. Concerning this matter there is a record in the exchequer, and therefore let the barons of the exchequer have power, by authority of parliament, to examine the said record and thereupon to do what seems best to them in this case according to their discretion, for the king and for the party.
XVII. < Pour le mayor et cytizens de Wincester. > XVII. < [Fee-farm of the city of Winchester]. >
57. Item priont les communes pur les mair et citezeins de Wyncestre, qe come la dite citee soit un auncien citee, et tenuz du nostre seignur le roy et ses progenitours < de temps > dount memorie ne court a fee ferme, rendant par an a nostre dit seignur le roy et a ses progenitours .c. marcz, et auxi as autres persones par assignement d'antiquite du roys d'Engleterre .xx. marcz; de quele citee la tierce partie et pluis a present < est > , et long temps ad estee, desolate et gaste pur defaut des inhabitantz, parount la dite citee est graundment empoverez et enfebles, et les bailliefs du dit citee pur le temps esteantz, [p. iii-641][col. a] queux devoient respoundre chescun pur soun temps sibien < de > la dite fee ferme come de les avauntditz .xx. marcz, diverses foitz ascuns ount estee finalment destruitz, et ascuns de lour biens grandement anientisez, a cause qe toutz les profitz et revenuz sourdantz deins la dite citee dont le dit fee ferme et les ditz .xx. marcz serroient levez, n'amountent pas a la value du dite fee ferme et de les ditz .xx. marcz, par .xl. marcz et pluis par an. Et en tant qe plusours vaillantz gentz jadys demurantz deins la dit citee, doutantz d'encurrer semblable damage, ount diverses foitz guerpys et voidez mesme la citee, et de jour en autre unqore la guerpent et voident, et autres foreins pur y demurer pur mesme la cause outrement eschuent, issint q'il est verroie semblable qe deinz brief la dit citee serra tout desolate et destruit, et nient enhabite des gentz, en disheritisment et graund damage de nostre dit seignur le roy, si remedie ne soit mys en cest partie. 57. Also, the request of the commons on behalf of the mayor and citizens of Winchester: whereas the said city is an ancient city, and has been held of our lord the king and his progenitors from time immemorial at fee-farm, paying each year to our said lord the king and to his progenitors 100 marks, and also to other persons, by an age-old assignment of the kings of England, 20 marks; of which city the third part and more at present is, and for a long time has been, deserted and laid waste for lack of inhabitants, as a result of which the said city is greatly impoverished and weakened; and of the bailiffs of the said city at the time, [p. iii-641][col. a] each of whom has to answer, during his period of office, for both the said fee-farm and the aforesaid 20 marks, some have at various times been completely ruined, while others have lost a great part of their possessions, because all the profits and revenues arising within the said city from which the said fee-farm and the said 20 marks should be raised, fall short, by 40 marks or more annually, of the value of the said fee-farm and of the said 20 marks. As a result, many worthy people who once lived in the said city, afraid to incur similar losses, have at various times abandoned and deserted the same city, and continue every day to abandon and desert it, and people from elsewhere refuse to come and live there for the same reason, with the result that it is probable that within a short time the said city will be completely deserted and destroyed and empty of people, to the disinheritance and great injury of our said lord the king, if a remedy is not provided on this matter.
Please a nostre dit seignur le roy en cest present parlement graciousement considerer l'estate et prosperite dount la dit citee estoit jadys renoune, et les poverte et desolacioun es queux ele est ore devenuz, et les graundres es queux verisemblable est q'ele doit avenir enavaunt, de sa bounteuouse grace grauntier as mair et communes du dite citee licence southe soun graund seal, sanz fyn ou fee paier, depurchacer certeins terres et tenementz, rentz et services, a la value de .xl. marcz par an, deinz mesme la citee, sibien tenuz de vouz come d'autres, et aillours qe ne sont tenuz de vous en chief, et qe les avauntditz mair et communes les terres, tenementz, rentz, et services suisditz issint purchacez purront resceiver, a avoir et tener a eux et a lour successours a toutz jours, de queconqe ses lieges deins le roialme, sanz empechement ou damage par vous, voz officers ou ministres queconqes, ou par voz heirs ou lour ministres, en aide del paiement de la fee ferme et de les .xx. marcz suisditz; ascuns estatuitz ou ordinancz a contrarie faitz nient contristeantz. May it please our said lord the king in this present parliament graciously to consider the wellbeing and prosperity for which the said city was once renowned, and the poverty and desolation to which it has now come, and the greater poverty and desolation to which it will probably come in future, and of his bounteous grace to grant to the mayor and commons of the said city licence under his great seal, without paying a fine or fee, to purchase certain lands and tenements, rents and services to the value of 40 marks a year within the said city, held either of you or of others, and elsewhere, which are not held of you in chief; and that the aforesaid mayor and commons may be able to accept the aforesaid lands, tenements, rents and services thus purchased, to have and to hold for themselves and for their successors forever, of any of his lieges in the realm, without harm or hindrance from you or any of your officers or ministers, or from your heirs or their ministers, in order to help to pay the fee-farm and the aforesaid 20 marks; notwithstanding any statutes or ordinances made to the contrary.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roy voet, qe les citezeins deinsescriptz puissent purchacer terres, tenementz, et rentz, deinz la citee de Wyncestre, a la value de .xl. marcz par an, et les avoir et tenir a eux et a lour successours a toutz jours, paiantz ent lour fyn et fee de graund seal en la chauncery du roy. The king wills that the citizens named in the document should be able to purchase lands, tenements, and rents within the city of Winchester to the value of forty marks a year, and for them and their successors to have and hold them forever, paying out of them their fine and fee for the great seal in the king's chancery.
XVIII. < Pour les countees de Somers', Bristuit, Willtes', et Glouc'. > XVIII. < [Weirs, etc. in the counties of Somerset, Bristol, Wiltshire, and Gloucestershire]. >
58. Item priont les communes pur les communes des countees de Somerset, Bristuit, Wiltes', et Glouc', pur profit du roy et de roialme, qe come par les weres sibien faitz de pere come de maeresme et estakes sicches, qe sount si estreites et enhances en la ryver appelle Avene, qe court < de > Bathe a Bristuit, et d'illoeqes a la meer, meynt foitz de jour en autre aveignent plusours et diverses graundes mieschiefs as loialx lieges nostre seignur le roy, et toutz les communes de countees avauntditz; et le cours del streme du dit ryver ensi estopez, qe hommes, femmes, enfauntz, bestes, et merchantz ove lour biens et merchandises, sount soventfoitz illoeqes periz et noiez, et les prees, pastures, et terres semez, adjoynantz a dit ryver, souroundez, gastez, et destruitz, et les vesselx et bateux qe soleient franchement passer illoeqes, destourbez de lour passage, < a graund damage > du dit commune. Et auxint l'ou les ditz communes et merchantz soleient avoir un vesselle passant en la dit ryver par le streme, chargez ove vyn, cere, sele, et autres merchandises, paiantz pur la cariage pur les dys leukes viij d., unqore ne purront avoir le dit cariage meyns qe viij s.; a graund destruccioun des ditz communes, et arrerisment de tout la paiis envyroun. 58. Also, the request of the commons on behalf of the commons of the counties of Somerset, Bristol, Wiltshire, and Gloucestershire, for the advantage of the king and of the realm: whereas, because of weirs made of either stone or timber and dry stakes, which have been built so much narrower and higher in the river called Avon, which runs from Bath to Bristol, and from there to the sea, that frequent and numerous accidents befall the loyal lieges of our lord the king and all the commons of the aforesaid counties; moreover the course of the current of the said river has been obstructed to such an extent that men, women, children, animals and merchants with their goods and merchandise are often killed and drowned there, and the meadows, pastures and sown land adjoining the said river are flooded, laid waste and ruined, and the vessels and boats which used to pass freely there are hindered in their passage, to the great harm of the said community. And also whereas the said commons and merchants used to be able to send a vessel along the said river in the current, loaded with wine, wax, salt and other merchandise, paying 8d. per ten miles for the carriage, now they cannot have the said carriage for less than 8s.; to the great ruin of the said commons, and to the injury of all the surrounding country.
Que please a nostre seignur le roy considerer les mieschiefs, damages, et perdes suisditz, et surce ordeigner en cest present parlement par estatuit, qe resonable overture soit fait en toutz tielx weres en la ryvere suisdit issint levez, enhancez, et estreitez, puis le coronement [col. b] le Roy Richard, fitz a Roy Henry, sanz estre arreremain levez, enhancez, ou estreitez, sur peyn de sent marcz apaiers au roy versceux qe fount a l'encountre; issint qe les vesselles et batelx chargez des leyns, quirs, et peaux lanuz, vyns, cere, sele, draps, et autres diverses merchaundises, purront fraunchement passer et repasser par l'estreme du dit ryver, come auncienment soleient, sanz estre distourbez, pur profit du roy et en avauntage de ses custumes et subsidies. Et surce grauntier ses lettres patentes a ses suffisiantz commissioners, pur enquerer la verite du cest matire; et q'ils eient poair, par auctoritee de parlement, sibien par enquestes come par lour surveu et discrecion, defaire sufficeant overture en toutz les weres en le dit ryver, issint qe l'estreme d'icelle purra avoir fraunchement soun cours, et les vesselx et bateux suisditz passer et repasser sanz estre distourbez. Et si ascuns facent estreiter arreremayn les ditz weres encountre l'ordinance suisdit, q'ils encourgent la peyne a chescun foitz .c. marcz, pur estre paiez a nostre seignur le roy par estretes ent affaire, et deliveres en l'escheqer le roy. Et ensement, q'en chescun were en toutz les autres ryvers parmy Engleterre soient sufficeantz overtoures faitz, sanz estre estreitez, en peyn et en fourme suisditz. May it please our lord the king to consider the aforesaid misfortunes, injuries and losses, and on this matter to ordain in this present parliament by statute that a reasonable opening should be made in each of the weirs thus constructed, raised and narrowed in the aforesaid river since the coronation [col. b] of King Richard [I], son of King Henry [II], and that they should not be constructed, raised or narrowed further, on pain of one hundred marks to be paid to the king by those who contravene this; so that vessels and boats loaded with wools, hides and woolfells, wines, wax, salt, cloth and various other commodities will be able freely to pass and repass along the current of the said river as they were formerly accustomed to do, without being hindered; for the king's advantage, and for the profit of his customs and subsidies. And on this to grant his letters patent to his competent commissioners to ascertain the truth of this matter; and that they should have power, by authority of parliament, both through inquests and through their inspection and judgment, to make a suitable opening in each of the weirs in the said river, so that the current can take its course freely, and the aforesaid vessels and boats can pass and repass freely without being hindered. And if anybody causes the said weirs to be made narrower again, contrary to the aforesaid ordinance, let him incur the penalty of 100 marks for each offence, to be paid to our lord the king through estreats to be made on this, and delivered into the king's exchequer. And likewise, let adequate openings be made in each of the weirs in all the other rivers throughout England, without their being narrowed, on pain of the aforesaid penalty and in the aforesaid form.
[memb. 4]
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soient les estatuitz ent faitz tenuz et gardez, et soient commissions faitz a les pluis sufficeantz persones en chescun countee, d'ent faire inquisicioun, solonc la fourme des dites estatuitz. Let the statutes made on this be kept and observed, and let commissions be given to the most competent people in each county to make inquiry into this, in accordance with the form of the said statutes.
XIX. < Eleccion de chivalers de countees etc. > XIX. < [Election of knights for the shires, etc.] >
59. Item suppliont voz communes, qe come en le parlement tenuz a Westm' l'an de vostre regne seoptisme, ordine fuist et estable par estatuit, en conservacioun de les franchisees et libertees del eleccioun des chivalers des countees usez parmy tout vostre roialme, et par voz tresnobles progenitours roys d'Engleterre et vous du parlement en parlement confermez, de temps dont memorie ne court; (fn. iii-622-385-1) en quele estatuit ne fuist ordine ne mys nulle peyne sur les viscontz s'ils facent ascuns retournes encountre le tenure du dit estatuit. 59. Also, the request of your commons: whereas, in the parliament held at Westminster in the seventh year of your reign [1406], a statute was ordained and established for the preservation of the franchises and liberties concerning the election of knights for the shires, which are observed throughout your whole realm, and have been confirmed by your most noble progenitors kings of England and by you from parliament to parliament, from time immemorial; (fn. iii-622-385-1) in which statute no penalty was prescribed or imposed on sheriffs who make any returns contrary to the tenor of the said statute.
Pur quoy vous please de vostre treshabundant grace, en conservacion des ditz libertees et franchisees, et en a fortement [sic: read 'aforcement'] de vostre dit estatuit, de ent ordiner par vostre treshaut discrecioun, et par advys des seignurs de parlement, un peyne sur les viscountz qe fount lour retournes encountre le tenure du dit estatuit. Et qe voz justices des assises aient poiar et commaundement par auctoritee du dit estatuit d'enquerer en lour cessions des assises; et si devaunt eux poet estre trove par loial enquerre et deu examinacioun, qe les viscountz avont faitz, ou ascun de eux ad fait, ou face en apres, ascuns retournes ou retourne encontre le tenure du dit estatuit, et encountre la libertee du vostre dit commune, qe les ditz viscontz encourgent la peyne de cli. a vostre oeps, et les chivalers ensi nient duement retournez perdont lour gages de parlement, d'auncien temps accustumez. Therefore may it please you of your most abundant grace, for the preservation of the said liberties and franchises, and for the reinforcement of your said statute, to prescribe, through your very great discretion, and with the advice of the lords of parliament, a penalty for sheriffs who make their returns contrary to the tenor of the said statute. And that your justices of assize should have the power and ability by authority of the said statute to inquire into this in their sessions of assizes; and if it is found before them by true inquiry and due examination that the sheriffs have made, or any of them has made, or should hereafter make, any returns or return contrary to the tenor of the said statute and prejudicial to the liberty of your said commons, let the said sheriffs incur a penalty of £100 to your benefit, and let the knights who are wrongfully returned lose their wages for the parliament, which they have been accustomed to take from ancient times.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roy le voet; et qe le dit estatuit, et autres estatuitz par luy et ses nobles progenitours devaunt faitz sur mesme la matier soient tenuz et gardez. Et si les viscountz facent la contrarie, encourgent la peyne contenuz en cest peticione, et les chivalers ensy nient duement retournez perdont lour gages de parlement, d'auncien temps accustumez. (fn. iii-622-389-1) The king wills it, and that the said statute, and other statutes previously made by him and his noble progenitors on the same matter, should be kept and observed. And if the sheriffs act to the contrary, let them incur the penalty specified in this petition, and let the knights thus wrongfully returned lose their wages for parliament, which they have been accustomed to take from ancient times. (fn. iii-622-389-1)
XX. < Hosterie. > XX. < [Owners of hostels]. >
60. Item priont les communes, pur le profit nostre seignur le roy, qe nulle homme qe tient commune hosterie en ascune citee ou burghe d'Engleterre soit custumer, countrollour, tronour, ne sercheour nostre dit seignur le roy, pur eschuer la damage et perde qe nostre dit seignur le roy purroit avoir par la favour qe tieux communes hostilers [p. iii-642][col. a] voillent faire as merchantz et autres lour hostes en lour offices suisditz. 60. Also, the commons request, for the advantage of our lord the king, that no man who has a common hostelry in any city or borough of England should be a customs officer, controller, troner or searcher of our said lord the king, to avoid the injury and loss which our said lord the king might incur through the favour which such common hostellers [p. iii-642][col. a] might wish to show to merchants and others who are their guests in their aforesaid offices.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roy le voet. (fn. iii-622-395-1) The king wills it. (fn. iii-622-395-1)
XXI. < Contracts, plees, etc. [editorial note: another hand] Court admiralles. > XXI. < Contracts, pleas, etc. [editorial note: another hand] [Pleas in the admiral's court]. >
61. Item supplient les comunes, qe come ordeine et estable estoit par un estatuit, qe de toutz maners contractz, plees et quereles, et de toutes autres choses faitz ou sourdantz deinz les corps dees countees, sibien par terre come par eawe, et auxint de wreek du meer, la court de l'admiralle eit nulle manere conusance, poair, ne jurisdiccioun, come en le dit estatuit pleinement est contenu: nepurqant les ministres d'admiralle q'ount estez depuys qe le dit estatuit estoit fait, par toutz les costes du meer ount pris enquestes devant eux deinz le corps des countees, et fount venir devaunt eux plusours lieges nostre seignur le roy par lour distresses, qe sont demurantz ascunes .c. leucs hors des costes du meer, d'enquerer des plusours choses faitz deins les corps des countees, come de deodandes venauntz des fraunchises des diverses seignurs parmy le roialme, queux devent appartiendre a nostre dit seignur le roy, ou as autres seignurs des ditz franchises; et de leyns et autres merchandises cariez outre la meer nient paiantz les subsidies et custumez ent duez a nostre dit seignur le roy; et auxint des gors, weres, et kydels qe sont assisez en ryvers fresqes hors del haut file du meer; et des faux poises et mesures nient accordantz al standard nostre seignur le roy; et de toutz maners vitaillers, et de lour vitalles venantz hors du meer , ou issant hors d'icelle, s'ils soient bones et resonables ou nemy; et auxi des artificers et laborers demurantz pres les costes du meer, s'ilz preignent excessiment pur lour labour ou nemy; et de toutz autres choses dont ils poient gaigner ascun argent torcenousement. Et ascunfoitz ils arestent diverses gentz sanz garrant, surmettant q'ils sont enditez et accusez, l'ou en verite ils ne sount enditez n'accusez: encountre la fourme des estatuitz avanditz, et en derogacioun del corone nostre tresexcellent seignur le roy, et anientisment de la commune ley, et des plusours lieges nostre dit seignur le roy. Et depuis, coment qe soit qe l'admiralle, ne ses ministres, n'ont poair ne auctoritee deprendre nulles tiels enquestes, n'enquisicions faire des choses avauntditz, si ascun homme, quel qe soit, est endite devant eux par tiels enquestes, et la partie issint enditee, ou nemy enditez, n'accusez, voile soy justifier pur estre acquite ou convict del enditemeut ou accusement dont il est endite, ou nemy endite, n'accusez, il ne serra my resceu a soun respons en mesme la paiis ou il est issint enditee, ou nemy enditee; mez s'il ne voet faire fyn ovec les ministres des ditz admiralx a lour voluntee, il serra ajourne a Loundres, a le key de William Horton', Suthwerk, a certein jour par les ditz ministres a luy assignez, sur certein peyne importable as ditz enditez, dont ils covient trover quatre plegges devaunt les ditz ministres pur gardre lour jour, coment q'ils soient demurantz en les pluis longues parties d'Engleterre. Et ce n'est pas pur nulle autre cause, mais pur cause qe les ditz enditez ne voillent faire fyn a lour voluntee, pur tielx choses qe ne sount coupables, qe serroit bien trove s'ils devoient estre triez en lour paiis ou ils sount demurantz, come bone foy et la commune ley demandent; et auxi tielx enditez paieront pur les fees des officers du dit court avaunt q'ils serront liverez xiij s. iiij d., soit il coupable, ou nient. Et auxi les ministres del admiralle teinent devaunt eux personeles plees parentre partie et partie, de dette, trespas, et de toutz autres choses sourdantz deinz les corps des countees, et fount les parties pleintiefs mettre loure damages a deux centz, trois centz, ou milleli. coment qe le principalle < accion > ne passe .xl. ou .c. solds, ou nient. Et ce est par cause qe la court voet avoir xx d. de chescunli. del un partie ou del autre; quele chose ne fuist unqes usee, ne paie, avaunt qe monsire Johan [col. b] Holand, count de Huntyngdoun, estoit admiralle. Mais devaunt soun temps un resonable amerciement soloit estre pris, solonc le cours de commune ley, dont le pleint fait mencion, coment qe le pleintief n'eit recoverer de nulle denier; en graund destruccion des poveres lieges nostre seignur le roy parmy le roialme, et derogacioun de la commune ley. 61. Also, the commons pray that, whereas it was ordained and established by statute that the admiral's court should have no cognizance, power or jurisdiction over any kind of contract, plea, or dispute or any other thing done or arising in the body of the counties, either on land or on water, or over shipwreck either, as is clearly specified in the said statute: nevertheless the admiral's ministers who have been appointed since the said statute was made have held inquests before them along all the coasts of the sea in the body of the counties, and, through their distraints, have made many lieges of our lord the king, some of whom live 100 miles away from the sea coast, come before them, to inquire into various things done within the body of the counties, such as deodands arising from the franchises of various lords throughout the realm, which ought to belong to our said lord the king or to the other lords of the said franchises; and wools and other merchandise carried overseas without paying the subsidies and customs due on them to our said lord the king; and also stanks, weirs and kiddles which are situated in freshwater rivers away from the high tide of the sea; and false weights and measures which are not in accordance with our lord the king's standard; and all kinds of victuallers, in relation to the victuals which they acquire at sea, or are found in it, as to whether they are good and reasonable or not; and also craftsmen and labourers living near the coasts, as to whether they take too much for their work or not; and anything else from which they can earn any money wrongfully. And sometimes they arrest various people without a warrant, claiming that they have been indicted and accused, whereas in reality they have not been indicted or accused: all of which is contrary to the form of the aforesaid statutes, and to the discredit of the crown of our most excellent lord the king and the ruin of the common law, and of many lieges of our said lord the king. And then, despite the fact that neither the admiral nor his ministers has the power or authority to hold any such inquests, or to hold inquisitions on the aforesaid things, if any man, whoever he is, is indicted before them by such inquests, and the party thus indicted, or not indicted, or accused, wishes to go to law in order to be acquitted or convicted of the indictment or accusation of which he is indicted, or not indicted, or accused, he is not under any circumstances allowed to make his response in the same area in which he is thus indicted, or not indicted; and if he is unwilling to pay a fine to the ministers of the said admirals at their pleasure, his case is adjourned to London, to the quay of William Horton in Southwark, on a certain day assigned to him by the said ministers, and on pain of a certain penalty unbearable to the said indicted persons, for which they have to find four pledges before the said ministers to keep their day, even though they are living in the furthest parts of England. And this is done for no other reason than that the said indicted persons are unwilling to pay a fine at their will, because they are not guilty of these things, which would certainly be demonstrated if they were to be tried in their countries where they are living, as good faith and the common law demand; and also such indicted persons have to pay for the fees of the officers of the said court before they are set free, 13s. 4d., whether they are guilty or not. Moreover, the ministers of the admiral hear before them personal cases between party and party, of debt, trespass, and of all other things arising within the body of the counties, and they make the plaintiffs set their damages at £200, £300, or £1,000, although the principal action does not exceed 40 or 100s., or nothing at all. And this is because the court wants to have 20d. in each pound from one party or the other; which never used to be done, or paid, before Sir John [col. b] Holand, earl of Huntingdon, became admiral. For before his time a reasonable amercement used to be taken in accordance with the course of the common law, which is mentioned in the plea, even though the plaintiff does not have recovery of a penny; and all this is to the great ruin of our lord the king's poor lieges throughout the realm, and to the discredit of the common law.
Que please a nostre tresexcellent seignur le roy, considerer le graund destruccioun et enpoverissement de ses poveres lieges avauntditz, par les grandes mesprisions et oppressions a eux faitz par les ditz ministres des admiralx, et la derogacion de sa corone, et usurpacioun sur la commune ley de sa terre, < en cest present > parlement ordiner par estatuit ent affaire, qe nulle admiralle, ne lour deputes, ne teignent de cea enavaunt plee de nulle chose sourdant deinz le corps des countees, encountre la fourme des estatuitz avauntditz. Et q'ils ne preignent de ce enavant [xxd.] delli. de nulle somme q'est en demande devaunt eux, coment qe soit qe la cause pendant devaunt eux soit determinable par la ley du meer, et nient par le commune ley, sinoun un resonable amercyment del partie pleintief ou defendant, quele amerciament serra assys par loialx afferours devaunt eux jures en lour court, solonc la fourme de la commune ley, sur certein peyn a mettre sur les admiralx, ou ses deputes ou ministres, s'ils facent la contrarie, a paiers en l'escheqer al oepsnostre seignur le roy, chescun foitz q'ils soient trovez coupables en tielx cas. Et qe les justices de peax a gardre eient poair par mesme l'estatuit d'enquerer devaunt eux en lour cessions, de toutz admiralx, et lour ministres, qe fount la contrarie de cest request, et lour nouns certifier en vostre escheqer de jour en autere, par l'ou la payn sur eux mys poet estre leve al oeps nostre seignur le roy. May it please our most excellent lord the king to consider the great ruin and impoverishment of his aforesaid poor lieges, through the great wrongs and acts of oppression perpetrated against them by the said ministers of the admirals, and the discredit of his crown, and usurpation of the common law of his land, and in this present parliament to ordain, through a statute to be made on this matter, that no admiral, nor their deputies, should hear henceforth a plea on any matter arising within the body of the counties, contrary to the form of the aforesaid statutes. And that henceforth they should not take 20d. in the pound from any sum which is demanded before them, even though the case pending before them is determinable by the law of the sea and not by the common law, but they should take only a reasonable amercement from the plaintiff or the defendant, which amercement will be assessed by loyal assessors sworn before them in their court in accordance with the form of the common law; on pain of a certain penalty to be imposed on the admirals, or their deputies or ministers, if they do the opposite, to be paid in the exchequer to the profit of our lord the king each time that they are found guilty in any such case. And that the justices for keeping the peace should have power through the same statute to institute inquiries before them in their sessions into all admirals and their ministers who act contrary to this request, and to make their names known in your exchequer from day to day, whereby the penalty imposed on them can be levied to the profit of our lord the king.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soient l'estatuitz ent faitz tenuz et gardez. Let the statutes made on this matter be kept and observed.
XXII. < Justices d'assise. > XXII. < [Justices of assize]. >
62. Item priont les comunes, qe soit ordine en cest present parlement, qe justices des assises par commissioun nostre seignur le roy en countees du roialme aprendre assignez, et assigners, desorenavaunt facent deliverer pleinement a vostre tresorie toutz les recordes de les assises de novel disseysen, de mortd'auncetre, et de certificacions, ove toutz les appurtenauntz et appendantz, devaunt eux determinez, chescun second an apres qe le plee ent soit determine et juggement rendue, sanz pluis delaye. Et qe les recordes et processe des plees realx et personelx, et d'assises de novel disseysyn, de mortd'auncetre, et certificacions, et d'autres, dont juggement soit renduz et enrollez, ou chose touchant tielx plees, ne soient en ascun manere amendez, n'enpeirez, par novel entre des clercs, ou par record ou chose certifie ou tesmoigne, ou comaundement d'aucun justice queconqe en nulle terme apres qe tiel juggement en tielx plees soit donez et enrollez. Et en outre, qe toutz les ditz justices des assises soient ferment chargez a tenir les assises en le chief ville du countee. 62. Also, the commons request that it should be ordained in this present parliament that the justices who have been appointed, or who are to be appointed, by commission of our lord the king to hold assizes in the counties of the realm, should henceforth ensure that all the records of the assizes of novel disseisin, of mort d'ancestor, and of certifications, with all that follows from or pertains to them, which are decided before them, are delivered in full to your treasury within two years of the judgment rendered, without further delay. And that the records and processes of real and personal pleas, and of assizes of novel disseisin, of mort d'ancestor, and of certifications, and of others, on which judgment is given and enrolled, or anything touching such pleas, should not in any way be amended or abridged through changes made by the clerks, or by any record or any thing certified or attested, or by the commandment of any justice at all at any time after the judgment on any such plea has been given and enrolled. And furthermore, that all the said justices of assizes should be strictly commanded to hold the assizes in the principal town of the county.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roy le voet. (fn. iii-622-409-1) The king wills it. (fn. iii-622-409-1)
XXIII. XXIII.
[attorneys].
[editorial note: Respectuatur per dominum principem et consilium.] [editorial note: This is deferred by the lord prince and the council.]
63. Item monstrent voz communes, qe graunt et grevous compleint est a eux fait par diverses gentz des diverses countes d'Engleterre, qe a cause de graund multitude des attournes deinz voz courtes esteantz, diverses errours, deceites, et injuries sount faitz de jour en autre en voz ditz courtes, et extorceons, dispences, et graundes perdes, as diverses de de [sic] voz lieges deinz vostre roialme, en graund damage et esclaundre de voz ditz courtes, et empoverissement et anientisment de voz ditz poveres lieges, si sufficeant remede ne soit en ordeine en icest present parlement. 63. Also, your commons declare that a great and grievous complaint is made to them by numerous people from various counties in England that, because of the great number of attorneys in your courts, various errors, deceptions and injuries are perpetrated from day to day in your said courts, and exactions, expenses and great losses are imposed on various of your lieges in your realm, to the great harm and disgrace of your said courts and the impoverishment and ruin of your said poor lieges, unless a suitable remedy is ordained for this in this present parliament.
Please a vostre roial mageste de commaundre voz justices, si bien de l'un banc come de l'autre, de appeller devaunt eux toutes les attournes q'eient rien affaire devaunt eux en voz ditz courtes, et par [p. iii-643][col. a] due et loial examinacioun eux examiner, et si ascune de eux puissent estre trovez devaunt les ditz justices coupables en ascuns des pointz avauntditz, qe les ditz justices eux toutoutrement oustent de voz ditz courtes pur toutz jours, et d'eslier de novel les pluis sufficeantz et loialx attournes, d'ascun counte .vi., d'ascun counte .viij., d'ascun .x., et d'ascun counte .xij., solonc la quantite del countee, et nient plusours. Et qe ceux issint esliez de novelle soient jurrez devant les ditz justices d'an en an, et de terme en terme, d'estre foialx et loialx avous, et defaire droit et loialte a toutz voz lieges en toutz casez q'ils aueront affaire en voz ditz courtes. Et si ascuns des ditz attournes issint esliez soit trove coupable en ascune des pointes avauntditz en temps avenir, ou si ascune autre forsqe les ditz attournes par les ditz justices issint esliez soy entremelle, ou preigne sur luy ascun suyte deinz voz ditz courtes, q'adonqes soit pris, et eit prison d'un an, et ransone a la volunte le roy. Et outre ce ordiner par estatuit, qe nulle filacer de l'un banc ne de l'autre, ne prenotorie, soit attourne. May it please your royal majesty to command your justices of both one bench and the other to call before them all the attorneys who are practising before them, and by [p. iii-643][col. a] due and loyal examination to examine them, and if any of them is found guilty before the said justices on any of the aforesaid points, the said justices should completely expel them from your said courts forever, and choose afresh the most competent and loyal attorneys, from one county six, from another county eight, from another ten, and from another county twelve, according to the size of the county, and no more. And those thus newly chosen should be sworn before the said justices each year and each term to be faithful and loyal to you, and to do justice and be honest to all your lieges in all the cases which they have to conduct in your said courts. And if any of the said attorneys thus chosen should be found guilty on any of the aforesaid points in the future, or if anyone other than the said attorneys thus chosen by the said justices involves himself in or takes upon himself any suit in your said courts, then he should be arrested and sent to prison for a year, and pay a redemption at the king's pleasure. And furthermore to ordain by statute, that no filazer of one bench or the other, nor any protonotary, should be an attorney.
[memb. 3]
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Touchant le nombre et la charge de serement des attournes, ovesqe la peine comprise en cest peticione, le roy le voet. Sauvez toutesfoitz, qe les filacers et prenotories puissent estre et soient attournes, come ils ount estee devaunt ces heures. Et si les ditz filacers ou prenotories soient trovez en defaut, en temps avenir, encountre la forme de cest peticione, q'ils eient la double peine d'enprisonement de les autres attournes, comprises en mesme cest peticione, et outre ce, facent fyn et raunceon a la volunte du roy. With regard to their number, and the wording of the oath of the attorneys, with the penalty specified in this petition, the king wills it. Saving always that filazers and protonotaries can and should be attorneys, as they have been previously. And if the said filazers or protonotaries are found to be at fault in the future, contrary to the tenor of this petition, they should incur double the penalty of imprisonment of the other attorneys specified in this same petition, and moreover they should pay a fine and redemption at the king's pleasure.
XXIIII. < Cokett. > XXIIII. < [Fees for cocket seals on cloth]. >
64. Item suppliont les communes, qe come les coillours nostre tresexcellent seignur le roy del custume q'est appelle coket, et les aunours qe portent les sealx pur ensealer les draps, preignont le coket, et pur les sealx, des poveres lieges nostre dit seignur le roy qe font draps appelles Kendales, Kerseis, Bakkes estoites [sic: read 'estroites'] , Cogware, Coventreware, frisez d'Irland et de Galys, dont un dozein ne passe la value de iij s. iiij < s. > ou de v s. pur feblesse de la leyne et de la fesure des tils draps en plusours countees du la roialme; les queux draps unqes ne soleient estre ensealez, ne paier nulle tiel custume appelle coket, en temps de voz tresnobles progenitours, jadys roys d'Engleterre, qe Dieu assoile. 64. Also, the commons pray that, whereas our most excellent lord the king's collectors of the custom which is called cocket, and the alnagers who have the seals to seal the cloths, demand money for the cocket, and for their seals, from the poor lieges of our said lord the king who make cloths called Kendals, Kerseys, narrow Bakkes, Cogware, Coventryware, Irish and Welsh frieses, of which a dozen do not exceed the value of 3s., 4 < s. > or of 5s., because of the poor quality of the wool and of the workmanship of such cloths in many counties of the realm; which cloths never used to be sealed, nor to have any such custom called cocket paid on them in the time of your most noble progenitors, formerly kings of England, whom God absolve.
Que please a nostre tressoveraigne seignur le roy considerer le graund poverte de ses poveres lieges, et les importables chargez et perdez q'ils portent de jour en autre, autrement q'ils purront longement adurer; et surce grauntier en cest present parlement par estatuit ent a faire, qe nulle de poveres lieges nostre seignur le roy decy enavaunt en paie nulle custume, ne pur le seal petyt ne graund, de tiels draps appelles Kendales, Kerseys, Bakkes estroites, Cogware, Coventreware, draps d'Irland et de Galys, ne pur nulle remenant de deux, trois, ou de quatre verges, si le dozein de tiel draps ne passe le value de x s.. May it please our most sovereign lord the king to consider the great poverty of his poor lieges and the unbearable burdens and losses which they suffer from day to day, and which they can no longer endure, and thereupon to grant in this present parliament through a statute to be made on this matter that none of the poor lieges of our lord the king should henceforth pay any custom, neither for the little seal nor for the great seal, on such cloths called Kendals, Kerseys, narrow Bakkes, Cogware, Coventryware, Irish and Welsh cloths, nor for any remnant of two, three or four yards, if such cloths do not exceed the value of 10s. per dozen.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soit use come ad estee usee devaunt ces heures. Let it be done as has been the custom previously.
XXV. < Servants et laborers. > XXV. < [Servants and labourers]. >
65. Item priont les communes, qe come a parlement tenuz a Cambrigg' par estatuit estoit ordeigne, qe toutz servantz et laborers eient arkes et sectes et les usent le dymenge et jours de festes, et lessent toutoutrement les jeues as pelotes sibien a mayn come a pee, et les autres jeues appellez coites, dys, gettre de peer, kayles, et autres tieux jeues importunes; et qe les viscountz, mairs, baillifs, et constables, eien poiar d'arester toutz les contrevenantz, come en le dit estatuit est contenuz pluis au plein. (fn. iii-622-425-1) Et au present, les ditz servantz, laborers, et autres, usent les ditz jeues importunes de jour en autre, encontre la fourme du dit estatuit; et les viscountz, mairs, bailliefs, ne constables, ne voillent faire execucioun du dit estatuit. 65. Also, the commons pray that, whereas, at the parliament held at Cambridge [1388] it was ordained by statute that all servants and labourers should have bows and arrows, and should use them on Sundays and feast days, and should completely abandon ball games played either with the hand or with the foot, as well as other games called quoits, dice, stone throwing, skittles, and other such useless games; and that the sheriffs, mayors, bailiffs and constables should have power to arrest all those contravening this, as is clearly specified in the said statute. (fn. iii-622-425-1) Yet the said servants, labourers and others still practise the said useless games from day to day, contrary to the form of the said statute; and the sheriffs, mayors, bailiffs and constables are unwilling to put the said statute into effect.
Que [col. b] please ordeiner en cest present parlement, pur honour et profit de roy et de roialme, un certein peyn sur les ditz servantz, laborers, et autres, qe usent tieux importunes jeues; et un autere peyn sur les viscontz, mairs, bailliefs, et constables, qe ne voillent, mes refusent, faire execucioun du dit estatuit. May [col. b] it please you to prescribe in this present parliament, therefore, for the honour and profit of the king and of the realm, a certain penalty for the said servants, labourers and others who practise such useless games; and a further penalty for the sheriffs, mayors, bailiffs, and constables who are unwilling, or indeed refuse, to put the said statute into effect.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soit l'estatuit ent fait tenuz et gardez; adjoustez a icelle, qe chescun tiel laborer qe face a contraier de mesme l'estatuit, eit emprisonement de .vi. jours. Et eient les mairs et viscontz, ou les mairs et bailliefs de citees et burghes, et les constables en autres villes, poair de mettre cest estatuit en execucion de temps en temps. Et s'ils ne facent ent execucioun, paient au roy les mairs et viscountz, ou les mairs et bailliefs dessuisditz, pur chescun lour defaut xx s.; et les constables de chescun ville qe ne facent au tiel execucioun du cest estatuit, paient au roy a chescun lour defaut vi s. viij d.. Et eient les justices d'assises poair d'enquerre en ce cas de temps en temps de les contrariantz de cest estatuit, et d'ent certifier en la chauncellerie. (fn. iii-622-429-1) Let the statute made on this matter be kept and observed; adding to this, that every such labourer who contravenes the same statute should be imprisoned for six days. And let the mayors and sheriffs, or the mayors and bailiffs of cities and boroughs, and the constables in other vills, have the power to put this statute into effect from time to time. And if they do not put it into effect, the aforesaid mayors and sheriffs or mayors and bailiffs should pay the king each time they default, 20s.; and the constables of each vill who do not put this statute into such effect should pay the king each time they default, 6s. 8d. And the justices of assize should have the power from time to time in such cases to inquire about those who have contravened this statute, and to report on this in the chancery. (fn. iii-622-429-1)
XXVI. < Pour John Kydwelley. > XXVI. < [Petition from John Kidwelly, concerning losses at sea]. >
66. Item priont les communes pur vostre povere liege Johan Kedwelly de Briggewauter, qe come les treues < estoient pris parentre nostre > soveraigne seignur le roy et soun adversarie de Fraunce, qe toutz pessioners de l'un partie et de l'autre devoient salvement aler et venir sur la meer sanz ascun damage estre fait par les lieges de Fraunce a les lieges d'Engleterre, ou par les lieges d'Engleterre a ceux de France, jesqes a la primer jour de May ore proschein venant. Et auxi, qe come accorde fuist parentre nostre tresredoute seignur le roy et soun adversarie avandit, qe toutz les merchauntz d'Engleterre devoient salvement venir a la Rochell' par terre ou par meer, illoeqes acharger des vyns, et retourner en Engleterre, et ceux de la Rochell' ensement en Engleterre a vendre lour vyns, et retourner, jesqes a la < dit > primer jour du May, come par les lettres patentes sibien de nostre soveraigne seignur le roy come de soun adversarie de Fraunce pluis pleinement appiert; dont overt proclamacioun estoit fait parmy toutz les portes devers le west d'Engleterre; parou les lieges nostre tresexcellent seignur le roy lour nieofs et lour biens ount envoiez a la meer, paiantz ent les custumes et subsidies duez a nostre soveraigne seignur le roy, ascunes pur aler a pescher, et ascuns pur aler a la Rochell', < solonc > les fourmes < de trues > avauntditz issint overtement proclamez. Parou le dit suppliant envoia un craier qe porta .xxiiij. tonelx, q'estoit appelle le cogge Johan de Briggewauter, dont Thomas Curteys estoit meister, pur aler a pessher, long temps apres la proclamacioun des ditz treues fait, le quele craier fuist pris par les gentz de Harflue, c'estassavoir, Johan Englyssh', et autres; et le dit craier, ovec .xiiij. merchauntz et mariners en icelle esteantz, amesnerount a la dit ville de Harflue, et illoeqes eux mistrent en dure prisone, sanz manger ou boier, avant q'ils ount fait lour raunceoun pur cli., outre la value du dit craier, et des biens en icelle esteantz qe vaillent bien cli.. Et auxi les gentz de Hareflue et de Seint Malowes, un autere foitz apres la proclamacioun des ditz treues pur le Rochell', pristeront un balyner du dit suppliant, del portage de .l. tonelx, et les biens en icelle balyner esteantz, a la value de ccli. ou pluis. Et le dit balyner, et un graund partie des biens ount venduz a les gentz d'Espayne en la meer. Et non obstant les avauntditz treuez, et un lettre patent de sauf condyt qe le dit suppliant ad del dit adversarie du Fraunce, pur luy, ses gentz, et ses biens, d'aler merchaundement par my tout le roialme de France, par terre et par meer, illoeqes pur achater et vendre en eide de paier la raunceoun de ses gentz qe sount en prisone en Hareflue, adurer par un an, come par le dit lettre patent pluis pleinement appiert, les ditz gentz de Hareflue et de Seint Melowes ount pris sur la meer, entour [p. iii-644][col. a] le fest de Toutz Seintz darrein passe, deux vadletz du dit suppliant: c'estassavoir, Johan Craft, et Thomas Codeworthy, ove .lx. dozeins de draps, qe vaillent bien .c. marcz, sicome ils estoient passans vers le Rochell', illoeqes a vendre lour draps pur paier la raunceoun de ses gentz qe sont unqore en prisone, et les ditz deux vadletz en le chastelle de Cherbough' ount mys en prisone, illoeqes a demurer avaunt q'ils ount paie xxli. pur lour raunceoun; < en > destruccioun et anientisment du dit suppliant a toutz jours, si remede a luy par nostre tresexcellent seignur le roy ne soit ordeigne en cest present parlement. 66. Also, the request of the commons for your poor liege John Kidwelly of Bridgwater: whereas the truces which were made between our sovereign lord the king and his adversary of France provided that all fishermen of one side and the other could safely come and go at sea without any harm being done by the lieges of France to the lieges of England, or by the lieges of England to those of France, until the first day of May next. And also, whereas it was agreed between our most dread lord the king and his aforesaid adversary that all the merchants of England could safely go to La Rochelle by land or by sea, there to load up with wine and to return to England, and those of La Rochelle likewise to England to sell their wines and to return, until the said first day of May, as is clearly specified in the letters patent both of our sovereign lord the king and of his adversary of France; public proclamation of which was made in all the ports in the west of England; as a result of which the lieges of our most excellent lord the king have sent their ships and their goods to sea, paying on them the customs and subsidies due to our sovereign lord the king, some to go fishing, and others to go to La Rochelle, in accordance with the terms of the aforesaid truces thus publicly proclaimed. Thus the said supplicant sent a boat which carried twenty-four tons, which was called the cog John of Bridgwater, of which Thomas Curteys was master, to go fishing, a long time after the proclamation of the said truces was made, which boat was seized by the people of Harfleur, namely by John English and others, and they took the said boat, with fourteen merchants and mariners in it, to the said town of Harfleur, and there they put them in a grim prison, without food or drink, until they had paid their ransom of £100, in addition to the value of the said boat and of the goods in it, which were worth at least £100. Moreover, the people of Harfleur and of St Malo, on another occasion after the proclamation of the said truces relating to La Rochelle, took a balinger belonging to the said supplicant with a carrying capacity of fifty tons, and the goods in that balinger to the value of £200 or more. And they sold the said balinger and a good part of the goods at sea, to the Spaniards. And notwithstanding the aforesaid truces - and a letter patent of safe-conduct for a year which the said supplicant received from the said adversary of France for himself, his people and his goods, to travel as a merchant throughout the whole realm of France on land or at sea, there to buy and sell to help with the payment of the ransom of his people who are in prison in Harfleur, as is clearly specified in the said letter patent - the said people of Harfleur and of St Malo also seized at sea, around [p. iii-644][col. a] the feast of All Saints last [1 November 1409], two valets of the said supplicant, namely, John Craft and Thomas Codworthy, with forty dozen pieces of cloth, which are worth at least 100 marks, as they were crossing towards La Rochelle, there to sell their cloth to pay the ransom of his people who are still in prison; and they have put the said two valets in prison in the castle of Cherbourg, to remain there until they have paid £20 for their ransom, to the destruction and ruin of the said supplicant forever, if a remedy is not ordained for him by our most excellent lord the king in this present parliament.
Que please a nostre tresgracious seignur le roy, par assent des seignurs espirituelx et temporelx en cest present parlement assemblez, considerer le graund destruccioun et perde du dit suppliant, faitz encountre la fourme des ditz treues, et de la dite lettre de sauf conduyt; et surce luy grauntier de sa grace especial ses honurables lettres patentes, pur prendre marke et reprisaile de toutes les lieges de Fraunce, qe n'ount nulle sauf conduyt de nostre tresexcellent seignur le roy, ou q'ils purront estre trovez par terre ou par meer, auxibien de lour corps, come de lour biens, jesqes a la value de dcli.; ou auterement q'il puisse avoir restitucioun en ascune autere manere, en relevacion de soun povere estat. May it please our most gracious lord the king, by the assent of the lords spiritual and temporal assembled in this present parliament, to consider the great ruin and loss incurred by the said supplicant, contrary to the terms of the said truces, and of the said letter of safe-conduct; and thereupon to grant him, of his special grace, his honourable letters patent, to take marque and reprisal from any lieges of France who have no safe-conduct from our most excellent lord the king, or who can be found on land or at sea, both from their bodies and from their goods, up to the value of £600; or alternatively to provide restitution for him in some other manner, for the relief of his poor estate..
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Sue a roy par peticione en especial, et il auera a tant des lettres requisitories come luy serront busoignables en le cas. Et si l'adversarie de France recuse de luy faire droit celle partie, le roy luy ferra droit, solonc ce qe le cas requiert. Let him sue to the king by an individual petition, and he will have as many letters of request as he needs in this case. And if the adversary of France refuses to do right to him in this matter, the king will do right to him, according to what the case requires.
XXVII. < Priories aliens. > XXVII. < [Alien priories]. >
67. Item priont les ditz communes, qe come diverses manoirs, seignuries, terres, tenementz, rentz, services, et autres possessions des abbeis et priories aliens deins vostre roialme d'Engleterre sont sibien en voz mains durant la guerre parentre vous et vostre adversarie de Fraunce, come es mayns de diverses de voz lieges, et ascuns pur terme de vie, et ascuns pur terme des ans; et en cas qe si aveigne qe fynal pees soit fait parentre les ditz roialmes d'Engleterre et de Fraunce, q'adonqes vous ne prendrez ascune profit des ditz manoirs, seignuries, terres, tenementz, rentz, services, et autres possessions des aliens avauntditz, esteantz en lour mayns propres deins vostre dit roialme d'Engleterre, forsqe tantsoulement de ceux de voz lieges qe purront purchacer ascunes des manoirs, seignuries, terres, tenementz, rentz, services, et autres possessions avauntditz, come de gardes, mariages, et pur fyns des alienacions, et plusours autres profitz qe adonqes apparteindront et deviendront a vous a cause des purchacez avauntditz. 67. Also, the request of the said commons: whereas various manors, lordships, lands, tenements, rents, services and other possessions of the alien abbeys and priories within your realm of England are either in your hands during the war between you and your adversary of France, or in the hands of various of your lieges, some of them for term of life, and some for a term of years; if however it happens that a final peace is made between the said realms of England and France, then you will not receive any profit from the said manors, lordships, lands, tenements, rents, services and other possessions of the aforesaid aliens, since they will be in their own hands in your said realm of England, except only from those of your lieges who may be able to purchase any of the manors, lordships, lands, tenements, rents, services and other aforesaid possessions, since in that case wardships, marriages, fines for alienations, and various other profits will then pertain and be due to you as a result of the aforesaid purchases.
Please a vostre tresexcellent roialte, de vostre grace especial grauntier et ordeigner en cest present parlement, qe chescun de voz ditz lieges qe voudra purchacer des ditz abbeis ou priories aliens ascuns de lour manoirs, seignuries, terres, tenementz, rentz, services, et autres possessions deins vostre dit roialme d'Engleterre, puisse avoir licence de chaunceller d'Engleterre pur le temps esteant dessouth le graund seal, par luy, ou par ascune autre en soun noun, pur passer la meer vers les parties de dela, pur la bargaigner et purchacer des ditz aliens et lour successours ascuns des ditz manoirs, seignuries, terres, tenementz, rentz, services, et autres possessions, ove toutz lour appurtenances, ovesqe franchises, libertes, et quitances queconqes, a eux d'auncien temps usez et accustumez, en partie ou en tout, ascuns pur termes des ans, ascuns pur terme de vie, et ascuns en fee pur toutz jours, come purra estre accordez parentre voz ditz lieges et les aliens avauntditz; et a mesmes les aliens, q'ils puissent aliener, doner, grauntier, confermer, relesser, et quietclamer, a chescun de voz ditz lieges lour manoirs, seignuries, terres, tenementz, rentz, services, et autres possessions q'ils eient deins vostre dit roialme d'Engleterre, ou ascune parcelle d'icelle, [col. b] ove toutz lour appurtenances, ovesqe fraunchises, libertes, et quietances queconqes, a eux d'auncien temps usez et accustumez, de tiel estat come parentre eux meulx purra estre accordez, pur un resonable fyn apres tiel purchace fait pur la confirmacioun d'icelle affaire come purra estre accordez parentre le dit chaunceller et chescun de voz ditz lieges qe en temps avenir vorra purchacer, come devaunt est dit, et mesme la fyn en vostre chauncerie paier; et ce par auctorite de cest present parlement. Paiant a vous et a voz heirs roys d'Engleterre, ou a toutz autres persones queconqes as queux vous, ou ascuns de voz predecessours, avez grauntez les fermes des ditz manoirs, seignuries, terres, tenementz, rentz, services, et autres possessions suisditz, tant pur la ferme des manoirs, seignuries, terres, tenementz, rentz, services, et autres possessions suisditz, come ils paient a vous ou a voz assignez a present durant la guerre suisdit. Et qe voz ditz lieges, ne nulluy de eux, ne lour heirs, par vous, ne par voz heirs, ne voz officers ne ministres queconqes, par cause de tieux purchaces ne soient molestez, empeschez, ne grevez en temps avenir; nonobstant la guerre parentre vous et vostre adversarie [memb. 2] de Fraunce, ou qe parentre voz heirs et les Frauncoys purra estre en temps avenir; ou q'ascuns des ditz manoirs, seignuries, terres, tenementz, rentz, services, ou autres possessions, sont d'auncien demesne, ou tenuz de vous en chief, ou donez par voz progenitours, ou par ascune autere persone, as ditz aliens et a lour successours en perpetuel almoigne, ou en ascune autere manere; ou qe ascune des abbeys ou priories suisditz sont del fundacion ou patronage de voz ditz progenitours, ou de vostre; ou ascune [sic] estatuitz, ordinancz, ou proclamacions faitz a contrarie, ou ascune autere chose ou cause queconqe. Purveu toutesfoitz, qe les priories aliens deins vostre dit roialme d'Engleterre conventuelx ne soient my comprisez en cest estatuit ou ordinance ent affaire. May it please your most excellent royalty of your special grace to grant and ordain in this present parliament that each of your said lieges who wishes to purchase from the said alien abbeys or priories any of their manors, lordships, lands, tenements, rents, services and other possessions within your realm of England, can have a licence from the chancellor of England at the time under the great seal, for himself, or for anyone else in his name, to cross the sea to the parts overseas, there to negotiate with and purchase from the said aliens and their successors any of the said manors, lordships, lands, tenements, rents, services and other possessions, with all their appurtenances, and with all the franchises, liberties and quitclaims which they have exercised or enjoyed since ancient times, in part or in whole, whether for terms of years or for term of life, or in fee, forever, for which it is possible to reach an agreement between your said lieges and the aforesaid aliens; and that the same aliens may have a licence enabling them to alienate, give, grant, confirm, release or quitclaim to any of your said lieges their manors, lordships, lands, tenements, rents, services and other possessions which they hold within your said realm of England or any part of it, [col. b] with all their appurtenances, and with all the franchises, liberties and quittances which they have exercised or enjoyed since ancient times, in such manner as will best be able to be agreed between them, in return for a reasonable fine to be paid after any such purchase so that it can be confirmed, to be agreed between the said chancellor and each of your said lieges who in future wishes to make any such purchase, as has been said above; which fine is to be paid in your chancery; and this by authority of this present parliament. And they shall pay to you or to your heirs as kings of England, or to any other person whatsoever to whom you or any of your predecessors have granted the farms of the said manors, lordships, lands, tenements, rents, services, and other possessions aforesaid, the same amount for the farm of the aforesaid manors, lordships, lands, tenements, rents, services, and other possessions as they pay to you or to your assignees at present during the aforesaid war. And that neither your said lieges, nor any of them, nor their heirs, should be molested, obstructed, or harmed in the future because of such purchases, by you, or by your heirs, or by your officers or ministers of any kind: notwithstanding the war between you and your adversary [memb. 2] of France, or any war which might arise between your heirs and the French in the future; or that any of the said manors, lordships, lands, tenements, rents, services, or other possessions are of the ancient demesne, or held of you in chief, or given by your progenitors or by any other person to the said aliens and to their successors in perpetual alms, or in any other manner; or that any of the aforesaid abbeys or priories are of the foundation or patronage of your said progenitors, or of yours; or any statutes, ordinances or proclamations made to the contrary, or any other thing or reason whatsoever. Provided always that the conventual alien priories within your said realm of England are not in any way included in this statute or ordinance to be made on this matter.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roy s'advisara. The king will consider this further.
XXVIII. < Galyhallfpence. > XXVIII. < [Galley-halfpennies]. >
68. Item priount les comunes, qe come les galihalpens courgent communement en le roiaume pur paiement, en derogacioun de la corone nostre seignur le roy, en graund disceit de la commune poeple. 68. Also, the commons pray that, whereas galley-halfpennies commonly circulate in the realm for payment, to the discredit of the crown of our lord the king, and to the great deception of the common people.
Qe please ordeigner par estatuit en cest present parlement, qe les ditz galihalpens jammes ne courgent en paiement, ne en autre manere, deinz le roialme d'Engleterre, sur peyn de forfaiture d'icelles. Et enoutre, qe toutz les galihalpens, en qi mayns q'ils soient trovez deinz le dit roialme, soient forfaitz a nostre seignur le roy apres la proclamacioun ent fait. May it please you to ordain by statute in this present parliament, that the said galley-halfpennies should never circulate for payment or in any other manner within the realm of England, on pain of their forfeiture. And furthermore that all the galley-halfpennies, in whoever's hands they are found within the said realm, should be forfeited to our lord the king following this proclamation.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roy le voet, apres les deux mois proscheins ensuantz la proclamacioun de cest estatuit. Et outre ce, voet mesme nostre seignur le roy, qe toutz les estatuitz et ordinances faitz devant ces heures par nostre dit seignur le roy, ou par ses nobles progenitours, sibien de la monoie d'Escoce come de la moneie des autres roialmes et parties de pardela la mieer, et nient repellez, soient tenuz et gardez, et mys en due execucioun. (fn. iii-622-449-1) The king wills it, after two months has elapsed following the proclamation of this statute. And furthermore, our same lord the king wills that all the statutes and ordinances made previously by our said lord the king, or by his noble progenitors, concerning both Scottish currency and the currency of other realms and parts overseas, and not repealed, should be kept and observed, and put into due effect. (fn. iii-622-449-1)
XXIX. < Drape de west countre. > XXIX. < [Cloth from the west country]. >
69. Item monstrent les communes de vostre roialme, qe come par estatuit et ordinance faitz deins vostre roialme en l'an vij me de vostre gracious regne, chescun court drape fait en les parties de westcuntre dedeins vostre roialme teignereit par assise la longure de .xxviij. verges par le crest, et chescune dozein de draps la longure de .xiiij. verges par le crest, et les raies conteignerent en longure par le list mesures mesme la longure: c'estassavoir, le drape entier .xxviij. verges, et le dozein .xiiij. verges; et certeins persones ulnerers, a ce assignez parmy vostre roialme, preignantz lour charge en vostre escheqer de bien et loialment sanz fraude sercher et surveier tiels [p. iii-645][col. a] maners draps et dozeins, qe chescun de eux en sa nature tiendroit sa longure et laeure come l'estatuit suisdit requireit, eiant iceux ulners poair et auctoritee depar vous, tressoverain seignur, defaire duement lour dit office, et d'ensealer, ove la seal al office suisdit assigne, toutz les draps et dozeins suisditz teignantz lour longure et laeure de assise suisdit, parency qe le poeple sanz doute purroit estre seure qe par la garant d'icelle ensealure les draps et dozeins suisditz teignerent lour longure et laeure, solonc la fourme del estatuit suisdit: (fn. iii-622-452-1) nounobstant quele estatuit, sont certeins gentz voz lieges en diverses parties de vostre roialme, et principalment en les parties de west suisditz, faisantz tielx maneres draps queux ne teignent l'assise < de > lour mesure suisdit, auxibien en rayes come en plein drape; qare l'ou le court drape duist teigner la longure de .xxviij. verges, il ne tient qe .xxiij. verges, et l'ou le dussein de draps duist teigner .xiiij. verges, il ne tient qe .xi. verges; et pur conceler icest deceyt du mesure, les suisditz gentz ency fesantz tielx draps et duisseins les facent pliter et takker ensemble maintenant apres q'ils soient faitz, et quant les ulnerers veient iceux draps ensi takkez ensemble, < ils les > ensealent sanz faire pluis de serche ou surveu de mesure d'icelle, a tresgraund disceit et arrerisment sibien as seignurs come as communes du roialme. 69. Also, the commons of your realm declare that whereas by a statute and ordinance made in your realm in the seventh year of your gracious reign [1406], all short cloths made in the parts of the west country in your realm should measure twenty-eight yards in length along the crest, and each dozen of cloths should be fourteen yards long along the crest, and striped cloths should be made to the same length along the edge: that is, the whole cloth twenty-eight yards, and the dozen fourteen yards; (fn. iii-622-452-1) and certain persons who are appointed to be alnagers throughout your realm, and who are charged in your exchequer to examine and inspect, well and loyally, without deceit, these [p. iii-645][col. a] types of cloths and dozens, in order to ensure that each of them, according to its type, should be of the same length and breadth as the aforesaid statute requires, these alnagers have power and authority on your behalf, most sovereign lord, to perform their office duly, and to seal, with the seal assigned to the aforesaid office, all the aforesaid cloths and dozens which are of the proper length and breadth according to the aforesaid measurements, so that the people can be sure without doubt that by the guarantee of that sealing the aforesaid cloths and dozens are of the proper length and breadth in accordance with the terms of the aforesaid statute: notwithstanding which statute, there are certain people, your lieges, in various parts of your realm, and principally in the aforesaid regions of the west, who make cloths of a certain type which do not conform to the aforesaid measurements, either for striped cloth or for whole cloth; for whereas the short cloth should have a length of twenty-eight yards, it measures only twenty-three yards, and whereas the dozen of cloths should measure fourteen yards, it measures only eleven yards; and to conceal this deception in the measurements, the aforesaid people who make these cloths and dozens in this way have them folded and tacked together immediately after they are made, and when the alnagers see such cloths tacked together in this way they seal them without examining or inspecting their measurements further, to the very great deception and harm both of the lords and of the commons of the realm.
Pur quoy please a vostre treshautisme seignurie, de vostre benigne grace comandre, qe ordeine et establie soit en cest present parlement, qe soit fait et delivere as ulnerers suisditz un novel seal, eiant signe et merche different a la veile seal de lour dit office. Et qe apres mesmele seal de novel fait as ditz ulnerers ency deliverez, proclamacioun overt soit fait en les ditz parties de west, qe nulle manere persone faisant tielx maners draps et dozeins en les ditz parties de west, n'aillours deins vostre roialme, ne soit si hardy de takker et pliter ensemble tielx maneres draps, avaunt qe le ulnerer eit fait soun serche et surveu duement d'iceux draps q'ils teignont lour droiturel longure et laeure, sur peyn de forfaiture d'icelles. Et qe le ulnerer apres ceo mette le dit novel seal de soun office as tielx maners draps et dusseins. Salvant ordeigne soit, qe toutz maners draps et dusseins de colour, et ray, queux sont ensealez ovesqe le veile seal suisdit avant la dit proclamacioun fait, puissent avoir lour cource de vende, sanz ascune impediment, empechement, ou distreint sur eux affaire par les ditz ulnerers, ou ascune autre officer, parentre le jour du dit proclamacion et le fest de Seint Petre dit advincula proschein venant. Et en cas q'ascune ulnerer en faisant soun dit office fait la contrarie, et de ce soit atteinct, q'al primer foitz q'il soit atteinct q'il perde a vous, tressoverayn seignur, xli., al second foitz xxli., et al tierce foitz soun corps arestuz, et toutz ses biens al volunte de vous, tresexcellent seignur. For which reason may it please your most high lordship of your benign grace to command that it should be ordained and established in this present parliament that a new seal should be made and delivered to the aforesaid alnagers, with a sign and stamp different from that of the old seal of their said office. And that after this newly-made seal has thus been delivered to the said alnagers, public proclamation should be made in the said regions of the west that no person of any kind who makes these kinds of cloth or dozens in the said regions of the west, or elsewhere in your realm, should be so bold as to tack and fold together such kinds of cloth before the alnager has duly made his examination and inspection of those cloths to ensure that they are of the proper length and breadth, on pain of forfeiture of them. And that only after that should the alnager put the new seal of his office on cloths and dozens of this kind. Saving that it should be ordained that all kinds of coloured and striped cloths and dozens, which are sealed with the aforesaid old seal before the said proclamation is made, should be sold by due process, without any impediment, hindrance or distraint by the said alnagers, or by any other officer, between the day of the said proclamation and the following feast of St Peter called ad Vincula [1 August]. And in case any alnager in the performance of his office does the contrary and is convicted of this, then the first time he is convicted he should lose to you, most sovereign lord, £10, the second time £20, and the third time his body should be arrested and all his goods taken at your pleasure, most excellent lord.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roy le voet. Et outre ce, celuy qe voet suir pur le roy, ou pur luy mesmes, eit la suyte d'atteindre tiel alneour ensi fesant a contrair de cest estatuit. Et eit mesme le pursuant pur soun travaille la quarte partie de la peyne de x li., ou xxli., comprise en cest peticione, solonc ce qe le cas aviendra. Savant as seignurs et autres lour fraunchises, si ascunes y eient en ce cas. (fn. iii-622-456-1) The king wills it. And, furthermore, anyone who wishes to sue on behalf of the king, or of himself, should have his suit to attaint any such alnager who acts contrary to this statute. And let this suitor have for his trouble the fourth part of the penalty of £10 or £20 specified in this petition, depending on what happens in the case. Saving to the lords and others their franchises, if they should have any in such cases. (fn. iii-622-456-1)
XXX. < Taxes, tallages, etc. > XXX. < [Contribution of the clergy to taxation]. >
70. Item priont les communes, qe come le roialme soit assys de chescune part de fort guerre, et les persones defensables de lour corps n'eient en biens dont ils purront lour mesmes susteigner, et defendre le roialme sanz gages, et le commune poeple, qe par chierte des blees, come par mortalitee des bestes, ne poet porter taxes ne taillages. Et d'autere part, les hommes de seint eglise, queux duissent tenir personelle residence et hospitalitee en lour benefices, en eide et supportacioun de toutz lour parochiens et subgitz a lour cure en peyne de lour dampnacioun, des queux les uns [col. b] apresent gisent en offices, sibien en voz courtz, come en courtz d'autres seignurs, et les autres sojornent a Loundres, Oxenford, Cantebrig', abbeis, priories, et plusours autres lieux, et poy ou rien dispendent en bone use, riens attendantz a lour [cure] , ou defaire chose a eux appurtenaunt; issint qe les richesses du roialme sount a present en lour mayns. 70. Also, the commons pray that, whereas the realm is beset on all sides with brutal war, and those people who are able to defend themselves bodily do not have enough possessions with which to sustain themselves, and defend the realm without wages; and the common people, both because of the scarcity of corn and because of the deaths of animals, cannot afford to pay taxes or tallages. Nevertheless, there are men of holy church who ought to reside personally and offer hospitality in their benefices, to help and support all their parishioners and subjects in their care, on pain of their damnation, some of whom [col. b] at present hold offices, both in your courts and in the courts of other lords, while others reside at London, Oxford, Cambridge, or in abbeys, priories and various other places, and spend little or nothing to good effect, not attending to their charges, or doing any of the things which they ought to do; with the result that the riches of the realm are at present in their hands.
Qe please a vostre tresgracious seignurie, par advys de toutz les seignurs espirituelx et temporelx, et a request de voz communes, en cest graund busoigne, qe de toutz les benefices des queux l'encumbentz de commune droit sont tenuz a continuel residence et hospitalite, et soy aloygnent de lour cure par ascune colour on feynte cause; et de toutz les benefices curez, des queux ascun de l'encumbentz occupie plusours benefices curez, ou d'autre part < si > lour clercs soient inductz et instituitz en icelles, al oeps et profitz de lour maistres; et de toutz les benefices apropriez par mayns verrayes suggestions faitz, soit ce a l'apostoille, ou a nostre seignur le roy, la verraye value, ent deductz les chargez necessaries, soit oeuelment departi en deux parties, et l'un moite remaigne as ditz incumbentz, et l'autre moite soit leve a vostre oeps et profite. May it please your most gracious lordship, with the advice of all the lords spiritual and temporal, and at the request of your commons, at this time of great need, that from all the benefices in which the incumbents are obliged by common right to reside continually and offer hospitality, but leave their charge on some pretext or feigned excuse; and from all benefices with cure in which any of the incumbents holds several benefices with cure, or alternatively to which their clerks have been inducted and instituted, to the advantage and profit of their masters; and from all benefices which have been appropriated through untrue claims which have been made, either to the pope or to our lord the king; the true value, with the necessary charges deducted from it, should be equally divided into two parts, and one half should remain to the said incumbents, and the other half should be levied for your use and profit.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Cest matier appartient a seint eglise. Et quant a la residence, remede ent fuist purveuz en la darrein convocacion; et quaunt a la remenant, le roy s'advisara. This matter belongs to holy church. With regard to the question of residence, a remedy for this was provided at the last convocation; and with regard to the rest, the king will consider this further.
XXXI. < Pour le maior et communialte d'Oxford. > XXXI. < [On behalf of the mayor and community of Oxford, concerning contributions to taxation]. >
71. Item suppliont les communes pur les mair et communialte de la ville d'Oxenford, qe l'ou mesme la ville en chescun xv me et x me , quaunt ils sount grauntez par les layes gentz a nostre seignur le roy, est charge de iiij xx xili. xiiij s. x d. pur estre levez en mesme la ville, et en les suburbes d'icelle, en manere come en auncien temps ad este levez. A quele somme diverses gentz de seint eglise, religious, eiantz terres et tenementz purchacez puis l'an xx me le Roy Edward fitz a Roy Henry illoeqes sont, et ont [estez] contributoirs, et ount paiez de temps en temps certeins sommes pur lour terres et tenementz avanditz de long temps accustumez, tan qe depuis le darrein graunt en le darrein parlement tenuz a Gloucestr', a quele graunt ils ne voillent paier, n'estre contributours en ascune manere, ne a nulle autere tiel graunt en temps avenir agrantier, a tresgraund arrerisment du ditz mair et communialte, et a final destruccioun du dit ville, si gracious remede ent ne soit purveu. 71. Also, the request of the commons on behalf of the mayor and community of the town of Oxford: whereas the same town, whenever a fifteenth and tenth are granted by the laity to our lord the king, is charged with £91 14s. 10d. to be levied from the same town and its suburbs, in the same way in which it was levied in ancient times. To which sum various people of holy church, religious, who hold lands and tenements there which were purchased since the twentieth year of King Edward [I] son of King Henry [1291-2], are and have been contributors, and have paid from time to time certain sums for their aforesaid lands and tenements, and have been accustomed to do this for a long time; until, that is, the recent grant in the last parliament held at Gloucester [1407], towards which grant they are unwilling to pay or to be contributors in any way, or towards any other such grant which may be granted in future, to the very great injury of the said mayor and community, and to the final ruin of the said town if a gracious remedy is not provided for this.
Qe please considerer, qe la greindre partie de possessions deins les ditz ville et suburbes sount es mayns des ditz gentz de seint eglise, et lour tenantz pur la greindre partie sont escolers, qe riens ne paient celle partie, et surce ordiner, qe les ditz gentz de seint eglise, religious, paiant de ce enavant en chescun tiel graunt tant de somme, et ne pluis, pur lour ditz terres et tenementz come ils ount paiez devaunt le darrain graunt a Gloucestr' suisdit. May it please you to consider that the greater part of the possessions in the said town and suburbs are in the hands of the said people of holy church, and their tenants for the most part are scholars, who pay nothing in this regard, and thereupon to ordain that the said people of holy church, who are religious, pay henceforth at each such grant as great a sum, and no greater, for their said lands and tenements, as they used to pay before the aforesaid last grant at Gloucester.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Toutz ceux gentz de seint eglise q'ount purchacez terres ou tenementz puis l'an xx me le Roy Edward fitz a Roy Henry, paient a la quinsime pur les terres et tenementz ensy purchacez. All those people of holy church who have purchased lands or tenements since the twentieth year of King Edward son of King Henry should pay at each fifteenth for the lands and tenements thus purchased.
XXXII. < Officialles. > XXXII. < [Officials and other episcopal officers]. >
72. Item priont les communes, qe come les officials, commissaries, et autres ministres de ercevesqes < et > evesqes d'Engleterre, facent somoner et citer de comparer devaunt eux les poveres lieges nostre seignur le roy, pro salute animarum; et quant celuy ensi sommone ou citee vient devant eux, adonqes la est prest un homme ove un libelle, pur countier encountre luy de dette, accompt, ou autre covenant ou contract, en derogacion des leys nostre seignur le roy, < et en grand arrerisment, damage, et perpetuel defesance, des ditz povers lieges nostre dit seignur le roy > ; qare ils serront condempnez a cause q'ils ne sount de poair pur lower advokettes et procuratours pur susteiner [p. iii-646][col. a] le plee encountre lour adversaries, ne q'ils ne sont de poair de pursuir un prohibicion. 72. Also, the commons pray that, whereas the officials, commissaries, and other ministers of the archbishops and bishops of England have the poor lieges of our lord the king summoned and cited to appear before them, pro salute animarum; and when a person who is thus summoned or cited comes before them, then there is a man ready there with a libel to plead against him for debt, account, or some other covenant or contract, to the discredit of the laws of our lord the king and to the great harm, injury and perpetual ruin of the said poor lieges of our said lord the king; for judgment is given against them because they are unable to hire advocates and proctors to uphold [p. iii-646][col. a] the plea against their opponents, and because they do not have the power to sue a prohibition.
Please vous ordiner par estatuit, en cest present parlement, qe desore enavant nulluy des lieges nostre seignur le roy soit sommone, citee, nevexe, en nulle court Cristrien, pur chose qe poet estre trie, termine, et remedie par la commune ley de la terre; et qe le dit estatuit soit proclame parmy tout le roialme d'Engleterre, aufyn q'il poet barrer les courtes Cristiens des tielx plees a toutz jours. Et celuy qe face la contrarie du dit estatuit apres la proclamacioun ent fait, eit la peyne d'emprisonement, et face fyn a roy, et q'il face gree al partie ensy citee et vexe de ses damages et costages. May it please you to ordain by statute in this present parliament that henceforth none of the lieges of our lord the king should be summoned, cited or harrassed in any Christian court for anything which can be tried, determined and remedied by the common law of the land; and that the said statute should be proclaimed throughout the whole realm of England, in order to bar such pleas from the Christian courts forever. And anyone who acts to the contrary of the said statute once it has been proclaimed should incur the penalty of imprisonment, and should make fine to the king and compensation to the party who was thus cited and vexed, for his damages and costs.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soit la commune ley tenuz en ce cas. Let the common law be kept in this case.
[memb. 1]
< Pour Thomas Chaucer. > < [Petition from Thomas Chaucer, concerning the franchise of the city of London]. >
73. As treshonures et tressages seignurs du cest present parlement monstre Thomas Chaucer, chief butiler nostre seignur le roy, coment toutz roys d'Engleterre, du temps dont memorie ne court, de lour droit heritage, et come parcelle al corone d'Engleterre, toutdys ount estee en possession du lour prisez de vyns en chescun port d'Engleterre: c'estassavoir, de chescun nief droitement arrivant deins ascune port d'Engleterre, des vyns de denizeins nient franchises, fret de .xx. tons de vyn ou pluys, due est au roy d'avoir de chescun tiel nief fret de tieux vyns, .ij. tons, ou .iiij. pipes de vyn pur soun droit prise; et de chescun nief frete de .x. tons, ou en outre tanq'a .xx. tons, .i. tone, ou .ij. pipes < de vyn > , come al chief butiler nostre dit seignur le roy pur le temps esteant, ou a soun lieutenant, en ascuns des portz d'Engleterre, pluis meillour lour semble, pur le profit nostre dit seignur le roy; des queux prises sibien nostre seignur le roy come toutz autres roys ses predecessours ount este toutdys en possessioun, et loialment paiez deins toutz les portz d'Engleterre, forqe soulement en le port de Loundrez et les Cynk Portz; les queux, sibien par nostre dit seignur le roy [come] par ses predecessours, ount estee, et apresent sount, ency enfraunchises, qe chescun homme sibien de la citee de Loundres come de les Cynk Portz, queux sont enfraunchises en ycelle, purront bien et fraunchement aler ovec lour vyns la ou lour plerra parmye tout le roialme d'Engleterre, sanz ascune prise en manere come devaunt est dit a nostre dit seignur le roy ent paier. La que fraunchise est [col. b] suppose qe par nostre dit seignur le roy ne ses predecessours ne fuist graunte al lieux suisditz, forqe au fyn qe les gentz soulement queux demuront, et par lour service deveignent continuelle demurantz, es ditz lieux, et lour enfauntz es ditz lieux nees, devoient avoir benefice du dit franchys. Et ore en la citee du Loundres est, et ad estee usee de long temps, qe chescun homme forein nient enfraunchise en la dit citee, qe voet venir al mair, chaumberleyn, ou mestres d'ascune mestier du mesme la cite, pur un petit somme d'argent apaier a chaumbre, ou a les mestres d'ascune mestier du mesme la citee, serra accepte al dit franchis, sibien come celuy qe ad toutdys este continuelle demurant en mesme la citee, nientobstant q'il est d'un autre ville ou burghe en Engleterre; en disheritesoun de nostre dit seignur le roy, sibien de ses prises, queux il devoit avoir de chescun tiel homme nient fraunchise, come de toutz autres custumes et duitees a nostre dit seignur le roy ency par eux duez. 73. To the most honoured and most wise lords of this present parliament, Thomas Chaucer, chief butler of our lord the king, declares that all the kings of England, from time immemorial, of their rightful inheritance, and as part of the crown of England, have always had their prise of wines in each port in England: that is, from each ship which arrives lawfully in any English port, including the wines of denizens who are not enfranchised, loaded with twenty tuns of wine or more, the king may take from each such ship loaded with such wines, two tuns or four pipes of wine for his rightful prise; and from each ship loaded with ten tuns, or more, up to twenty tuns, one tun or two pipes of wine; as seems best to the chief butler of our said lord the king at the time, or to his lieutenant, in any of the ports of England, for the advantage of our said lord the king; which prises have always been taken both by our lord the king and by all the other kings his predecessors; and these have loyally been paid in all the ports of England, excepting only in the port of London and the Cinque Ports; for the latter have been, and still are, enfranchised both by our said lord the king and by his predecessors, as follows, namely, that any man either of the city of London or of the Cinque Ports who is enfranchised there may freely come and go with his wines wherever he pleases throughout the whole realm of England, without paying for this to our said lord the king any prise of the kind described above. The which franchise, so it is [col. b] said, was not granted by our said lord the king or by his predecessors to the aforesaid places, except only to those people who live there andwho by their service become permanent residents of the said places, and to their children born in the said places, who alone should have the benefit of the said franchise. Yet now in the city of London it is the case, and has been the custom for a long time, that any foreigner not enfranchised in the said city who wishes to go to the mayor, chamberlain, or to the masters of any guild of the same city, in return for a small sum of money to be paid to the chamber or to the masters of any guild of the same city, will be accepted into the said franchise, just like a person who has always been a resident of the same city, notwithstanding that he is from another town or borough in England; to the disinheritance of our said lord the king both of his prise, which he should have from every such man not enfranchised, and of all other customs and duties thus owed by them to our said lord the king.
Si vous please considerer, qe sibien l'estat nostre dit seignur le roy come de sa corone soit garde, saunz anientisment [ou] prejudice; et surce ordiner, qe due remede purra estre fait ceste partie. C'estassavoir, deprier a nostre dit seignur le roy et a soun tressage counseil, d'envoir pur les mair et aldermans de la citee de Loundres, eux commandantz sibien en lour persones, come es mesters des diverses mestiers du dit cite, de cesser de lour franchise ency a chescun forein enavaunt grauntier, sur la peril de forfature del fraunchise du mesme la citee. Et auxi, de lour franchises as tieux foreins a present grauntiez en chescun mestier deins mesme la citee de repeler, s'ils ne soient devenuz au dit fraunchise en manere come devaunt est dit. Entendantz, qe autrement deins brief, sibien nostre dit seignur le roy q'ore est, come ses heirs queux doient estre roys enapres, serront disheritez de toutz lour prises des vyns parmy tout le roialme d'Engleterre par la franchises de mesme la cite de Loundres. May it please you to consider that the estate both of our said lord the king and of his crown should be preserved without diminution or harm; and on this matter to ordain that due remedy be made in this case. That is, to request our said lord the king and his most wise council to send for the mayor and aldermen of the city of London, commanding both them in person, and the masters of the various guilds of the said city, henceforth to stop granting their franchise in this way to any foreigner, on pain of forfeiting the franchise of the same city. And also, to repeal the franchises which they have already granted to such foreigners in every guild in the same city, if they are not entitled to the said franchise in the way that has been specified above. For it should be understood that otherwise, in a short time, both our said lord the present king and his heirs who are to be kings in the future will be disinherited of all their prise of wines throughout the whole realm of England because of the franchises of the same city of London.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roy voet envoier pur les mair et aldermans de dite citee. Et enoutre ad declarez, par advys des seignurs en parlement, qe nully n'eit ne enjoise tiele fraunchise en ceo cas, s'il ne soit citizein receant et demurant deins mesme la citee. Et qe toutz autres demurantz en autres citees, burghes, ou villes, eient et enjoisent lour franchise a eux grauntee. Sauvant toutditz a nostre seignur le roy soun enheritance en ceo cas. (fn. iii-622-483-1) The king wishes to send for the mayor and aldermen of the said city. And furthermore he has declared, on the advice of the lords of parliament, that no-one should have or enjoy any such franchise of this sort unless he is a citizen resident and living within the same city. And that all other people living in other cities, boroughs or towns should have and enjoy their franchises granted to them. Saving always to our lord the king his inheritance in such cases. (fn. iii-622-483-1)

Appendix January 1410

27 January 1410

Westminster

1

The 'Lollard Disendowment Bill'

To the most excellent and dread lord the king and to all the noble lords of this present parliament, humbly declare all the faithful commons, saying truly that our liege lord the king may have, from the temporalities occupied and proudly wasted by bishops, abbots and priors within the realm, fifteen earls and 1,500 knights, 6,200 esquires, and a hundred almshouses more than he has now at this time, well maintained and faithfully sustained by lands and rents. And in addition, when this has been done, our lord the king may have £20,000 and more clear for his treasure for the defence of the realm each year, as can faithfully be shown. And you may reckon that each earl will be able to spend 3,000 marks from lands and rents each year, and each knight 100 marks of rent and four ploughlands in his own demesne, and each esquire forty marks with two ploughlands in his demesne, and each almshouse 100 marks, under the supervision of good and faithful secular ministers, since the priests and clerks have almost destroyed all the almshouses within the realm. And also it should be ordained that every town throughout the realm should support all the poor men and beggars who cannot work for a living, in accordance with the statute made at Cambridge; and if it happens that the aforesaid commons cannot sustain them, then the said almshouses can help them.

And in order to show how this might be done, you should know that the temporalities of bishops, abbots and priors amount to the sum of 332,000 marks a year. That is to say, the temporalities of the archbishop of Canterbury with the two abbeys there, Shrewsbury, Coggeshall and St Osyth, are worth 20,000 marks a year; the bishop of Durham and the abbey there, 20,000 marks; the archbishop of York and the two abbeys there, 20,000 marks; the bishop of Winchester and two abbeys there, 20,000 marks; Clerkenwell with its members, 20,000 marks; and thus the first 100,000 marks is accounted for.

The bishop of Lincoln with the abbeys of Ramsey and Peterborough, 20,000 marks; the abbeys of Bury and Glastonbury, 20,000 marks; from the bishop of Ely with the two abbeys there, and Spalding and Lenton, 20,000 marks; from the bishop of Bath and the abbeys of Westminster, St Albans and Ogbourne, 20,000 marks; from the bishop of Worcester with the abbeys there and Gloucester, Eynsham, Abingdon, Evesham and Reading, 20,000 marks; and thus is the second 100,000 marks accounted for.

From the bishop of Chester with the abbey there and Rocester, and from the bishops of London, St David's, Salisbury and Exeter, 20,000 marks; from the abbeys of Rievaulx, Fountains, Jervaulx, Mount Grace, Warden, Vale Royal, Whalley and Sawley, 20,000 marks; from the abbeys of Leicester, Waltham, Guisborough, Merton, Osney and Cirencester, 20,000 marks; from Dover, Battle, Lewes, Coventry, Daventry and Thorney, 20,000 marks; from Bristol, Northampton, Thornton, Kenilworth, Hailes, Winchcombe, Pershore, [St] Frideswide's, Notley and Grimsby, 20,000 marks; and thus is the third 100,000 marks accounted for.

From the bishops of Carlisle, Chichester, Hereford and Rochester, and the priories of St Mary Overy, [St] Bartholomew's, Sawtry, Huntingdon and Swineshead, 10,000 marks. From the bishop of Norwich with the abbey there and Crowland, 10,000 marks; from Malmesbury, Bruton, Tewkesbury, Dunstable, Sherborne, Taunton, Byland and Burton, 12,000 marks; and thus is the fourth sum of 32,000 marks accounted for.

And if it should happen that any bishopric or abbey or priory has more, let it be added in, in order to help them, so that the aforesaid sum of 332,000 marks is fully made up, so that each of the aforesaid persons is properly endowed in the above-mentioned manner. Whereupon there shall still remain £20,000 clear and more each year for the king's treasury.

In addition, a further £100,000 from more temporalities wasted and occupied by worldly clerks may be got, with which to support 10,500 priests and clerks, with each clerk receiving forty shillings a year, as well as the above-mentioned 6,200 esquires.

Thus throughout the realm it will be possible to have fifteen earls and 15,000 knights and esquires more than are now adequately endowed, and in addition fifteen universities in which there will be 15,000 priests and clerks adequately supported by temporal alms, should it please the king and the lords to spend it in this fashion, as well as £20,000 each year for the king's treasury. And still there can be a hundred almshouses with a hundred marks of land for each house in order to feed all the needful poor men, at no cost to the towns, but solely from the temporalities amortised and wasted by proud and worldly clerks; which proud clerks, notwithstanding the loss of their temporalities, will still be able to spend £143,734 10s. 4d. halfpenny from their spiritualities, as can clearly be seen from the extent in the exchequer.

Yet we still have not mentioned colleges, chantries, white canons, cathedral churches with their temporalities and the churches appropriated to them, nor the Carthusian monks, nor the French monks, nor glebes, nor the Bonhommes, nor the leper houses called hospitals, nor hermitages, nor the crouched friars.

And therefore all the faithful commons desire, for the worship of God and the profit of the realm, that these worldly clerks, bishops, abbots and priors, who are such worldly lords, should be obliged to live on their spiritualities; for they do not at present live or perform the office like true churchmen or curates should, and nor do they help the poor commons with their lordships like true secular lords should, and nor do they live in penance, nor undertake bodily work, as true men of religion should, in accordance with their profession. But from each estate they take luxury and ease, and they turn away from work, gathering up to themselves profits that should go to faithful men; and this life and evil example of theirs has for so long been vicious, that all the common people, both lords and simple commons, are now so vicious and infected by the boldness of their sins that hardly any man dreads either God or the devil.

Sources:Selections from English Wycliffite Writings , ed. Anne Hudson (Cambridge, 1978), 135-7; The St Albans Chronicle 1406-1420 , ed. V. H. Galbraith (Oxford, 1937), 52-5.

2

Order to John Courtenay, knight, to appear in person before the king and council on the fifth day of the upcoming parliament, to answer what will be alleged against him by Thomas Pomeray, knight, and Joan his wife. By the king. Dated 8 November 1409 at Westminster.

Source : CCR 1409-13 , 6-7.

3

Grant to the inhabitants of Northumberland and Cumberland of exemption from payment of the fifteenths and tenths granted in this parliament. By privy seal. Dated 24 March 1410 at Westminster.

Source : CPR 1408-13 , 192.

4

Grant to the mayor and commonalty of Newcastle upon Tyne of exemption from payment of all taxes granted in this parliament. By privy seal and with the assent of the council. Dated 27 May 1410 at Westminster.

Source : CPR 1408-13 , 198.

5

Grant to the burgesses and merchants of Berwick upon Tweed that they may buy wool, hides and woolfells grown between the rivers Coquet and Tweed, in Teviotdale, and in Scotland, and export them from Berwick, on payment of 13s. 4d. to the king for every sack of wool or 240 woolfells. By king and by petition in parliament. Dated 8 May 1410 at Westminster.

Source : CPR 1408-13 , 194.

6

Protection for three years, 'with the assent of the lords spiritual and temporal and the commons of the realm in the present parliament', for the executors of the will of Edmund, late duke of York; this is not to be valid if they are paid the money due by the king to the late duke. By king and by petition in parliament. Dated 5 May 1410 at Westminster.

Source : CPR 1408-13 , 193-4.

7

Revocation of letters patent granting the custody of Bobbingworth manor (Essex) and the advowson of Bobbingworth church to Helming Leget and William Loveney, following a petition in parliament from William and Agnes Woodward that they had thereby been deprived of rightful possession of the custody; since the council, to whom the matter was referred by authority of parliament, has upheld their claim. By petition in parliament and by council. Dated 16 October 1410 at Westminster.

Source : CPR 1408-13 , 240. See CFR 1405-13 , 192-3.

8

Writ of supersedeas, 'by advice and with assent of the council and by authority of parliament to the council committed', to the king's justices concerning any plea relating to the manors of Brompton and Buckton (Hereford); since the earl of March, a minor in the king's wardship, presented a petition to the last parliament asserting that they belong to his lordship of Wigmore and are thus 'matter of pleas within the court of Wigmore'. By king and council. Dated 7 May 1411 at Westminster.

Source : CCR 1409-13 , 207.

Footnotes

  • f1410int-1. Davies, Revolt of Owain Glyn Dwr , 126.
  • f1410int-2. P. McNiven, 'The problem of Henry IV's health, 1405-13', EHR 100 (1985), 747-72.
  • f1410int-3. Henry may have been 23; the date of his birth was 16 September, but whether the year was 1386 or 1387 has never been finally resolved: see Allmand, Henry V ,7-8, for a discussion of the evidence.
  • f1410int-4. For these events see McFarlane, Lancastrian kings , 107-8; and Harriss, Cardinal Beaufort , 48-51.
  • f1410int-5. In 1415, however, Scrope would be executed for plotting against Henry V.
  • f1410int-6. For what follows, see HOC , I.218-24.
  • f1410int-7. Harriss, Cardinal Beaufort , 52.
  • f1410int-8. According to the Eulogium Historiarum (III.416), he declared that 'his coffers were empty, and he was seriously in debt' ('dixit cistas suas fore vacuas, et se graviter indebitatum').
  • f1410int-9. See Appendix, item 1. The text of the bill survives in a number of sources, in both Latin and English; for references and comment, see Selections from English Wycliffite Writings , ed. Anne Hudson, 135-7, 203-5.
  • f1410int-10. McNiven, Heresy and Politics , 192-3.
  • f1410int-11. Great Chronicle of London , 88-90; St Albans Chronicle , 52-7. An abridged account, also written at St Albans, may be found in Walsingham's Historia Anglicana , II.282-3.
  • f1410int-12. 'collegium Lollardorum' ( St Albans Chronicle , 56).
  • f1410int-13. Item 29.
  • f1410int-14. The author of the Eulogium Historiarum (III.416) was of the opinion that 'nothing was achieved' (' nihil actum est') during this first session. However, a number of petitions were presented during this time: on 13 February (for John Bertram, and concerning indictments), on 16 February (concerning disturbances in Staffordshire and Derbyshire), on 8 March (for Sir John Trebeel), and on 15 March (for William and Isabel Doyly).
  • f1410int-15. Some sources describe Badby as a tailor (' scissor '). For what follows see McNiven, Heresy and Politics , 198-219.
  • f1410int-16. St Albans Chronicle , 51. The statement in the Eulogium Historiarum (III. 417) that Badby was interrogated in parliament, is almost certainly wrong.
  • f1410int-17. St Albans Chronicle , 56.
  • f1410int-18. The roll gives Wednesday 23 March, but this is clearly an error for April; 23 March was Easter Sunday.
  • f1410int-19. According to Wylie, Henry IV , III.317, the king was absent from parliament for much of the second session.
  • f1410int-20. The tax was granted ' non sine grandi murmure communitatis ', according to Walsingham ( Historia Anglicana , II.283)
  • f1410int-21. Harriss, Cardinal Beaufort , 52; and see McFarlane, Lancastrian kings , 92. A further indication of the prince's ascendancy was the decision to earmark three-quarters of the wool subsidy for debts and expenses at Calais. The prince had for some time been particularly concerned about the security of Calais, and on 18 March, following the death of John Beaufort, earl of Somerset, two days earlier, he had assumed the captaincy of the town.
  • f1410int-22. Eulogium Historiarum , III.417.
  • f1410int-23. McFarlane, Lancastrian kings , 93; Wylie, Henry IV , III.323.
  • f1410int-24. 1410 was the last occasion on which the king's councillors were nominated in parliament until 1422, when, with a one-year-old boy on the throne, the circumstances were manifestly different.
  • iii-622-7-1. Matthew iii.15
  • iii-622-97-1. CCR 1409-13 , 384-5.
  • iii-622-120-1. SR , II.165 (c. vii)
  • iii-622-127-1. SR , II.76 (c. ii)
  • iii-622-127-2. SR , II.165 (c. viii)
  • iii-622-136-1. SR , II.125-8 ('De heretico comburendo')
  • iii-622-160-1. SR , II.165-6 (c. ix)
  • iii-622-162a-1. Probably Belle Isle, off Brittany
  • iii-622-233-1. SC 8/23/1116
  • iii-622-239a-1. CPR 1408-13 , 195-6
  • iii-622-242b-1. Parliament of 1406, item 35
  • iii-622-244-1. CPR 1408-13 , 199
  • iii-622-261-1. SR , I.255 (c. iv); II.114-5 (c. xi)
  • iii-622-265-1. SC 8/109/5448
  • iii-622-312-1. CPR 1408-13 , 194-5
  • iii-622-315-1. SR , I. 330-1 (c. iv)
  • iii-622-333-1. SC 8/23/1120; CPR 1408-13 , 215
  • iii-622-347-1. CPR 1408-13 , 201-2
  • iii-622-361-1. CPR 1408-13 , 202
  • iii-622-385-1. SR , II.156 (c. xv)
  • iii-622-389-1. SR , II.162 (c. i)
  • iii-622-395-1. SR , II.162 (c. ii)
  • iii-622-409-1. SR , II.162-3 (c. iii)
  • iii-622-425-1. SR , II.57 (c. vi)
  • iii-622-429-1. SR , II.163 (c. iv)
  • iii-622-449-1. SR , II.163 (c. v)
  • iii-622-452-1. SR , II.154 (c. x)
  • iii-622-456-1. SR , II.163-5 (c. vi)
  • iii-622-483-1. CPR 1408-13 , 434