Memorials of the Guild of Merchant Taylors of the Fraternity of St. John the Baptist in the City of London. Originally published by Harrison, London, 1875.
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CXXII. (A.) THE ESTABLISHMENT OF MERCHANT TAYLORS' SCHOOL (1561 AND 1874).
1. It is strange that of an institution so important as the School, little or no record exists of the incidents of its foundation. Unfortunately the Court Minutes have not been preserved anterior to the year in which the school was founded, and hence we are left (with such aid as the study of the School Statutes may afford), only to conjecture what were the motives which induced, and what the principles which guided, the Fraternity in initiating this great work.
2. It may be pertinent to remark that the famed school of St. Anthony, in which the great Chancellor, Sir Thomas More, was trained, stood in close proximity to the Taylors' Hall, (fn. 1) so that the Hall was never visited by the wayfarer from the West without passing the school precincts. From the pecuniary struggles of their poor tenant, the "schoolmaster," (fn. 2) sometimes occupying one, but never more than two rooms, the Court of the Company must have witnessed the difficulty with which such an occupation could be successfully followed, and how hopeless it would have been to look to "private venture" schools for the supply of the intellectual needs of the Citizens of London after the Reformation.
3. Moreover let it be noticed that already one of their most respected members, Sir Stephen Jenyns, had at the commencement of the century established a grammar school in his native town of Wolverhampton, for the advantage of its sons, while other members of the Company, and notably Sir William Harper, who founded the Bedford School, and Sir Thomas White, who founded St. John's, Oxford, had evinced no common interest in the great cause of education. What, therefore, more fitting than that a Company partly religious and partly eleemosynary in its foundation, should employ the means which the Reformation had indirectly thrown into their hands, in establishing a school "in the honor of Jesu," and in loyal allegiance to the National Church?
4. "The building selected for the School premises was a portion of a palace, named 'The Manor of the Rose' (sometimes called 'Pulteney's Inn'), the locality of which is described by Shakspere (Henry VIII., Act 1, Scene 2):—
'Not long before your Highness sped to France, 'The Duke being at the Rose, within the parish 'St. Laurence Poultney, did of me demand 'What was the speech among the Londoners 'Concerning the French journey.'
5. "The fortunes of this mansion had been various. It was originally built by Sir John Pulteney, (fn. 3) Knight, five times Lord Mayor of London, in the reign of Edward III. It passed successively through the hands of his widow; of John Holland, Duke of Exeter; and of various members of the De la Pole or Suffolk family. It was forfeited for treason on the part of the last bearer of that name, and granted by the Crown, in 1506, to Edward, (fn. 4) Duke of Buckingham, by whom it was retained until he was attainted in the 13th of Henry VIII. The names of the street, Suffolk Lane, from which it is entered, and of the parish, St. Laurence Poultney, or Pountney, in which it is situate, still bear witness to its former proprietors. 'Ducksfoot Lane,' in the neighbourhood, was the 'Duke's Foot Lane,' or private passage from his garden, which lay to the east of the mansion, to the river; and the upper part of St. Laurence Pountney Hill was, until within these few years, called 'Green Lettuce Lane,' a corruption of 'Green Lattice Lane'; this was the means of approach to the palace from Cannon Street.
6. "The unfortunate Henry Courtenay was the next possessor. On his execution it was granted to the Radcliffe, or Sussex (fn. 5) family, who obtained licence from the Crown to dispose of it. Eventually it was divided into two parts, and the Merchant Taylors' Company then became the purchasers of one of them. Their purchase comprised 'the west gate-house, a long court or yard, the winding stairs at the south end of the said court on the east side thereof (leading as well from the court unto the leads over the chapel, as also to two galleries over the south end of the court), the said two galleries, and part of the chapel'; and the part sold to the other purchaser included 'the remainder of the mansion, and the whole of the garden which lay to the east of it,' which reaches backwards to St. Laurence Pountney Hill and Ducksfoot Lane." (fn. 6)
7. For the regulation of the school about to be established, Statutes (framed on the model of Dean Colet's for St. Paul's) were enacted by the Court upon "a quarter-day, holden upon Wednesday, the xxiiiith day of September, anno d'mi, one thowsand five hundreth sixty-one, et anno regni reginæ Elizabeth tertio, in the presence of the worshipful Richard Hills, m'r of this mystery, and his wardens, and others, the right worshipful persons, assistents, and councellors, of this mystery, whose names follow, written in the margine, viz.
Sir Thomas White, Knt. Ald.,
Sir William Harper,
Mr. Emanuel Lucar,
Mr. Richard Wadington,
Mr. Edward Ley,
Jerrard Gore," being present; and at the same Court Richard Mulcaster, (fn. 7) of Christ Church, Oxford, M.A., was appointed to be "high Master," so that the foundation of the school may be said to date from the 24th September 1561.
8. These Statutes prove that the object of the Company was to form a school as the handmaid to Religion, by placing confidence in the "high Master" appointed to teach the children "not only good behaviour but also good manners." To him was given the appointment of the Usher, subject to the Company's approval (10), and of the two Under Ushers (19), who were to teach the children the Catechism, the Articles of Faith, and the Ten Commandments.
9. The children to be taught were to be selected in the first instance by the Master and Wardens (42), who, in making their choice, might admit "children of all nations and countries indifferently," after previously satisfying themselves that they were neither dunces nor neglected of their parents, "but first see that they can say the Catechism in English or Latin, and read perfectly and write competently (25)."
10. The work of the school was to be continuous, the Master not being absent above 20 working days in the year (2), and the children working daily from 7 till 11 o'clock A.M., and from 1 till 5 P.M., "thrice in the day kneeling on their knees and saying the prayers appointed"; accordant with the old school motto, "Homo plantat. Homo irrigat sed Deus dat Incrementum."
11. It was essentially a day school, no meat, drink, or bottles being allowed in the school (29), and the half holidays were one in each week beside any holy days (31); and should any boy be absent from the school for three weeks without sickness, then that boy ("for no man's suit") was not to be again admitted (34) to the school.
12. The surveyors or visitors of the school were to be the most experienced members of the Court, those who had passed the chair or held office as an Alderman or Sheriff. They were to have the charge or oversight, and to see that the school was properly conducted according to its original foundation, making in each year four visitations.
13. The annual stipends of 10l. each, though nominally small, were in fact far more valuable sums than they would now appear to be. At that time (as a previous Memorial (fn. 8) shows) the total sum of 40l. per annum absorbed nearly one-half of the surplus income of the Company, while at no time (not even after the "Dreadful Fire") has the Company failed to contribute a substantial endowment for their school, in which, through many generations, they have taken a warm interest. (fn. 9)
14. The first School examination was held on the 16th August 1562, by the Bishop of London (Grindall) and others acting for the Court. The second was held in 1564, November 13th, by the same prelate, commencing at 8 o'clock A.M., and ending at 5 o'clock P.M., a dinner in the Hall, at 12 o'clock, intervening.
15. In the latter (fn. 10) year, at the instance of the Lord Mayor, the Company agreed—first, to provide, 'at the charge of the members of this Mysterie, for one Scholar to be resident within one of the Universities of Oxford or Cambridge, to study and be a student in Divinity" (carried out by Court orders of the 19th and 24th April); and then to provide, at a cost of 10l. per annum, for a student at each University (carried out by like order of the 21st July 1564).
16. No Scholarships having been given to the School by St. John's College, under Sir Thomas White's foundation, the Company, on the tenth anniversary of the School, resolved, at their Court of 24th September 1571, as follows:—
"Ffirste at this day, whereas, Sir Thomas White, knighte and alderman of London while he lyved, of his mere good will and love that he bare towarde this worshippfull companie, whereof he was a lovinge member, hathe apoynted and ordeigned by statute a yointe election owte of there late erected grammer scholle in the parrishe of Sainte Lawrance Pountney, in London, to be hadd yearlie upon Sainte Barnabies daie for schollers to be had and chosen unto the college of Sainte John Baptiste, in Oxforde, whereof the sayde Sir Thomas White ys Ffounder; which election so ordeyned by the saide Sir Thomas White hathe not as yet bene putt in ure and exsecution accordinge to his true meaninge; Therefore yt is by the saide m'r, wardens, and assistents, agreed and decreed that the coppie of this l're hereunder written, whereunto the saide m'r, wardens, and assistents, hathe subscribed their names, and hathe caused the same to be sealed with their common seale, to be forthwithe sente unto the presidente and ffellowes of the saide colledge of St. John Baptiste, to the intente that the saide election, so by ther said good ffounder ordeigned, may be putt in ure and execution from hensforthe accordinglie. The coppie of which letter forthwithe written in hæc verba, viz, 'Right worshipfull, after our hartie commendations; whereas, that worthye man, Sir Thomas White, a brother of our companie and your ffounder, upon great consideracons, partely couched in statute, partlie in contracte betwene us and hym, hathe ordeigned a joynte election by us and you in certain order lymitted by statute to be made on St. Barnibies daie in the chappell of our schole, in Sainte Lawrence Pountney's p'rishe, in London, ffor supplying suche schollershippes as shall then be vacante in your colledge; and the same hathe not bene as yet executed, wee do therefore frindlie require you, and in behaulf of your saide worthye Ffounder's owne meaininge, earnestlie desire you that it woulde please you friendlie and charitably to putte your saide order in execution the next St. Barnabie's daie, in suche forme as your saide worthie Ffounder hathe appoynted; which, yf you will do, as wee truste you will, upon this our gentell motion, we are yours to gratifie in parte and in hole wherein wee maye. Yf not, you inforce not onely us but also all suche estates, corporacons, societies, and private persons, as have interest by the saide graunte of your worthie ffounder, to seeke suche waies and meanes for the obteignmente thereof as the lawes of the realme and ordennances of unyversities and colleges do permitte and use in suche cases; how be yt we hope, seeinge your worthie ffounder bestowed so muche labor in penninge the order so presycely and declared so pithie reasons why he did it, you will bothe wyselie consider his so carefull devise, and in the execute so godlike a meaninge consideringe alwaie there ys no Derogacon unto you, seeinge the election is joynte, and you maie use the benefyte of our schole for ennye of yours at all tymes thereunto be orderlie elected into your colledge. Thus lokinge for answere from you, we do hartelie byd you fare well, ffrom our common haule in a courte of assistents the xxvti of Septembre, Ao 1571."
17. No notice having been taken of this letter by the College authorities, the Court, on the 19th March 1572, resolved as follows:—
"Ffirste at this daie was redd ann abbredgment of the statute made by the right worshipfull Sir Thomas White, knight, whilest he lyved, a lovinge brother of this mistery, And founder of the colledge of St. John Baptist, in Oxford, for the contynuall furnishinge of the saide colledge with scholers, by the which it apereth that the master, wardens, and assistents, of this mistery, together with the president or vice-president and two senior fellowes of the sayd colledge, ought to have the nominacon and elecon of fforty and three scholers owt of the gram. schole belonginge to this company, in the p'rishe of Sainte Lawrence Pountney, in London; or in defalte of able and meete scholers there, owt of other scholes of the said citie, when the place of any of the sayd xliii scholers then placed in the said colledge, or any of them, should happen to be vacante, whereuppon it is thought good that sute be made unto the righte worshipfull Sir William Cordall, (fn. 11) knight, m'r of the rolls, and one of the visitors of the said colledge, by these worshipfull men, whose names be hereafter written, that the sayd nominacon and eleccon of xliii scholars may be obtayned and observed, accordinge to the sayd statute:—Mr. Willm. Fletwood, recr. Mr. Richd. Hills, Mr. Wm. Albany, Mr. Robt. Hulson, Mr. Wm. Kympton, Mr. Thos. Wilford, and Nicholas Spencer."— See Minutes of Court, 19 March 1572.
18. An explanation resulted, from which it appeared that the President and Fellows had been deterred by expense from coming to London, where upon Sir William Cordall requested the Company to bear these charges till the College could afford to do so, which the Company cheerfully assented to "for the benefitt & prefarrement of their scole, without making any president thereof, whereby the might be charged hereafter of dutie to contynew the same." (fn. 12)
19. The method of the first election, in June 1572, is thus described by Wilson (fn. 13) :—"And lest one day should not afford them time enough to proceed with becoming gravity and deliberation, they ordered the examination to take place on the day preceding that of the election. Accordingly, about eight o'clock in the morning of the 10th of June, Horne, Bishop of Winchester; Nowell, (fn. 14) Dean of St. Paul's; Goodman, Dean of Westminster; Watts, Archdeacon of Middlesex; Young, Rector of St. Magnus's; Robinson, President of St. John's College, Oxford; Russell and Case, senior fellows of the said College, the master, wardens, and assistants of the company, and many others, assembled at the school. A brief speech was directed to the company, and copies of verses delivered to them, containing the thanks of the scholars for the benefits bestowed on them by the liberal goodness of their patrons. After this an eloquent oration was pronounced by Williams Buggins, more "And moreover, at this assembly there was openly redd a l're lately sent from the president and tenn seignior fellowes of St. John Baptists Colledg in Oxon, and upon full consideracon thereunto had it was concluded and agreed that the some of vili. which the company yerely gave to the president and two seignior fellowes for their charges in coming to our schoole against St. Barnabas day shalbe increasec iiiili. and made up the some of xli. upon this condition that they use the company lovingly and kindly, and the same to have contynuance no longer then may stand with the good pleasure and liking of the company, and not to be accompted any matter of duty but the free guift and bounty of the company.
"Thelection of schollers are entred in a bill indented, made for that purpose whereof one parte remayneth with the company, and another with the colledg." particularly addressed to his lordship and the other examiners, to which Nowell made an appropriate reply. The boys repeated their thanks 'to the founders for their charges, and to the learned men for their paynes,' to whom they gave 'aboutte a quere of paper in written verses.' And then they all went into the chapel, where they were seated in the following manner:—the master of the company at the head of the table, 'and northwarde the bishoppe at the uppermoste place one the wall syde towardes the m'r, after whom M'r Deane of Powles, M'r Deane of Westminster, M'r Archdeaken Wattes, M'r Doctor Yonge, M'r Robinson, M'r Bowsfield, M'r Porder M'r Withers, M'r Russell, M'r Case, &c., and next unto the M'r on the bench aboute the scole (chapel) satt the assistants accordinge to their auncyenty.' Before this venerable assembly the head scholars of the school presented themselves for examination; and after one of them had briefly enumerated the several books they were learning in Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, Nowell began the examination by directing the lowest of that form to declare the sense and construction of a particular ode of Horace; 'which, from one to another, he prosecuted throughe the whole nomber, untill the captayn, requiringe diversytie of phrases and varietie of wordes and finally obmyttinge nothinge which might seme neadfull for the tryall of their lerninge in the Latyn tongue.' After him Watts examined the same boys in Homer, as to their skill in Greek, which was his favourite language. And then Horne tried them in the Hebrew psalter. In all which exercises they were well allowed. By this time it was eleven o'clock; but, as the dinner at the hall was not to be on table till twelve, the interval was employed by Goodman, in examining the scholars of the next form, in Cicero's Tusculan Questions. At dinner the company were joined by Sir William Cordall, who, as soon as the repast was finished, very courteously repaired with the bishop and his associates to the chapel, where, in compliment to Sir William, there was 'a short naracon and delivery of verses. It was then determined that two scholars should be elected the next day, and that the examination should be confined to such four of the boys as should seem 'meteste as well for learninge, personage, poverty, and years, to be presenly preferred to Colledge.' Nowell, Watts, Robinson, and Russel named John Thomas, John Rickesmonde, William Lee, and Thomas Harrison, as having the requisite qualifications. To this nomination all present assented: 'and fyve of the clocke being stricken, the saide assemble was dissolved, and every man departed.' Next day the master, wardens, and assistants of the company, with the president and two senior fellows of St. John's, met in the chapel, according to the statutes of Sir Thomas White, for the purpose of electing the two scholars; when, after due consideration, they chose Rickesmond and Lee to supply two of the places vacant in the college."
20. From this date Scholars, with more or less of regularity, have been elected to St. John's (fn. 15) and to confine the benefit to the Boys educated "in the School," orders of the Court have at different times restricted the competition, as for instance, to those who have "been three years at the least in the School before the Election," (fn. 16) or to such as "were not admitted to a higher form than the 4th" on their entering the School. (fn. 17)
21. The School thus established progressed and became so successful that the Court (probably with truth) described it, in their Minutes of 14th January 1606/7, "as famous throughout all England, and also in some remote places beyond the seas well spoken of, and that for these three consideracons, viz.
"Ffirst, for number of schollers, it is the greatest schoole included under one roofe.
"Secondly, the schollers are taught iointly by one m'r and three ushers.
"Thirdly, it is a schoole for liberty most free, being open especially for poore mens Children, aswell of all nations as for the marchauntailors themselves." To ensure the continuance of this success, they established "a probacon of the whole schoole three tymes a yeare" by the Masters.
22. In March 1608, (fn. 18) a past Master—one Robert Dowe—
"This day before dynner (according to auncient custome) the names of the lyvery were called, and notice taken of such as were absent. Then in reverent manner prayer was made, every man kneeling. After which the names of the benefactors and their charitable and godly devises were openly read and remembred. And also the materiall ordynaunces for the government of the company, and the orders for the companies grammer schoole at St. Lawrence Pountneys were openly redd, and then preparation was made for dynner, whereunto were invited the whole assistaunts, and the ladies, and ould maisters wiefs, and the wardens wyefs of the present yere, and the preacher, the schoolemaister, warden substituts, and almesmen of the lyvery, as in auncient tyme hath been accustomed." proposed that the probation itself should be examined twice a year by two learned men, between the hours of 6 and 11 A.M. This commenced on the 22nd March, and was formulated by order of the Court which (inter alia) provided "money to be given and distributed" for these purposes:—
That these and other payments might be secured, Robert Dowe arranged, in 1610, that, in consideration of 800l. paid to the Company, they should expend upon the Masters and Examiners at the probation of the Merchant Tailors' School, "for bread and beer, 8l." (fn. 19) —the only thing in the nature of an endowment existing for school purposes.
23. The old School, to which reference hitherto has been made, was destroyed in the great fire of London on Sunday the 2nd September 1666, only part of the library of books being saved by the energy of the Reverend John Goad, B.D., the Head Master. (fn. 20) On the 8th February 1667, an estimate for re-building was ordered to be prepared, and on the 1st June the Court viewed the site on which the new School was to be erected; but not until the 23rd September 1670 was any order for rebuilding given, and then only the Chapel (over Patience Wards, first floor) was ordered to be built. However, on the 11th January 1671, a Building Committee was appointed, and in the same month contracts with the carpenter, bricklayer, and smith, for the separate work of each, were entered into by the Company, and a Fund was raised by voluntary subscription, of which Alderman Sir W. Turner was the Treasurer. In this manner the School was so far rebuilt that the election to St. John's upon St. Barnabas, (fn. 21) 1674, was held there, and the Treasurer, on closing his account on the 26th November 1675, was able to pay 10l. 0s. 4d. (unapplied balance of the subscribed fund), to the credit of the Company's corporate account.
24. The School, in 1814, found in one of its Under Masters, (fn. 22) an exact Historian of the Masters and distinguished Scholars of the School, as well as of the acts of the Company as Patrons. Nothing could be added to his pages, and hence little remains to be written except that which relates to the removal of the "old School" to the new site at the Charter House.
25. It has been already noticed (par. 6) that the Manor of the Rose was divided into two parts, one only of which was purchased by the Company in 1561. In the year 1859 the other half was offered to, and was purchased by, the Company, for 20,000l., with a view of increasing the accommodation of the School, and of providing a play-ground, so for as such limits would allow, whenever the existing leases and tenancies expired and the property came into the possession of the Company.
26. Before this happened, but still when these improvements were in contemplation by the Company, a Royal Commission was issued, dated the 18th July 1862, to inquire into the nature and application of the Endowment, Funds, and Revenues belonging to or received by (inter alia) the Merchant Tailors' School, and into the administration and management thereof, and into the system and course of study pursued therein, as well as into the methods, subjects, and extent of the instruction given to the students of the School.
27. The statement placed before the Commissioners by the Company was to this effect:—"We have recently laid out about 20,000l. in the purchase of adjacent buildings, with the view when the leases fall in of enlarging the school accommodation; to this object primary attention must be given, as no separate or extended course of instruction can be given without larger buildings and additional masters."
28. The Crown presented the Commissioners' Report to Parliament in 1864, (fn. 23) and it will be seen, on reference to it, that in dealing with London schools (viz., Westminster, Charterhouse, St. Paul's, and Merchant Taylors'), the Commissioners came to the conclusion that, as day schools are what London principally wants, it would be most for the interest of London to improve and enlarge the schools which are to be treated as day schools, and to remove the boarding schools to a distance. They therefore thought (should such a scheme be feasible) that the two schools of St. Paul's and Merchant Taylors', (fn. 24) whether on their present or on some more convenient metropolitan sites ought to be made to accommodate many more day boys than were then educated at the four schools together, and that Westminster and the Charterhouse should be transferred to the country.
29. The Governors of the Charterhouse were prepared to act on the recommendation of this report, and accordingly, in April 1866, they offered their school buildings, containing five and a half acres of land, with certain restrictions against building, to the Merchant Taylors' Company for the sum of 120,000l. Under the authority of the Court, the then and the present Master went as a deputation from the Company to meet a committee of the Charterhouse Governors at the House of Lords, and after a long conference offered 80,000l. for the property without any restrictions.
30.The policy of the Company was explained, and the definite offer of 90,000l. was made in a letter of the 25th June 1866, which is printed at the end of this "Memorial." This offer being accepted by the Governors of Charterhouse, subject to the approval of Parliament, such approval was first sought for by the introduction of clauses into the Bill then before Parliament for regulating those Schools (other than the Merchant Taylors' School) embraced in the Commissioners' Report. But late in the Session of 1867 the Governors promoted a private Bill—which ultimately became an Act, and received the Royal Assent on the 20th August,—for carrying out the sale and general transfer of the Schools—Charterhouse to the country, and the Merchant Taylors' to Charterhouse.
31. Under the authority of this Act all the property included in the contract, and as shown upon the plan, was conveyed by two separate Indentures of the 30th March 1868 and the 24th June 1872, to the Merchant Taylors' Company, under these two conditions:—
1st. That they should not use or permit to be used, any of the premises for the purpose of any noxious or offensive trade or manufacture whatsoever.
2nd. That if the Governors as owners of other parts of Charterhouse should become liable to rates for any poor on the premises thereby conveyed by reason of the same premises becoming liable as extra parochial, or annexed to any adjoining parish or otherwise, the Merchant Taylors' Company should pay such rates and indemnify the Governors and their assigns therefrom. (fn. 25)
32. By agreements bearing date the 11th March 1869 and the 26th January 1870, the Merchant Taylors' Company agreed to grant to Messrs. Tubbs and Lewis, a lease or leases of that part of the land comprised in the two last-mentioned indentures which is shown upon the plan by the colours green, pink, blue, and yellow, and under these two agreements the lessees had the option, within a limited time, to purchase the fee of the same land upon certain stated terms. Before taking any lease Messrs. Tubbs and Lewis gave due notice of their desire to purchase the fee, and a considerable portion of the land has already been conveyed to them or their nominees. A third agreement, dated the 12th March 1874, has been entered into, the principal object of which is to secure more effectually than was done by the previous agreements the privacy of the Company's school-ground. With this view, before the date of the last-mentioned agreement, Messrs. Tubbs and Lewis had, by arrangement with the Company, built along the line A to D on the plan, half on the Company's land and half on that of Messrs. Tubb and Lewis, a brick wall 20 feet high, measured from the then level of the school ground adjoining it. The conveyances already executed, and to be hereafter executed to Messrs. Tubbs and Lewis or their nominees, contain, or will contain, covenants by the grantees similar in effect to the stipulations on the part of Messrs. Tubbs and Lewis contained in the before-mentioned agreements, so far as they are applicable to the property conveyed. The effect of these agreements and the conveyances already executed is that Messrs. Tubbs and Lewis or their nominees (hereinafter referred to as "the purchasers'), now held, either legally or equitably, all the land comprised in the agreement of 11th March 1869, on and subject to the following conditions and obligations:—
1st. Conditions similar to those mentioned in paragraph 24, so far as they are applicable to the land conveyed or agreed to be conveyed to the purchasers.
2nd. The purchasers shall (except on parts B to C and E to F) at their own expense remove the existing brick wall, and erect on their own land adjacent thereto another wall (as part of a building) to a height of at least 11 feet above the present height, and maintain such wall at that height.
3rd. That from E to F the purchasers are by the 31st December 1875 to build along or adjoining that wall one or more messuages of such a height that no window or aperture then made in any building then standing on the purchaser's land (coloured pink) shall overlook the vendors' ground.
4th. That no window or aperture be made in any wall erected by the purchasers, or in any messuage to be built by them as aforesaid, or on the roof thereof, or in any building erected on or over the purchaser's land (blue and yellow), or on the roof thereof, which shall overlook the vendors' land, and which could not be prevented from so overlooking by any wall on the site of or above the existing wall at B to C; nor shall any such window or aperture be so constructed as that it should be in the power of any person using such messuage or building to establish any communication by signs, signals, or otherwise with the vendors' land. And also that the roof of such mansion or building, so far as the same should overlook any part of the vendors' land, should not be used for any other purpose whatever than for covering these buildings and for necessary repairs.
5th. That part of the purchaser's land which is marked on the plan "private road," is to be always kept open, as a roadway or means of access from and to the land of the Company to and from Goswell Street or Wilderness Row of the width of 25 feet in the least, and the Company or their assigns, their servants, agents, and workmen, and all other persons connected with the School, shall be at liberty to use the said roadway at all times, and to pass and repass over the same with horses, carriages, or otherwise.
6th. That the vendors should be at liberty to erect a fence or screen of any kind or any height from B to C to prevent overlooking the vendors' premises and to make any opening therein to the said roadway as an access to the vendors' land.
33. Other small portions of the estate purchased by the Company were sold to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners and Commissioners of Sewers; and the financial result of these several transactions will be that the residue left for school purposes will cost the Company about 40,000l.
34. Upon a site selected after much deliberation, the Company agreed with Messrs. Brown and Robinson for the erection of new school buildings from the designs and under the direction of their architect, Edward I'Anson, Esq., at a total contract cost of 35,546l. The first stone of these buildings was laid on the 16th day of June 1873, by His Royal Highness the Duke of Edinburgh,—Thomas Weston Baggallay, Esq., being at that time Master of the Company. The subsequent expenses for laying out the play grounds for the essential requisites of a school will amount to (say), 12,000l.
35. The New School stands upon the site of the Old Gown Boys' quarters, having (1) the Head Master's House on the right, and (2) the Buttery and Lavatory on the left, such buildings (1 and 2) being converted into class rooms. The entire accommodation obtained is given in the Appendix. (fn. 26)
36. A few words may be written upon the status of the School. Is it a Public School within the control of Parliament, or one exclusively belonging to, or to be governed by, the Merchant Taylors' Company? The decision of Parliament has been to leave the School exclusively to the management of the Company. When the Charterhouse Bill was introduced in 1867, this issue was raised by amendments moved by a private member (Mr. Ayrton) with a view of guarding against the claim of the Merchant Taylors' Company (to an uncontrolled property in their School) being sanctioned by the words of the Bill. The Bill was supported by Mr. Gladstone, when the amendments received no sanction from and little support in the House of Commons. (fn. 27) Upon the introduction of the Public School Bill into the Parliament at the commencement of the Session for 1868, the Home Secretary (Mr. Walpole) stated that the Company's School had been advisedly omitted from the Bill by the late (fn. 28) and present Government, as being under the management and control of a great City Company who had the power of applying the property devoted to the School, or a great proportion of it, in such a manner as they might see fit, instead of applying it to educational purposes. No public trust, therefore, is attached to the School, making it subject to the same obligations or to the same Parliamentary control as that to which the other public schools were liable. (fn. 29)
37. No error could, however, be greater than to infer from these proceedings that the School, though not public in the same sense in which the other seven Schools were public, is therefore private, or that the individual members of the Guild or Fraternity may sustain or govern the School except as a Public School. As founded "in ye honor of Christ Jesu" for "the bringing up of children in good manners and literature," it is clear that the original founders committed the charge and oversight of the School to the Master, Wardens, and Past Masters of the Company (paragraph 37), as a business to be discharged in a spirit of self-denial, and so long as this spirit influences the "loving brethren of the mysterie" the School will be left (as heretofore) to their management and control.
(B.) STATUTES OF MERCHANT TAYLORS' SCHOOL, 1561.
"Whereas, the Maister, Wardens, and Assistants, in the names of all the whole body of this Company of The Marchaunt-Taylors, in London, have, for the better educacon bringing up of children in good manners and literature, erected a schoole within the parish of St. Laurence-Pountney, in London; And, also, meete and convenient lodgings for a Schoolmaster and three Ushers, to inhabite and dwell in; And, for, because, nothing can contynue long and endure in good order without Lawes and Statuts, in that behalf provided, therefore, they, the said Maister, Wardens, and Assistants, have fully concluded, agreed, and decreed, and, by these presents, doe, conclude, agree, and decree, that the said schoole shall be directed and contynued, and to have contynuance, by God's grace, for ever, in such manner and forme, and according as hereafter is expressed, mencioned, and declared, viz.:—
Capitulum Primum de Magistro Primario.
"1. In the Grammar School, founded in the parish of St. Laurence-Pountney, in London, in the yere of our Lord God one thowsand, fyve hundred, sixty-one, by this Worshipfull Company of the Marchaunt-Taylors, of the Citty of London, in the honor of Christ Jesu, shalbe first, an High Maister. This High Maister in doctrine, learning, and teaching, shall direct all the schoole. This maister shalbe chosen by the Right Worshipful the Maister, Wardens, and Assistants, of the said Company of Marchaunt-Taylors, with such advise and counsell of welle learned men as they can gett; a man in body whole, sober, discreete, honest, verteous, and learned, in good and cleane Latine literature, and, also, in Greeke, yf such may be gotten. A wedded man, a single man, or a priest, that hath noe benefice, with cure, office, nor service, that may lett his dew business in the schoole.
"2. This high master so being chosen, as aforesaid, shall have his charge given to him by the maister and wardeins of the said Company, for the tyme being, then being present in the said schoole, saying to him on this wise, or such like in effect:
"Sir, we have chosen you to be chief maister and teacher of this schoole, to teach the children of the same, not only good literature but also good manners, certyfying you that this is noe roome of contynuence and perpetuity, but upon the doing of your duty in the schoole. And every yere (fn. 30) when as the maister, wardens, and assistaunts, shalbe assembled in the schoole howse, concerning the visitation thereof, you shall submytt you to their examinacon, and found doing your duty accordingly, you shall contynewe, otherwise, reasonably warned, you shall content you to departe; and, ye, of your party, not warned of us, but of your owne mind in any season willing to departe, ye shall give us warning twelve monthes before, without we can shortlyer be well provided of an other to supply your roome.
"Also being maister ye shall not be absent from the said school above twenty working days in the year, which also shalbe conjunctim or divisim), without some urgent cause, and good consideracons shall move the surveyors of the said schoole for the tyme being to graunt a further tyme of absence, and that the chief usher nor under ushers be not then absent from the schoole.
"3. And yf the chosen maister will promise this, then admytt him and name hym to that office, and stall him in his seate in the schoole, and shew him his howse or lodging on the south side of the schoole. And they shall deliver him all the implements of that howse by indenture.
"4. And that howse and lodgings he shall have free without payment of any rent, and in this lodging he shall dwell and keepe howshold to his power. Hee shall nor have, nor teach, at one tyme within the foresaid schoole, nor ells where, above the number of two hundred and ffyfty schollers. And he shall not refuse to take, receave, and teach in the said schoole freely one hundreth schollers, parcell of the said number of two hundreth and ffyfty schollers, being poore men's sonnes and coming thether to be taught (yf such be meete and apt to learne), without any thing to be paid by the parints of the said one hundreth poore children for their instruction and learnyng.
"5. And hee shall also receave and teach in the said schoole ffyfty schollers more, being an other parcell of the said number of two hundreth and ffyfty schollers comyng thether to be taught, and being found apte and meet to learne, as aforesaid, and being poore men's children, so that their poore parents, or other their friends, will pay and give to the high maister for their instruction and learning, after two shillings and two-pence by the quarter for a piece of them.
"6. And hee shall also receave and teach in the said schoole, one other hundreth more of schollers being the residue of the said number of two hundred and ffyfty schollers coming thether to be taught, and being also found apt and meete to learne, as aforesaid, being rich or meane men's children, so that their parents or other friends will give for every of these hundreth schollers fyve shillings by the quarter for their instruction and learning.
"7. Yf the maister be sick of a sicknes curable, yet neverthelesse it is meete that the chief usher, for the tyme that the maister is so sick, shall doe his best endeavor to direct all the schoole, as the duty of the maister was to have done. The said usher to his power to doe his owne duty as he did before nevertheless.
"8. There shalbe also one chief usher, some sober, discreete man, verteous in lyving, and well learned, that shall teach under the schoole-maister as the schoole-maister shall appoint him, some single or wedded man, or a priest that hath noe benefice with cure, office, nor service, that may lett his due diligence in the schoole.
"9. And yf the said chief usher be in literature, discretion, and honest lief, according, then the high maister his roome being vacant, lett him be chosen before another.
"10. This ussher shall the high maister choose as often as the roome shal be void, a man whole in body. And when the high maister hath appointed him upon one, the high maister shall call to the schoole the surveyors of the schoole, and before them he shall say to the ussher on this wise:—
"'Sir, before these my maisters here, the surveyors of the schoole, I shew unto you that I have chosen you to be the chief ussher or under maister of this schoole, and to teach allwaies, from tyme to tyme, as I shall appoint you, and supply my roome in my absence when it shalbe graunted me by my maisters, the said maisters and wardens, and also at such tymes as I shal be sick of any curable disease.'
"11. Then the said maister and wardens shall exhort the ussher dilligently to doe his duty, and shall say unto him on this wise:
"'Your roome is noe perpetuity, but, according to your labor and dilligence, you shall contynue: otherwise, fownd not doing your duty accordingly, and reasonably warned of us, ye shall departe.
"'Yf it shalbe so that at any tyme you will departe of your owne mynd, yee shall give us one yere's warning before your departure.
"'Yff any controversy be between you and the high maister, yee shall stand at our direction in every thing.'
"12. And yf he will promise this, then let the said maister and wardens approve the election of the said ussher, and assigne him his lodging on the north side of the schoole next unto the gate there alowe.
"13. Hee shal be absent in all the yere not above twenty working dayes, which shalbe conjunctim or divisim, without that some urgent cause, or good consideracon, shall move the surveyors of the said schoole for the tyme being to graunt him a further tyme of absence, and that the high maister nor under usshers be not then also absent from the said schoole.
"14. In sickness curable, or axes (agues), or such sickness for a tyme he shal be tollerated and have his full wages, although that, during tyme of such curable sickness, the high maister, with that help of the under usshers, shall to the uttermost of their powers, instruct and teach all the schollers within the said schoole withall dilligence, as the duty of the ussher was to have done, the high maister and the under-usshers to their power to doe their owne duty as they did before neverthelesse.
"15. Yff both the maister and the usshers be sick at once, (as God defend), then let the schoole cease for that while.
"16. Yff there be such sickness contagious in the Cytty, that the schoole cannot contynue, then both the maister and the usshers must have patience in such a case.
"17. Neither the maister nor usshers shall take office of proctorshipp, or any such mynistery, service, or other business, which shall lett their dilligence and their necessary labor in the schoole. Yf they doe and be warned lawfully, yf they will not cease from such service, office, or business, then let them be warned to departe.
"18. Let the schoolmaster that the schoole, with the court and streete, by all the length of the same, be kept cleane and sweete every Satterday, and also the leads, and, from tyme to tyme, to call upon the worshipful Merchaunt-Taylors for necessary reparacons, and lett none of the children, at any time, come up to the leads to the upper dore, of the which at the topp of the winding stayers of stone on high, there shalbe allwaies too keyes, to be kept by the high maister, and the other key by the chief ussher.
"19. Ther shalbe also in the said schoole two under-usshers, some good, honest, and verteous learned young men. And they shal be chosen, from tyme to time, by the high master, and they shall also help to teach in the schoole, as to the maister shall seeme convenient, and none otherwise.
"20. They shall have noe benefice with cure, occupation, office, or service, nor any other faculty which may lett their dilligent teaching at the schoole, but they shall attend only upon the schoole, and they shall teach the children, yf neede be, the Catechisme, and instruccons of the Articles of the Faith, and the Tenn Commaundements in Latin; that is to say, such a Catechisme as shalbe approved by the Queenes Majesty that now is, and by the Honorable Court of Parliament of this Realme from tyme to tyme.
"21. Their lodgings and chambers shalbe in the middle roomes where as the dore is made out under the schoole neere to the middest of the foresaid long court or greate yard.
"22. They shall not have their roomes by writing or by seale in noe wise, but at liberty according to their deserving, and only so long as the high maister shall like their demeaner and teaching.
"23. Their absence shalbe but once in the yere only, yf it be needefull and only as it shall seeme best to the maister and wardens, with the consent of the high maister, and high ussher being present, and not absent from the schoole.
"24. Yf they fall to unthriftiness and behaviour after lawfull warning let them be avoided, and other chosen within eight dayes after, or as soone after as can be by the said surveyors, but not without the consent of the high maister and ussher.
"25. There shalbe taught in the said schoole children of all nations and countreyes indifferently, comying thether to be taught, to the number of two hundreth and fyfty, in manner and forme as is afore devised and appointed. But first see, that they can the Catechisme in English or Latyn, and that every of the said two hundreth and fifty schollers can read perfectly, and write competently, or els lett them not be admytted in no wise.
"26. And that every scholler at his first admyssion, once for ever, shall pay twelve pence for writing in of his neme, and the same shalbe given to such one, as shalbe appointed by the said high maister and the surveyors to sweepe the schoole, and keepe the court of the schoole cleane, and see the streete nigh to the schoole gate cleasned of all manner of ordure, caryon, or other fylthy or uncleane things, out of good order, or extraordynarily there thrown.
"27. The children shall come to the schoole in the mornying at seaven of the clock both winter and somer, and tarry there until eleaven, and returne againe at one of the clock, and departe at five. And thrice in the day, kneeling on their knees, they shall say the prayers appointed with due tract and pawsing, as they be, or shalbe hereafter conteyned in a table sett up in the schoole, that is to say, in the morning, at noone, and at evening.
"28. In the schoole at noe tyme of the yere, they shall use tallow candle in noe wise, but wax candles only.
"29. Also lett them bring no meate, nor drink, nor bottles, nor use in the schoole no breakfasts, nor drincking in the tyme of learning in no wise. If they neede drinck, then lett it be provided in some other place.
"30. Nor lett them use no cock-fighting, tennys-play, nor riding about of victoring, nor disputing abroad, which is but foolish babling, and losse of tyme.
"31. Lett not the schoole-maister, head ussher, nor the under usshers, nor any of them, permytt nor lycence their schollers, to have remedy or leave to play, except only once in the weeke, when there fallith noe holiday. And those remedies to be had upon no other dayes only, but only upon the Twesdayes in the afternoone, or Thursdayes at afternoone.
"32. And yf there shall happen to be kept one or more hollydayes in the weeke, that then in every such weeke there be no remedyes nor leave to play graunted.
"33. Unto their uryne the schollers shall goe to the places appointed them in the lane or streete without the court; and, for other causes, yf need be, they shall goe to the water-side.
"34. Yf any child, after he is receaved and admytted into the said schoole, goe to any other schoole to learne theire, (after the manner of the said schoole), or shalbe absent from the schoole, by the space of three weekes together, at any one tyme, without sickness or any other reasonable lett, shalbe the cause of the said lett, that then in such case it were the best that such a childe, for no man's suit, shalbe thereafter receaved into our schoole, but goe where him list, and where his friends shall thincke there shalbe better learnying. And this is good to be shewed to his friends, or other that offer him at his first presenting into the schoole.
"35. The maister, wardens, and assistants of this Company, for the tyme being, shall yerely for ever make their assembly or apparaunce in the councell-howse, or late chapell, scituate on the south side of the long court or yard of the schoole, they being then and their accompanied with such well-learned men as they can gett conveniently. Which said maister, wardens, and assistints, with th' advice of the same learned men shall examyne and try whether the maister and usshers shall have taught and done their duties in the said schoole, according as is before devised and appointed, and alsoe to try and examyne howe the children have profited under them, and fynding them to have done their duties to be comended, and finding otherwise to be speedily reformed and amended according as to their wise discretions shalbe thought convenient.
"36. And to that intent and effect that the same assembly of the said maister, warden, and assistents, may be made yerely for ever at the schoole, for the good considerations afore mentioned, the comon clarck of the mistery now being, and his successors which for the tyme shalbe, shall once in the yere yerely for evermore, at a quarter-day, to be howlden within this our comon-hall, reade openly all and every such acts, decrees, and ordynaunces, or the more parte of them as is before made and devised, or shalbe hereafter made and devised by the said maister, wardens, and assistants, or their successors, for and concerning only the ordering and contynuance of the said schoole in good order, so that thereby they may have the same the better in rememberance for ever in tyme to come.
"37. And that the maister and wardens of this Company for the tyme being, and also all such as shall have borne the roome of a maister of this mistery, (except such as shall have borne the room and place of an alderman and sherif of this mistery) shalbe for ever in tyme to come called, and be the surveyors of the said schoole, and they from tyme to tyme shall take upon them the charge and oversight of the said schoole, to see that in the said schoole be noe more taught then the number afore appointed, and after and according as is before devised and made, and alsoe see that the same be well and sufficiently repayred from tyme to tyme by the warden rentor of our lands lying in the east parte, which for the tyme shalbe. And for their labours in the schoole busynesses it is not to be doubted, but Our Saviour Jesus Christ shall reward them, as well here in this world as in the world to come: For godlynes sayeth St. Paule, is profitable to all things, as a thing that hath both promises in this lief, and in that that is to come.—1 Timotheus, 4.
"38. The surveyors of the schoole shall come into the schoole tenn or twelve daies before or after Christmas, tenn or twelve daies before or after Easter, tenn or twelve daies before or after the nativity of St. John Baptist, and tenn or twelve dayes before or after Michaelmas; besides such other tymes as is meete and necessary for them to be at the schoole, for to see that all things doe stand in such order as they ought to be in.
"39. And that the yerely rent yssuing, coming, and growing, yerely, for the greate cellor under the schoole-howse shalbe, by the said surveyors, wholly ymployed and bestowed, yerely, betweene the feast of th' Annunciation of Our Lady and the feast of St. Michael th' Archangell, upon woode, coales, billetts, and faggots, or other good fewell for such of the schollers as, in the extreme could tyme of winter, may have neede to warme them by at tymes very convenient and needfull in the monethes of November, December, January, February, and March, saving that thirteene shillings and foure pence of that rent, (yf the surveyors shall so thinck it good), shall be bestowed every winter upon wax-candles, or other lights of wax, for the poore children to read on their bookes by in the winter mornings and evenings.
"40. Also lett it be declared unto him that shall hier the said long cellor that this Company will not suffer to be laid into yt any pitch, tarr, rape, oyle, trayne-oyle, flax, hempe, nor suche kynde of wares as be inclyned quickly to be kindled or fyred, nor any other thing or things of any fullsome or noysome savour. (fn. 31)
"41. Every of the said two hundreth and fyfty schollers that shall be admytted or suffered to learne in the said schoole, from tyme to tyme, shall observe and be bound to keep all such manner of orders or ordynaunces as, by the wisdome and good discretion of the said worshipfull maister and wardens, with the consent of the worshipfull the assistents of the said Company, or their successors for the tyme being, shall be devised, made, and ordayned, for the contynuance of the saide schoole and good gouvernaunce of the said schollers, with the consent of the high maister of the same schoole for the tyme being.
"42. Also the maister and wardens of the said Company, for the tyme being, shall have full power and authority to admytt all those children that shall be from tyme to tyme taught in the said schoole; and, by writing made by the clarck of this Company, for the tyme being, they shall signify the admytting or allowing of them unto the schoolmaister, in his absence to the head ussher breifly in this wise:
"Sir, this shall be to signify unto you that wee have admytted N. the sonne of M. the bearer hereof, to be of the number of those hundredth of the poore men's children, which should be taught freely in the said schoole, upon condition that the said N., within one moneth next ensuing, shallbe by you thought apt, and meete to learne, and being found not apt and meete to learne, as aforesaid, that then this our admyssion of him to stand as void, and then every such scholler, that so shall be found not apt and meete to learne, to have repayed unto him that twelve pence that he paid on his first admytting into the schoole, or otherwise to be one of the other two numbers of schollers before appointed, which said bill to be made by the said clarck to be subscribed by our master and wardens for the time being.
"43. And none to be taught in the said schoole unless they be first admytted by the maister and wardens, and so certified as is aforesaid.
"44. Also there shalbe yerely paid out of the common box of this mystery, for the stipend and sallary of the foresaid schoolmaister, and three usshers, fforty pownds quarterly by even porcons to be paid wholly to the hands of the said schoolemaister to the intent that he, the said schoolemaister, shall have to his own use tenn pounds parcell thereof, and the thirty pounds residue to be paid by him after tenn pounds a piece to every of the said three usshers, that shalbe admytted by him to teach in the said schoole as aforesaid.
"45. And this payment by fforty pounds, by yere appointed to the said maister and three usshers, as aforesaid to be contynued until such tyme as the same shalbe otherwise dischardged by the guifts and legacies of good and well-disposed men, to the freeing either of the said whole number appointed to be taught in the said schoole, or els of the freeing and teaching free of one hundreth fyfty poore men's children, parcell of the said number that is appointed to be taught in the said schoole as is aforesaid."
(C.) MERCHANT TAYLORS' COMPANY TO CHARTERHOUSE GOVERNORS.
"Merchant Taylors' Hall, "25th June 1866.
"On the 15th instant I had the honour to meet the Committee of Governors of the Charterhouse, upon the subject of the sale of their estate (as described in previous correspondence) to the Merchant Taylors' Company, which meeting resulted in an understanding that a further communication should be made by me on behalf of the Company, to the Governors, with the view of coming to some agreement for the purchase of their estate, and with that object I make the present communication.
"At the meeting to which I have referred, I mentioned the sum of eighty thousand pounds (80,000l.) as being the full value, in the opinion of the Company, of this estate, if the same should be sold subject to the stipulations mentioned by Mr. Hardwick in his two letters of the 15th and 25th May; and, before entering upon further negotiations, it appears to me expedient that I should explain at some length the reasons which induce the Company to entertain that opinion.
"In the first place, if the Governors of the Charterhouse were in a position, and had determined to offer their estate for sale for building purposes, opinions would not be found materially to differ as to the full value thereof; but this is not the condition under which an estimate of its value has to be formed. It therefore becomes necessary to examine with greater accuracy what is the exact value of the estate, having regard to the uses to which it has hitherto been, and is hereafter to be applied; and for the purpose of this calculation—as the most advantageous one that can be made,—it must be divided into three separate portions, each of which must be estimated by a distinct measure of value.
"The first portion of the estate to which I will refer is that lying to the north and north-east which I have caused to be marked in stripes on the plan returned herewith. The Governors propose to allow buildings other than for manufacturing purposes, to be erected on this portion of the estate, and hence it at once assumes the value of building land, though probably not its full value as such, because of the implied prohibition against the erection of buildings for manufacturing purposes still attached thereto.
"The second portion of the estate to which a different measure of value attaches to that of the first, is that lying between the striped part and the line marked A, but including the school buildings lying to the west, and running beyond the line A, and also lying to the south end next to Rutland Place. In this portion are included all the absolute requirements of the Merchant Taylors' Company for school purposes, and indeed,— contrasted with the school accommodation which, for the last 300 years they have enjoyed,—considerably more than these. The buildings would be of little value if sold for general purposes, and to the Merchant Taylors' Company, who have only a day school, their use, which is adapted for boarders, is not precisely such as the Company would require. The Company, however, are prepared to purchase this portion of the estate at its fair value as a school.
"What now remains of the estate is the third portion thereof, viz., the land lying south of the line A to the chapel of the Governors.
"This portion of the estate, the necessities of the Governors (with regard to the chapel and other their adjacent buildings) require should be kept open and uncovered with buildings; therefore, the only purpose for which the land is available is that for which it has always been used—viz., as a playground —this, for the day scholars of the Company's school, has not hitherto been looked upon as a necessity, and therefore, such an adjunct has never yet been an appurtenant to the school of the Company; however, though they would have preferred to rent it from the Governors, rather than purchase it—an arrangement which would have given to the latter body the most effectual control over the land,—still the Company do not refuse to purchase it as as a playground.
"The value, therefore, of this portion of the estate is only that of accommodation land, and land as such (either in London or in other large cities, where enormous value is realized for building land) can bear no appreciable proportion in value to the value of building land; indeed, it is difficult to say what value remains in land with such a perpetual prohibition attached to it.
"The Company therefore thought, and still think, that if the estate is to be sold in one lot, with the stipulations already referred to attaching to it, eighty thousand pounds is its full value.
"The Governors however, at the late meeting, expressed a wish to me that the Company should again take the subject into their consideration, and I have therefore endeavoured, with the assistance of the Wardens and the other members of the Court of the Company, to frame such a proposition as I hope will meet with the ready acceptance of the Governors.
"It is scarcely within the province of the Company to suggest for the consideration of the Governors whether, for the advantageous realization of the full value of the Charterhouse estate, it should not be divided by the Governors into two separate and distinct lots,—viz., 1st. The building land, the full value of which is easily realized by competition from a large class of purchasers; and 2ndly. The educational establishment, which (if sold alone) would realize its full value from the Merchant Taylors' Company, or any other body willing to give a higher value than the Company, for educational purposes. I should not, however, conceal from the Governors that the Company, as the purchasers of the whole estate at one sum, would, for their own purposes, need an apportionment thereof; that the building portion of the estate should be made the subject of a separate contract and be conveyed to a trustee on their behalf, so that their arrangements for the ultimate realization of this portion of the estate should not become involved in any manner with their purchase of the other portion, for the totally distinct purpose of an educational establishment.
"Another observation that presents itself to the Company is this: That the perpetual restriction proposed to be attached to the remaining portion of the estate inflicts a needless injury upon it. It appears to the Company, that if they become the owners of that portion of the estate which is now under discussion its value might be seriously affected on the future sale by the Governors of the residue of the estate and the conversion thereof to trade or manufacturing purposes. If, therefore, stipulations are to be resorted to at all, they should be inserted for the mutual protection of both contracting parties. For the Company—by a covenant from the Governors not to use their adjacent property, save as an institution of the same character as the Charterhouse, and not as a hospital for the sick or invalids; and for the Governors—by a covenant from the Company not to use their newly-acquired property save for educational purposes. These stipulations, however, usually result to the benefit of a third party taking the land at some distant period under compulsory powers, and therefore create a serious waste to the estate upon which they have been imposed. The Company, if they become the purchasers, have no intention whatever of using the premises for any other than school purposes; and in twenty years, by the operation of the Prescription Act, servitudes will arise upon the lands (or rather against the owners thereof), which alone would afford a sufficient protection to the owners of the adjacent buildings for the free enjoyment of light and air. So long, however, as perpetual restriction is imposed upon this portion of the estate, the Company are unable to advance upon their present offer.
"Before, however, making a definite proposal, the Company are anxious to make one other observation—that they desire to secure by agreement what, no doubt, the Governors would most willingly concede to them,—viz., the free daily use of the Governors' Chapel (as heretofore it has been used) for all school purposes. If the masters and scholars of the Merchant Taylors' School succeed to the use hitherto enjoyed by the master and scholars of the Charterhouse School, no extra expense in repair and maintenance will be entailed upon the Governors, and it will tend to cement an union (in itself most desirable) between the future residents of the separate establishments located within the small boundaries of an estate now for the first time, after some centuries, to be held in a divided ownership; but further, it will enable the Company to associate their scholars more closely than hitherto it has been in their power to do with the rites and services of the Established Church. If, therefore, the perpetual restrictions were withdrawn and the free use of the Chapel was conceded to the Merchant Taylors' Company, they would have pleasure in advancing upon their former offer of 80,000l. a sum of ten thousand pounds (10,000l.), and giving ninety thousand pounds (90,000l.) for the whole estate as sold in one lot; such offer being received as made,—viz., as subject to the sanction of Parliament being obtained, by clauses introduced into the Public School Bill, clauses in substance the same as those now enclosed, and which have already been submitted to the notice of the Governors. (fn. 33)
"In conclusion, I have only to add, that the Company desire— whatever may be the result of this communication—that I should express to the Governors their thanks for the opportunity offered to them of becoming the purchasers of their estate.
"All that the Merchant Taylors' Company have it in desire to do, is to supply the want which obviously must arise—unless the Governors of the Charterhouse are prepared to make some provision for it, after their relinquishment of that sphere of usefulness which, for upwards of 250 years, within the City of London, and partially towards its citizens, the Governors of the Charterhouse have occupied—a want arising from no fault in the citizens of London, but necessarily resulting from the removal of an ancient educational establishment far beyond the walls. To aid in the supply of this want (so far as their Corporate means will allow) is the only motive that has induced the Merchant Taylors' Company to give such anxious consideration to the proposals of the Governors. How far the Company may be enabled to accomplish this object is dependent in some degree upon the result of this negotiation, but whatever the result may be I shall ever feel conscious that my colleagues and myself have manifested every desire to meet the proposals of the Governors of the Charterhouse in a candid and unselfish spirit.
"Whether, therefore, in the relative position which the Governors and the Company are now occupying towards each other, in respect of the educational wants and claims of the citizens of London, any consideration and what be due from the Governors to the Company in the matter of this estate, and before the transfer thereof into other hands (and then probably for other purposes), it is not for me to determine; but if, as I venture to think, the Governors would desire to see upon the site they are relinquishing such an educational establishment as the Merchant Taylors' School perpetuated, and if (for the accomplishment of such an object) they are prepared to make some concession to the Merchant Taylors' Company, then, on behalf of the Company, I am ready to receive, as the full measure of both, the Governors' acceptance of the offer which I have in this letter now made, on behalf of the Merchant Taylors' Company, for the purchase of the Charterhouse estate.
"Should, however, the Governors of the Charterhouse think that the Estate may be more advantageously disposed of in two separate and distinct Lots, then I would ask that the Company might have the first offer given to them of that Lot which will embrace the Educational Establishment of the Governors.
"I have the honor to remain, "Sir, "Your very obedient Servant, "William Foster White, "Master of the Merchant Taylors' Company."
"A. Keightley, Esq."
"Any person or body or persons, corporate or unincorporate, having an existing School, or having the control of funds applicable to Educational purposes, shall have power to purchase the School site of Westminster or Charterhouse, and the adjacent property, and to transfer to the site so purchased as aforesaid the existing School of the purchaser or purchasers; and such existing School, when so transferred to such new site, shall, to all intents and purposes, represent the original existing School, and so that all or any endowments or exhibitions attached thereto or connected therewith shall attach to and be connected with the said School after such transfer, as if the said School was still existing on the original site before the transfer thereof.
"Any such persons as last aforesaid may, for the purposes aforesaid, sell the site of their existing School and other real estate connected therewith, and the proceeds of such sale or any part thereof, or any other funds held by them applicable to educational purposes, may be paid and applied in and towards the payment of the purchasemoney of the new site so purchased as aforesaid, and in and towards the payment of the costs and expenses connected with the purchase of the new and the sale of the old site as aforesaid; but no purchaser shall be bound to satisfy himself of the necessity or expediency of such sale or to see to the due application of the purchase-money."
(D.) STATEMENT OF THE MERCHANT TAYLORS' COMPANY TO CERTAIN QUESTIONS PUT BY THE COMMISSIONERS. (fn. 34)
I. and II.
The Merchant Taylors' Company.
As all the questions in the first Part and many of those in the second and third, have no reference to, or bearing upon, Merchant Taylors' School, it has occurred to the Master, Wardens, and Assistants of the Merchant Taylors' Company (who are commonly spoken of as the Court of Assistants), that a general statement as to the foundation and present position of the School will best afford to the Commissioners the required material information, and they have consequently abstained from giving a separate answer to each of the questions submitted to them. This course has been adopted, not from any desire to withhold information, but under the impression that it will prove more practically convenient, and the Court will be happy to afford such further information as may be in their power upon any matters connected with the School, which the Commissioners may desire to inquire into.
The School was established by the Merchant Taylors' Company in the year 1561. At that time, Sir Thomas White, the Founder of St. John's College, Oxford, was an active member of the Court, and he and others influenced the Court to found the School, and it has been generally considered that he held out promises to the Company to secure to the Scholars important privileges at his College.
The Company accordingly purchased the site and built the School, and from that time to the present, the School has been maintained freely and voluntarily, and every expense connected with it has been borne by the Company, save only that entrance and quarterage fees have been paid by the Scholars, and that in the year 1610, Mr. Dow, a former Member of the Court, charged certain freehold property with the yearly sum of 8l. to provide food for the Masters and Examiners at the Probations or half-yearly examinations of the Scholars.
The School remains the absolute property of the Company, and there is not, nor was there ever, any estate or property belonging to or held in trust for the School, with the exception of Mr. Dow's above-mentioned grant of 8l. a year. The School is not subject to any trust whatever. The Court of Assistants are the Patrons and Governors of the School, which is in every respect subject to their orders and authority. There is no Visitor. There are not, nor were there ever, any Statutes in the common acceptation of the term. On the establishment of the School, a code of rules and regulations, to which the title of "Statutes" was given, was drawn up and adopted by the Court, but of such rules and regulations the greater part have either become obsolete or have been from time to time altered by the Court; the School exists in fact on the resolutions of the Court, who have full power to make, and have from time to time made, such orders and rules, either of a permanent or of a temporary character, as they have considered expedient.
All the Masters are appointed and their duties are regulated by the Court, who in selecting the Masters, are not bound by any rules beyond such as they may from time to time impose upon themselves for the purpose of securing as efficient a person as possible to supply the existing vacancy.
The School is established for 250 boys, and nominations are only made as vacancies occur. It is difficult to maintain the number of boys precisely at 250, and there are generally a few in excess of that number.
The advantages of the School are open to every Scholar. The Court are 40 in number, and each Member has a nomination in turn. Each boy pays to the Company an entrance fee of 3l. and a quarterage equal to 10l. a year: beyond this there is no charge to the Scholar, save for books, which he buys where he pleases. Everything taught in the School is comprised in the above charges. The School is not a School for boarders; the boys board and lodge either with their parents or guardians, or where their parents or guardians place them. The Masters in some cases take boarders; the Court do not object to this, but they do not in any way interfere with the arrangements between the Masters and the parents or guardians.
All the Masters are appointed by the Court, and hold their offices during the pleasure of the Court. The duties of the Head Master are set forth in a paper given to him by the Court at the time of his appointment, and he will be best able to state what are the duties and powers of all that are engaged in the tuition of the School.
The Head Master makes detailed quarterly reports to the Court, and he communicates with the Court on casual questions, as they from time to time arise; but the general management of the School is left to his judgment and discretion, and the Court, without shrinking from expressing their opinions to him, deem it of the highest importance to support his authority, as well with the Assistant Masters as with the Scholars and their parents. In appointing the Masters, the Court avail themselves of the best means of inviting eligible candidates, and the consideration of choosing the most efficient is paramount to every external influence; when a vacancy occurs, canvassing is in every way discouraged, it is but rarely resorted to, and never with any advantage to the party adopting it.
The Court require that all the Masters with the exception of the Writing, French, and Drawing Masters, should be Clergymen of the Church of England, educated at Oxford or Cambridge, and that the Writing, French, and Drawing Masters should be Protestants. There is no rule or usage respecting the superannuation of Masters, or any provision for it.
1. The earliest age at which a boy can be admitted, is 9 years; no rule exists as to the latest age.
2 and 3. Each boy must have at least some knowledge of the elementary parts of the Latin Grammar, at the time of his admission, and if he exceeds eleven years he must have made such further progress as will justify his being placed in a Form where the boys are somewhat of his own age; no rule exists as to the time a boy may remain in a lower Form.
4 and 5. There are no rules on these points; but, in fact, no boy on admission is ever placed in the Sixth or Head Form, and 19 is considered the extreme age to which a boy remains.
7. The Head Master has no power to make any material change in (and in that sense modify) the system or course of instruction. That power rests only with the Court. The Head Master selects the books to be used, and a list of them is published by the Court.
8. The Assistant Masters have no consultative voice, but the Court confer with them as occasion requires, not only as regards the studies of the School, but on matters connected with the School. In fact, the Court seek for all the information that can be obtained from existing assistants or former experienced Masters to guide their judgment.
11. There is no extra charge for instruction in Modern Languages, Mathematics, or any subject taught in the School. The quarterage (equal to 10l. a year) comprises everything.
12. There are half-yearly Examinations in all the subjects taught in the School, and extending to every Form and Class. There are two Classical Examiners, Professors Brown and H. S. Maine; one Mathematical, Professor Hall; one for French, and one for Writing and Arithmetic; all are chosen and paid by the Court. The result of such Examinations as regards each boy is printed, and two of such printed copies accompanies these answers.
13. A list of the Scholarships, Exhibitions, and Prizes accompanies these answers. It may be stated generally that no Scholarship, Exhibition, or Prize is obtained except by the scholars' industry and distinction. As a rule it may be taken that they go to the most proficient, as evidenced by the regular work done in the School, but, as regards Fish's, Wooller's, and Vernon's exhibitions, which are given to former scholars resi dent at the University, the pecuniary circumstances of the youths, as well as their industry aud character, are taken into account by the Court. The printed results of the School Examinations referred to in the last answer, show who obtain the School Prizes, and the principles on which they are awarded.
14, 15, 16, and 17. There are no Tutors in the School in the sense here indicated.
21. The School has a valuable Library, to which additions are yearly made, and the boys have the use of it under the sanction of the Head Master.
43 and 44. Looking to Merchant Taylors' School as a great public place of education, established in the heart of the City of London, surrounded by buildings, and with no contiguous open grounds, the Court have every reason to be satisfied with the results of the education there afforded, and in their opinion, the system does not fall short of what a great Public School so circumstanced may be reasonably expected to accomplish; still it is open to consideration, whether by an increased expenditure the system or course of instruction may not in some particulars be altered or extended, so as to afford additional advantages to the large number of scholars who are not seeking for a University career. The Court already expend from their own funds and property, between 2,000l. and 3,000l. a year on the School, and they have recently laid out about 20,000l. in the purchase of adjacent buildings, with the view, when the leases (which have but about 5 years to run) fall in, of enlarging the School accommodation. To this object primary attention must be given, as no separate or extended course of instruction could be entered upon without larger buildings and additional Masters.
By Order of the Court of the 30th January 1862.
John Ewart, Master.
UNIVERSITY SCHOLARSHIPS, EXHIBITIONS, &c.
Referred to in Answer to Question 13.
Twenty-one Scholarships at St. John's College, Oxford, of the value of 100l. a year each, tenable for 7 years.
Six Andrews civil law Scholarships or Exhibitions at the same College, of the value of 60l. a year each, tenable for 12 years on certain conditions.
One Stuart's Scholarships at the same College, of the annual value of 50l., tenable for 8 years.
Five Fish's Exhibitions at the same College, each of the annual value of 25l. (augmented recently to this amount by the Court), tenable until of standing for M.A.
Four Vernon's Exhibitions at the same College, of the annual value of 4l. each, but augmented by the Court to 10l. each.
One Wooller's Exhibition at the same College, of the annual value of 4l., but augmented by the Court to 10l.
One school Exhibition at the same College, of the annual value of 63l., at the disposal of the Head Master of the School, the President, and a Barrister educated at the School.
One Stuart's Exhibition at any College at Cambridge, annual value 61l. 11s. 4d., tenable for 4 years.
Four Parkin's Exhibitions at any College at Cambridge, annual value 43l. each, but augmented by the Court to 50l, tenable for 4 years.
One Juxon's, value 12l. in books, for a Scholar at either University.
Two Pitt Club Exhibitions, annual value 30l. each, for scholars at either University, tenable for 4 years.
Two Company's Exhibitions for Scholars, at either University, annual value 50l., each tenable for 5 years.
N.B.—These Company's Exhibitions were established by the Court some years since, and are continued at their pleasure. The Court has for many years set aside the entrance fees paid by the scholars, with the design to form an Exhibition Fund. By investments and accumulations this Fund has reached 6,000l. and upwards, and it is from this Fund that the Company's Exhibitions are paid.
The Court of the Merchant Taylor's Company expend yearly in books, given as Prizes on the result of the half-yearly Examinations, 52l. 10s. A reference to the printed Probation papers will show how these are awarded.
There is a Prize Medal for Hebrew Scholarship, called the Montefiore Medal. This originated with Sir Moses Montefiore, Bart.
Also, a Prize of 3l. a year in books, for good conduct, called the Gilpin prize
Also, a Prize of 6l. a year in books, for English History, called the Tyler prize.
Also, a Prize of 6l. a year in books, for subjects connected with mercantile and professional pursuits, called the Pigeon and Pugh prize.
N.B.—These three last prizes originated with existing members of the Court, who placed the requisite funds for their establishment at the disposal of the Court.
(E.) REPORT (fn. 35) OF HER MAJESTY'S COMMISSIONERS ON MERCHANT TAYLORS' SCHOOL, PRESENTED (BY COMMAND) TO PARLIAMENT IN 1864.
Merchant Taylors' School has been included in the limited number of public schools referred to us, and is of the same general character with the rest, in the antiquity of its foundation, the nature of the studies pursued in it, and its connexion with one of the ancient Universities; but there is an important difference affecting it, to which we shall advert after first briefly noticing its origin, history, and present condition.
Origin of Foundations.
The school was founded about the year 1560 by the Merchant Taylors' Company. It is supposed, but there is no clear evidence to show, that the foundation was mainly suggested and directed by Sir Thomas White, a member of the Court of Assistants of the Company, and who was also the founder of St. John's College, Oxford; and that he encouraged it by the promise that he would connect it with that College by endowments. He did so within three years after the school was established, by endowing it with 37 fellowships in the College.
The school was established out of the general funds of the Company, aided by subscriptions from individual members. But it is to be observed that one such member, Mr. Richard Hills, is stated to have given 500l. towards the purchase of the site, a sum which probably in those days must have amounted to the whole or very nearly the whole of the purchase-money.
The first Head Master was appointed on the 24th September 1561, and on the same day the original Statutes were promulgated. These are evidently copied from Dean Colet's Ordinances for St. Paul's School, but with several interesting variations. Dr. Hessey, the present Head Master, has adverted to those Statutes in his Answers, but we have not received a copy of them. They are, however, to be found in the works we have above referred to, and we have thought it well to reprint them in the Appendix. (fn. 36) In this place it is enough to observe that much of them is obviously obsolete and inapplicable to the circumstances of these days.
These Statutes, and the whole establishment of the School, have always been considered by the Company to be entirely under their own control, and they conceive that they are at liberty to deal with them from time to time as they please. The School, however, has been kept up by them continuously since the date of its foundation, on its original principle as a Grammar School, and for the education of children "in good manners and literature." We believe it has always held a most respectable position among English schools. The copious work of Dr. Wilson consists chiefly of biographies of worthies of the school; and we have the clear testimony of a distinguished scholar, who acted for some time as examiner, to its goodness as a place of classical learning.
Number of Boys.
The school was established for 250 boys. It has probably always been full, and in fact the above number is generally somewhat exceeded. In 1861 it was 262.
The number of Masters was fixed in the Statutes at four, viz., a High Master, a Chief Usher, and two Under Ushers. It so remained, with only a slight change in the names, till 1828, when on the introduction of mathematics into the ordinary work of the school, two masters for writing and arithmetic, and two for mathematics, were added. In 1845 a fourth classical master was appointed. In the same year French was introduced experimentally and as an extra. In 1846 it was added to the regular work, and two French masters were appointed. In 1851 and 1855 two more mathematical masters, in 1856 a drawing master, and in 1857 a classical assistant to the head master were added.
Payments and Stipends.
The payments from the boys, the emoluments of the masters, and the arrangements for such of the boys as are boarders, subjects which are much connected with each other, appear to have varied considerably, not only since the foundation of the School, but since the date of Carlisle's book. The old Statutes provided liberal payment to all the masters from the funds of the Com- pany; and besides that, of the 250 boys 100 were to pay 5s. a quarter, 50 were to pay 2s. 6d. a quarter, while the remaining 100 were to be free. The last of the Statutes intimates a desire on the part of the founders that 150, or even the whole number, might be free, if at any time, "by the gifts and legacies of good and well-disposed men," the Company should be enabled to afford it.
The stipends of the masters, and the boys' quarterly payments, were raised at different times, and notably in 1805. In 1818 the quarterage of every boy was 10s., or 2l. a year. It is now 10l. a year.
At all times there have been some slight additional payments from the boys, which need not be noticed in detail.
The receipts of the masters, as officially known to the Company, will be found in the Answers. Without giving the particulars, we may state that the head master receives, in stipend from the Company and in fees from the boys, about 1,000l. a year.
|Head Master's Assistant (wholly from the Company)||200|
|First Under Master||525|
|First Writing and Arithmetic Master||180|
|First French Master||130|
The four under masters at present act also as mathematical masters, the three seniors receiving additional stipends on that account, which are included in the amounts above-mentioned. The fourth receives no payment for his mathematical services as such. We have stated the receipts "as officially known to the Company," because two of the masters keep boardinghouses, and of course derive the usual profits from them. These houses are unconnected with the school, and in no way recognized by its authorities; and we presume that all the masters might keep such houses if they thought fit.
The system seems to have been somewhat different formerly. In 1818 three masters out of the four, including the headmaster, received boarders, and though it is said that they might have fixed such terms as they pleased, they did in fact agree to make uniform charges.
Expenditure by Company.
The Company have always undertaken all expenses of every kind connected with the school, without any set-off except that of the boys' fixed payments. These last, however, constitute no small proportion of the whole. From a Statement in Dr. Hessey's Answers, it will appear that of the sum actually paid for tuition to the masters of the School, amounting to 3,383l. a year, 1,565l. is paid by the boys, besides 1,300l. more paid by them and retained by the Company. But it must be observed, that while the above payments are all that are made by the boys, we have by no means stated the whole of the costs borne by the Company. We subjoin two financial statements with which we have been furnished, showing on an average of two years a balance of expenditure falling on the corporate funds of about 1,915l.
MERCHANT TAYLORS' SCHOOL.: A.—Twelve Months' Expenditure to Midsummer 1861.
Mem.—The usual donation towards a cricket ground was given earlier than it is generally, and thus appears in the previous account.
B.—Twelve Months' Expenditure to Midsummer 1862.
Mr. Thrupp (fn. 37) in his evidence says, that the last year's account will be probably still more against the Company, and he raises the total to a sum much exceeding 2,000l. a year, by adding the sum (which he says is much below the mark) of 500l. a year for the value of the school-premises. But this last item raises a question to which we shall hereafter recur.
On the whole we think there can be no doubt that the Company, and not least the present body, have dealt with the School in a liberal and generous spirit. Besides the current expenditure the Company have lately laid out 20,000l. in the purchase of adjacent buildings, in order at an early period to improve the school accommodation.
The minimum age of admission is nine. There is no absolute maximum. Boys are admitted on the nomination in rotation of the members of the Company, without any condition except that of a moderate amount of attainment according to age.
The Scholarships, Exhibitions, and Prizes of the School are enumerated in the written Answers. We have only to notice, with respect to them, that the ancient endowment of Sir Thomas White to which we have above referred has been recently greatly modified by an Ordinance of the Privy Council under the authority of an Act of Parliament. The Fellowships at St. John's are thrown open to general competition, but the School has 21 scholarships at the College of 100l. a year, tenable for seven years, so that vacancies in them will regularly recur. Further particulars on this subject will be found in Dr. Hessey's Answers.
Of Prizes and Exhibitions the amount, in Dr. Hessey's opinion, is ample.
Course of Study.
Respecting the school studies, we may first notice that it has been a distinction of this School, ever since the time of its first master, Dr. Mulcaster (though nothing is said on the point in the original scheme), that Hebrew has formed part of the ordinary course. Dr. Hessey speaks very favourably of the results of this part of the system.
List of Subjects, Dr. Hessey.
The amount of mathematics taught in the School, and the time given to them (no less than the whole afternoon on five days in the week), are considerably above what we have found in any other school.
English literature and ancient and modern history and geography receive a fair share of attention, but physical science is not taught. Of modern languages French alone is taught, and with fair success, but Dr. Hessey seems to desire to introduce German.
Drawing is taught to the classes of the first and second mathematical masters.
Classics, we need not say, form the staple of the intellectual teaching of the School. Particulars on this head, which, especially, as regards Dr. Hessey's own part in the teaching, are remarkably full and clear, will be found in the Tabular Returns furnished to us. The list of classical authors, and of modern works used for the explanation and illustration of them, is a very copious one, and the methods used in the classical teaching bear marks of much care in selection and diligence in application. The list of University honours shows that at Oxford, since 1839, Merchant Taylors' has gained in the Final Schools 11 Classical "Firsts," 10 Mathematical, and 1 in Law and Modern History; in Moderations, 16 Classical and seven Mathematical "Firsts." It has 18 times carried off one or other of the Hebrew Scholarships, beside various College Scholarships and Fellowships, and some other distinctions. The Cambridge list includes three Bell's Scholarships and a Fifth and two Sixth Wranglers.
There appears to be no great amount of original classical composition in the schoolwork, but on the other hand the quantity of translation is unusually large.
Number of Masters.
We must observe however that this amount of classical distinction is attained in spite of what we cannot but regard as an inadequate number of classical masters. As we have stated, there are but six masters for 260 boys, being nearly 44 boys to each master. The work, moreover, is, as was probably inevitable, very unequally divided among these six; and lastly, the whole time of the masters is not given to classics, for, as we have above noticed, the four under masters are also the mathematical masters.
Proportion of Boys who go to the Universities.
In the Michaelmas term 1861 there were 27 undergraduates from Merchant Taylors' at Oxford and seven at Cambridge. The number of boys who left the School in the year 1861–2 was 59, of whom eight, or 13.5 per cent., went to one or other of the Universities. This is the smallest proportion furnished by any of the schools under our review.
The number of Merchant Taylors' boys who enter the Army is shown by the subjoined Table, in which the letter A indicates those who have not, and the letter B those who have, had intermediate tuition:—
|—||Direct Commissions.||Sandhurst.||Woolwich Qualifying Examination.||Totals.|
Dr. Hessey refers in the Tables to public speeches as in use at the school. They take place twice in the year, at Christmas and in June, and are limited to the eight monitors. Dr. Hessey himself superintends them, and considers them a "most valuable means of bringing out boys' talents and character, and of giving them ease and selfpossession."
The ancient religious character of the foundation appears to be kept up as far as possible, consistently with its being only a day school and the consequent absence of the boys from the school on Sundays. We would notice with much commendation the pains which the head master takes in preparing the boys for Confirmation and for their first Communion, which they very generally receive at his hands in the chapel of Grey's Inn, of which he is the preacher.
Number of Forms.
The School formerly consisted of eight forms, but is now reduced to seven. The system of promotion is described by Dr. Hessey in his Answers. The boys appear to pass through the school from the lower to the upper parts by test examinations, but their places within the forms are determined by competition.
The punishments in the school are of the ordinary kind, but flogging (which is inflicted solely by the head master) is very rare, "not once in three years." The use of the cane is allowed to the under masters, and is more frequent. Dr. Hessey speaks well of the system of public rebuke in the presence of the whole school, to which he sometimes has recourse.
Fagging of course cannot exist in a school of this description. The monitorial system, as it is established here, consists merely in this, that a few of the elder boys, for a small fee, assist in the work of the school, which Dr. Hessey thinks answers well.
There would, probably, be some difficulty in establishing any system of private tuition in this school, even if the authorities of the school wished it, but Dr. Hessey, far from wishing it, is strongly against it as the general rule, and though it is not actually forbidden it is discouraged, except in peculiar cases.
The condition of the school buildings and premises seemed to us good; but they are greatly in need of extension, both for purposes of study and of recreation. Dr. Hessey has stated that there is much need of more and better class rooms; and it may be said that at present there is no playground at all. There is indeed a very small paved courtyard, of which the boys make some use for the purpose. The Company also pay 20 guineas a year for rent of part of Kennington Oval for cricket.
The school as a day school appears to provide well, to the extent of its numbers, for the education of children of the mercantile and professional classes in and near London.
Superintendence by Company.
As the Company bear the whole expense of the school beyond what the boys contribute, so they retain in their own hands the appointment of all the masters, and the power to dismiss them, and the whole authority over the management of the school. They appear, however, to entrust great discretion in this latter respect to the head master.
SUMMARY OF RECOMMENDATIONS.
We observed at the outset that there was an important difference between Merchant Taylors' School and the others into which we have inquired. At St. Paul's Schol the Mercers' Company do not admit themselves trustees, in the legal sense of the term, of the Coletine estates, but they acknowledge that they are bound to maintain the school; at Merchant Taylors', on the other hand, the Company hold themselves free from any legal obligation whatever. They consider that the school is theirs simply, and that no one could challenge their act if they were to abolish it altogether. A fortiori, they consider that they can deal with it in the way of regulation and modification as they please.
Whether this position be tenable or not in law, we do not feel called upon to pronounce. It is clear, at any rate, that the original statutes, which are the constituent documents of the school, indicate on the part of the Company at that time an intention that it should be a permanent foundation, as indeed it has hitherto been. In the preamble it is said that "the Master, Wardens, and Assistants have . . . . decreed and do . . . decree that the said school shall . . . . have continuance by God's grace for ever." The 35th Statute directs that the "Master, &c., for the time being shall yearly for ever make their assembly, &c." The 36th and 37th contains similar expressions.
We think it right also to notice the material facts, that considerable endowments have been bestowed and accepted for the benefit of the school, and that its present site was in great part if not wholly acquired by money given for the purpose of establishing a school there by an individual member of the Company.
As the case stands, however, we do not recommend any change in the present government of the school, nor in the powers of the Company, nor do we criticise minutely the details of their expenditure on it, the liberality of which we have acknowledged; but we are bound to suggest such alterations on material points as seem to us desirable, leaving it to the Company to adopt them should they see fit so to apply their funds.
Of the General Recommendations, those only which are numbered I.—V., XXVI.—XXX., appear to be inapplicable to Merchant Taylors' School. We advise the adoption, in substance, of the rest, so far as they do not already form part of the system and practice of the School.
It will follow that, whilst the ancient classical character of the School is maintained, the same studies which we have recommended as compulsory at other schools would be introduced here. In this case the additions would be Natural Science, German (on an equal footing with French), Music, and (to a greater extent than at present) Drawing.
This course of study might be graduated, under the direction of the Company, on the same scale as we have recommended elsewhere; and we do not anticipate any serious disturbance of the present arrangements in consequence of the change, except indeed that a material reduction must take place in the amount of mathematical work. But this, as we shall have occasion to observe hereafter, seems in itself desirable.
1. The first suggestion which we have to make specially relating to this School refers to the system of Nomination, which we should wish to see modified on the same general principles as we have recommended elsewhere. We do so here with the more confidence, as we have in substance adopted Dr. Hessey's proposals. We think it would be very advantageous if the members of the Corporation would agree to surrender their right of absolute nomination, and would in lieu thereof establish a system of limited competition for admission into the School among their nominees. As an illustration of the mode in which such a system might be introduced, we suggest that two examinations might be held in the year, for each of which every member of the Corporation might nominate a competitor, and that after examination a list should be formed of the boys in order of merit, from which list boys should be admitted into the School in the same order as vacancies occurred until the next halfyearly examination, when a fresh list should be formed in like manner for the half year following. It would be in the power of the members to nominate the same boys for a second competition if they had not been admitted within the half-year following their first. We would also call attention to a recommendation which has been brought under our notice, viz., that it would be an improvement to establish certain scholarships in the School to be given to boys whose performance may have been the best upon the competitive examination for admission, and to be held for a certain portion of their stay in the School.
2. We think that the occupation of the whole of the afternoon in Mathematics is disproportionate to the rest of the work, and that the range of the mathematical subjects is clearly beyond what is good for boys. Dr. Hessey states this, though not very strongly; nor does this excess in mathematical teaching seem adequately represented in any preponderance of mathematical distinction at the Universities. We conceive that the mathematical work should be reduced at least one-third, both in time and in amount.
3. On the other hand we think that at least two more Classical Masters are required.
4. We recommend the Company to consider whether arrangements might not be made by which some of the boys, according to circumstances, should have their luncheon on the school premises. This, and the still more important points of additional class room and a better play-ground, both of which are strongly dwelt on by Dr. Hessey, will no doubt receive the immediate attention of the Company on their becoming actually possessed of the property which they have lately purchased.
Dr. Hessey has also stated that he should be glad if a school chapel existed in the premises.
5. We do not advise any return to a regular boarding-house system, which in actual circumstances would be practically an innovation. It has appeared to us, as we have before intimated, that in London, while such ancient boarding schools as are to be found may still be kept up, there is no demand at all for the extension of such schools, though there is a very active and increasing demand for good day schools. We think, however, that the Head Master and the Company might advantageously have some more formal and direct power of visiting and controlling such boardinghouses as are used.
6. In reference to what we have just said as to the demand for day-school instruction in London, we suggest that it might be desirable to extend the benefits of this School by admitting boys unconnected with the Foundation into the School upon application for that purpose before the close of their 16th year, upon the terms of paying a moderate sum for the cost of their education; and that the Exhibitions, Scholarships, and other benefits of a similar description now enjoyed by boys educated at Merchant Taylors', on quitting school, either at one of the Universities or elsewhere, should be open to the competition of all such boys.
Scholarships and Exhibitions.
7. We advise that the competition for such Exhibitions and Scholarships should be conducted by means of special examinations, and that these examinations should be conducted by examiners to be appointed for the purpose; that where any such Exhibitions or Scholarships are supplied from funds not held by or for any particular College, it should be in the power of the successful candidates to hold them at any College at either University; that such portion of the Exhibitions and Scholarships should be awarded to proficiency in the subjects of mathematics, modern languages, and physical science respectively, as may be proportionate to the weight and value of each subject in the whole course of education at Merchant Taylors'.
8. Finally, we think that is it expedient that the ancient Statutes of the School should be revised and published under the authority of the Company.
(F.) REORGANIZATION OF THE SCHOOL AS PROPOSED (BY THE HEAD MASTER) IN 1873–4.
Hitherto the School has been of a classical type only, and limited to 250 boys; by removal to the Charterhouse the object of the Company has been to extend the curriculum of studies and the number of boys (to 350, and ultimately to 500 boys), divided into three schools, as the Lower, the Classical, and the Modern, but under one, and not three Head Masters.
I. THE LOWER SCHOOL.
1. As a general rule every boy will enter this School, and not be permitted to ascend to either of the higher Schools until qualified by his attainments to do so. There is no intention of making up a modern school of a residuum of idle boys entering it without knowledge or excellence of any kind. On the contrary, he must have worked his way through the Lower School, probably up to the present "Lower Fifth," having attained a complete knowledge of the Latin Grammar, construing (with the aid of a dictionary) the easier parts of Cæsar, Ovid, or Virgil; learnt the rudiments of Greek and Mathematics, with some knowledge of French, and had a sound elementary English education.
2. It is proposed to classify the Lower School as follows:
|Sec. A.||Sec. B.|
Keeping to the same standards and number of forms as at present, there would be in the Lower School six forms with an average of fifty boys a-piece; a number manifestly much too large for a single class. If on the other hand the number of boys in each form were reduced, the number of forms would be inconveniently multiplied and constant "removes" would be necessary. It remains, therefore, that each form should be subdivided into two parallel sections, which might be called section A and section B.
3. But it is important that the two sections of each form should be taught by the same master, in order to ensure equality of excellence in the teaching of the parallel sections, and so a corresponding equality of advantage on the part of the boys; also to avoid invidious comparisons which would be sure to be made by boys or their parents.
4. The subjects taught will be nearly the same as at present —i.e., Divinity and Scripture History, Latin, English History, Geography, Grammar, Arithmetic, Writing, Dictation, and for the two highest forms the rudiments of Greek and of Mathematics.
5. As regards French.
It is thought that French may be begun at least a form earlier than at present; it is proposed to begin it in the Third Form instead of in the Lower Division, and to give an additional half hour for preparation in School before each lesson—three hours instead of two per week being thus devoted to French.
6. As regards English.
At present the Writing Masters have to teach Arithmetic, Writing, Writing from Dictation, with English History and Geography, devoting eight hours a week. This time appears insufficient, especially for the younger boys, who may turn some of the hours spent over the Latin Grammar to better account in a lesson in writing or spelling.
7. As regards Mathematics, French, and English. It is very fairly objected that these subjects are treated as by-subjects, and boys knowing that their general position in the School is not affected by their proficiency, or want of proficiency, in these several departments, often do not regard them as serious studies. With some boys this feeling extends to examinations, and boys who would not be likely to resort to unfair means in Classical examinations, have no compunction about copying in other examinations
8. This objection it is proposed to meet by making every subject taken up by a boy in the Lower School an integral part of the work of the form; and by giving weight to each subject, according to a fixed proportion, in determining a boy's general position and standing in the School. It is proposed also to contrive that no subject shall be confined to the afternoon hours.
9. The following summary of work, according to the existing arrangement and the projected scheme, will show the extent of the changes proposed to be introduced:—
Summary of Work.
|According to Existing Organization.|
|Classics and Divinity||20 hours|
|Mathematics or Arithmetic with English||8 "|
|According to Projected Scheme.|
|(fn. 38) Classics and Divinity||18 hours|
|Mathematics or Arithmetic with English||9 "|
Or for Boys not learning French (Forms I. and II.)
According to Existing Organization.
According to Projected Scheme.
With 500, probably 300 boys will be in this School.
II. THE CLASSICAL SCHOOL.
1. Will comprise four forms, called (to keep as near as possible to the old nomenclature) the Head, Upper Sixth, the Sixth and Fifth Forms.
2. Any changes introduced will be rather of detail than of principle,—of arrangements than of subjects. Keeping always in mind that the object in view is to give the best education for its own sake, Classics with Mathematics will form still, as heretofore, the staple subjects. In this school the former study will have the greater prominence, the latter being always maintained for the development of the reasoning powers, and generally for giving a broader basis and greater solidity to the education received. Modern languages will hold a subordinate position, the object being to give merely an elementary acquaintance with these subjects, to be supplemented by private study according to occasion or opportunity.
3. Whilst, however, Mathematics will be required of all boys, it will not be required of all to the same extent as at present. Additional time will be gained thus for Classics. At the same time it is desirable that encouragement should be given to a boy to excel in both subjects. It is therefore proposed in the two Upper Forms to set apart three hours a week to be devoted to either subject according to option, the work thus done to be considered as extra to the general work of the Form or Class. These hours might also in special cases, by consent of the Head Master, be devoted to Drawing, Hebrew, or any other subject according to aptitude, as could be arranged. It seems desirable that in the Upper part of the School at least the elements of German should be taught alternately with French.
4. The following comparison of work under the existing organization and projected scheme will sufficiently indicate the proposed alterations:—
Summary of Work.
According to Existing Organization.
According to Projected Scheme.
|Classics and Divinity||22½ or 19½|
|Mathematics||4½ or 7½|
|In all cases||30 hours|
5. According to the projected scheme all boys will devote 22½ hours to Classics, with the exception of those in the Head and Sixth Forms, who shall be allowed to give up a certain portion of their Classical work (as Verse Composition or extra Translations) for extra Mathematics or other subjects.
6. The Mathematical Department of the Classical School will be organized as follows. There will be of course a separate classification, the four Classical Forms being broken up and redistributed into a certain number of Mathematical Classes subdivided as required.
7. The Time Table of the Classical and Modern Schools would be so arranged that boys who required extra teaching in Mathematics would be now introduced from the Modern into the Classical School, so that at one time there would be learning Mathematics all the boys of the Classical School + the boys requiring extra Mathematics in the Modern School.
With 500, probably 100 boys will be in this School.
III. THE MODERN SCHOOL. (fn. 39)
1. Will comprise three forms (Modern), Upper Sixth, the Sixth and the Fifth, a limited number of monitors being created for their attainments in the modern school and posted in the Upper Sixth.
2. It is presumed that the Modern School will consist of three distinct sets of boys.
(a.) Boys intended for the Universities who are not likely to compete for classical honours.
(b.) Boys intended to compete for various appointments in the civil or military services, unless of distinct excellence in Classics, when they would be recommended to remain in the Classical School.
(c.) Boys intended for business or professional life immediately upon quitting School.
3. These three sets of boys will have (1) Some common general training that shall serve as a basis of Education. (2) A special course of instruction, varying according to the particular requirements of each set.
4. The General Course for all the boys of the Modern School would be:—
5. As to the special classes for the different sets of boys, it will be obvious that the option allowed with regard to subjects must be kept within certain limits, otherwise there would result an inconvenient multiplication of small classes and a corresponding waste of teaching power. It is, therefore, proposed to arrange the various special subjects into groups, each group consisting of three subjects; and so dividing the Modern School again into three special divisions. Again, each division would have to be redivided into two, one of Seniors and one of Juniors, so that each group would really divide the Modern School into six classes, three of Seniors, and three of Juniors.
6. The special classes must, of course, be framed so as to supply the special requirements of the three sets of boys. For instance, Set i. (the University set) will all require sufficient Greek to qualify them for the pass standard of the Universities; but then would come a division of subjects, for some would be candidates for distinction in Mathematics, and Science, others for distinctions in Modern History or other snbjects. The former would, therefore, require to devote a considerable time to extra Mathematics, the latter to Modern History, Literature, and Composition.
7. Set ii. (the Civil and Military Set) would not require Greek at all, but would devote the extra time at their disposal to English, Modern Languages, Drawing, or extra Mathematics, according to aptitude.
8. Set iii. (Professional and Commercial) would do no Greek, but would probably take to Modern Languages, Drawing, English Analysis and Composition, or Commercial subjects.
9. The subjects may now be arranged (provisionally) into three groups, extended along three distinct lines corresponding roughly to the three sets above mentioned, but admitting of free interchange within the limits of the various groups.
The illustration facing this may help to make clear the foregoing arrangements.
10. An examination of the above will show the apportionment of time, as follows:—
It should further be borne in mind that the evening's exercise may be devoted to any of the above subjects, so that a boy may have further opportunity of bestowing additional time to any special study.
With 500, probably 100 boys will be in this School.
|"For the greate howse, with the Tenements therein appointed for the Schoole Maister and Ushers||Nil.|
|"Item of Robert Gynes, assignee of Raph Quernby, for a celler under the Gramer schoole, pr annum" (fn. 32)||vli. vjs. viijd. (5l. 6s. 8d.)|