An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Buckinghamshire, Volume 2, North. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1913.
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(O.S. 6 in. xxiii. S.W.)
(1). Parish Church of All Saints, in the village, is built of stone rubble, with ashlar dressings; the rubble of the W. tower is coursed. The roofs are covered with lead, except that of the chancel which is tiled. Early in the 13th century, the present Chancel was built, or possibly re-built, as the plan is deflected towards the S. The Nave is probably also of early 13th-century date; N. and S. aisles of two bays were added c. 1280, the South Aisle being built first; c. 1330 the S. aisle was lengthened towards the E. for a chantry chapel, and the South Porch was built. In the 15th century the clearstorey was added and the nave re-roofed. In the first half of the 16th century the West Tower was built, and probably the S. aisle was lengthened towards the W. at the same time. In the 16th or 17th century the N. aisle was destroyed, and the arcade blocked. In 1657 the clearstorey and roof of the nave were repaired. The S. porch was restored in 1717, the church generally in 1866, and the tower in 1889. The North Transept is modern.
Architectural Description—The Chancel (26 ft. by 16 ft.) has a chamfered plinth. In the E. wall are three lancets, of the 13th century, except the external stonework which is modern. The N. and S. walls have each two 13th-century lancets, externally restored; at the W. end of the S. wall, opening into the S. aisle, is a two-centred arch of two chamfered orders, probably of the 14th century. The two-centred chancel arch is of two chamfered orders and probably of the 13th century; it is of finer stone and probably of earlier date than the square jambs, which are of rough stone with irregular tooling. The Nave (33½ ft. by 16½ ft.) retains the first bay of the 13th-century N. arcade, now opening into the modern transept; a few voussoirs of the second bay are visible over the pillar inside, and one voussoir is visible outside, embedded in the wall; the E. respond has chamfered edges, and the pillar is octagonal with moulded capital and base; the pointed arch is of two chamfered orders, the inner order springing from a corbel-capital on the E. respond: the N. doorway, now blocked, has a pointed head and a plain external label, and is probably of early 13th-century date, re-set when the aisle was destroyed: further W. is a 14th-century window, of one trefoiled light, originally with tracery in an acutely pointed head, which is now mutilated. The S. arcade is of three bays, the westernmost bay being separated from the others by a stretch of wall 3 ft. 9 in. long; the two eastern bays are of late 13th-century date, with two-centred arches of two chamfered orders, the inner order springing from moulded corbel-capitals on the responds, which are square with chamfered edges; the pillar is octagonal with a moulded capital and base. The third arch is probably of the 15th or 16th century, and is of two chamfered orders dying on to a chamfered E. respond, and on to the W. wall. The clearstorey has one window in the N. wall and two in the S. wall, each of two trefoiled lights, externally modern, but internally probably of the 15th century; below the clearstorey, outside, is a string-course. The South Aisle (9½ ft. wide) has, in the E. wall, a window of c. 1330, of three trefoiled ogee lights with net tracery in a two-centred head, which has a plain external label stopped square at the ends. In the S. wall are three windows, the easternmost of three trefoiled round-headed lights under a square head with sunk spandrels, probably of early 16th-century date, except the E. jamb which is modern; the second window is of similar style, but of four lights, the heads only being old; the third window is modern; between the first and second windows a small light has been cut in the apex of a 14th-century tomb recess; it is probably of much later date than the recess (see Fittings): the 13th-century S. doorway, between the second and third windows, is of one chamfered order with a pointed head and a plain label. The West Tower is of three stages with a much perished plinth, partly restored; at the W. angles are diagonal buttresses and at the S.E. angle is a stair-turret. The cemented parapet is dated 1889, but the string-course under the parapet is original, and has grotesque gargoyles, one at each angle and one in the middle of each wall. All the details are of early 16th-century date, except where modern. The tower arch is four-centred and of two chamfered orders dying on to the N. and S. walls of the tower. At the E. end of the S. wall, opening into the stair-turret, is a doorway with a four-centred head. The W. doorway has a straight-sided depressed head, with modern jambs and label; the W. window is of three trefoiled lights in a head of similar form to that of the doorway, apparently all modern, except the internal jambs and a few external jamb-stones. The second stage has, on the W. side, a loop light, the stonework being covered with cement. The bell-chamber has, in each wall, a single light with chamfered jambs and semi-circular head with a square tympanum, sunk spandrels and a square label. The South Porch has an outer entrance with a two-centred moulded arch of the 14th century and modern jambs; over the arch is a tablet inscribed with the date 1717. The low-pitched Roof of the nave is of the 15th century, and of three bays; it has four trusses with heavy tie-beams, chamfered purlins and ridge and moulded wall-plates; the existence of former intermediate principals is indicated by a notch in the ridge in each bay, and by marks in two bays in the N. wall; below the tie-beams are braces, resting on wooden corbels carved with volutes; one brace is inscribed with the date 1657, that of the easternmost truss and of all the braces; under the easternmost tie-beam is a 17th-century fluted wooden corbel; on the soffit of the next tie is a boss carved with a lion's face, on the third a shield with a cross and other emblems of the Passion, and under the westernmost tie is a plain corbel.
Fittings—Bells: three and sanctus; 1st and 2nd, by James Keene, 1627; 3rd, by Robert Atton, 1617. Brackets: In S. aisle—on E. wall, two, probably 14th-century. Door: In S. aisle—in S. doorway, with chamfered fillets dividing five long panels, probably 15th-century; old strap-hinges. Font: plain tapering round bowl, probably 13th-century. Painting: In nave—on E. wall, S. of chancel arch, patch of plaster with remains of painting in red and brown, apparently a representation of Christ seated in majesty (see also Screen). Piscina: In S. aisle—at E. end of S. wall, with trefoiled ogee head, holes cut in apex and E. cusp, remains of octagonal basin, projecting part of sill broken away, c. 1330. Plate: includes small cup and cover paten of 1569. Recess: In S. aisle—near E. end of S. wall, large, for tomb, with trefoiled ogee head and moulded label having square block-stops, mid 14th-century. Screen: In chancel arch—remains of rood screen; middle doorway with four-centred head and traceried spandrels, on each side of doorway three bays with cinque-foiled ogee heads and tracery, moulded mullions and top rail, 15th-century, much restored, cornice modern; remains of red and of blue or green colouring on old tracery. Seating: In S. aisle—at W. end, four oak benches with ornamental standards, 15th-century or earlier date, all restored. Stoup: In S. aisle—in S. wall, E. of doorway, recess similar to that of piscina, but without basin, c. 1330, sill and W. jamb modern.
Condition—Good; head of W. doorway somewhat perished.
(2). Ringwork, 70 yards N. of the church, is situated on high ground 500 ft. above O.D. The remains consist of the E. half of a small circular enclosure about 120 ft. in diameter from N. to S., defended by a dry ditch which, at its strongest point, is 50 ft. wide and 8 ft. deep, and by a rampart 5 ft. above the internal level. No entrance is apparent. The ground falls sharply away on the W., and for a distance of about 50 yards down the side of the hill there is a shallow ditch with a slight rampart on the S. The work is not shown on the Ordnance Survey maps.
(3). The Manor House, on the W. side of the road, 150 yards S.W. of the church, is of two storeys; the walls are of timber and brick; the roofs are tiled. It was built late in the 16th or early in the 17th century, and was originally of T-shaped plan, but modern additions have been made in the N.E. and N.W. angles, and the building has been much restored. The W. end of the main block is of red and blue bricks, of late 17th-century date, and at the E. end is an original half-hipped gable, timber-framed, with some of the brick filling set in herring-bone pattern. The N. wing has original timber-framing in the upper storey at the N. end, and on the W. side. The rest of the exterior is modern.
Interior:—Many of the rooms have 16th or 17th-century ceiling-beams, and in the hall, formerly the kitchen, there is a large open fireplace, now partly blocked On the first floor, the timber construction is visible in the walls and ceilings.
Condition—Good; recently restored.
(4). Cottage (see Plate, p. 257), on the W. side of the road, about 60 yards S.W. of the church, is of two storeys, timber-framed, with whitewashed brick filling, and on stone foundations; the roof is thatched, except some tiling round the dormer windows. It is of rectangular plan, and was built probably early in the 17th century and lengthened towards the S. in the 18th century. The E. front is divided into twelve small bays, and has two original wood-mullioned windows, now blocked. The wall at the back is in three bays, the two original bays having struts at each end.
(5). Cottage, opposite to (3), on the E. side of the road, about 150 yards S.S.W. of the church, is of two storeys, built probably late in the 17th century, but has been restored. Part of the front and both ends are timber-framed, with 18th-century or modern brick filling; the rest of the walling is of stone. The roof is thatched. Two chimneys are apparently of late 17th-century brick; one has been restored. Interior:—Some of the ceilings have old beams, and one has exposed joists. There are two large open fireplaces.
(6). House, on the N. side of the road, 150 yards S.E. of the church, is a small building of two-storeys with cellar and attic, probably of the 17th century. The walls are of stone; the roofs are tiled. The W. front has, at the level of the eaves, a band of foliated ornament restored with cement. At the back is a small window of chamfered stone, and the eaves are moulded. Interior:—On the ground floor is a large fireplace, now partly blocked. The ceiling-beams are encased.
(7). The Black Boy Inn, W. of the church, is of two storeys, built probably early in the 17th century, on an L-shaped plan, the longer wing extending towards the W. and the shorter wing towards the N. The walls are almost all timber-framed with brick filling, but the S. front and the E. side of the N. wing have been much restored with modern brick: at the E. end of the W. wing the lower storey is of stone; the upper storey projects and is timber-framed, with modern brick filling. The roofs are tiled. One large rectangular chimney stack is of the 17th century, restored at the top. Interior:—On the ground floor, two chamfered ceiling-beams have moulded stops. On the first floor, one room has a door of early 17th-century date, with eight panels, each having a carved lozenge pattern in the middle.