Memorials of the Guild of Merchant Taylors of the Fraternity of St. John the Baptist in the City of London. Originally published by Harrison, London, 1875.
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CXXIII. PREFERMENTS AWARDED TO BOYS IN, BUT PROCEEDING FROM THE SCHOOL.
a. The Scholarships of Sir Thomas White, at St. John's College, Oxford.
1. Sir Thomas White, (fn. 1) the son of William White, (fn. 2) a clothier, of Rickmansworth, Herts, was born at Reading in 1492, and was at school there until apprenticed (at 12 years of age) to a merchant in London. After a 10 years' apprenticeship, and the death of his father in 1523, he commenced and prosecuted business with great success. He was Sheriff in 1546, and Lord Mayor in 1553, being then knighted by Queen Mary for his services in Sir Thomas Wyatt's rebellion. (fn. 3) He retired to Oxford and there lived. During his mortal illness he wrote a valedictory letter (fn. 4) to the President and Fellows of St. John's Foundation, and on the 11th February 1566 died, in the 72nd year of his age, being buried in the Chapel of St. John's.
2. His foundation of St. John's originated (fn. 5) on the 1st of May 1555, by license, from Philip and Mary, to found a College "to the praise and honor of God, the Virgin Mary, and St. John the Baptist, for divinity, philosophy, and the arts," to be called St. John Baptist College. In 1557 he obtained another charter (dated the 5th March), when he added a larger endowment, and specified theology, philosophy, canon and civil law, and the arts, as the studies to be pursued. The College so constituted was to consist of a President (fn. 6) and 50 Fellows and Scholars (12 of whom were to study law), 3 Chaplains, 3 Clerks, and 6 Choristers. The 50 Fellows were to be thus chosen: 2 from Coventry, 2 from Bristol, 3 from Reading, 1 from Tunbridge, (fn. 7) and the remaining 43 from Merchant Taylors' School, (fn. 8) but out of the latter number 6 were to be reserved for Founder's kin. The electors to these 43 Scholarships were to be the Master, Wardens, and Court of Assistants of the Merchant Taylors' Company, with the assent of the President (or Vice-President) and two Senior Fellows of St. John's. If no fit scholars were to be found in the School of the Merchant Taylors, then the same electors were to look for scholars from Christ's Hospital in London; and if no fit scholars were to be found there, then the same electors were to look to any School whatever in London or its suburbs; and lastly, if no fit scholars were to be found in any School in London and its suburbs, then such Scholars were to be chosen from any part of England. (fn. 9)
3. The motives assigned for these specific directions as given by the Founder were his own connection with London, where he had been educated and had acquired his property. and his especial affection for the Merchant Taylors, of whom he was one. (fn. 10) They were eminently beneficial to the promotion of learning in Merchant Taylors' School, and have given to it a classical character which the School would not otherwise have possessed, while many of the former scholars have become Presidents of the College.
4. To connect the past with the present Scholarships attached to the School, it is necessary to know that on the 31st of August 1850, Her Majesty issued a Commission of Enquiry into "the state, discipline, studies, and revenues of (inter alia) St. John's College, and that the Report of these Commissioners was laid before Parliament, by command (1482), in the Session of 1852.
5. In 1854, Parliament passed an Act (17 and 18 Vic., c. 81), appointing Commissioners and enabling the Colleges to alter and amend their Statutes with the approval of these Commissioners, or in default of their exercising this power before the 2nd November 1855, then giving authority to the Commissioners to frame Ordinances for promoting the main design of the Founders and Donors. Under the latter power the Ordinance under which these Scholarships are now regulated was made, and after controversy before Her Majesty in Council, approved and laid before Parliament, under the 35 & 36 sec. of the Act, as "An Ordinance in relation to the College of St. John the Baptist, in the University of Oxford."
6. It is dated 18th April 1861, and so far as relates to the Scholarships of Sir Thomas White, it provides as follows :—
As to the said appropriation Scholarships at the said College.
"1. In lieu of the 50 places of the Foundation of Sir Thomas White within the College, heretofore held by perpetual Fellows or by scholars on 3 years' probation, the said Foundation shall hereafter consist of 18 open Fellowships, tenable for life, 5 open Scholarships, and 28 appropriated Scholarships, the conversion being gradually effected in manner hereinafter mentioned.
"4. Of the said 28 appropriated Scholarships, 21 shall be appropriated to Merchant Taylors' School, 2 to the School of Coventry, 2 to the School of Bristol, 2 to the School of Reading, and 1 to the School of Tunbridge, which Scholarships are herein called the Merchant Taylors', Coventry, Bristol, Reading, and Tunbridge Scholarships respectively. In elections to the 5 open Scholarships no person shall be either entitled to preference or ineligible by reason of his having been educated at any particular School, but no person shall be eligible who shall have attained the age of 20 years.
"5. The Merchant Taylor's Scholarships shall be tenable for 7 years, and the Coventry, Bristol, Reading and Tunbridge Scholarships for 5 years, subject in every case to the Scholars obtaining such certificates as hereinafter mentioned. The open Scholarships shall be likewise tenable for 5 years, subject to the same condition. Every Scholar who shall marry, or shall be elected to a Fellowship in the College, or to a Fellowship or Scholarship in any other College, shall thereupon vacate his Scholarship. After the establishment of the 5 open Scholar ships, any open Scholarship which shall from any cause whatever be vacated before the expiration of the term for which it was tenable, shall be filled up in the same manner in which an appropriated Scholarship thrown open to general competition is hereinafter directed to be filled up, and shall be held by the person elected for the remainder of the said term and no longer. In such an election no candidate shall be ineligible or entitled to preference by reason of his age.
"6. Every Scholar, whether holding an open or an appropriated Scholarship, shall, in the 8th and also in the 12th term from his admission, be required to obtain from the President, and from not fewer than one-half in number of the Deans of Arts, Tutors, and Lecturers of the College, or from such other officers of the College as the President and Fellows may from time to time determine, a certificate of satisfactory industry, proficiency, and good conduct; and, if he shall in either of those terms fail to obtain such certificate, shall vacate his Scholarship on the 1st day of June then next ensuing. The President and Fellows may from time to time change the terms in which such certificates are to be obtained, regard being had to the times of examinations instituted by the University.
"7. The term of 7 or 5 years (as the case may be) for which each appropriated Scholarship is to be tenable, shall always be deemed to expire on that stated day of election to Scholarships appropriated to the same School which shall fall nearest to the expiration of 7 or 5 years from the day of the election of the Scholar; and in the case of any Scholarship, whether appropriated or open, the election to which may have been postponed as herein provided, such election shall be deemed for all purposes to have taken place as if there had been no postponement, and the 5 years shall be reckoned accordingly.
"8. The Merchant Taylors' Scholarships, when vacant, shall be filled up at Merchant Taylors' School, or such other convenient place as the President of the College and the Master of the Company of Merchant Taylors shall appoint, on the 11th day of June in each year, or, in case that day shall be Sunday, on the day following, by the election of boys educated in the said School for the 2 years at least last preceding, (fn. 11) and under the age of 19 years, or in default of such candidates of sufficient merit, then by the election of boys under 19 years of age educated for the same period at Christ's Hospital. The electors shall be the Master, Wardens, and Assistants of the Worshipful Company of Merchant Taylors, the President, or Vice-President of the College, and two Fellows of the College, to be annually appointed by the President and Fellows for that purpose. The candidates shall be examined in such subjects and in such manner as the electors shall appoint, and those candidates shall be elected who, after such examination, shall appear to the electors to be of the greatest merit and most fit to be Scholars of the College: Provided, that the concurrence of the said President or VicePresident and the said two Fellows, or of the major part of them, shall be requisite to every election. In default of candidates of sufficient merit from Christ's Hospital, the vacant Scholarship shall be thrown open for that term to general competition, and the election shall be held by the President and Fellows, in the manner provided by Sect. 10, with reference to Coventry, Bristol Reading, and Tunbridge Scholarships.
"10. If there shall be no candidate for any vacant Coventry, Bristol, Reading, or Tunbridge Scholarship of sufficient merit for election, in the judgment of the President and Fellows, such Scholarship shall be thrown open for that turn to general competition, and the election thereto shall be held by the President and Fellows at the College, as soon as conveniently may be, and after public notice for a period of not less than 30 days. The candidates for the Scholarship so thrown open shall be examined in such subjects and in such manner as the President and Fellows shall appoint, and that candidate shall be elected who, after such examination, shall appear to the electors to be of the greatest merit and most fit to be a Scholar of the College. No person shall be eligible who shall have attained the age of 20 years.
"12. The 33 Scholarships and 18 Fellowships shall be established as quickly as the disposable funds arising from vacancies in the existing 50 places will permit, and at the relative rate of 2 Scholarships to 1 Fellowship, until the whole number of Scholarships shall be complete. Subject to the foregoing provision, the several appropriated Scholarships shall be established, as among the several Schools, in the order of priority in which the places heretofore assigned to the said Schools respectively shall become vacant; and the 5 open Scholarships shall be established as vacancies shall occur in the places heretofore held by the kin of the Founder, but so that the first election to an open Scholarship may be postponed (if the President and Fellows shall think fit) until it can be made sure that 1 open Scholarship shall always be vacant in every year.
"13. If in any 1 year, either before or after the completion of the whole number of Merchant Taylors' Scholarships, there shall be more than 3 vacant Scholarships which under the provisions herein contained would in that year be filled up at Merchant Taylors' School, all or any of the vacancies above 3 may, if the President and Fellows, and the Master, Wardens, and Assistants shall so jointly determine, be kept open until a future year, so as to preserve as far as possible a regular supply of vacancies in each year.
"14. Of the 8 present Monitors, or boys holding the highest 8 places in Merchant Taylors' School, such and so many as, if this ordinance had not been made, would have been eligible in the present year or in the year 1862 to places in the College, may be elected and admitted thereto notwithstanding this ordinance, and as if it had not been made; and the place in the College belonging to Reading School, and now vacant, may likewise be filled up in the present year, as if this ordinance had not been made; and the person who may be so elected to such several places respectively shall be on the same footing in all respects, and have the same claim to be afterwards admitted to Fellowships, as the present Scholars on 3 years' probation, and the Scholarships and Fellowships to which they shall be so elected and admitted shall not be counted among the 33 Scholarships and 18 Fellowships to be established by virtue of this ordinance.
"15. * * The emoluments of every Scholar shall be equal, and shall be made up, as soon as the funds will admit, to 100l. per annum, inclusive of all allowances; and such emoluments, whether amounting to more or less than the sums aforesaid, shall always be in the aforesaid proportion to each other.
"35. No Fellow or Scholar shall, by reason of anything contained in the existing statutes, be liable on ceasing to be a member of the College to refund any emoluments previously received by him; but every Fellow who shall be elected to and accept a Headship or Fellowship in any other College within the University, or shall marry, shall thereupon vacate his Fellowship.
"36. The provisions respecting the residence of Fellows and Scholars, and the mode of granting leave of absence from the University, contained in the existing statutes, shall be henceforth void. The President and Fellows shall, at the first stated general meeting, or as soon afterwards as conveniently may be, make such regulations respecting the residence of Fellows and Scholars within the University, and respecting the mode in which, and the conditions under which, leave of absence may be granted to any Fellow or Scholar, as they may deem expedient for the interests of the College as a place of learning and education, and may vary such regulations from time to time, and may enforce such regulations, if they shall think fit, by pecuniary penalties, and in case of contumacious non-compliance, by deprivation. Such regulations shall be made and varied at stated general meetings only. In the meantime, and until such regulations can be made, the President and Fellows may at any ordinary meeting or meetings make provisional regulations for the same purposes, which shall be binding on the members of the College.
"43. Whenever there shall be no candidate for a vacant open Scholarship, or for an appropriated Scholarship which shall have been thrown open under the foregoing provisions, whom the electors shall judge of sufficient merit for election, and whenever an open Scholarship shall fall vacant, and there shall not be time to give the notice hereinbefore directed before the day of election, the election shall be postponed to some other day to be fixed by the President and Fellows for the purpose, not later than the next ensuing stated day of election to open Scholarships; and every such postponed election shall be held and conducted in the same manner, and after the same previous notice, as if there had been no postponement.
"48. The President and all actual Fellows of the College, being Graduates of the full age of 21 years, shall henceforth be the Governing Body of the College; and all the powers which by the existing statutes are vested in the President and 10 senior Fellows alone, or jointly with any of the officers of the College, shall (subject to, and so far as the same are consistent with, the provisions of this ordinance) be vested in the President and all such graduate Fellows present at any College meeting. There shall be 2 stated general meetings at least of the President and the whole body of the Fellows in every year, on such days as the President and Fellows shall from time to time appoint. Any stated general meeting may be adjourned, by resolution of the meeting, to a day to be specified in the resolution. The vote of the President shall be counted as 2 votes at all College meetings, and in all elections except the election to Scholarships at Merchant Taylors' School; and whenever the votes shall be equal he shall have an additional casting vote. Subject to the foregoing provision, and except in cases in which the concurrence of any specified proportion of the President and Fellows, or the consent of the President, is hereby made requisite, every question arising at any meeting shall be determined by a majority of the votes of those present. The seal of the College shall not be affixed to any act or document except in the presence of the President (or in his absence the Vice-President), one of the Bursars, and at least one other Fellows, being a member of the Governing Body. All the Fellows, being Graduates and of full age, without distinction of Faculty or standing in the College, shall be entitled to be present and vote at every College meeting. Any statute, rule, or usage of the College which prohibits or restrains, expressly or by implication, any person present at any College meeting from bringing forward thereat any question which he may think proper, or from having such question put to the vote, shall, so far as regards such prohibition or restraint, be henceforth void: Provided, that the President and Fellows may make from time to time such rules for regulating the proceedings at College meetings, and for determining what business shall be transacted thereat, and for fixing (if they shall think fit) the notice to be given before bringing forward any question, as they shall deem expedient.
"54. If in any case it shall appear to the Visitor that, by reason of any change in the value of money, any specific sum fixed by this ordinance, or which may be hereafter fixed in exercise of any power given by this ordinance, has become insufficient or excessive, and that such insufficiency or excess is productive of injustice or hardship, or is injurious to the general interests of the College, it shall be lawful for the Visitor from time to time, for the purpose of correcting or obviating such injustice, hardship, or injury, to direct that such annual sum shall be increased or diminished as he shall think fit, and the increased or diminished sum shall thenceforth be substituted for and stand in the place of the sum originally fixed as aforesaid.
"56. As often as any question shall arise on which the President and Fellows shall be unable to agree, depending wholly or in part on the construction of any of the statutes of the College, it shall be lawful for the President and Fellows, or for the President or any 3 of the Fellows, to submit the same to the Visitor; and it shall be lawful for the Visitor to declare what is the true construction of such statute or statutes with reference to the case submitted to him.
"57. It shall be lawful for the President, or for any Fellow, if he shall conceive himself aggrieved by any act or decision of the President and Fellows, and for any Scholar who may have been deprived of his Scholarship, to appeal against such act or decision or sentence to the Visitor; and it shall be lawful for the Visitor to adjudicate on such appeal, and to disallow and annul such act or decision, and to reverse or vary such sentence, as he shall deem just.
"59. The President and Fellows, by a majority consisting of not less than two-thirds of the votes of those present, the vote of the President being counted as 2 votes, may from time to time, at any stated general meeting, amend the statutes of the College, with the consent of the Visitor, and with the approval of Her Majesty in Council: Provided that, if any of the aforesaid Schools shall be affected by any proposed amendment, the President and Fellows shall give to the Governing Body of every School so affected such notice of their intention to apply for the approval of Her Majesty in Council as shall be sufficient to enable such Governing Body to petition Her Majesty in Council for the approval or rejection of such proposed amendment, or otherwise in relation thereto."
7. The method of election is set out in the Appendix (fn. 12) (with the forms used), and it varies little from the formula which appears to have been observed when the scholarships were originally conferred.
b. The Stuart scholarship at St. John's Oxford (fn. 13) (1733).
William Stuart, D.D., and Chancellor of the Diocese of Exeter, by will, dated the 10th of November 1733, gave 1,250l. to the Head Master of Merchant Taylors' School, and the Pre- sident and Fellows of St. John's, upon trust that a boy who has continued in Merchant Taylors' School for five years at least, in hopes of being elected out of it, and has come the nearest to it, and yet lost the election, for no fault in morals or defect in learning, but by superannuation only, that the said scholar may have no reason to think his time lost or himself unhappy on that account, the interest and profit annually arising out of 1,250l. I have given for the use and encouragement of that one superannuated scholar that shall enter himself in the said College of St. John, to be enjoyed by him for the space of eight years and no longer, or for so long only as he shall reside there and duly perform all the exercises that the Statutes of that University and of the said college require of scholars B. and M.A.'s. And as soon as the term of eight years shall be fully completed by the said superannuated scholar in St. John's, the payment of the interest of the said sum of 1,250l. shall be discontinued to him. And as often as it shall happen that there shall be no scholar in Merchant Taylors' School actually superannuated in the manner above required from the expiration of the term allowed to each of the scholars for their enjoyment of the interest to the time that a scholar shall be superannuated, the interest becoming due shall be accumulated for augmentation of the sum of 1,250l. and for the better support of superannuated scholars for the future; but if there shall be a scholar that shall actually have lost the election by superannuation only within a year after the expiration of either of the terms allowed, then the interest that shall become due for that year shall not be reserved, but be given to the boy that shall be superannuated within that year.
These Exhibitions are held by scholars as "payable halfyearly upon the production of two certificates, the one of residence signed by the President or Vice-President of the College, and the other of conduct from the College Tutor."
c. The Andrew Scholarships at St. John's College, Oxford. (fn. 14)
1. These were created from an endowment of Dr. John Andrews, who, by his will of the 15th May 1747, for the future encouragement of learning, directed out of monies given to Trinity Hall, Cambridge, that four new scholarships should be founded, to be chosen from such as had been educated in Merchant Taylors' School, who should have been on the bench or table of the said school, and further (out of another fund mentioned in his will) that four new Civil Law Fellowships should be created and added to their number, with a provision that no person should be appointed to the same Fellowships unless he should have been educated at the same school.
2. These directions not having been carried out by Trinity Hall, the Merchant Taylors' Company, on the 5th March 1798, filed an information against the Hall, under which the residue of the Andrew estate held by these defendants was paid into the Court of Chancery, and the Hall was dismissed from the suit.
3. A compromise was then entered into between the Merchant Taylors' Company and Andrew's representatives, for their acquittance from all further claim by the acceptance of a certain sum of money by the Company, for the purpose of establishing six Civil Law Scholarships or Exhibitions, each of 50l. per annum, as near as might be to the intent of the will, and in furtherance of this proposal the authorities of St. John's College, Oxford, agreed to establish such scholarships at their College upon these conditions (which I have numbered for convenience of reference):—
"1. Such scholars or exhibitioners to be elected on the Feast of St. Barnabas by the Master and Wardens, by the consent of the Assistants then present, with the assent and consent of the President, or in his absence the Vice-President and two Senior Fellows of the said College, in the chapel of the Grammar School belonging to the said Master and Wardens, in the parish of St. Lawrence Poultney, London, immediately after the election is had and made of the scholars directed by Sir Thomas White to be elected from the said Merchant Taylors' School, and admitted into the said College of St. John Baptist, in Oxford; and such scholars or exhibitioners to be taken out of the bench or table of the said Merchant Taylors' School who have been scholars of the said Merchant Taylors' School four years at least, or from such other persons who have been at the bench or table, and in the school for four years, but have left the said school, not under sixteen or above twenty years of age at the time of election, and to continue twelve (fn. 15) years and not longer, and to be accounted Civil Law Scholars or Civil Law Exhibitioners.
"2. To remain unmarried, and to reside in the College for the same time in every year as the Commoners of the said College are required to reside, and to proceed regularly to their law degrees; and that, after the first four years, during the remainder of the term for which they hold their Scholarships, they shall reside at least thirty days in every year.
"3. The scholars to be provided with residence within the College for the first four years, they paying for their rooms the same rent which other Commoners do, and to observe all the rules of the College; and the scholarships to become vacant in case of any scholar entering into Holy Orders, marrying, or entering into any employment incompatible with the practice of the Civil Law, or by resignation of such scholars, or expulsion by the College, or by quitting the said College on any other account; on a vacancy to a scholarship, the College to certify the vacancy to the said Masters and Wardens.
"4. In case of the vacancy of a scholar not exceeding six months, the pension to go to the immediate succeeding scholar, and if longer than six months to constitute a part of the accumulating fund.
"5. The President, Vice-President, and Bursar of the College to draw upon the said Master and Wardens for the respective pensions when due, such draft being accompanied with a certificate of the good behaviour of the Scholar or Exhibitioner, and of his having paid all College dues.
"6. Until all the scholars or exhibitioners are elected, the interest of the funds, or such part thereof as shall not be applied for paying the pensions, to be an accumulating fund, to he disposed of by the Company as they shall think proper, for the benefit of the said scholars.
"7. And in case any ambiguity or contention shall arise about the nomination or election of the aforesaid six scholars or exhibitioners the same shall be referred to the Judge or Judges appointed in the Statute of Visitations of the said College for determination, and his or their judgments to stand and be final."
4. The method of procedure in filling in these scholarships, and the terms on which they are held, are set out in the Appendix. (fn. 16)
5. This arrangement was sanctioned by the Decree of the Court of Chancery, dated 21st November 1802, and the fund handed over to the College in February 1803, amounted in the aggregate to 6,712l. 2s. 8d., which accumulated in the year 1818 to the total sum of 10,000l., when the six scholarships were established.
6. These six scholarships or exhibitions have from time to time been increased in amount as the funds accumulated, and are now of the value of 60l. per annum each.
d. The exhibition for a boy or boys superannuated from the Merchant Taylor's school (1809).
By an Indenture dated the 6th of March 1809, a trust was declared of 500l. 3l. per Cent. (1726) Stock, "for the laudible purpose of assisting and benefiting superannuated boys educated at the Merchant Taylors' School from time to time, and in such manner as the Trustees shall think expedient."
The original Trustees were Silvester (the Recorder of London), Marlow (the President of St. John's), and Cherry (the Head Master of Merchant Taylors' School), and the deed declared that the Trustees from time to time to be thereafter appointed should be "the President of St. John's, the Head Master, and a gentleman of the Bar educated at the said school," and that the trust should embrace any sums subscribed or collected for the original purpose. The deed is held by the Head Master.
e. The Stuart scholarship at Cambridge (1733).
1. This testator, by his will, already referred to, gave a like sum of 1,250l. to the Head Master of Merchant Taylors' School and the Master and Fellows of Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, (fn. 17) for the use and encouragement of another scholar of Merchant Taylors' School, that shall be superannuated as aforesaid, and shall enter himself at Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, and he shall receive and enjoy all the interest and profits annually arising from the said 1,250l., for the space of seven years from his first entry into that University or College, for so long only as he shall reside there and duly perform all exercises which the Statutes of that College and University require of scholars, B., and M.A.'s. As soon as the term of seven years shall be completed, the payment of the interest of the said sum of 1,250l. shall be discontinued.
2. And the testator gave the same directions for the accumulation of interest in regard to the Cambridge scholarship, as have been before set forth in respect of the Oxford scholarship.
3. In 1855 it appeared to the Merchant Taylors' Company advantageous to make the scholarship tenable at any College in Cambridge, and accordingly with the sanction of the Court of Chancery, given by an Order of the Master of the Rolls, dated the 28th July 1855, five-seventh parts of the fund,—viz., 2,052l. 7s. 5d., was carried to the credit of the College in the books of the Court of Chancery, upon trust to apply the dividends in providing one or more exhibition or exhibitions at the University of Cambridge, to be called the Stuart Exhibition or Exhibitions for scholars brought up in Merchant Taylors' School, who shall have been four years in the said School, and who shall be proceeding or shall have proceeded to any College in the said University, such exhibitions to be enjoyed for such term not exceeding four years respectively, and to be subject to such rules and regulations in regard to the residence or otherwise as the said Master, Wardens, and Court of Assistants shall from time to time establish, but no such exhibition shall be enjoyed by any scholar who shall previously have been elected to a Parkyn exhibition, and the elections to such exhibitions shall be by the Master, Wardens, and Court, at such times and in such manner as they shall from time to time appoint. And every increase of such exhibitions be from time to time invested by the Master and Wardens in 3l. per cent. Consols, by way of addition to the existing capital fund.
f. The Rev. Charles Parkin's Scholarship at Cambridge (fn. 18) (1759).
1. The testator, who was Rector of Oxburgh, Norfolk, and who had been educated at the School, gave by will, (fn. 19) dated the 17th June 1759, certain personal property to the Master, Fellows and Scholars of Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, on this trust and condition, viz., for the founding of five or six scholarships or exhibitions in the said hall, to be appropriated to and conferred on five or six scholars educated in Merchant Taylors' School, regard being always had to their seniority and station therein, and particularly to those who are at the head of the school, and become superannuated, whom I by all means prefer as emeriti milites; and one other scholar I will to be of the Free School of Bowes, in the county of York, and my intention is that those five or six scholarships shall have an equal portion of dividend, and be chosen within the space of two months after any voidance or vacancy by the Master of Pembroke College for the time being, and they shall perform the same exercises, and be subject to the same rules and ordinances as the Greek scholars in the said Hall are, and they be residents at least nine months in every year, and may enjoy the same till they are seven years' standing in the University and no longer.
2. In 1854 it appeared to the Merchant Taylor's Company advantageous to make these Scholarships tenable at any College in Cambridge, and accordingly, with the sanction of the Court of Chancery, given by an Order of the Master of the Rolls, dated the 9th December 1854, twenty forty-second parts of the fund, viz., 5,887l. 14s. 9d., was carried to the credit of the Company in the books of the Court of Chancery, upon trust to apply the same in providing not less than four exhibitions, to be called the Parkyn Exhibitions, for scholars brought up in the Merchant Taylors' School who shall have been four years at least in the said School, and who shall be proceeding or shall have proceeded to any College in the University of Cambridge, each of such exhibitions to be enjoyed for a term not exceeding four years, and to be subject to such rules, orders, and regulations in regard to residence or otherwise, as the Master, Wardens, and Court shall from time to time establish, and the election to such exhibitions shall be by the same Master, Wardens, and Court, at such times and in such manner as they may appoint; and that any unclaimed or unpaid income of such exhibitions shall be invested by the Master and Wardens in Bank Three per Cent. Annuities by way of addition to the existing fund.
3. These Exhibitions are held on these terms, viz., as "payable at the Hall half-yearly upon the production of two certificates, the one signed by the President or Vice-President of your College, of your having resided at the University of Cambridge during the customary term, and the other from your College Tutor of your conduct during such period of residence.
g. The Pitt Club Scholarships at Oxford or Cambridge (1825).
1. These two Scholarships were established by a society of noblemen and gentlemen formed in 1808 as a Club to commemorate the "Principles of the late Right Honorable W. Pitt," who resolved on the 9th of May 1845 to appropriate Three per Cent. Consols for the purpose of establishing four Exhibitions to either University, to be called " The Pitt Club Exhibitions." As a testimony of gratitude to the Masters, Wardens, and Court of Assistants of the Merchant Taylors' Company for the kind and liberal manner in which they had uniformly granted the use of their hall for the celebration of the Triennial Anniversary of the said Club, they also resolved that two of such Exhibitions should be bestowed on the Merchant Taylors' School, London.
2. Accordingly, trustees of the Exhibition, and of the fund, were severally appointed, and a sum of 2,000l. Consols was invested in the names of trustees of the fund, and a deed poll, dated the 29th July 1845 executed, by which deed poll it was declared that the half-yearly dividends were to be paid to two scholars, who should go from Merchant Taylors' School to one of the Colleges of Oxford or Cambridge. That the scholars should be called "The Pitt Club Exhibitioners from Merchant Taylors' School, London," and enjoy the Exhibitions until they have taken their Bachelor's Degrees or left the University, provided this period did not exceed four years from the date of matriculation.
3. The deed poll appears to reserve to the trustees of the Exhibition the power of making resolutions, laws, and byelaws binding upon the trustees of the fund, for the purpose of regulating their proceedings, the application of the fund, and the income thereof, the election of Exhibitioners and their qualifications, and for all other matters in relation to the fund.
h. The Tercentenary Scholarships for Mathematics established by the Company in 1861.
On the 31st January 1861 the attention of the Court having been called to the fact that the then present year was the tercentenary of the Merchant Taylors' School, it was resolved to refer the subject to the Charity Committee (together with Messrs. Thrupp and Baggallay), to consider and report thereon.
This Committee having assembled on the 18th March 1861, proceeded to consider the subject of celebrating the tercentenary of the Merchant Taylors' School referred by the Court of the 31st January last, also a letter from the Rev. J. A. L. Airey, the First Mathematical Master at the Company's School, in reference to prizes for the scholars in mathematics, referred by the Special Court of 28th February last, but adjourned the further consideration thereof to the 3rd April next.
On the 3rd April 1861 this Committee resolved, that in commemoration of the tercentenary of the foundation of Merchant Taylors' School, three Exhibitions of 50l. each tenable for three years, be founded by the Company for the promotion of mathematical study, which resolutions were confirmed at the Court of the 25th April 1861, but by order of a subsequent Court these Scholarships were changed to four of 40l. per annum.
i. The Tercentenary Scholarships (at either University) founded by the "Alumni" of the Merchant Taylors' School (1861).
To commemorate the success of the school for three centuries a public subscription was raised among the Alumni of the school, to be applied under a resolution of the subscribers, passed on the 23rd May 1861, to the establishment of an annual Scholarship of 30l. to any boy leaving the school about the 11th June for the University, who should desire to compete for it, which Scholarships should be tenable for two years (or for such longer term as the funds might thereafter allow), and the examination for the same should be conducted by some one or more distinguished scholars of the school, who should be requested to undertake the office each year; the subjects for such examination being classical.
The fund so raised was invested in the purchase of 1,500l. Buckinghamshire 4l. per Cent. Stock, and a deed poll, dated 7th April 1862, was signed by eight Trustees (appointed by the subscribers) to hold the fund and apply the dividends according to these resolutions.
j. The Medical Scholarships.
Court, 25th January 1855.
The Master reported that he had received a communication from the Treasurer of St. Thomas's Hospital announcing that the Authorities of the Hospital had agreed to place at the disposal of the Company and the City of London School, each alternate year, a free Presentation to the Lectures and Medical and Surgical practice of the Hospital, whereupon the Clerk was instructed to acknowledge the gift conferred by the Hospital on the Company's School in suitable terms.
Notice of Motion was given by Mr. John Costeker for the next Court:—
"That this Company do out of their own funds establish a free Presentation of a Scholar, at the Company's School, to the Lectures and Medical and Surgical Practice at St. Thomas's Hospital each alternate year."
Court, 26th April 1855.
Pursuant to Motion given at the Court on the 25th January last—
"It was Resolved—That it is desirable that this Company do out of their own funds establish a free Presentation of a Scholar at the Company's School to the Lectures and Medical and Surgical Practice at St. Thomas's Hospital each alternate year, and that it be referred to the Charity Committee to carry the same into effect.
Charity Committee, 12th June 1855.
This Committee then proceeded to consider the resolution of Court of the 26th April last:—That this Company do out of its own funds establish a Free Presentation of a Scholar at the Company's School to the Lectures and Medical and Surgical Practice at St. Thomas's Hospital each alternate year during the pleasure of the Court, when it was Resolved that the same be carried into effect, and that the Election to such Presentation do take place on the 24th day of June in each alternate year under the same Rules and Regulations as the Presentation recently conferred by St. Thomas's Hospital on the Company's School.
k. Reorganization of the Foregoing.
1. The object which the Company have had in view is to remove all doubt or uncertainty as to the time at which any Scholarship will fall due, and to secure as far as possible at stated times a constant recurrence of vacancies, so that industrious and hardworking students may be sure of their reward, so far as prudent arrangements can give such security.
2. With regard to the Scholarships and Exhibitions awarded to boys on leaving School, it is desirable—
a. To secure as far as possible a regular rotation of scholarships and exhibitions.
b. To apportion such scholarships and exhibitions to the various branches of study at present recognized, or hereafter to be recognized in the Company's School, so as to give, as far as may be, a due and proportionate encouragement to every branch of study.
3. These scholarships and exhibitions may be divided into two classes, recurring (1) annually; (2) occasionally.
4. Under (1) would come the twenty-one scholarships to St. John's College, Oxford, which will furnish three scholarships of seven years' duration annually, so soon as the full number of scholarships shall have been attained, the Parkin Exhibition. the Company's Tercentenary Exhibition, the School Tercentenary Exhibition, and the Medical Studentship to St. Thomas' Hospital.
5. Under (2) would come the six Andrew Exhibitions, the Stuart Exhibition to Oxford, the Stuart to Cambridge, the School Exhibition (1809) to Oxford, and the "Pitt Club" Exhibition.
6. Those annually recurring present no difficulty, provided that in the event of any scholarship or exhibition becoming due before the natural period of its expiration, the remainder of such scholarship or exhibition be suspended, and the vacancy not filled up till the proper period of recurrence. It is therefore only to deal with the "occasional" scholarships and exhibitions to secure as far as possible an equal number of vacancies every year.
7. The principal difficulty is with regard to the Andrew Exhibitions (tenable for twelve years, till reduced to six years by a new scheme), as it often happens that an exhibition becomes vacant before the holder has enjoyed it for its full term of years; consequently, it can never be known when a vacancy is likely to fall; and sometimes two or more fall together, or an interval of several years elapses between two vacancies. To secure regularity of succession it is necessary (as in the case of the scholarships to St. John's) to suspend any premature vacancy, and let the fund accumulate. The difficulty is to start the rotation, which can be met in the following manner.
8. The six exhibitions would fall in, in the regular course, as follows:—1877, 1877, 1878, 1883, 1884, 1885.
The first would be filled again in 1877.
The second falling vacant 1877 would be suspended till 1879.
The third " 1878 " " 1881.
The fourth " 1883 " filled in 1883.
The fifth " 1884 " suspended till 1885.
The sixth " 1885 " " 1887.
Thus a complete rota will be established.
9. The odd years would be now regularly provided with one Andrew Exhibition. It remains, therefore, now to provide for the even years out of the remaining Exhibitions. For this purpose the Stuart Exhibition to Cambridge and the School Exhibition (1809) would be available. Each of these two Exhibitions recurring every four years, it is clear that by awarding them alternately in the even years a regular rota would be established,
10. The next "School Exhibition" will fall in, in course, in 1876. The Stuart to Cambridge in 1877. If the latter were suspended for one year—viz., till 1878, these two Exhibitions together would give a regular rotation for the even years—viz., School Exhibition, 1876; Stuart to Cambridge, 1878; School Exhibition, 1880; Stuart to Cambridge, 1883.
11. There only now remain over for consideration the Stuart Exhibition to Oxford and the Pitt Club Exhibitions. The former of these only occurs once every eight years in the ordinary course, and must be left to be filled up as vacancies arise. The Pitt Club Exhibitions are of smaller value than the others (viz., 30l. a year), and are to be looked upon as extra prizes to be held with other scholarships or exhibitions.
It would seem desirable, if practicable, that the Pitt Club Exhibitions, instead of recurring two together every fourth year, should recur singly every alternate year.
12. The following table will show the proposed arrangement from the year 1876 to the year 1890 inclusive:
1876 "School Exhibition" to Oxford.
1877 Andrew Exhibition, St. John's College, Oxford.
1878 Stuart to Cambridge; Pitt Club.
1879 Andrew to St. John's College, Oxford.
1880 School Exhibition; Pitt Club.
1881 Andrew to St. John's College, Oxford.
1882 Stuart to Cambridge; Stuart to Oxford; Pitt Club.
1883 Andrew to St. John's College, Oxford.
1884 School Exhibition; Pitt Club.
1885 Andrew to St. John's College, Oxford.
1886 Stuart to Cambridge; Pitt Club.
1887 Andrew to St. John's College, Oxford.
1888 School Exhibition; Pitt Club.
1889 Andrew to St. John's College, Oxford.
1890 Stuart to Cambridge; Stuart to Oxford; Pitt Club.
Besides three Scholarships to St. John's College; one Parkin Exhibition to Cambridge; one Company's Tercentenary Exhibition; one School Tercentenary Exhibition; and one Medical Exhibition to St. Thomas's Hospital, recurring annually.
13. Now that a Modern School has been instituted, a fair apportionment of Scholarships must (it is submitted) be open for those boys; it is needful therefore to consider the second point—viz., to what subjects these Scholarships and Exhibitions are to be severally apportioned.
14. Hitherto the Scholarships to St. John's, the Andrew and Stuart Exhibitions both to Oxford and Cambridge, the School Exhibition, the Pitt Club Exhibitions, and the School Tercentenary Exhibitions have been awarded for Classics, the Parkin, and Company's Tercentenary Exhibitions for Mathematical studies. Obviously under this arrangement Classical studies have enjoyed an undue preponderance of preferment. Only two Exhibitions have been awarded for Mathematics, whilst other subjects have obtained no recognition at all in the distribution of preferment. The result has been that there has been as a rule a lack of good candidates to fill the minor Classical Exhibitions, whilst other studies have suffered from want of simultaneous encouragement.
15. Great changes have come over the studies of the Universities of late years. Various Schools and Triposes have been established for subjects which previously obtained no recognition. It is, therefore, only natural that those Scholarships and Exhibitions which were attached to the University for the only subjects recognized at the time they were founded, should be opened to other subjects now recognized side by side with them as co-ordinate branches of a liberal education.
16. The great prizes of the School are of course the twentyone Scholarships to St. John's College, Oxford. Under the ordinance it is provided that, "The candidates shall be examined in such subjects and in such manner as the electors shall appoint, and those candidates shall be elected who, after such examination, shall appear to the electors to be of the greatest merit and most fit to be Scholars of the College," the electors being the Court of the Merchant Taylors' Company, and the President (or Vice-President) and two Fellows of St. John's appointed annually. It is, therefore, perfectly open to the Court, in conjunction with the President and Fellows of St. John's College, to award these Scholarships for any subjects recognized in the University course of studies as they by mutual consent may determine.
17. In that view it is suggested that when three scholarships fall in one year (which will be the case every year when the full number of scholarships is attained) two be apportioned for Classical studies absolutely, and one for other subjects,—viz.: for Natural Science alternately with (1) Mathematics, (2) History and Modern Languages: two Scholarships out of four being awarded for National Science—one for Mathematics, and one for History and Modern Languages taken together.
18. The six Andrew "Civil Law" Exhibitioners are to be elected "on the Feast of St. Barnabas by the Master and Wardens, by the consent of the assistants there present," with the "assent and consent" of the President and two Fellows of St. John's College, immediately after the election of Scholars to St. John's. The exhibitioners are to be taken out of the "Bench or Table," and must have been at least four years in the School. These exhibitions being for the encouragement of Students in "Civil Law," and the study of Law being prosecuted to a certain extent at Oxford in connection with the study of History, it is suggested that these exhibitions be awarded partly for the study of Modern History and Modern Languages.
19. The Stuart Exhibition to St. John's College, Oxford— once in eight years—might be given as heretofore for Classical knowledge—or for Classical and Mathematical studies combined.
20. The School Exhibition (1809) recurs every four years. The disposal of this exhibition is entirely in the hands of the Trustees for the time being, the Trustees being, the President of St. John's, the Head Master, and a gentleman of the Bar educated at Merchant Taylors' School. It is proposed that the trustees award this for Modern History and Modern Languages.
21. The Parkin Exhibition to Cambridge would be awarded for Mathematics as heretofore. Augment it if the Court see fit to 80l. or 90l. per annum, in order that the best Mathematician leaving for Cambridge, may have something more nearly equivalent to the very valuable scholarship which the best Classical Scholars hold at Oxford; and that a possible Senior Wrangler may not be induced to go to Oxford, attracted by the higher pecuniary prize.
22. The Stuart Exhibition (60l. for four years) to Cambridge has been usually awarded for Classics, but there is nothing in the trust to indicate the nature of the examination by which this Exhibition is awarded. It is suggested to devote this to "Natural Science."
23. The Company's Tercentenary Exhibitions (40l. for four years), might be awarded for Mathematics as heretofore, except in such years as a Scholarship to St. John's, Oxford, is awarded for Mathematics, in which case it is suggested that this Exhibition be given for Natural Science.
24. The School Tercentenary and the Pitt Club may fairly be left for Classical studies.
25. The Medical Exhibition to St. Thomas's Hospital may be assigned entirely to the Modern School, after examination in Modern Subjects, including certain branches of Natural Science.
26. It will thus be seen what encouragement by Scholarships and Exhibitions, is given to the various branches of study recognized in the Company's School, and a synopsis of these from 1876 to 1890 is given in the Appendix. (fn. 20)
I. For Classics.
Two Scholarships to St. John's College, Oxford, of the value of 100l. for seven years, annually.
The Tercentenary Exhibitition (20l. for two years) annually.
One Pitt Club Exhibition (30l. for for four years) every alternate year.
One Stuart Exhibition to St. John's, Oxford (60l. for eight years) every eighth year, or oftener as vacancies may arise.
27. 2. For Mathematics.
One Parkin Exhibition (value [ ] for four years) but capable of being held with any other preferment gained by open competition, annually.
One Scholarship to St. John's, Oxford, every fourth year.
One Company's Tercentenary Exhibition (value 40l. for four years, and capable of being held with other preferment gained by open competition) except in such years as a Scholarship at St. John's, Oxford, may be awarded for Mathematics.
Thus two Scholarships or Exhibitions would be ensured to Mathematics annually.
28. 3. For Natural Science.
One Scholarship to St. John's College, Oxford, every alternate year.
One Company's Tercentenary Exhibition every 4th year.
One Stuart Exhibition to Cambridge, every 4th year.
Thus One Scholarship or Exhibition would be ensured to Natural Science annually. Science would also enter into the examination for the Medical Exhibition to St. Thomas's Hospital.
29. 4. For History And Modern Languages.
One Scholarship to St. John's College, Oxford, every 4th year.
One Andrew Exhibition to St. John's, every alternate year.
One School Exhibition (1809), every 4th year
Thus One Scholarship or Exhibition would be secured to these subjects every year. These subjects would also enter into the examination for the Medical Exhibition. (fn. 21)
30. By the redistribution of Scholarships and Exhibitions, the Classical School will be deprived of preferment before enjoyed. And therefore it may be expedient for the Court to offer additional encouragement to boys to obtain open Scholarships and Exhibitions by competition, whereby the reputation of the School would be increased.
31. The Court have hitherto generously assisted boys who have gained Scholarships by their own exertions, and it may be expedient to lay down a fixed rule that any boy obtaining a Scholarship for himself by open competition, either from the School or within one year of leaving the School, should have his Scholarship augmented according to some fixed proportion, say by one-third of the whole value of his Scholarship.
32. It should also be understood that it be perfectly open to a boy in the Classical School to compete for the Scholarships or Exhibitions in Mathematics, History and Modern languages, or other subjects recognized more especially in the Modern School, and conversely.