BHO

Henry V: November 1415

Parliament Rolls of Medieval England. Originally published by Boydell, Woodbridge, 2005.

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Citation:

In this section

1415 November

Introduction 1415

Westminster

4 November - 13 November

(C 65/76. RP , IV.62-9. SR , II.191)

C 65/76 is a roll of seven membranes, each approximately 315 mm. (12.4 ins) wide, sewn together in chancery style and numbered at the head and foot in a later hand. The numbering of the membranes goes 7, 4, 3, 2, 1, with mm. 5 and 6 having been sewn to the dorse of the foot of m. 4, together with other documents relating to the 'Southampton Plot'. Towards the bottom of m. 4 there is a marginal: 'Fait assavoir qe les recordes et processes dont en ceste memorande mencion est fait sont consutz a le dorse de ceste rolle' ('Be it known that the records and processes which are mentioned in this memorandum are stitched to the dorse of this roll'). These documents are as follows:

  • 1. The record of the proceedings before the king's commissioners (John Earl Marshal, etc.), numbered m. 5.
  • 2. Writ appointing the commissioners, dated 31 July 1415.
  • 3. Writ addressed to the commissioners, dated 1 August.
  • 4. List of jurors (including, in addition to those named in the record, Robert Colpays, who was not sworn).
  • 5. The inquisition of 20 July.
  • 6. Writ appointing the duke of Clarence to adjudicate, dated 5 August.
  • 7. Writ informing the commissioners of the appointment of the duke of Clarence, dated 5 August.
  • 8. Record of proceedings before the duke of Clarence, numbered m. 6.
  • 9. Writ ordering the duke of Clarence to deposit the records in the chancery, dated 5 August.

The text, which is in a neat and clear chancery script, occupies the rectos of the membranes only. Membranes 7, 4, 3, 2 and 1 appear to have been written by a single hand, as do most of the documents relating to the 'Southampton Plot', but mm. 5 and 6 have been written by another hand. Most of the marginals are contemporary, but those for the common petitions are in a later hand. Arabic numerals throughout the roll are in a later hand, although marginal Roman numerals are contemporary. A hand has been drawn in the left margin on m. 3. There is some staining on mm. 1 and 2 by gallic acid, and some of the text on m. 1 has thus been rendered illegible. The roll does not appear to be incomplete.

With the grant of two whole tenths and fifteenths made to him in the parliament of November 1414, Henry V's energies throughout 1415 were devoted almost entirely to preparations for, and the prosecution of, the war against France. The large and impressive embassy which he dispatched to Paris in February 1415 once again failed to bring home adequate concessions from the French, and from the end of April (at the very latest) the king's mind seems to have been set on a military campaign. By mid-July preparations were in full swing: ships and troops were mustering at Southampton, and Henry - who had left London on 15 June - was there to meet them. Just as he and his army were about to embark, however, the king was informed of a plot to dethrone and murder him. The chief conspirators in the 'Southampton Plot' were Richard earl of Cambridge (to which title he had been promoted by Henry in the previous year), Henry Lord Lescrope of Masham, a former treasurer of England who until now had been regarded as one of the king's closest supporters, and a Northumberland knight, Thomas Grey of Heton. Their plan, according to their own confessions, was to incite a general insurrection, as a result of which Edmund Mortimer, earl of March, would be placed on the throne, and the king and his brothers would be killed. However, it was March himself who revealed the conspiracy to the king, probably on 31 July, and, once aware of it, Henry acted without delay. The three conspirators were arrested at Portchester, immediately tried and convicted of treason, and executed - Grey on 2 August, Lescrope and Cambridge three days later. (fn. f1415int-1)

The king was now free to leave for France, which he did on 11 August, landing in Normandy, near Harfleur on the north bank of the Seine estuary, two days later. Henry's military successes during the next three months are well known. Harfleur surrended to him on 22 September, after an arduous siege lasting over five weeks; whereupon, despite the fact that his army had been decimated by a grievous outbreak of dysentery, the king determined to march on to Calais. On 25 October he was confronted, at Agincourt in Picardy, by a substantially larger French army, which he nevertheless managed to defeat with remarkably small losses on the English side. Agincourt was the making of Henry V: it made his name as a soldier of Europe-wide renown, while within England it afforded him a level of authority and popularity which no king of England had enjoyed since the heyday of Edward III. Tidings of the victory reached London on 29 October, and parliament opened at Westminster six days later. It was the euphoria with which the news of Agincourt was received which goes much of the way towards explaining why this was the shortest and easiest parliament of the reign - perhaps of the entire fifteenth century. (fn. f1415int-2)

Writs for the parliament were first issued (by John duke of Bedford, custos of the realm) on 12 August, appointing 21 October as the day for the assembly, but on 29 September Bedford issued further writs proroguing the meeting to 4 November. (fn. f1415int-3) The list of lords spiritual summoned was exactly the same as for the previous parliament, but since most of the lords temporal were in Normandy with the king, only nineteen of them were available to be summoned, as compared with the forty-three who had been summoned to the November 1414 parliament. This paucity of lords temporal in attendance was to be a feature of many of Henry V's parliaments over the next few years. (fn. f1415int-4) Moreover, the names of only ninety-seven - or possibly just ninety-one - of the elected members are known, including only twenty-four knights of the shire. (fn. f1415int-5)

This confusion about the numbers who attended extends also to the duration of the parliament. That it was a very short meeting is beyond doubt. The usually-accepted date for its dissolution is 12 November, the day on which, according to the roll, the taxes were granted. Adam Usk, however, who was probably in London at the time (for he attended the Canterbury convocation which met at St Paul's on 18 November), says that it was dissolved on 13 November, (fn. f1415int-6) which is far from impossible, since it was quite common for parliaments to be dissolved on the day after the formal tax-grant. What is much less likely is that the parliament continued until 17 November, the date given by the editors of The House of Commons, 1386-1421. (fn. f1415int-7) This suggestion is presumably based on the statement in the roll that the tenth and fifteenth were granted to the king on 'le suisdit xvii jour de Novembre', but this must be a scribal error for 'le suisdit xii jour de Novembre', for at no point before this is the date 17 November mentioned, and moreover this statement is followed just a few lines later by a reference to 'le dit xii jour de Novembre', which can only refer to the date of 17 November just mentioned, thus showing it to be erroneous. It is thus almost certainly safe to assume that the dissolution occurred on 12 or 13 November, with the balance of probability tending towards the latter.

With Bedford presiding, parliament opened on Monday 4 November in the Painted Chamber, where, following the customary roll-call of the elected members, Bishop Henry Beaufort, the chancellor, made the opening speech. The mood may have been one of euphoria, but Beaufort also took the opportunity to make sure, before inviting the commons to elect their speaker, that theyunderstood that the king's continuing success depended upon their continuing generosity. He need not have worried, however. Two days later, the commons elected Sir Richard Redman, (fn. f1415int-8) MP for Yorkshire and counsellor to the duke of Bedford; within another week, they had agreed not only to accelerate by two months the collection of the second of the two tenths and fifteenths granted in November 1414, and to grant a further whole tenth and fifteenth payable in November 1416, but also to allow the king to receive the wool subsidy and tunnage and poundage for the rest of his life without further recourse to parliament. (fn. f1415int-9) Such generosity has not always met with the approval of historians, (fn. f1415int-10) but it is in fact doubtful whether the commons were surrendering a great deal by way of bargaining power, for the permanence of the wool subsidy was by now more or less accepted; it was really the negotiation of the lay subsidies which provided them with the opportunity to wring concessions from the king.

Apart from the grant of taxation, the only other business of real importance undertaken by the parliament was the affirmation of the judgments passed against the Southampton conspirators three months earlier, which was done on Friday 8 November (the only date mentioned on the roll apart from the election of the speaker and the tax-grant). The records of their confessions and convictions were read aloud, and the lords 'confirmed all and each of those judgments given and delivered against the said earl of Cambridge, Henry Lord Lescrope, and Thomas Grey, as mentioned above, to be good, just and lawful judgments, and decreed and adjudged them as such then'. It is worth noting that this affirmation was given by the spiritual as well as the temporal lords - an attempt, presumably, to ensure the validity of the judgments despite the absence of so many lay peers, and despite the fact that their trial at Southampton, over which the duke of Clarence had presided, had not been held in the presence of a full complement of their peers. (fn. f1415int-11)

Among the requests of the commons was one from the inhabitants of the northern and eastern counties for the moderation of the Statute of Truces passed at the Leicester parliament of 1414, to which Bedford replied that he would refer the problem to the king on his return. It was the first of many such complaints against this statute, which would eventually lead to its repeal in 1435. The commons' petitions also included a complaint from the residents of Shropshire about the continuing lawlessness on the march in the aftermath of the Glendower revolt, and a request for the enforcement of the legislation of 1410 against 'galley-halfpennies' (silver coins thought to have been introduced by the Genoese) and other sub-standard currency. These and the other petitions were dealt with easily enough, for there were more pleasant matters to occupy the members; the king's return was now imminent, and the lords and commons had no intention of missing out on the feasting and celebrations which were being organised to welcome the victor of Agincourt. (fn. f1415int-12) Thus, after a session lasting little more than a week, the 'obsequious parliament' (fn. f1415int-13) was dissolved. Little can the members have anticipated that within barely two months of the dissolution, Henry V would once more be issuing writs for it to meet again.

Text and translation

[p. iv-62]
[memb. 7]
ROTULUS PARLIAMENTI TENTI APUD WESTM', DIE LUNE PROXIMO POST FESTUM OMNIUM SANCTORUM, ANNO REGNI REGIS HENRICI QUINTI POST CONQUESTUM TERTIO. THE ROLL OF THE PARLIAMENT HELD AT WESTMINSTER ON MONDAY AFTER THE FEAST OF ALL SAINTS, IN THE THIRD YEAR OF KING HENRY THE FIFTH SINCE THE CONQUEST.
[col. a]
Pronunciacione du parlement. [The opening of parliament].
Fait a remembrer qe al parlement tenuz a Westm', le lundy proschein apres le feste de Toutz Saintz, l'an du regne le Roy Henry quint puis le conquest tierce, el presence del reverent seignur Johan duc de Bedeford', frier a roy nostre tressoverain seignur, et gardein d'Engleterre, seant en la chambre Depeinte, dedeinz le palois de Westm', et auxi des seignurs espirituelx et temporelx, et des chivalers des countees, et citezeins et burgeois du roialme d'Engleterre, venuz a dit parlement pur toute la commune de mesme le roialme, illeoqes adonqes esteantz, monsire l'evesqe de Wyncestre, uncle a roy, et chanceller d'Engleterre, par commandement du dit gardein, disoit, qe l'ein doit honurer le roy, purtant q'il honura soveraigment Dieu luy tout puissaunt, et qe seinte esglise ait et enjoise ses droitures, libertees, et fraunchises, par luy, et auxi par ses nobles progenitours bien grauntez, et par les erchevesqes, evesqes, abbes, priours, et autres gentz de seinte esglise, bien et duement usez, et par nostre dit tressoverain seignur le roy confermez, et auxi qe les seignurs temporelx, citees, et burghs aient lour libertees et franchises a eux par mesme le roy, ou par ses ditz progenitours bien grantez, et par eux bien et duement usez, et par nostre dit tressoverain seignur confermez. Et puis mesme le chanceller, del commandement le dit gardein, pronuncia le parlement; et disoit en especiale, qe pur deux causes fuit le dit parlement somone, l'un pur la bone et discrete governance du roialme en l'absence du roy, et l'autre pur la bone et expediente aide, providence, et continuance del veiage par le roy es parties de France, pur la recoverer de les droitures de sa corone, ore illoeqes comence: et prist pur soun theame: Sicut et ipse fecit nobis ita et nos ei faciamus. (fn. iv-62-6-1) Sur quoi primerement, touchant la bone governance, il declara coment nostre dit tressoverain seignur puis sa coronacione continuelment soi ad afforce et laboree entour la conservacione et innovacione de ses leies et justice, et de la pees de la terre, pur l'aise, seuretee, et tranquillitee de toutz ses lieges, come il est bien conuz et sentuz come lui sage le conseille qe dit: Sine justicia non regitur res publica. Et inclinavit cor suum ad faciendum justificaciones tuas. (fn. iv-62-6-2) Et issint al entent avauntdite pur le primer. Sicut et ipse fecit nobis ita et nos ei faciamus. Et outre ceo disoit, qe puis les soventz requisiciones faitz par le roy nostre tressoverain seignur envers soun adversair de France, par voie de pees, en eschuance del effusion de sanc cristien, pur la restitucione avoir de les droitures avantditz, es ditz parties de France, et nulle restitucione purroit avoir, parceivant ent nulle recoverer forqe par force de guerre, et lessant adonqs toutz maners de delicacies, aise, et seuretee de sa persone, emprist [col. b] la voiage mesmes et l'aventure pur celle cause, affiant entierment en sa loialle querele, et en luy toutpuissant Dieu, solonc les paroles de luy sage qe dit: Certa pro justicia, et dominus pugnabit pro te. (fn. iv-62-6-3) Et puis il recita la manere de la graciouse passage du roy, et de soun arrivaille pres la ville de Hareflu es parties de France, et coment mesme la ville, qe fuit le pluis fort ville cestes parties du mond, et le pluis grande enemy as lieges du roy, par seage en brief temps, sanz effusion du sanc de soun pople, del haut done de Dieu et de sa grace, fuit renduz a roy; et coment enapres le roy,nonobstant q'il mist un grande stuffe de ses gentz en mesme la ville pur la save garde d'icelle, et auxi qe la greindre partie de soun hoste fuit departie de luy, dont plusours par une certeine infirmite de la visitacione Dieu furent mortz illoeqes, et pluseurs furent returnez en Engleterre de la licence du roy, pur lour sauve recoverer, soi transportant parmy le coer de France vers sa ville de Cales, de sa tresnoble et tresexcellent courage, ove un poy de gentz ev [sic: read 'en'] regard au poair de ses enemys, fuit countree et combatuz ovesqe une grande nombre des ducs, counts, barons, et seignurs du France et d'autres terres et paiis pardela, et ove tout la chivalrie et poair de France et de mesmes les terres et paiis; qe au fyn, par l'aide et grace del omnipotent, fuit tout la partie Franceis disconfit, pris, et tuez, sanz grande perde de les Engleis; et q'il ove tiele gloriouse et merveillouse victorie est ore venuz save ove ses gentz et prisoners a sa dite ville de Caleis, loie soit Dieu, a le pluis grande honure et profit qe a le roialme d'Engleterre unqes avient en si brief temps. Pur quoi consideree celle commodiouse, honurable, et profitable voiage ensy comence, et la quele sanz aide et comfort ne purra my estre continuee, coment qe tiele purveiance soit fait celle partie par les seignurs et communes cy ore assemblez, quelle pur l'execucione et la continuance de la voiage soit convenient, et expedient pur le bien et honure du roy, et de tout soun roialme: et issint pur le secunde: Sicut et ipse fecit nobis ita et nos ei faciamus. Et sur ceo le dit chanceller disoit, qe l'avantdit gardein avoit ordeignee et assignee en manere acustumee certeins clercs pur receiver peticions de ceux qe soi voudrent compleindre en ceste parlement, et auxi certeins seignurs pur eux trier et respondre a ycelles, des queux seignurs et clercs les nons cy ensuent. Et puis mesme le chanceller chargea les chivalers des countees, citezeins, et burgeois, qe furent venuz a ceste parlement, q'ils aillent al eleccione de lour commune parlour ceste jour, issint q'ils luy purront presenter demain devant le gardein en parlement. Opening of parliament. Be it remembered that at the parliament held at Westminster on Monday after the feast of All Saints [4 November], in the third year of the reign of King Henry the fifth since the conquest - in the presence of the noble Lord John, duke of Bedford, brother of our most sovereign lord the king and regent of England, who was seated in the Painted Chamber in the Palace of Westminster, and of the lords spiritual and temporal, and of the knights of the counties and the citizens and burgesses of the realm of England who had come to the said parliament on behalf of all the commons of the same realm - my lord the bishop of Winchester, the king's uncle and chancellor of England, who was also present there, by order of the said regent, said that one should honour the king, because he himself honours God Almighty above all others; and that holy church should have and enjoy those rights, liberties and franchises which have been fully granted by him as well as by his noble progenitors, and which have been fully and duly exercised by the archbishops, bishops, abbots, priors and other people of holy church, and confirmed by our said most sovereign lord; and also that the lords temporal, cities and boroughs should have those liberties and franchises fully granted to them by the same king or by his said progenitors, and well and duly used by them and confirmed by our said most sovereign lord. And then the same chancellor, at the command of the said regent, declared the parliament open; and he said in particular that this parliament had been summoned for two reasons, the first for the good and wise governance of the realm during the king's absence, and the other to provide due and appropriate assistance, provision and wherewithal for the king's expedition to the parts of France, recently begun, to recover the rights of his crown: and he took as his theme, 'As he did unto us, so let us do unto him'. (fn. iv-62-6-1) Whereupon firstly, concerning good governance, he declared how our said most sovereign lord since his coronation had continually striven and laboured for the preservation and reform of his laws and justice, and for the peace of the land, and for the benefit, safety and tranquillity of all his lieges, as is well known and acknowledged through the counsel of the wise man who says, 'Without justice, the public good will not prevail. And he inclined his heart, that he your statutes may perform'. (fn. iv-62-6-2) And so for the meaning of the first part of the aforesaid theme, 'As he did unto us, so let us do unto him'. And moreover he said that despite frequent requests being made by our sovereign lord the king to his adversary of France, in order to have peace, to avoid the shedding of Christian blood, and to have the aforesaid rights restored in the said parts of France, being nevertheless unable to secure restitution, and perceiving that he could not recover anything except by force of war, and, forsaking therefore all kinds of personal pleasure, comfort and safety, he undertook [col. b] the same expedition and venture for that reason, believing wholeheartedly in his lawful quarrel and in Almighty God, in accordance with the words of the wise man who says, 'Strive thou for justice, and the lord shall fight with you'. (fn. iv-62-6-3) And then he recited the manner of the king's noble passage and his arrival near the town of Harfleur in France, and how the same town, which was the strongest town in t his part of the world and the greatest threat to the king's lieges, was surrendered to the king after a short siege, without the shedding of his people's blood, by God's great gift and with His grace; and afterwards, how the king - notwithstanding that he had left a large garrison of his men in the same town for its safe-keeping, and also that the greater part of his army was separated from him, many of whom were killed there through the visitation of a certain illness from God, and many returned to England with the king's permission, for their safe recovery - travelled through the heart of France towards his town of Calais, and as a result of his most noble and most excellent courage, with a small number of men in comparison with the might of his enemies, he encountered and fought with a large number of dukes, earls, barons and lords of France and other lands and countries overseas, and with all the chivalry and might of France and the same lands and countries; and how finally, with the Almighty's help and grace, all the French were defeated, taken or killed, without great loss to the English; and how he, after such a glorious and marvellous victory, has now arrived safely at his said town of Calais with his men and prisoners, praise be to God, with the greatest honour and gain which the realm of England has ever had in so short a time. For that reason, seeing as this propitious, honourable and profitable expedition has thus begun, which without assistance and support will be unable to continue, consider how such provision can be made in this matter by the lords and commons assembled here at present, such as will be suitable for the accomplishment and continuation of the expedition, and expedient for the king's well-being and honour, and that of all his realm: and so for the second theme, 'As he did unto us, so let us do unto him'. Whereupon the said chancellor said that the aforesaid regent has ordained and assigned, in the customary manner, certain clerks to receive petitions from those who wish to complain in this parliament, and also certain lords to try and answer them, the names of which lords and clerks follow. And then the same chancellor charged the knights of the counties and the citizens and burgesses who had come to this parliament that they should proceed to elect their common speaker this day, so that they would be able to present him before the regent in parliament tomorrow.
[p. iv-63]
[col. a]
2. Receivours des peticions d'Engleterre, d'Irland, Gales, et d'Escoce:

  • Sire Simond Gaunstede
  • Sire Thomas Haxey
  • Sire Johan Frank'.
2. Receivers of petitions from England, Ireland, Wales and Scotland:

  • Sir Simon Gaunstead
  • Sir Thomas Haxey
  • Sir John Frank.
Receivours des peticions de Gascoigne, et des autres terres et paiis pardela le meer, et des isles:

  • Sire Johan Roland'
  • Sire Johan Spryngthorp'
  • Sire William Aghton'.
Receivers of petitions from Gascony and the other lands and countries overseas, and from the Channel Islands:

  • Sir John Roland
  • Sir John Springthorpe
  • Sir William Aghton.
Et ceux qe voillent liverer lour peticions les baillent par entre cy et le samady proschein avenir. And those who wish to submit their petitions should deliver them between now and next Saturday.
Et sont assignez triours des peticions d'Engleterre, d'Irland, Gales, et d'Escoce:

  • L'ercevesqe de Canterbirs
  • L'evesqe de Loundres
  • L'evesqe de Duresme
  • L'evesqe de Nicholl'
  • L'abbe de Seint Albon'
  • Le priour de Seint Johan de Jerusalem d'Engleterre
  • Le sire de Grey de Ruthyn
  • Le sire de Powys
  • Monsire William Hankeford'
  • Richard Norton'
  • Robert Tirwhit.
And the following are assigned triers of petitions for England, Ireland, Wales and Scotland:

  • The archbishop of Canterbury
  • The bishop of London
  • The bishop of Durham
  • The bishop of Lincoln
  • The abbot of St Albans
  • The prior of St John of Jerusalem in England
  • Lord Grey of Ruthin
  • Lord Powys
  • SirWilliam Hankford
  • Richard Norton
  • Robert Tirwhit
- toutz ensemble, ou sys des prelatz etseignurs avauntditz au meyns; appellez a eux les chaunceller, et tresorer, et auxint les sergeantz du roi, qant y bosoignera. Et tiendront lour place en la chaumbre du chamberleyn, pres la chaumbre Depeinte. To act all together, or at least six of the aforesaid prelates and lords, consulting with the chancellor, treasurer, as well as the king's serjeants, when necessary. And their session will be held in the Chamberlain's Chamber, next to the Painted Chamber.
Et sont assignez triours des peticions de Gascoigne, et des autres terres de pardela le meer, et des isles:

  • L'ercevesqe d'Everwyk
  • L'evesqe de Hereford'
  • L'evesqe de Cestr'
  • L'abbe de Waltham
  • Le sire de Talbot
  • Le sire de Ponynges
  • Robert Hull'
  • Johan Cokayn
  • William Ludyngton'.
And the following are assigned triers of petitions for Gascony and the other lands overseas, and for the Channel Islands:

  • The archbishop of York
  • The bishop of Hereford
  • The bishop of Chester
  • The abbot of Waltham
  • Lord Talbot
  • Lord Poynings
  • Robert Hull
  • John Cokayn
  • William Luddington
- toutz ensemble, ou sys des prelatz et seignurs avantditz, appellez a eux les chaunceller, et tresorer, et auxint les serjantz du roi, qant y bosoignera. Et tiendront lour place en la chaumbre Marcolf. To act all together, or at least six of the aforesaid prelates and lords, consulting with the chancellor, treasurer, as well as the king's serjeants, when necessary. And their session will be held in the Marcolf Chamber.
[memb. 4]
mm. 6 and 5 are sewn to the dorse, together with 6 separate pieces relating to the 'Southampton Plot' .
Presentacione du parlour. [Presentation of the speaker].
3. Mekerdy, le tierce jour du parlement, les communes viendrent devant le gardein et les seignurs en parlement, et presenterent Monsire Richard Redman pur lour comune parlour, a qi le gardein soi agrea bien. Et apres ceo le dit parlour pria, q'il purra parler desoutz tiele protestacione come autres parlours avoient fait par devant. Et le gardein luy ottroia q'il aueroit tiele protestacione come autres q'avoient estez parlours devant ces heures ont eu en temps de roy q'orest, et de ses nobles progenitours. Et pria auxi le dit parlour, qe s'il parleroit riens autrement qe n'estoit accordee par ses ditz compaignons, q'il soi purroit corriger et refourmer par lour bone advis, a qe le gardein s'agrea bien. 3. Presentation of the speaker. On Wednesday the third day of parliament [6 November], the commons came before the regent and the lords in parliament and presented Sir Richard Redman as their common speaker, whom the regent readily accepted. After this the said speaker asked that he might speak under such protestation as other speakers had spoken previously. And the regent agreed that he should have such protestation as other speakers have had before this time, or in the time of the present king and his noble progenitors. And the said speaker also asked that if he should say anything other than that which had been agreed by his said companions, that they, after due deliberation, should correct him and set him right; to which the regent readily agreed.
[col. b]
L'acceleracione du levee des disme et xv e grauntez a roy a darrein parlement. [Acceleration of the tenth and fifteenth granted in the last parliament].
4. Fait a remembrer, qe come bien qe al parlement tenuz a Westm' le lundy proschein apres les oectaves de Seint Martyn darrein passe, les communes d'Engleterre venuz a mesme le parlement, del assent des seignurs espirituelx et temporelx illoeqes assemblez, eussent grauntez a nostre tressoverain seignur le roy deux entiers quinszimes, et deux entiers dismes, pur estre levez des laies gentz en manere accustumee, c'estassavoir, l'un entier quinszime et l'un entier disme, de les ditz deux quinszimes et dismes, pur estre levez a le feste de la purificacione de Nostre Dame alors proschein ensuant, et l'autre entier quinszime et disme a le feste de la purificacione de Nostre Dame ore proschein avenir; nientlemains, les communes assemblez en cest present parlement - considerantz coment le gracious et victorious voiage qe nostre dit seignur le roy ad, ove l'aide de Dieu, comencee en les parties de France, ne purra pur certeins causes as ditz communes notorment declarez estre continue ne deduct al effect pur profit et honour de roy et de roialme, sanz ceo qe la levee des ditz darreins quinszime et disme soit le pluis hastiment et brevement fait, al entier affeccione q'ils ont a la persone de mesme nostre seignur le roy, et pur les greindre acceleracione, expedicione, et continuance de mesme le voiage, de lour frank voluntee, et del assent des seignurs espirituelx et temporelx en ycelle present parlement esteantz - voillont et grauntont, qe les ditz quinszime et disme, queux a le dit feste de purificacione proschein avenir issint duissent estre levez et paiez, soient levez et paiez a nostre seignur le roy, a le feste de Seint Lucie proschein avenir. 4. The expediting of the levy of the tenth and fifteenth granted to the king at the last parliament. Be it remembered that whereas, at the parliament held at Westminster on Monday after the octaves of Martinmas last [19 November 1414], the commons of England who had come to the same parliament, by the assent of the lords spiritual and temporal who were assembled there, granted to our most sovereign lord the king two whole fifteenths and two whole tenths to be levied on the laity in the customary manner, namely, a whole fifteenth and a whole tenth from the said two fifteenths and tenths to be levied on the feast of the Purification of Our Lady then following [2 February 1415], and the other whole fifteenth and tenth on the feast of the Purification of Our Lady following that [2 February 1416]; nevertheless, the commons who are assembled in this present parliament - considering that the noble and victorious expedition which our lord the king has begun to the parts of France, with God's help, would, on account of certain reasons clearly explained to the said commons, be unable to continue or be brought to fruition to the king's profit and honour and that of the realm unless the levy of the remaining said fifteenth and tenth is made soon and quickly - because of the great affection which they have for our same lord the king's person, and in order to hasten, expedite and continue the said expedition as far as they are able, from their free will, and by the assent of the lords spiritual and temporal who are in this present parliament, agree and grant that the said fifteenth and tenth, which ought to be levied and paid thus on the said feast of the Purification next, should be levied and paid to our lord the king on the forthcoming feast of St Lucy [13 December 1415].
De la subside des lains et autres merchandises grantez a roy pur sa vie, et d'un x e et xv e auxi grante a roy. [Grant of the subsidy on wool and other merchandise to the king for his lifetime, and a tenth and fifteenth also granted to the king].
5. La commune du roialme en cest present parlement assemblee - considerant qe le roy nostre soverain seignur, a l'oneur de Dieu, et pur eschuer l'effusion du sang cristien, ad fait faire a soun adversaire de France, diverses requestes pur avoir eu restitucione de soun heritage, solonc droit et justice; et coment qe sur ceo aient estee diverses traitees, sibien decea come dela le meer, as graundes coustages de nostre dit tressoverain seignur le roy; nientmains, le roy nostre dit soverain seignur pur les ditz requestes et traitees n'ad peu obtiner ses ditz heritages ne nulles notables parcelles < d'icelles > . Et purce le roy nostre dit soverain seignur, combien qe les revenues de soun roialme, ne de nulle graunt du subside a luy graunte pardevaunt, il n'avoit assez de quoy de pursuyer soun droit par voie de fait, toutesvoies espoirant en Dieu, q'en sa juste querele il se verroit sustiner et supporter, nostre dit seignur le roy de soun bone courage ad nadgairs enpris un voiage as parties pardela, engageant ses joialx pur en avoir provision de moneie, et en sa propre persone ad passez et arrivez devant la ville de Harfleu, et y mys l'assiege, tielle force ad fait a la dite ville, qu'il l'aid pris et obtenu, et tient de present, et pur la garde d'icelle ville y ad mys ascuns seignurs et plusours autres gentz d'armes et archers, a ses graundes coustages et despenses, et tiele ordenaunce faite pur la save garde de la dite ville, nostre dit seignur le roy, de sa excellente courage, ovesqe poy de gentz eue regarde au poair de France, soy ad transporter de la dite ville de Harfleu par terre vers ses marches de Caleys, ou sur soun chemyn plusieurs ducs, countes, et autres seignurs, ovesqe la poair du roialme de France a nombre excessive, luy encontrerent et combaterent, tanqe Dieu par sa grace done avoit la victorie au roy nostre dit seignur, al oneur et exaltacione de sa corone, de sa bone fame, et au comfort singuler de ses foialx lieges, et a paour de toutz ses enemys, et vrasemblement au profit perpetuel de tout soun roialme, al oneur et reverence de Dieu, et pur les graunt affeccione et entier coer qe les communes du roialme d'Engleterre ount a nostre dit soverain seignur le roy - par assent des seignurs espirituelx et temporelx assemblez a le parlement tenuz a Westm' le lundy proschein apres le [p. iv-64][col. a] feste de Toutz Seintz, l'an du regne nostre dit soverain seignur le roy tierce, grauntont a mesme nostre soverain seignur le roy, le .xij. jour de November, en mesme le parlement, pur defens du roialme, la subside des leyns, quirs, et peaux lanutz, pur estre levez des marchantz denizeins, pur la subside de chescun sak de leyn .xliij. s. quatre deniers, et de chescun ccxl peaux lanutz xliij s. iiij d., et de chescun last des quirs, c s.; et des marchauntz aliens, de chescun sak de leyn sessant souldz, et de chescun .ccxl. peaux lanutz sessant souldz, et de chescun last des quirs cvi s. viij d., aprendre et receiver de le fest de Seint Michel proschein avenir, a tout la vie nostre dit soverain seignur le roy, pur ent despoiser et ordeiner a sez tresgracious volunte et discrecione, pur la defens suisdite; purveux toutesfoitz, qe nulle graunte soit fait a nully par nostre dit soverain seignur le roy par ses lettres patentz, a terme de vie, ou des ans, de la subside avauntdite ne parcelle d'icelle. Et si ascun tiel graunte soit fait, soit voidez, et tenuz pur nulle, et qe ceste graunte ne soit pris en ensample as roys d'Engleterre en temps avenir. 5. Concerning the subsidy on wool and other merchandise granted to the king for his lifetime, and a tenth and fifteenth also granted to the king. The commons of the realm who are assembled in this present parliament - considering that our sovereign lord the king, for the honour of God, and in order to avoid the shedding of Christian blood, has made several requests to his adversary of France to have his inheritance restored in accordance with right and justice; and that although there have been various negotiations concerning this, both here and overseas, to the great expense of our said most sovereign lord the king; despite which, our said sovereign lord the king as a result of the said requests and negotiations has been unable to recover his said inheritances, nor any substantial part of them. And therefore our said sovereign lord the king, despite the fact that the revenues of his said realm and any grant of subsidy previously granted to him are insufficient to allow him to pursue his right by means of war, trusting always in God that He would sustain and support him in his just cause, our said lord the king from his great courage has recently undertaken an expedition overseas, pledging his jewels in order to provide him with money, and has gone abroad in person and arrived outside the town of Harfleur and laid siege there, and brought such power to bear against that town that he has taken and recovered it, which he holds at present; and for the protection of that town he has placed various lords and many other men at arms and archers there, at his great cost and expense; and, having made such arrangements for the safeguard of the said town, our said lord the king, of his surpassing courage, with only a few people by comparison with the might of France, moved on by land from the said town of Harfleur to the marches of Calais, where, on his journey, numerous dukes, earls and other lords, with the innumerable power of the realm of France, encountered and fought against him, until God by His grace gave the victory to our said lord the king, to the honour and exaltation of his crown, his good renown, and to the singular benefit of his faithful lieges and the dread of all his enemies, and in truth to the perpetual profit of all his realm, to the honour and reverence of God; and because of the great affection and utter devotion which the commons of the realm of England have for our said sovereign lord the king - by the assent of the lords spiritual and temporal who are assembled at the parliament held at Westminster on Monday after the [p. iv-64][col. a] feast of All Saints, in the third year of the reign of our said sovereign lord the king, grant to our same sovereign lord the king, on the twelfth day of November, in the same parliament, for the defence of the realm, the subsidy on wool, hides and woolfells, to be levied from native merchants, that is, for the subsidy on each sack of wool, 43 s. 4 d., and on each 240 woolfells, 43 s. 4 d., and on each last of hides, 100 s.; and from alien merchants, on each sack of wool, 60 s., and on each 240 woolfells, 60 s., andon each last of hides 106 s. 8 d.; to be taken and received from the feast of Michaelmas next [29 September 1416] for the lifetime of our said lord the king, to be disposed of and spent at his most gracious will and discretion, for the aforesaid defence; provided always that no grant is made by our said sovereign lord the king to anyone by his letters patent, for term of life or years, from the aforesaid subsidy or any part of it; and if any such grant is made, it shall be void, and considered null and void; and that this grant should not be taken as an example by kings of England in future.
Item, les ditzcommunes , par assent suisdit, grauntont a nostre dit soverain seignur le roy, pur la seure et saufe garde de meer, iij s. de chescun tonelle de vyn entrant en le dit roialme, et passant hors d'icelle, forspis les tonelx des vynes queux sont pris pur la prise al oeps mesme nostre soverein seignur le roy suisdit. Et en outre les communes suisditz, par assent suisdit, grauntont a nostre dit soverain seignur le roy, pur les ditz seure et saufe garde de meer, xij d. de la livre de chescun manere marchandise venaunt en le dit roialme, et passant hors d'icelle, forspris leyns, quirs, et peaux lanutz, et vyns, et forspris chescun manere de blee floure, et pesson rees, et bestaille entrant en le dit roialme, et forspris cervoise et vitailles queux sont amesnerz hors du roialme pur vitailler les villes de Caleys, et Harfleu, et les marches illoeqes, a prendre et receiver mesmes les iij s. de tonelle, et xij d. de la livre de le feste de Seint Michel avantdit, a tout la vie nostre soverain seignur le roy suisdit, pur ent despoiser et ordeiner, pur les seure et saufe garde suisditz, solonc la tressage discrecione de nostre seignur le roy avauntdit: sur condicione, qe les marchantz, denizeins et aliens, venauntz en le dit roialme d'Engleterre ove lour marchandises, soient bien et honestement tretez et demesnez ove lour marchandises, sibien empaiantz le subside de iij s. de chescun tonelle de vyn, come le dit subside de xij d. de la livre de lour marchandises, solonc l'afferant qe mesmes les marchandises costerent de pardela, et q'ils soient croiez par lour serementz, ou par lour lettres, et si concelement soit trove en les ditz marchantz, q'ils paient ent la double subside, de ceo q'est trove nient custumez, saunz autre forfaiture ou novelrie paier. Et qe les ditz marchauntz soient tretez et demesnez sicome ils feurent en temps del pier nostre dit tressoverain seignur le roy q'orest, qe Dieu assoille, et de ses nobles progenitours roys d'Engleterre, saunz oppressione faire a les marchantz avantditz, par le tresorer d'Engleterre pur le temps esteant, custumers, countrerollours, sercheours, ou autres officers qeconqes. Et qe ceste graunt ne soit mys en ensample as roys d'Engleterre en temps avenir. Also, the said commons, by the aforesaid assent, grant to our said sovereign lord the king, for the security and safeguard of the sea, 3 s. on each tun of wine imported into the said realm and exported from it, except for tuns of wine taken by right of prise for our same aforesaid sovereign lord the king's use. And moreover the aforesaid commons, by the aforesaid assent, grant to our said sovereign lord the king, for the said security and safeguard of the sea, 12 d. in the pound on all kinds of merchandise imported into the said realm and exported from it, except for wool, hides, woolfells, wine and all kinds of corn, flour, fresh fish and cattle entering the said realm, and except for ale and victuals which are exported from the realm for the victualling of the towns of Calais and Harfleur and the marches there; the same 3 s. on the tun, and 12 d. in the pound, to be taken and received from the aforesaid feast of Michaelmas, for our aforesaid sovereign lord the king's lifetime, to be disposed of and spent on the aforesaid security and safeguard, according to our aforesaid lord the king's most wise discretion; on condition that the native and alien merchants who come into the said realm of England with their merchandise should be well and honestly treated and dealt with together with their merchandise, both when they pay the subsidy of 3 s. on each tun of wine, and the said subsidy of 12 d. in the pound on their merchandise, in accordance with what the same merchandise costs overseas, and that they should be believed on this by their oath or by their letters; and if concealed merchandise should be found on the said merchants, that they should pay double the subsidy on whatever has been found on which duty has not been paid, without any other forfeiture or novel payment. And that the said merchants should be treated and dealt with as they were in the time of our present said most sovereign lord the king's father, whom God absolve, and in that of his noble progenitors kings of England, without the aforesaid merchants being oppressed by the treasurer of England at the time, the customs officers, controllers, searchers or any other officers. And that this grant should not be taken as an example by kings of England in future.
Item les ditz communes, par assent suisdit, grauntont a nostre dit soverain seignur le roy, le suisdit xvij me jour de November, en cest dit present parlement, pur defens de soun dit roialme d'Engleterre, une entier xv me , et une entier x me , pur estre levez des layes gentz en manere accustume, apaiers a nostre dit soverein seignur le roy, a le fest de Seint Martyn en yver proschein ensuant le dit xij me jour de November, pur ent despoiser, solonc sa tressage discrecione, pur le defens suisdite. Also, the said commons, by the aforesaid assent, grant to our said sovereign lord the king, on the aforesaid [twelfth] day of November, in this present parliament, for the defence of his said realm of England, a whole fifteenth and a whole tenth to be levied on the laity in the customary manner, to be paid to our said sovereign lord the king on the feast of St Martin in the winter next following the said twelfth day of November [11 November 1416], to be disposed of according to his most wise discretion, for the aforesaid defence.
[col. b]
Affirmacione de les juggements donez a Suthampton' vers Richard count de Cantebr' et autres. [Confirmation of the judgments of treason given at Southampton against Richard, earl of Cambridge, Henry Lescrope of Masham, and Thomas Grey of Heton].
6. Memorandum quod die Veneris quinto die hujus parliamenti venit communitas ejusdem parliamenti coram domino Johanne duce Bedeford' custode Anglie ac dominis spiritualibus et temporalibus in parliamento illo existentibus et petiit instanter ibidem et rogavit ut judicia coram commissionariis domini regis nuper apud Suthampton' contra Ricardum comitem Cantebr' de Conesburgh' in comitatu Ebor' chivaler et Henricum dominum Lescrop' de Masham de Faxflete in comitatu Ebor' chivaler et Thomam Gray de Heton' in comitatu Northumbr' chivaler de altis prodicionibus contra dominum regem et suam regiam magestatem per ipsos perpetratis apud predictam villam Suthampton' convictos reddita in instanti parliamento affirmarentur et pro bonis et legalibus judiciis haberentur et tenerentur imperpetuum. Super quo postmodum venerabilis pater Henricus episcopus Wynton' cancellarius Anglie recorda et processus, judicia contra proditores predictos nuperapud dictam villam de Suthampton' reddita concernentia et coram domino Thoma duce Clarencie virtute commissionis et brevis regiorum habita, que dominus rex simul cum omnibus et singulis recorda et processus illa tangentibus postea coram eo in cancellaria sua venire fecit in parliamentum predictum de mandato dicti custodis detulit que sequntur in hec verba. Dominus rex mandavit carissimo fratri suo Thome duci Clarencie litteras suas patentes que sequntur in hec verba: Henricus Dei gracia rex Anglie et Francie et dominus Hibernie carissimo fratri suo Thome duci Clarencie salutem. Sciatis quod nos de fidelitate industria et circumspeccione vestris plenius confidentes constituimus vos locum nostrum et vicem gerentem ad audiendum recorda et processus coram dilectis et fidelibus nostris Johanne comite marescallo et sociis suis justiciariis nostris ad omnimodas prodiciones felonias conspiraciones et confederaciones in comitatu Sutht' audiendum et terminandum assignatis facta, et ad judicium versus Ricardum comitem Cantebrigg' de Conesburgh' in comitatu Ebor' chivaler et Henricum dominum Lescrop' de Masham de Faxflete in comitatu Ebor' chivaler juxta id quod vobis per recorda et processus predicta constare poterit, vocatis vobis paribus predictorum comitis et Henrici per vestrum et eorumdem parium communem assensum hac instanti die Lune reddendum et ad execucionem ejusdem judicii finaliter procedendum; dantes vobis et concedentes plenam tenore presencium potestatem auctoritatem et mandatum speciale ad omnia et singula nomine nostro ibidem faciendum excercendum et concedendum que nos faceremus seu facere possemus si ibidem personaliter interessemus, promittentes nos ratum gratum et firmum habituros quicquid per vos nomine nostro factum gestum sive concessum fuerit in premissis vel aliquo premissorum. Damus autem prefatis justiciariis ac aliis quorum interest tenore presencium firmiter in mandatis quod vobis in premissis in forma predicta faciendis et exequendis intendentes sint consulentes et auxiliantes prout decet; mandavimus insuper prefato comiti marescallo et sociis suis predictis quod recorda et processus predicta cum omnibus ea tangentibus habeant coram vobis ad diem supradictum. In cujus rei testimonium has litteras nostras fieri fecimus patentes. Teste me ipso apud Suthampton' quinto die Augusti anno regni nostri tercio. Super quo instanter dominus rex mandavit prefatis Johanni comiti marescallo et sociis suis justiciariis suis predictis in commissione predicta contentis breve suum clausum de habendo coram prefato duce Clarencie recorda et processus predicta cum omnibus ea tangentibus in dictis litteris domini regis patentibus specificata quod quidem breve sequitur in hec verba: 6. Confirmation of the judgments given at Southampton against Richard, earl of Cambridge, and others. Be it remembered that on Friday, the fifth day of this parliament [8 November], the commons of the same parliament came before Lord John, duke of Bedford, regent of England, and the lords spiritual and temporal who were present in that parliament, and immediately petitioned and asked there that the judgments recently given before the lord king's commissioners at Southampton against Richard, earl of Cambridge, of Conisborough in the county of York, knight, and Henry, Lord Lescrope of Masham, of Faxfleet in the county of York, knight, and Thomas Grey of Heton in the county of Northumberland, knight, who had been convicted of high treason committed by them against the lord king and his majestic realm at the aforesaid town of Southampton, should be confirmed in the present parliament, and that these good and lawful judgments should be upheld and maintained forever. Whereupon the venerable father Henry, bishop of Winchester, chancellor of England, at the command of the said regent, ordered to be brought into the said parliament the records and processes concerning the judgments recently given against the aforesaid traitors at the said town of Southampton in the presence of Lord Thomas, duke of Clarence, by virtue of a royal commission and writ which the lord king, together with all and every one of the things touching those records and processes, had afterwards ordered to be read before him in his chancery; which follow in these words: The lord king has sent his dearest brother, Thomas duke of Clarence, his letters patent, as follows: - Henry, by the grace of God king of England and France and lord of Ireland, to his dearest brother Thomas duke of Clarence, greetings. You are to know that we, trusting fully in your faithfulness, industry and circumspection, have appointed you our lieutenant and deputy to hear the records and processes brought before our dear and faithful John Earl Marshal and his fellows, who have been appointed our justices to hear and determine all kinds of treasons, felonies, conspiracies and confederacies in the county of Southampton, and to proceed to judgment against Richard earl of Cambridge, of Conisborough in the county of York, knight, and Henry Lord Lescrope of Masham, of Faxfleet in the county of York, knight, according to those things which can be established by you in relation to the aforesaid records and processes; having summoned before you the peers of the aforesaid earl and Henry, and by the common assent of the same peers; the same judgments to be carried out this present Monday; and we give and grant you full power, authority and special mandate, by the tenor of these letters, to decide, exercise and grant everything there in our name which we would do or cause to be done if we were personally present there, promising that we shall hold as approved, stable and confirmed whatever shall be done, carried out and granted by you in our name concerning any of the foregoing. We also grant the same by the tenor of these letters to the aforesaid justices and to others whom it concerns, firmly ordering that they should be attentive, give advice and assist you in the foregoing to be carried out and dealt with in the aforesaid terms, as is fitting; moreover, we have ordered the aforesaid Earl Marshal and his aforesaid fellows that they should have the aforesaid records and processes, with all things concerning them, before you on the abovesaid day. In testimony of which we have caused these our letters patent to be made. Witnessed by myself at Southampton on 5 August in the third year of our reign [1415]. - Whereupon the lord king immediately sent the aforesaid John Earl Marshal and his fellows, his aforesaid justices named in the aforesaid commission, his writ close ordering them to have the aforesaid records and processes, with all things concerning them, before the aforesaid duke of Clarence, as specified in the said lord king's letters patent, the contents of which writ are as follows: -
Henricus Dei gracia rex Anglie et Francie et dominus Hibernie dilectis et fidelibus suis Johanni comiti marescallo et sociis suis justiciariis nostris ad omnimodas prodiciones felonias conspiraciones et confederaciones in [p. iv-65][col. a] comitatu Sutht' factas et perpetratas audiendas et terminandas affignatis salutem. Mandamus vobis quod omnia recorda et processus facta coram vobis et sociis vestris predictis pretextu litterarum nostrarum patentium vobis et dictis sociis vestris in hac parte directarum habeatis coram carissimo fratre nostro Thoma duce Clarencie quem per litteras nostras patentes constituimus locum nostrum et vicem gerentem ad audiendum recorda et processus predicta et ad judicium versus Ricardum comitem Cantebrigg' de Conesburgh' in comitatu Ebor' chivaler et Henricum dominum Lescrop' de Masham de Faxflete in comitatu Ebor' chivaler juxta id quod eidem fratri nostro per recorda et processus predicta constare poterit sub certa forma in dictis litteris nostris specificata hac instanti die Lune reddendum, et ad execucionem ejusdem judicii finaliter procedendum prout in eisdem litteris plenius continetur cum omnibus recorda et processus predicta tangentibus ad diem supradictum. Et habeatis ibi hoc breve. Teste me ipso apud Suthampton' quinto dieAugusti anno regni nostri tercio. Virtute cujus brevis idem comes marescallus et socii sui predicti dicto duci Clarencie dicto die Lune apud Suthampton' liberaverunt omnia recorda et processus unde in dictis litteris patentibus et brevi sit mencio juxta formam et exigenciam ejusdem brevis, que quidem recorda et processus cum omnibus ea tangentibus sequntur in hec verba: Henry by the grace of God king of England and France and lord of Ireland, to his dear and faithful John Earl Marshal and his fellows, our justices appointed to hear and determine all kinds of treasons, felonies, conspiracies and confederacies [p. iv-65][col. a] committed and perpetrated in the county of Southampton, greetings. We order you that you should have all the records and processes brought before you and your aforesaid fellows by authority of our letters patent addressed to you and your said fellows in this matter, before our dearest brother Thomas duke of Clarence, whom we have appointed our lieutenant and deputy by our letters patent to hear the aforesaid records and processes, and to give judgment against Richard earl of Cambridge, of Conisborough in the county of York, knight, and Henry Lord Lescrope of Masham, of Faxfleet in the county of York, knight, according to those things which can be established by our same aforesaid brother in relation to the aforesaid records and processes, under certain terms specified in our said letters, this present Monday [5 August], so that final execution of the same judgment may be carried out, as is more fully stated in the same letters, with all things touching the aforesaid records and processes, on the abovesaid day. And have there this writ. Witnessed by myself at Southampton on 5 August in the third year of our reign. - By virtue of which writ, the same Earl Marshal and his aforesaid fellows delivered all the records and processes to the said duke of Clarence on the said Monday at Southampton, as stated in the said letters patent and writ, according to the terms and requirements of the same writ, which records and processes, with all things concerning them, follow here:
Fait assavoir qe les recordes et processes, dont en ceste memorande mencion est fait, sont consutz a le dorse de ceste rolle. Be it known that the records and processes which are mentioned in this memorandum are stitched to the dorse of this roll.
Sutht'. Dominus rex mandavit dilectis et fidelibus suis Johanni comiti marescallo, Thome comiti Sarum, Michaeli de la Pole comiti Suff', Ricardo comiti Oxon', Willelmo le Zouche, Henrico FitzHugh, Thome Camoys, Thome Erpyngham, Willielmo Lasyngby, et Roberto Hulle letteras suas patentes que sequntur in hec verba: Henricus Dei gracia rex Anglie et Francie et dominus Hibernie dilectis et fidelibus suis Johanni comiti marescallo, Thome comiti Sarum, Michaeli de la Pole comiti Suff', Ricardo comiti Oxon', Willelmo le Zouche, Henrico FitzHugh, Thome Camoys, Thome Erpyngham, Willelmo Lasyngby et Roberto Hulle salutem. Sciatis quod nos de fidelitate industria et circumspeccione vestris plenius confidentes assignavimus vos novem, octo, septem, sex, quinque, quatuor, tres, et duos vestrum, quorum alterum vestrum vos prefati Willelme Lasyngby et Roberte unum esse volumus, justiciarios nostros ad inquirendum per sacramentum proborum et legalium hominum de comitatu Sutht' tam infra libertates quam extra per quos rei veritas melius sciri poterit de omnimodis prodicionibus feloniis conspiracionibus et confederacionibus in comitatu predicto per quoscumque et qualitercumque factis sive perpetratis et ad easdem [memb. 3] prodiciones felonias conspiraciones et confederaciones audiendum et terminandum secundum legem et consuetudinem regni nostri Anglie. Et ideo vobis mandamus quod ad certos dies et loca quos vos novem, octo, septem, sex, quinque, quatuor, tres vel duo vestrum, quorum alterum vestrum vos prefati Willelme Lasyngby et Roberte unum esse volumus, ad hoc provideritis diligentes super premissis factas inquisiciones et premissa omnia et singula audiatis et terminetis secundum legem et consuetudinem supradictas; salvis nobis amerciamentis et aliis ad nos inde spectantibus. Mandavimus enim vicecomiti nostro comitatus predicti quod ad certos dies et loca quos vos novem, octo, septem, sex, quinque, quatuor, tres vel duo vestrum, quorum alterum vestrum vos prefati Willelme Lasyngby et Roberte unum esse volumus, ei scire facietis, venire faciat coram vobis novem, octo, septem, sex, quinque, quatuor, tribus vel duobus vestrum, quorum alterum vestrum vos prefati Willelme Lasyngby et Roberte unum esse volumus, tot et tales probos et legales homines de balliva sua tam infra libertates quam extra per quos rei veritas in premissis melius sciri poterit et inquiri. In cujus rei testimonium has litteras nostras fieri fecimus patentes. [col. b] Teste me ipso apud castrum nostrum de Portchestre, xxxi mo die Julii anno regni nostri tercio. Southampton. The lord king has sent his dear and faithful John Earl Marshal, Thomas earl of Salisbury, Michael de la Pole earl of Suffolk, Richard earl of Oxford, William la Zouche, Henry FitzHugh, Thomas Camoys, Thomas Erpingham, William Lasingby and Robert Hull, his letters patent, as follows: - Henry by the grace of God king of England and France and lord of Ireland, to his dear and faithful John Earl Marshal, Thomas earl of Salisbury, Michael de la Pole earl of Suffolk, Richard earl of Oxford, William la Zouche, Henry FitzHugh, Thomas Camoys, Thomas Erpingham, William Lasingby and Robert Hull, greetings. You are to know that we, trusting fully in your faithfulness, industry and circumspection, have appointed you, or nine, eight, seven, six, five, four, three or two of you (of whom we wish either of you, the aforesaid William Lasingby or Robert, to be one), our justices to inquire by the oath of good and law-worthy men in the county of Southampton, both in and outside liberties, by whom the truth of the affair shall be better known, concerning all kinds of treasons, felonies, conspiracies and confederacies committed or perpetrated in the aforesaid county by whomsoever and in any way, and to hear and determine the same [memb. 3] treasons, felonies, conspiracies and confederacies according to the law and custom of our realm of England. And therefore we order you that at a certain time and place which you, or nine, eight, seven, six, five, four, three or two of you (of whom we wish either of you, the aforesaid William Lasyngby or Robert, to be one), shall hereupon arrange to make inquiries diligently concerning the foregoing, and hear and determine all and each of the foregoing according to the aforesaid law and custom; saving to us the amercements and other things pertaining to us on this. We have also ordered our sheriff of the aforesaid county that, on certain days and at certain places, that you, or nine, eight, seven, six, five, four, three or two of you (of whom we wish either of you, the aforesaid William Lasyngby or Robert, to be one) shall make known to him, hewill cause to come before you, or nine, eight, seven, six, five, four, three or two of you (of whom we wish you, the aforesaid William Lasyngby or Robert, to be one) as many and such good and law-worthy men from his bailiwick, both in and outside liberties, by whom the truth of the matter on the foregoing shall be better known and inquired into. In testimony of which things we have caused these our letters patent to be made. [col. b] Witnessed by myself at our castle of Portchester on 31 July in the third year of our reign.
Quarum litterarum domini regis patentium pretextu preceptum fuit vicecomiti dicti comitatus Sutht' quod non omitteret propter aliquam libertatem in balliva sua quin venire faceret coram prefatis justiciariis apud villam Suthampton' die Veneris secundo die Augusti tunc proximo sequens < de > quolibet hundredo ejusdem comitatus .xxiiij. liberos et legales homines et de quolibet civitate et burgo comitatus predicti .xij. liberos et legales homines ad faciendum ea que eis ibidem ex parte domini regis injungerentur in premissis. Et Johannes Uvedale vicecomes comitatus predicti virtute precepti predicti coram eisdem justiciariis tunc retornavit nomina diversorum juratorum comitatus predicti. Unde inter alias inquisiciones inquisicio subsequens per sacramentum .xij. juratorum comitatus predicti capta est que sequitur in hec verba: Sutht'. Inquisicio capta apud villam Suthampton' coram prefatis justiciariis dicto die Veneris anno regni dicti domini regis nunc tercio per sacramentum Johannis Chonde, Johannis Lok', Johannis Steer, Johannis Veel, Roberti Upham, Laurencii Hamelyn, Johannis Welere Fyssh', Johannis Colyn, Johannis Penyton', Walteri Hore, Johannis Halle et Johannes Snell' qui dicunt per sacramentum suum quod Ricardus comes Cantebrigg' de Conesburgh' in comitatu Ebor' chivaler et Thomas Gray de Heton in comitatu Northumbr' chivaler vicesimo die Julii anno regni Regis Henrici quinti post conquestum tercio apud villam Suthampton' et in diversis aliis locis infra regnum Anglie falso < et > proditorie conspiraverunt et se invicem confederaverunt quod ipsi aggregatis sibi quam pluribus aliis tam de retinencia domini regis quam aliis ligeis suis Edmundum comitem March' sine licencia dicti domini regis ad partes Walliae ducerent et ipsum superioritatem regni Anglie in casu quo dominus Ricardus nuper rex Anglie secundus post conquestum defunctus extitisset suscipere procurarent, ac quandam proclamacionem in dictis partibus Walliae nomine predicti comitis March' ut heredis corone Anglie contra predictum dominum regem nunc per nomen Henricum de Lancastre usurpatorem Anglie facerent, ad finem quod plures ligeorum ipsius domini regis nunc se prefato comiti March' traherent et sibi cicius adhererent; ac quoddam vexillum de armis Anglie, et quandam coronam de Ispann' positam super unum palettum et dicto comiti Cantebrigg' per predictum dominum regem nunc in vadium dimissam cum predicto comite March' in dictas partes Walliae adducerent. Et quod iidem comes Cantebrigg' et Thomas Gray sciverunt certos ligeos dicti domini regis nunc qui quendam Thomam de Trumpyngton' de Scocia ideotam in similitudinem predicti nuper regis Ricardi et Henricum Percy et plures alios de Scocia in magna multitudine ad ipsum dominum regem nunc in campis debellandis adducerent et eundem dominum regem nunc ut veri et fideles ligei sui inde non premunirent, ac insuper quod ipsi diversa castra ejusdem domini regis nunc in Walliae caperent et eadem castra contra ipsum dominum regem nunc manu forti tenerent et defenderent quam plures alias prodiciones felonias conspiraciones et confederaciones videlicet ad ipsum dominum regem nunc ac Thomam ducem Clarencie, Johannem ducem Bed' et Humfridum ducem Gloucestr' fratres suos necnon alios dominos magnates et fideles ligeos dicti domini regis nunc finaliter destruendum et interficiendum contra ligeanciam suam falso et proditorie proponendo et imaginando. Et quod Henricus Lescrop' de Masham de Faxflete in comitatu Ebor' chivaler ad predictum dominum regem nunc et fratres suos ac dominos magnates et ligeos predictos destruendum et interficiendum ac alia mala premissa in forma predicta faciendum et perpetrandum fuit consentiens; et ut ea fierent cum eisdem comite Cantebrigg' [p. iv-66][col. a] et Thoma Gray ac cum diversis aliis ligeis dicti domini regis nunc communicavit et ea ab eodem domino rege nunc falso et proditorie concelavit. - As a consequence of which letters patent of our lord the king, the sheriff of the said county of Southampton was ordered that he should not omit anyone on account of any liberty in his bailiwick, but he should cause to come before the aforesaid justices at the town of Southampton, on Friday 2 August then following, twenty-four free and law-worthy men from each hundred of the same county, and twelve free and law-worthy men from each city and borough of the aforesaid county, to do those things concerning the foregoing which would be enjoined on them on behalf of our lord the king. And John Uvedale, sheriff of the aforesaid county, by virtue of the aforesaid precept, then returned the names of various jurors of the aforesaid county before the same justices. Whereupon, among other inquests, the following inquest was held by the oath of twelve jurors of the said county, as follows: - Southampton. Inquest held at the town of Southampton before the aforesaid justices on the said Friday, in the said third year of the present lord king, by the oath of John Chond, John Lock, John Steer, John Veel, Robert Upham, Laurence Hamelyn, John Welere Fisher, John Colyn, John Penyton, Walter Hore, John Hall and John Snell; who say by their oath that Richard earl of Cambridge, of Conisborough in the county of York, knight, and Thomas Grey of Heton, in the county of Northumberland, knight, on 20 July in the third year of the reign of King Henry the fifth since the conquest, at the town of Southampton, and in various other places in the realm of England, falsely and treasonably conspired and bound themselves together to the effect that, having gathered to themselves many others both of the retinue of the lord king and of his other lieges, they would take Edmund, earl of March, to the parts of Wales without the said lord king's licence, and endeavour to support him as sovereign of the realm of England, if it were the case that Lord Richard the second since the conquest, late king of England, was dead; and they would issue a certain proclamation in the said parts of Wales, in the name of the aforesaid earl of March, that he was heir to the crown of England, rather than the present aforesaid lord king, whom they would call Henry of Lancaster, usurper of England, to the end that many lieges of the same present lord king should rally to the aforesaid earl of March and quickly adhere to him; and they would take with the aforesaid earl of March to the said parts of Wales a certain standard with the arms of England, and a certain Spanish crown, placed on a dish, and given as security for wages by the aforesaid present lord king to the said earl of Cambridge. And that the same earl of Cambridge and Thomas Grey knew certain lieges of the said present lord king who would bring a certain Thomas de Trumpington of Scotland, an idiot, in the guise of the said late King Richard, and Henry Percy and many others from Scotland, in a great crowd, to defeat the present lord king on the battlefield; and yet they did not warn the present lord king like his true and faithful lieges; and moreover, that they would seize various castles of the same present lord king in Wales and hold and defend the same castles by main force against the same present lord king; besides many other treasons, felonies, conspiracies and confederacies, namely, falsely and treasonably proposing and plotting finally to destroy and kill the same present lord king and Thomas duke of Clarence, John duke of Bedford,and Humphrey duke of Gloucester, his brothers, as well as other lords, magnates and faithful lieges of the said present lord king, contrary to their oath of allegiance. And that Henry Lescrope of Masham, of Faxfleet in the county of York, knight, was aware of the plot to destroy and kill the aforesaid present lord king and his brothers and the aforesaid lords, magnates and lieges, and to commit and perpetrate the other aforesaid evils; and so that these things should be done, he conspired with the same earl of Cambridge [p. iv-66][col. a] and Thomas Grey, and with various other lieges of the said present lord king, and falsely and treasonably concealed it from the same present lord king.
Ad quem diem Veneris coram prefatis justiciariis apud Suthampton' predictum predicti Ricardus comes Cantebrigg' Thomas Gray et Henricus Lescrop' per Johannem Popham chivaler constabularium turris Suthampton' in cujus custodiam perantea ex speciali mandato domini regis commissi fuerunt veniunt ducti qui instanter super premissis eis impositis separatim allocuti sunt quid adinde respondere seu se acquietare velint: predicti Ricardus comes Cantebrigg' et Thomas Gray dicunt separatim quod ipsi non possunt dedicere quin ipsi culpabiles sint de omnibus et singulis prodicionibus conspiracionibus et confederacionibus predictis modo et forma prout ipsi superius indictati sunt. Et de hiis omnibus et singulis singillatim se ponunt et submittunt in misericordia et gracia domini regis. Et predictus Henricus Lescrop' dicit et cognoscit quod predictus Thomas Gray ei primo de materia predicta narravit et quod ipse Henricus Lescrop' postmodum communicavit pluries et communicare consentiit cum prefatis Ricardo comite Cantebrigg' et Thoma Gray de omnibus et singulis materiis in indictamento predicto contentis preter imaginacionem mortis domini regis et fratrum suorum et aliorum in indictamento predicto contentorum; dicit tamen quod hoc ipse fecit ea intencione ad cognoscendum maliciam predictorum Ricardi comitis Cantebrigg' et Thome Gray in premissis. Et post cognicionem predictam in hac parte sic habitam intencio sua fuit ad impediendum illud maliciosum propositum suum: set quo ad concelamentum prodicionum predictarum a domino rege sic ut premittitur ei impositum ponit se in gracia et misericordia domini regis. Et quo ad imaginacionem mortis domini regis et fratrum suorum seu aliorum quorumcumque prout ei superius imponitur dicit quod ipse in nullo est inde culpabilis. Et cum hoc dicit quod ipse est dominus et unus parium regni Anglie et petit quod ipse per pares suos regni Anglie prout moris est trietur et judicetur. Super quo quia prefati justiciarii non avisantur ad judicium [editorial note: a hand drawn in the left margin points to this section] super dictis Ricardo comite Cantebrigg' et Henrico Lescrop' ad presens in premissis reddendum iidem Ricardus comes Cantebrigg' et Henricus Lescrop' remittuntur custodie dicti Johannis Popham constabularii turris predicti salvo custodiendi quousque etc. Et consideratum est per eosdem justiciarios quod predictus Thomas Gray ex cognicione sua propria ut proditor domini regis et regni sui Anglie distrahatur suspendatur et decapitetur. De precepto tamen < domini > regis due pene predicte videlicet districcionis et suspensionis eidem Thome Gray relaxantur. Et consideratum est quod ipse ducatur pedester de la Watergate de Suthampton' per medium ville predicte usque portam vocatam le Northgate ejusdem ville et ibidem decapitetur. Et quod caput suum sic abscisum ponatur apud villam Novi Castri super Tynam in conspectu populi ibidem pertranseuntis etc. Et quod idem Thomas Gray forisfaciat omnia bona et catalla terras et tenementa sua. Quibus quidem recordo et processu virtute dicti brevis dicto duci Clarencie ut premittitur liberatis et per eundem ducem ad ea recipiendum et judicium inde reddendum necnon ad execucionem judicii predicti virtute litterarum dicti domini regis patencium sibi in hac parte confectarum finaliter procedendum ad tunc admissis, predicti Ricardus comes Cantebrigg' et Henricus dominus Lescrop' coram dicto duce Clarentie dicto die Lune apud villam Suthampton' predictam per dictum Johannem Popham constabularium turris predicti venerunt ad barram ducti. Virtute cujus commissionis idem dux Clarencie instanter vocatis sibi Humfrido duce Gloucestr' fratre suo ac Edwardo duce Ebor' per Thomam comitem Dors' nomine et [col. b] loco ipsius Edwardi ad consenciendum faciendum et judicandum cum dominis predictis in premissis coram ipso rege specialiter costituto et admisso Edmundo comite March', Johanne comite Huntyndon', Thoma comite Arundell', Johanne comite marescallo, Thoma comite Dors', Thoma comite Sarum, Ricardo comite Oxon', Michaele comite Suff', Johanne domino de Clifford', Gilberto domino de Talbot, Willielmo domino de Zouche, Johanne domino de Haryndon, Roberto domino de Wylughby, Willelmo domino de Clynton, Johanne domino de Mautrevers, Hugone domino de Boucer,                     [editorial note: Pugh has a note that the missing name is 'William'] domino de Botreaux dominis et magnatibus regni Anglie et paribus dictorum Ricardi comitis Cantebrigg' et Henrici domini Lescrop' ibidem presentibus et pro viagio domini regis ultra mare intendentibus; visisque et diligenter examinatis recordo et processu cognicionum predictorum Ricardi comitis Cantebrigg' et Henrici domini Lescrop' ut premittitur, necnon inter eosdem dominos et magnates habita inde matura et circumspecta deliberacione videtur eisdem duci Clarencie et dominis quod predictus Ricardus comes Cantebrigg' quid ex cognicione sua propria ut principalis imaginator prodicionum predictarum et quid predictus Henricus dominus Lescrop' ut inde conscius et sepius cum eisdem proditoribus communicans et ad communicandum sepius consenciens nec prodicionem illam interim domino regi seu ejus consilio discoperuit set illud a dicto domino rege et ejus consilio totaliter concelavit quod ipsi ut proditores domini regis et regni sui Anglie in premissis censeri debent. Et sic ipsi dux Clarencie et domini omnia et singula eisdem Ricardo comiti Cantebrigg' et Henrico domino Lescrop' superius imposita et per ipsos cognita ut altam cedicionem domino regi et regno suo Anglie dampnabiliter et nepharie imaginatam conspiratam et confederatam una voce adjudicant et judicialiter affirmant. Per quod ex assensu et plena deliberacione omnium dominorum et magnatum predictorum in premissis consideratum est per ipsum ducem Clarencie ac omnes dominos et magnates predictos quod iidem Ricardus comes Cantebrigg' et Henricus dominus Lescrop' ut proditores domini regis et regni sui Anglie tanta facinora et prodiciones in mortem et destruccionem eorumdem domini regis et magnatum ut premittitur imaginando consenciendo conspirando et concelando quod ipsi distrahantur suspendantur et decapitentur. Et quod ipsi forisfaciant omnia bona et catalla terras et tenementa sua. Quia tamen dictus Ricardus comes Cantebrigg' de sanguine regio ortus est dictus dux Clarencie ex regio precepto relaxat eidem comiti execucionem distrahendi et suspendendi, et vult et precipit quod ipse solomodo decapitetur. Et quia predictus Henricus dominus Lescrop' est unus militum de illo inclito et excellenti ordine militari de la gartour qui pro fortificacione fidei regis regni et recti primitus fuerat laudabiliter inductus ipse tamen Henricus licet in eodem ordine pro delicto suo juste habeatur reprobus non tamen ordinem illum venerabilem hiis qui eodem digne utuntur pejorari nec reprobari quisque presumat. Et consideratum est de precepto domini regis quod predictus Henricus dominus Lescrop' distrahatur a predicta porta vocata la Watergate usque dictam portam vocatam la Northgate et ibidem solomodo decapitetur et non suspendatur. Et quod caput suum abscissum ponatur palam super unam portarum civitatis Ebor' in conspectu omnium pertranseuntium ne quis exnunc tam nefandam et temerariam assumat sibi audaciam contra dominum suum ligeum et linguam in qua natus est taliter delinquendi et rebellandi etc. Quibus quidem recordis et processibus ac aliis premissis coram ipso custode ac dominis predictis in parliamento ipso lectis et per eosdem plenius intellectis videtur curie presentis parliamenti quod judicia predicta sic lata rite juste et [p. iv-67][col. a] legitime reddita fuerunt; per quod iidem domini spirituales et temporales judicia illa omnia et singula versus dictos comitem Cantebr', Henricum dominum Lescrop' et Thomam Gray ut premittitur lata et reddita de assensu dicti custodis affirmarunt fore et esse bona, justa et legalia judicia et ea pro hujusmodi decreverunt et adjudicarunt tunc ibidem. Et quod omnia dominia, castra, maneria, terre, tenementa, redditus, servicia reversiones, feoda, advocaciones, hundreda, wapentachia, visus franci plegii, cur' lete, parci, chacee, franchesie, libertates, ballive et custodie castrorum, parcorum, forestarum et chacearum et aliorum locorum jura et possessiones quecumque necnon omnia bona et catalla predictorum comitis Cantebr', Henrici Lescrop' et Thome Gray et eorum cujuslibet sint domino regi forisfacta juxta formam et effectum judiciorum predictorum versus eos ut est dictum redditorum. Ita quod forisfactura hujusmodi se extendat dumtaxat prout lex communis regni Anglie in hac parte exigit et requirit: jure tamen omnium et singulorum qui forisfacturas in hoc casu virtute libertatum et franchesiarum suarum habere clamant semper salvo. - On which Friday, at the aforesaid Southampton, the aforesaid Richard earl of Cambridge, Thomas Grey and Henry Lescrope were brought before the aforesaid justices by John Popham, knight, constable of the tower of Southampton, in whose custody they had previously been committed by special mandate of the lord king; and they were immediately asked individually, the foregoing having been put to them, how they wished to reply or acquit themselves. The aforesaid Richard earl of Cambridge and Thomas Grey replied individually that they could not deny that they were guilty of all and each of the aforesaid treasons, conspiracies and confederacies, in the manner and terms that they are indicted above. And concerning all and each of these things, one by one, they submit themselves to the mercy and grace of the lord king. And the aforesaid Henry Lescrope says and acknowledges that the aforesaid Thomas Grey first spoke to him concerning the aforesaid affair, and that the same Henry Lescrope afterwards frequently conspired and agreed to conspire with the aforesaid Richard earl of Cambridge and Thomas Grey on all and each of the matters specified in the aforesaid indictment, except for the plot to kill the lord king and his brothers and the others named in the aforesaid indictment; he says, however, that he did these things with the intention of ascertaining the evil intent of the aforesaid Richard earl of Cambridge and Thomas Grey on the foregoing, so that after having obtained the aforesaid plan, his intention was to prevent that evil plan of theirs; but as to concealing the aforesaid treasons from the lord king, as is thus stated above, he puts himself on the grace and mercy of the lord king. And as regards the plot to kill the lord king and his brothers, or any of the others, with which he has been charged, he says that he is in no way guilty of it. Moreover, he says that he is a lord and one of the peers of the realm of England, and he petitions that he should be tried and judged by his peers of the realm of England, as is customary. Whereupon, because the aforesaid justices have not been advised to give judgment on the said Richard earl of Cambridge and Henry Lescrope on the foregoing at present, the same Richard earl of Cambridge and Henry Lescrope were delivered into the custody of the said John Popham, constable of the aforesaid tower, to be safely kept until, etc. And it was adjudged by the same justices that the said Thomas Grey, as a result of his own admission, should be drawn, hanged and beheaded as a traitor to the lord king and his realm of England. However, at the order of the lord king, two of the aforesaid penalties, namely drawing and hanging, were pardoned to the same Thomas Grey. And it was adjudged that he should be led on foot from the Watergate of Southampton through the middle of the aforesaid town to the gate of the same town called Northgate and beheaded there. And that his severed head should thus be impaled at the town of Newcastle upon Tyne in view of the people passing there etc. And that the same Thomas Grey should forfeit all his goods and chattels, lands and tenements. Which record and process - by virtue of the said writ delivered to the said duke of Clarence ordering the same duke to receive them and give judgment thereon, andalso finally to proceed to the execution of the aforesaid judgment, by virtue of the said lord king's letters patent made to him on this matter - having then been received, the aforesaid Richard earl of Cambridge and Henry Lord Lescrope came before the said duke of Clarence on the said Monday at the aforesaid town of Southampton, led to the bar by John Popham, constable of the aforesaid tower. By virtue of which commission, the same duke of Clarence at once called before him Humphrey duke of Gloucester, his brother, and Edward duke of York (through Thomas earl of Dorset, specially appointed and admitted in the name and [col. b] place of the same Edward), to agree, act and give judgment with the aforesaid lords on the foregoing before the lord king, together with Edmund earl of March, John earl of Huntingdon, Thomas earl of Arundel, John Earl Marshal, Thomas earl of Dorset, Thomas earl of Salisbury, Richard earl of Oxford, Michael earl of Suffolk, John Lord Clifford, Gilbert Lord Talbot, William Lord Zouche, John Lord Harrington, Robert Lord Willoughby, William Lord Clinton, John Lord Mautravers, Hugh Lord Bourchier and William Lord Botreaux, lords and magnates of the realm of England, and peers of the said Richard earl of Cambridge and Henry Lord Lescrope, who were present there in preparation for the lord king's expedition overseas; whereupon, once they had seen and diligently examined the record and process of the confession of the aforesaid Richard earl of Cambridge and Henry Lord Lescrope, as stated above, and after proper and circumspect deliberation thereupon had taken place between the same lords and magnates, it seemed to the same duke of Clarence and the lords that the aforesaid Richard earl of Cambridge (by his own confession, the chief architect of the aforesaid treasons), and the aforesaid Henry Lord Lescrope (joint-conspirator thereupon, who frequently and willingly communicated with the same traitors, yet did not disclose that treason to the said lord king and his council, but totally concealed it from the said lord king and his council) should be condemned on the foregoing as traitors to the lord king and his realm of England. And so the same duke of Clarence and the lords unanimously uphold and judicially confirm all and each of the charges previously brought against the same Richard earl of Cambridge and Henry Lord Lescrope, and confessed by them, as high treason to the lord king and his realm, culpably and wickedly plotted, conspired and planned together. Whereupon, by the assent and full deliberation of all the aforesaid lords and magnates on the foregoing, it is adjudged by the same duke of Clarence and all the aforesaid lords and magnates that the same Richard earl of Cambridge and Henry Lord Lescrope are traitors to the lord king and his realm of England, and that, for plotting, planning, conspiring and concealing so many crimes and treasons concerning the death and destruction of the same lord king and the magnates, as stated above, they should be drawn, hanged and beheaded. And that they should forfeit all their goods and chattels, lands and tenements. However, because the said Richard earl of Cambridge is descended from the royal blood, the said duke of Clarence, at the king's command, pardons the acts of drawing and hanging to the same earl, and wills and orders that he should only be beheaded. The aforesaid Henry Lord Lescrope is however a knight of that illustrious and excellent military Order of the Garter, which was originally laudably instituted for the strengthening of the faith, the king, the realm and justice; the same Henry, therefore, despite being in the same order, should be lawfully punished for his crime, without allowing any person to presume to malign or think ill of that illustrious order for those who wear it worthily. Thus it is adjudged, at the order of the king, that the aforesaid Henry Lord Lescrope should be drawn from the aforesaid gate called the Watergate to the said gate called the Northgate, and there only be beheaded and not hanged. And that his severed head should be impaled publicly on one of the gates of the city of York in view of all the passers by, lest anyone henceforth so wickedly and audaciously should assume such audacity to transgress and rebel against his liege lord and nation in which he was born, etc. - Which records and processes and other things having been read before the same regent and the aforesaid lords in this parliament, and fully understood by them, it was evident to the court of the present parliament that the aforesaid judgments thus given were delivered well, justly and [p. iv-67][col. a] lawfully; whereupon the same lords spiritual and temporal, by the assent of the said regent, confirmed all and each of those judgments given and delivered against the said earl of Cambridge, Henry Lord Lescrope and Thomas Grey, as mentioned above, to be good, just and lawful judgments, and decreed and adjudged them as such then. And that all lordships, castles, manors, lands, tenements, rents, services, reversions, fees, advowsons, hundreds, wapentakes, views of frankpledge, courts leet, parks, chases, franchises, liberties, bailiwicks and custody of castles, parks, forests and chases, and any other places, rights and possessions, and also all and each of the goods and chattels of the aforesaid earl of Cambridge, Henry Lescrope and Thomas Grey should be forfeited to the lord king, according to the terms and effect of the aforesaid judgments given against them, as has been said. Provided that such forfeitures shall be extended only as the common law of the realm of England demands and requires in this matter: saving always, however, the right of one and all who claim to have forfeitures in this case by virtue of their liberties and franchises.
[memb. 2]
Pur Henry Barton'. [Petition from Henry Barton of London].
7. Fait assavoir qe les communes bailerent, en cest present parlement, une supplicacione pur Henry Barton', citezin et pelter de Londres, dount le tenure cy ensuyt. 7. On behalf of Henry Barton. Let it be known that the commons delivered in this present parliament a petition on behalf of Henry Barton, citizen and pelterer of London, the tenor of which follows:
As honurables et tressages seignurs les communes de cest present parlement, supplie Henri Barton', citezin et pelter de Londres: qe come a luy soient due pur certeins choses de luy achatez en la graund garderobe le Roy Henri qui mort est, qe Dieux assoille, cccxxxiijli. vi s. viij d. du temps William Loveney adonqes gardein de mesme la garderobe, come piert par certeines tailles ent leveez a la receite del eschequer du dit nadgairs nostre seignur le roy, dount le dit suppliant n'ad euz uncore nulle paiement. To the honourable and most wise lords, the commons of this present parliament, Henry Barton, citizen and pelterer of London, requests that, whereas £333 6 s. 8 d. is due to him for certain items bought from him in the great wardrobe of the late King Henry, whom God absolve, from the time of William Loveney, then keeper of the same wardrobe, as is clear from certain tallies levied concerning this at the receipt of the said exchequer of our said late lord the king; for which the said supplicant has still not received any payment.
Plese purtant a voz bountees et sages discrecions, faire supplicacione et instance envers li treshaut et puissant prince le duc de Bedeford lieutenant au roy nostre soverein seignur, et autres seignurs du dit parlement, de ordeigner et grauntier en ycelle, paiement au dit suppliant del avantdite somme, en descharge del alme du dit nadgairs roy, qui Dieux assoille. Et qe ces executours eient plein poer, par auctoritee du dit parlement, de paier la dite somme a suisdit suppliant, par vertue des ditez tailles, et de mesme la somme ainsy paiee avoir allouance et descharge par ycelle tailles demonstrez sur lour accompt, en oevre de charitee. For that reason, may it please your good and wise discretions to make supplication and urgent entreaty to the most mighty and powerful prince the duke of Bedford, regent to our most sovereign lord king, and the other lords in the said parliament, to ordain and grant there for payment to be made to the said supplicant of the aforesaid sum, in discharge of the soul of the said late king, whom God absolve. And that the executors should have full power, by authority of the said parliament, to pay the said sum to the aforesaid supplicant by virtue of the said tallies; and for them, once the same sum has thus been paid, to have allowance and discharge by those tallies when shown on their account; by way of charity.
La quele supplicacione en le dit parlement lieu et entendu, respondu fuit en le forme ensuant: Which petition, having been read and understood in the said parliament, was answered as follows:
Soient les forme et governaunce ordeigneez pur les paiementz des dettes le piere nostre tressoverain seignur le roy gardez et observez, solonc l'effect de les lettres patentz du roy faitz celle partie. Let the procedure and system ordained for the payments of the debts of the father of our most sovereign lord the king be maintained and observed, according to the tenor of the king's letters patent made on this matter.
Pur Johan Aleyn et autres. [Petition from John Alan and others].
8. Item mesmes les communes baillerent une autre supplicacione, en mesme le parlement, pur Johan Aleyn et autres, dount le tenure cy ensuyt. 8. On behalf of John Alan and others. Also, the same commons delivered another petition in the same parliament on behalf of John Alan and others, as follows:
A tressages communes en cest present parlement assemblez, supplient Johan Aleyn, William Beverage, Johan Abbot, Aleyn Forman, Johan Coventre, Everard Flete, William Trymnell', Thomas Broun, Thomas Burbache, Esmon Thorp', Richard Flete, Phelip Alberd et Johan Victor, qui nadgairs mys avoient en le tour de Loundres, a Richard Garner adonques maistre del mestir de la monoie deinz mesme la tour, certeines sommes d'or de la veille monoie, amountante a la somme de cynk centz quatrevyntz et cynk livres, dys et oyt souldz, quatre deniers, pur estre coignee de novelle coigne, dount ils n'ont peu [col. b] uncore avoir restitucione; et qe come lour supplicacione, en le darrein parlement tenuz a Leycestre, baille au roi nostre soverain seignur, et par lui, par auctoritee de mesme le parlement, commys au chanceller d'Engleterre pur le temps esteant, pur ent faire remede et droit, come appiert par l'endocement de mesme la supplicacione, ne soit uncore determine, par ont les ditz suppliantz sont mys a grandz perdes, travaux, et expenses. To the most wise commons who are assembled in this present parliament, request John Alan, William Beverage, John Abbot, Alan Forman, John Coventry, Everard Fleet, William Trymnell, Thomas Brown, Thomas Burbache, Edmund Thorpe, Richard Fleet, Philip Alberd and John Victor, who recently deposited in the Tower of London, with Richard Garner, then master of the mint in the same Tower, certain sums in gold of the old money totalling £585 18 s. 4 d., for this to be minted as new coin, of which they are unable to obtain restitution; [col. b] because their petition to our sovereign lord the king delivered in the last parliament held at Leicester - and committed by him, by the authority of the same parliament, to the chancellor of England at the time to provide a rightful remedy thereon, as is clear from the endorsement on the same petition - has still not been dealt with, as a result of which the said supplicants are suffering great loss, hardship and expense.
Que plese a voz tressages discrecions, supplier a nostre dit seignur le roy de commander soun chanceller d'Engleterre, qu'il selonc l'effect de la dite supplicacione, et del endocement d'icelle il face a chescun des ditz suppliantz pleine droit et remede, selonc sa discrecione, si come bone foy et reson demandent, sanz lour doner plusours dilacions en ce cas, pur Dieu, et en oevre de charitee. Considerantz, tressages seignurs, qe combien qe les ditz suppliantz ount sovent foiz pursuiz en diverses parlementz et grauntz conseilx, pur approcher restitucione de lour dite monoie,uncore ils n'ont peu ne ne [poont] ycelle avoir, en grand arrerisment et empoverissement de lour estatz. May it please your most wise discretions, therefore, to beseech our said lord the king to order his chancellor of England that he should provide a rightful remedy for each of the said supplicants in accordance with the purport of the said petition and its endorsement, according to his discretion, as good faith and reason demand, without making them wait further in this matter; for God, and by way of charity. Considering, most wise lords, that although the said supplicants have often sued in various parliaments and great councils in order to expedite the return of their said money, they have still not been able to obtain it, to the great detriment and impoverishment of their estates.
La quele supplicacione lieeu et pleinement entendu en mesme le parlement, respondu fuit en manere come cy ensuyt: Which petition, having been read and fully understood in the same parliament, was answered as follows:
Procede le chanceller d'Engleterre pur le temps esteaunt, solonc l'auctorite a luy done pardevaunt ceste partie. Let the chancellor of England at the time proceed with this case, according to the authority given to him previously.
Pur gentz de la ville de Sondwich'. [Petition from the people of the town of Sandwich].
9. Item les ditz communes baileront, en ycelle parlement, une peticion, pur les gentz de la ville de Sondwych', dount le tenure est cy ensuaunt. 9. On behalf of the people of the town of Sandwich. Also, the said commons delivered in this parliament a petition on behalf of the people of the town of Sandwich, as follows:
As honurables et sages communes de ceste present parlement, monstrent les gentz de la ville de Sondwych': qe come nadgairs certeins biens d'une Katerine Kalewartes veve de Flaundres, fuissent prises par ascuns lieges et subgitz nostre seignur le roy, encountre la forme des trewes prises parentre le roy d'Engleterre piere nostre seignur le roy q'ore est et les gentz de Flaundres, et amesnes a terre en les downes hors de chescune ville ou hamelet. Et des quelles biens estoient amesnes a dite ville par ascuns des ditz malfaisours certeins biens, al value de xl s. ou petit pluis, les queux biens ensy amesnes a dite ville, sy tost come fuist aparcieu, furount arestez par les officers de mesme ville, et unqore sount en arest, prestes a deliverer a dite Katerine. Et honurez sires, ore tarde al pursuit de dite Katerine, affermant par suggescione les biens amesnes a dite ville estre del value de iiij xx li. d'esterlings, la ou en verite ils ne valoient qe iiij xx s. ou petit pluis, un commission nostre seignur le roy est direct al conestable del chastelle de Dovorr' et a soun lieutenant, pur lever des gentz de dite ville de Sondwich, les ditz lxxxli. par colour des trewes avauntditz, saunz ascune respounce des ditz gentz, encountre commune droit; dount graunt meschief ent purroit sourdre en temps avenir, sibien as touz les villes et portz d'Engleterre come a dite ville, sinoun qe remedie en ceo cas soit purveu. To the honourable and wise commons of this present parliament, the people of the town of Sandwich declare: whereas recently certain goods of one Katherine Kalewartes, a widow from Flanders, were seized by some of our lord the king's lieges and subjects contrary to the terms of the truces made between the king of England, our present lord the king's father, and the people of Flanders, and were brought ashore on the dunes outside various towns or hamlets; some of which goods, to the value of 40 s. or a little more, were taken to the said town by certain of the said malefactors, which goods, as soon as this became known, were seized by the officials of the same town, and are still being held, waiting to be released to the said Katherine. Yet recently, honourable lords, at the suit of the said Katherine, who alleged in a statement that the goods brought to the said town were worth £80 sterling (whereas in truth they are worth only 80 s. or a little more), a commission of our lord the king was addressed to the constable of Dover castle and his lieutenant to levy from the people of the said town of Sandwich the said £80, because of the aforesaid truces, without allowing any reply from the said people, against common right; because of which great hardship may arise thereon in future, both to all the towns and ports of England and to the said town, unless a remedy is provided on this matter.
Plese a vous, honurables sires, considerer la matier suisdite, et auxi l'estatut del graunt chartre, qe fait mencion qe nulle homme ne serroit jugge sinoun par la commune ley, et auxi en autres estatutz d'auncien temps ordeignez, nully ne serroit moleste ne greve saunz due processe de ley, et surceo de prier a gardein d'Engleterre lieutenaunt a nostre seignur le roy, par avys des seignurs spiritueles et temporeles, de grauntier, qe lez gentz de dite ville de Sondwich eient un supersedias direct a dite conestable et soun lieutenaunt, pur ceser l'execucione del commission avauntdit, tanqe a fyn qe la verite del suggescione de dite Katerine soit loialment prove, solonqe le cours de commune ley. Et ceo, pur Dieux et en oevre de charite. May it please you, honourable lords, to consider the aforesaid matter, and also the statute of the Great Charter, which specifies that no man should be judged except by the common law, as well as what is ordained in other ancient statutes, namely that no-one should be troubled or injured without due process of law; and thereupon to beseech the regent of England, our lord the king's lieutenant, with the advice of the lords spiritual and temporal, to grant that the people of the said town of Sandwich should have a writ of supersedeas addressed to the constable and his lieutenant in order to prevent the execution of the aforesaid commission, until the truth of the said Katherine's statement can be loyally proven according to the normal process of the common law; and this for God, and by way of charity.
La quele peticion lieu et bien concieu en mesme le parlement, fuit respondu en le manere q'ensuyt. Which petition, having been read and fully understood in the same parliament, was answered as follows:
Soit [p. iv-68][col. a] l'execucione fait en la matere par le chaunceller d'Engleterre pur le temps esteant, solonc les forme et effect de les trewes nadgairs prisez parentre le roialme d'Engleterre et ceux de Flandres. (fn. iv-62-73-1) Let execution be done on this matter [p. iv-68][col. a] by the chancellor of England at the time, according to the terms and effect of the truces recently made between the realm of England and the people of Flanders. (fn. iv-62-73-1)
Pur gentz de Northumbr' et autres. [Petition from the people of Northumberland and other northern counties, concerning the Statute of Truces].
10. Item, les avauntditz communes baileront une autre, en mesme le parlement, dount le tenure cy ensuyt. 10. On behalf of the people of Northumberland and others. Also, the aforesaid commons delivered another petition in the same parliament, the tenor of which follows:
Please as tressages sires, les communes d'Engleterre en cest present parlement assemblez, considerer lez povertes et meschiefs en quels les lieges nostre tressoverain et tresnoble seignur le roy, demurantz es countz de Northumbr', en la ville del Noef Chastelle sur Tyne, Cumbr', Westmerland, evescherie de Durham, et touz les demurantz et reseantz sur les costes del meer de Orwell' jesqe a Berwyk sur Twede, sont eschewez ore tarde, et nomement par meschief d'un estatut et ordinance fait al parlement tenuz a Leycestre, l'an secunde nostre seignur le roy, par quel estatut, entre autre choses fuit ordeigne et declare, qe tueues, robberies, espoilleries rumpperies de troialx le roy, et voluntarie rescet, abbettement, procurment, consail, lower, sustenance, et meintenance, affaires tout temps avener, apres le dit parlement teignuz a Leyc', par ascuns des lieges et subgitz de roy deins les [col. b] roialmes d'Engleterre, d'Irland, et Gales, ou sur le haut meer, soient ajuggez, et determinez, pur haut treson, fait encontre la corone et dignite de roy, par l'ou devant fesance del dit ordinance, principale remedy dez ditz suppliantz fuit de prendre un punde ou destres pur un autre pur defaute de redresse dez enmys d'Escoce. May it please the most wise lords, the commons of England who are assembled in this present parliament, to consider the poverty and hardship into which the lieges of our most sovereign and most noble lord the king who dwell in the county of Northumberland, in the town of Newcastle upon Tyne, the counties of Cumberland and Westmorland, the bishopric of Durham, and all those dwelling and residing on the sea-coast from Orwell to Berwick upon Tweed, have recently fallen, and particularly so by the damage inflicted by a statute and ordinance made at the parliament held at Leicester, in the second year of our lord the king [1414]; by which statute, among other things, it was ordained and declared that killing, robbery, plundering, breaking of the king's truces, and voluntary receiving, abetment, procurement, assistance, grant, support and maintenance, whenever done in future after the said parliament held at Leicester, by any of the king's lieges and subjects within the [col. b] realms of England, Ireland and Wales, or on the high seas, should be adjudged and regarded as high treason committed against the crown and the dignity of the king; whereas before this said ordinance was made, the chief means of redress for the said supplicants was to take a pound for a pound, or distraint in other cases, where they could not obtain redress against the enemies of Scotland.
Et sur ceo de supplier le tresreverent seignur duye de Bedford' lieutenant d'Engleterre, q'il, par assent de toutz seignurs espirituels et temporels, et auctorite de cest present parlement, plese ordeigner, et establer, qe le dit estatut et ordinance soit voide et repellez pur toutz les lieges suisditz, et toutz ceux quels pur le temps serront resceantz et demurantz en temps avenir, es countez, ville, evescherie, et costes suisditz, devers les ditz enemys d'Es [coce par] [...] [toutz] les ditz lieges du roy soient a large, sicome eux fueront devant le dit parlement teignuz a Leyc', purveu [toutz foithz, qe] [...] [graunte] estoise en sa force en toutz autres articles, sur toutz autres lieges nostre dit seignur le roy, pur Dieux et en oevr de charite. Whereupon they ask the most reverent lord duke of Bedford, lieutenant of England, that it might please him to ordain and establish, by the assent of all the lords spiritual and temporal and the authority of this parliament, that the said statute and ordinance should be annulled and repealed for all of the aforesaid lieges, and for all those who may live and dwell in future in the aforesaid counties, town, bishopric, and on the coast, and that all of the king's said lieges should enjoy such liberty with regard to the said enemies of Scotland as they did before the said parliament held at Leicester; provided always that it should remain in force in all its other clauses, for all other lieges of our said lord the king; for God and by way of charity.
[La quele peticion lieu] [...] et bien entendu en mesme le parlement, fuit respondu en le manere ensuant: Which petition, having been read and fully understood in the same parliament, was answered as follows:
Soit modificacione ent fait par le roy [nostre soveraigne seignur, solonc] sa treshaut et tressage discrecion, et ceo par auctoritee de cest present parlement. Let it be amended by our sovereign lord the king, according to his most high and most wise discretion, and by the authority of this present parliament.
LES COMUNES PETICIOUNS. [THE COMMON PETITIONS].
AS TRESHONUREZ ET TRESGRACIOUSES SEIGNURS DUC DE BEDEFORD'GARDEIN D'ENGLETERRE, ET AS AUTRES SEIGNURS EN CEST PRESENT PARLEMENT, SUPPLIONT LES COMMUNES D'ENGLETERRE, QE PLESE GRAUNTER LES PETICIONS SOUZ ESCRIPTZ. THE COMMON PETITIONS: TO THE MOST HONOURABLE AND MOST GRACIOUS LORDS, THE DUKE OF BEDFORD, REGENT OF ENGLAND, AND THE OTHER LORDS IN THIS PRESENT PARLIAMENT, THE COMMONS OF ENGLAND REQUEST THAT IT MIGHT PLEASE THEM TO GRANT THE PETITIONS WRITTEN BELOW.
[col. a]
I < Pur la franchise de la cite de Baion'. > I. [Concerning the franchise of the city of Bayonne].
11. Primerement supplient les communes, qe vous please, considerez les grantz amour, et entier affeccione, q'ils ount a vous, tresgracious seignur, de graunter a voz ditz povers comunes, q'ils purront estre quitz et deschargez en la citee de Baion' de touz maneres solucions et novells imposiciones les queux le mair, skavins, jures, consules, cent pays, et la communalte de la cite de Baion' demaundent, a voz poveres lieges, en entrant en la dite cite etis sant hors d'ycell, de qeconqes lour merchandises qe sount par eux apportez a mesme la citee, et serrount transporte hors [d'icelle, et en toutz] autres portz et lieux es parties depar de la, pur Dieu, et en oevere de charite. Et qe nulle imposicione soit mys sur les marchantz [Englois en la citee] de Burdeux, ne en la dite citee de Baion'. 11. I. Concerning the franchise of the city of Bayonne. Firstly, the commons request that it might please you, considering the great love and pure affection which they have for you, most gracious lord, to grant to your said poor commons that they might be free and discharged from all kinds of payments and new taxes in the city of Bayonne which the mayor, echevins, jurors, councils, hundreds or community of the city of Bayonne demand from your poor lieges on entering the said city and leaving it, on any of their merchandise which is brought by them to the same city or taken out of it, and in all other ports and places overseas; for God, and by way of charity. And that no tax should be imposed on English merchants in either the city of Bordeaux or the city of Bayonne.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soient les causes des imposicions en la peticion especisiez, monstrez a le conseil le roy. Let the reasons for the taxes specified in this petition be explained to the king's council.
[memb. 1]
II. < Pur mair, bailifs et communaltie de fraunchises ne destes nosmer disseisors in assise [plees] vers eux. > II. [That the mayor, bailiffs and communities of franchises should not be named as disseisors in assizes and other [pleas] against them].
12. Item, priount les communes, qe par la ou il soit contenus en l'estatut fait a Gloucestr', l'an le Roy Henri IIII pier nostre seignur q'orest, que les mairs, baillifs, communaltee de francheses, les seignurs et baillifs d'auncienne demesne sount nomez dissesours en assise et tenauntz en autres briefs de plee de terre dez terrez et tenementz ou rentz esteantz deinz villes et franchises et auncienne demesne par colusione et fraude de eux concluder de lour fraunchises, libertes, et conisance, et jurisdiccione aver en lour court devaunt eux, et que toutz tiels briefs adonqes pendantz et assises par entre queconqe persone devaunt justice a le commune ley, as queux tiels mairs, [col. b] baillifs, et communalte, seignurs ou baillifs d'auncienne demesne soient nomez, que lez justices enqueront par le dite assise ou pais, si les ditz mairs, baillifs, ceo demaundont, devant tiels justices, si ils soient dissesours ou tenauntz ou soient nomez par collusione ou fraude come desus est dite, et si trove soit que ne soient my dissesours ne tenauntz mes q'ils soient nomez par fraude et collusione suisdite, q'en tiel cas les justicez ferront abater et casser les dits briefs d'assise et autres briefs, et qe les dit plaintiffes soient et chescun de eux soit en le greve mercy nostre seignur le roy; nonobstant que autres dissesours et tenauntz soient nomez en tiels assisez ou briefs, et que ore lez justicez entendont que le dit estatut ne se extende pas forsqe a mairs, baillifs, et comunalte, que ount conisance du plee, et nemy autres; (fn. iv-62-93-1) que ordine soit et estables en cest present parlement, q'en mesme la manere come desus est dite, soit enquis et feet la ou assie ou autre brief de plee de terre est ou serra porte divers mairs, baillifs, et communalteez eiauntz fraunchez, libertez, et juridicciones, c'estassavoir que les terres, tenementz, et rentz, que sount deins lour franchises, serront tries par ceux que ount frank tenement deins lour ditz fraunchises et nemye par autres; neint obstant que ils n'ount nul conisance. 12. II. That the mayor, bailiffs and community of franchises should not be named disseisors in assize pleas against them. Also, the commons pray that, whereas it is specified in the statute made at Gloucester in the [ninth] year of the reign of King Henry IV, the father of our present lord, that when the mayors, bailiffs, community of franchises, lords and bailiffs of ancient demesne are named as disseisors in assizes and tenants in other writs of plea of land concerning lands and tenements or rents which are within those towns, franchises and ancient demesnes, by collusion and fraud, in order to exclude them from their franchises, liberties and jurisdiction, and to have jurisdiction in their court before them; and in all such writs which were then pending, and assizes between any person before a justice at the common law, in which such mayors, [col. b] bailiffs and communities, lords or bailiffs of ancient demesne were named; that in such cases the justices should inquireby the said assize or jury as to whether the said mayors and bailiffs demand this before such justices, and whether they are disseisors or tenants or are named by collusion or fraud in the aforesaid manner; and if it is found that they are not disseisors or tenants but that they are named for reasons of fraud and collusion, that in such cases the justices shall annul and quash the said writs of assize and other writs, and that each of the said plaintiffs shall be grievously at the mercy of our lord the king; notwithstanding that other disseisors and tenants may also be named in such assizes or writs, and that the justices now intend that the said statute extends only to mayors, bailiffs and communities who have cognizance of a plea, and no-one else. (fn. iv-62-93-1) May it therefore be ordained and established in this present parliament that, in the same manner as stated above, it should be ascertained and established that when an assize or other writ of plea of land concerns any mayors, bailiffs and communities who have franchises, liberties and jurisdictions, that is to say that when the lands, tenements and rents are within their franchises, they should be tried by those who have free tenements within their said franchises and not by others; notwithstanding that they do not have any cognizance.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Cely qe se sente estre greve en la cas face declaracione devaunt les justices de sa grevance, et reporte ent serra fait par eux a les seignurs. Let those who consider themselves to be aggrieved in this matter explain their grievance before the justices, and let a report be made on it by them to the lords.
III. < Pur l'enhabitantz entre borders de Wales. > III. [Petition from the inhabitants of the Welsh border, especially in Shropshire].
13. Item, supplient humblement lez comunez de la counte de Salop', et en especiall lez gentz demurantz en Cawesland' en le dit counte adjoignantz as [p. iv-69][col. a] seignuries dez seignurs marchiers illeoqes, sicome as seignuries de Powys, Oswestre, et autres seignuries en le merche de Gales: qe come ordeigne soit par diversez estatutz, faitz avaunt cez heures, l'an du regne le Roy Henri pier nostre seignur le roy q'orest seconde, qe si ascune distresse soit pris dez boefs, jument, chivalx, vachez, barbiz, ou d'autres biens qeconqes, par les gentz de Gales, de ceux qe sont dez countez as merche de Gales adjoignantz, et amesnez hors des ditz countez en Gales, ou ils sont resceantz, et illeoqes deteignez, tanqe gree lour soit fait a lour voluntee, et ceo de ceux qe n'ount trespassez, sibien come de ceux q'ont trespassez, ou q'ascune arest soit fait par les ditz gentz de Gales, des gentz des ditz countes, veignauntz ove lour merchandisez ou ove autres lour biens, ou afferment pleintz devers eux, des dettes, covenauntz, trespassez, ou autres acciouns, dont ils ne sont mye parties ne plegges, au fyne d'eux grever, par diversez outragiousez amerciementz et costagez, q'adonqe les viscontz dez ditz countez des gentz ensy grevez, ou les meires, baillifs, des citez et burghs, ou seneschalx des franchisez, ou tiels ensy grevez sount demurantz, facent lettres desoubz lour sealx, tesmoignauntz lez grevauntz des gentz ensy grevez, as seignurs, ou a ses ministres, eiantz lez governauncez de les seignuries, en le queux tielx maiffaisours sount resceantz, qe lez ditz seignurs, ou lour ministres, deliverent lez gentz ensy grevez, ove lour biens, deins sept jours apres la request a eux en tiel manere fait, et s'ils ne deliverent lez persones ensy grevez, ove lour biens, en la fourme suisdit, q'adonqes bien lirra lez ditz gentz Engleys ensy grevez, arestier qeconqes venauntz ove biens et chateux de ceux seignuries en Gales, ou tielx messaisours sont recettez ou demurantz, et les resceiver tanqe plein gree a eux soit fait, ove lour mysez et costagez, ensemblement ove lour distressez biens et chateux suisditz. Et auxi par un autre estatut fait mesme l'an soit ordeigne, qe si ascune homme de Gales entre lez countez a ceo adjoignantz en le roialme d'Engleterre, et en ycelle [arde, tue,] rape, ou ascune autre felonie ou trespasse face, de quel il soit atteint deinz le roialme d'Engleterre, par lez leyes de mesme le roialme, par utlagarie ou abjuracione, et repaire en Gales, tapossant illeoqes, qe sur lez certificacione et record affaires par lez justices nostre seignur le roy en Engleterre, devaunt queux ils serront issint convictz, desoubz lour sealx, as seignurs et ministres, ou tiels felons serront trovez en Gales, final execucione soit fait sur mesme le felon, par mesmes les seignurs ou ministres, et ceo, sur grevouse peine; (fn. iv-62-99-1) lez queux estatutz et ordinauncez avant cez heurez n'ount mye este duement gardez, ne mys en execucione, a cause sibien des defautez des seignurs marchiers ou tielx meffaisours sount resceantz, et lez certificatez dez tieux justicez, et lettres dez ditz viscontz, meirs, baillifs, et seneschalx des fraunchises, nient obeisantz, come de ceo qe les ditz gentz ensy grevez, [n'oisont pas n'ount pas poair] lez ditz meffaisours, en la fourme suisdite, [arestier,] pur lour feblenesse et povertee, a lour final destruccione s'ils n'ount vostre gracious [aide.] 13. III. On behalf of the inhabitants along the Welsh border. Also, the humble request of the commons of the county of Shropshire, and especially the people dwelling in Causland in the said county adjoining [p. iv-69][col. a] the lordships of the marcher lords there, as well as the lordships of Powys, Oswestry and other lordships in the march of Wales: whereas it is ordained by various statutes made previously in the second year of the reign of King Henry, the father of our present lord the king [1401], that if any distraint is made on oxen, mares, horses, cows, sheep, or any other goods by the people of Wales, from those who live in the counties which adjoin the march of Wales, and these are taken outside the said counties into Wales, and received and kept there until they make payment at their will (and this both from those who have not trespassed, as well as those who have trespassed), or if any arrest is made by the said people of Wales of people of the said counties who come with their merchandise or other goods, or make plaints against them of debt, covenant, trespass or other actions in which they are not parties or pledges, in order to harm them, by means of various outrageous amercements and expenses; that then the sheriffs of the said counties where the aggrieved people live, or the mayors and bailiffs of the cities and boroughs, or the stewards of franchises where such people thus aggrieved are dwelling, should issue letters under their seals testifying to the grievances of the people thus aggrieved, to the lords or their officials who have administration of the lordships in which the malefactors are living, telling the said lords or their officials to free the people thus aggrieved, together with their goods, within seven days of the request being made to them in this fashion; and if they do not free the persons thus aggrieved, with their goods, in the aforesaid manner, that then the said English people thus aggrieved should be allowed to arrest anyone coming with goods and chattels from those lordships in Wales where those malefactors are livingor dwelling, and keep them until full settlement is made to them, together with their costs and expenses, as well as their aforesaid distrained goods and chattels. And also by another statute made in the same year it was ordained that if any Welshman enters the counties adjoining the realm of England and commits arson, murder, rape or any other felony there, of which he is convicted within the realm of England by the laws of the same realm, by outlawry or abjuration, and returns to Wales to hide there; that, following certification and record to be made by the justices of our lord the king in England before whom they are convicted, under their seals, to the lords or officials of the places where such felons are to be found in Wales, final execution should be made on the same felon by the same lords or officials, and this upon a grievous penalty. (fn. iv-62-99-1) Which statutes and ordinances have not recently been duly upheld or maintained, partly through the fault of the marcher lords where such malefactors are harboured, despite their receipt of certificates from the justices and letters from the sheriffs, mayors, bailiffs and stewards of franchises, and partly because the said people thus grieved neither dare nor have the power to arrest the said malefactors in the aforesaid manner, on account of their weakness and poverty; which will result in their final destruction if they do not have your gracious assistance.
[Qe plaiez a] vostres tressagez discrecions, [considerez les meschiefs] suisditz, de grauntier par auctoritee de ceste present parlement, une commission direct a les pluis voillantz et forsfeisantz personez del dit counte de Salop, d'estre nomez par l'advys de le chaunceller d'Engleterre, d'enquerer duement, de ceux queux ount mispris encontre les estatutz et ordeignauncez suisditz, et de faire due punyssement, solonc l'effect et le purporte de mesmes les ordinauncez et estatutz suisditz, doignauntz a eux poair par ycell, en mesme la forme, de punyssier ceux, q'envers l'estatutz et ordinauncez avauntditz soy mesprendront en temps avenir, ov lez autres de la seignurie de Gales, ou ils sont resceantz, solonc l'effect de lez estatutz et ordinauncez avauntditz, et de faire lettres desoubz [leur sealx, tesmoignauntz] lez grevauncez des gentz ensy grevez, ou a grever, en mesme le manere, come lez ditz viscontz, [col. b] meirs, baillifs, et seneschalx dez fraunchisez, deussent faire, et d'acomplier et executier lez ordeignauncez et estatutz suisditz, pur le aise et tranquillitee dez ditz suppliantz, et a fyne q'ils purront demurer en pees, ove lour biens et chateux, en lour measons demesnez, as ditz marches de Gales adjoignauntz, pur Dieu, et en oevre de charitee. May it please your most wise discretions, having considered the aforesaid wrongs, to grant by the authority of this present parliament a commission addressed to the most competent and powerful persons in the said county of Shropshire, to be named on the advice of the chancellor of England, to make due enquiry concerning those who have contravened the aforesaid statutes and ordinances, and decree a suitable punishment in accordance with the effect and tenor of the same aforesaid statutes and ordinances, giving them authority by that, on the same terms, to punish those who contravene the aforesaid statutes and ordinances in future, as well as others from the lordship of Wales, where they are living, according to the tenor of the aforesaid statutes and ordinances, and to issue letters under their seals testifying to the grievances of the people thus injured, or who may be injured, similar to those which the said sheriffs, [col. b] mayors, bailiffs and stewards of the franchises ought to issue, and to enforce and execute the aforesaid statutes and ordinances, for the peace and quiet of the said supplicants, so that they can dwell in peace, with their goods and chattels, in their own houses adjoning the said marches of Wales; for God, and by way of charity.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soient briefs, desoutz le grande seal ou le privie seal du roy, faitz et grauntez a ceux de les marches de Gales, qe se voudrent compleindre des [choses] faitz encontre les estatutz ent faitz, [de mettre] les estatutz avantditz en due execucione. Let writs under the king's great seal or privy seal be made and granted to those of the marches of Wales who wish to complain of anything done contrary to the statutes made on this, so that the aforesaid statutes may be duly enforced.
V. [sic: read 'IV'] < Pur galeshalpenyes. > V. [Concerning galley-halfpennies].
14. [Item, priount les communes, qe come en l'estatuit fait l'an unzisme de regne vostre pier, qe Dieu] assoile, ordeine estoit et establie, qe les galyhalpens deslors ne [courgerent en paiement, n'en autre manere, deinz le roialme d'Engleterre, sur peyne de] forfaiture d'icell, et en outre, qe les galyhalpens, en qi mayns q'ils serront trovez [deinz le dit roialme,] serroient forfaitz a nostre seignur le roy. (fn. iv-62-105-1) 14. Concerning galley-halfpennies. Also, the commons pray that, whereas in the statute made in the eleventh year of your father [1410], whom God absolve, it was ordained and established that galley-halfpennies thenceforth would not be accepted for payment, or for anything else, within the realm of England, upon penalty of their forfeiture; and moreover that these galley-halfpennies, in whosoever's hands they may be found within the said realm, should be forfeited to our lord the king. (fn. iv-62-105-1)
Que plese a nostre tressoverain seignur le roy, par assent des seignurs en cest present parlement, [d'ordeiner, qe le dit estatut soit firmament] tenuz et gardez et mys en due execucione; et qe les ditz galyhalpens et le money appelle [seskyn, et dodekyn, et toute manere monoie d'Escoce d'argent, soient de tout oustez, et ne courgent enapres, pur nulle paiement] deins le dit roialme, [adjoustant a ycell, qe proclamacione soit faite] par toutz les countees d'Engleterre, [dedeinz fraunchises et dehors, et deins citees, et burghs, et aillours, qe toutz] yceux [qe aient galihalpens, seskyns, ou dodekyns,] les apportent [a les eschaunges nostre dit seignur le roy, par entre cy et] la fest de Pasqe proschein ensuant, pur estre illeoqes [debrusez, et ceo q'est trove bone argent, pur estre illoeqies ferrez et coignez en mayls Englois, et] qe toutz yceux, qe apres le dit fest de Pasqe ascunes galyhalpens, seskyns, ou dodekyns facent, [coynent, achatent, ou apportent en le dit] roialme d'Engleterre, pur les vendre, ou mettre en paiement deins mesme le roialme, et de ceo [soient atteintz, soient ajuggez come felons nostre] seignur le roy, et q'ils forfacent toutz lours terres et tenementz, biens et chateux, et qe les seignurs des queux ils sont [tenuz, eient ent les] forfaitures, come en autres cases de felonie. Et si ascun liege ou lieges du roy, ou ascun autre [persone, mettent galihalpens, seskyns, ou dodekyns, en paiement, receyvent ou paient deins le roialme] d'Engleterre, et de ceo soient [duement atteintz, forfacent a chescun foitz q'ils fount tiel paiement ou resceit, centz souldz, dont le roy eit] l'une moite, et celuyqe voet suir pur nostre seignur le roy pur les ent atteindre, l'autre moite. Et qe sibien les justices de la pees deinz toutz les countes d'Engleterre, come mairs et baillifs, deins citees et burghs, et seneschalx des seignurs, en viewe de fraunkplegge, eient poaire d'enquerrer, par bones enquestes devaunt eux a prendrez, de toutz les matiers avauntditz, et qe les ditz mairs et baillifs, apres les ditz enquestes devaunt eux pris, mesmes les inquisiciones [...] devaunt les justices de la pees des countees, en queux les ditz citees ou burghs sont. Et qe les ditz justices de la pees eient poaire, sibien sur lez ditz inquisiciones ensy devaunt tiels mairs et baillifs sont prisez et devaunt les ditz justices, come avaunt est dit, maundez, come sur autres inquisiciones devaunt mesmes les justices de la pees en lour sessions a prendre, touchaunt les maters avauntditz, de faire processe, et de agarder capias et exigentz, et toutz les ditz maters oier et terminer, solonc lour discrecions, come en autres cas de felonie et trespas ad este use devaunt ces heures. May it please our most sovereign lord the king, by the assent of the lords in this present parliament, to ordain that the said statute should be firmly upheld and maintained and duly enforced; and that the said galley-halfpennies, and coins called seskins and dodkins, and all kinds of Scottish silver coins, should be completely withdrawn and not accepted henceforth for any payment within the said realm; adding to this that proclamation should be made throughout all the counties of England, within and outside franchises, and in the cities, boroughs and elsewhere, that all those who have galley-halfpennies, seskins or dodkins should take them to our lord the king's exchanges, between now and the feast of Easter following, in order to be destroyed there; and that those made of good silver should be made and minted into English halfpennies there; and that all those who, after the said feast of Easter, make, mint, acquire or bring any galley-halfpennies, seskins or dodkins into the said realm of England in order to sell them, or use them in payment within the said realm, and are convicted of this, should be adjudged as felons to our lord the king, and forfeit all their lands and tenements, goods and chattels; and that the lords of whom they are tenants should have those forfeitures, as in other felony cases. And if any of the king's lieges, or any other person, spends, receives or pays galley-halfpennies, seskins or dodkins as payment within the realm of England, and is duly convicted of this, they should forfeit 100 s. each time they make or receive such payment; of which let the king have one half, and whoever wishes to prosecute in the name of our lord the king in order to convict them on this, the other half. And let both the justices of the peace in all the counties of England, and the mayors and bailiffs in the cities and boroughs, and the stewards of lords with view of frankpledge, have the authority to inquire, by full inquests to be held in their presence, on all the aforesaid matters; and let the said mayors and bailiffs, after the said inquests have been held in their presence, order the same inquests to be brought before the justices of the peace of the counties in which the said cities and boroughs are situated. And let the said justices of the peace have the power, both as regards the said inquests thus held before those mayors and bailiffs and before the said justices, as stated previously, and as regards other inquests to be held before the same justices of the peace in their sessions, concerning all the aforesaid matters, to order a process, and to award capias and exigent, and to hear and determine all the said matters according to their discretion, as has been customary in other cases of felony and trespass previously.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Il semble a gardein, et as seignurs, qe ceo soit affaire si les plest a roy. Et fait assavoir, qe le roy veu pleind entendu mesme la peticion, le voilloit en tout, solonc l'effect de mesme la peticion . (fn. iv-62-108-1) It seems to the regent and the lords that this should be allowed if it pleases the king. And let it be noted that the king, having duly heard the petition, wishes it to take effect in full, according to the tenor of the same petition. (fn. iv-62-108-1)

Appendix November 1415

4 November 1415

Westminster

1

Grant to the inhabitants of the counties of Northumberland, Cumberland and Westmorland of exemption from payment of all taxes granted to the king in this parliament. By the keeper of the realm. Dated 13 November 1415 at Westminster.

Source : CPR 1413-16 , 371.

2

Grant to the inhabitants of the town of Newcastle upon Tyne of exemption from payment of all tenths and fifteenths granted in this parliament. By the king. Dated 26 November 1415 at Westminster.

Source : CPR 1413-16 , 381.

Footnotes

  • f1415int-1. The fullest account is in T. B. Pugh, Henry V and the Southampton Plot of 1415 (Southampton Record Series, 30, 1988).
  • f1415int-2. It was certainly the shortest parliament of the fifteenth century, and it would be difficult to think of a less controversial one.
  • f1415int-3. RDP , II.827, 830.
  • f1415int-4. The names of those summoned included Peter Lord Mauley in August, but not in September, for he died on 6 September. The September list did however include the addition of Thomas earl of Arundel, who had not been summoned in August but had been sent home after contracting dysentery at the siege of Harfleur; however, he died before the parliament met, on 13 October ( CP , I.246; viii.570; compare HOC , I.26, 73, where there is some confusion over this question).
  • f1415int-5. The writs for expenses do not survive. It is not clear whether the two burgesses each for Bodmin, Helston and Dartmouth were returned to this or the March 1416 parliament - hence the possibility that only ninety-one, rather than ninety-seven, names of the commons are known.
  • f1415int-6. 'The feast of St Brice': Chronicle of Adam Usk , 258.
  • f1415int-7. HOC , I.162.
  • f1415int-8. Or 'Redmayne'; for his career, see HOC , IV.183-6. He was probably about sixty, and had great experience of local administration, although it was only his third parliament
  • f1415int-9. The commons did, however, say that this was not to be taken as a precedent, and stipulated that no annuities should be paid from the wool customs or tunnage and poundage.
  • f1415int-10. See Wylie, Henry the Fifth , II.237 ('a moment of reckless exultation'); but even Adam Usk (p. 258) was taken in by the mood, claiming that this was 'no more than [Henry V] deserved, as a recognition of his achievements'. Richard II had been granted the wool subsidy (but not tunnage and poundage) for life in 1398, but had been deposed in 1399. No such offer was ever made to Henry IV.
  • f1415int-11. Powell and Wallis, House of Lords , 447.
  • f1415int-12. For the festivities which greeted Henry's entry to London on 23 November, see Allmand, Henry V , 96-9, and Gesta Henrici Quinti , 100-112.
  • f1415int-13. Wylie, Henry the Fifth , II.243.
  • iv-62-6-1. Judges xv.11
  • iv-62-6-2. Psalm cxviii.112
  • iv-62-6-3. Ecclesiasticus. iv.33
  • iv-62-73-1. SC 8/303/15127, 15128
  • iv-62-93-1. SR , II.160 (c. v)
  • iv-62-99-1. SR , II.128-9 (c. xvi, xvii)
  • iv-62-105-1. SR , II.163 (c. v)
  • iv-62-108-1. SR , II.191