A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.
HARTFORD, a chapelry, in the parish of Great Budworth, union of Northwich, Second division of the hundred of Eddisbury, S. division of the county of Chester, 1½ mile (S. W. by W.) from Northwich; containing 994 inhabitants. It comprises 1008 acres, the soil of which is clay and sand. The Liverpool and Birmingham railway passes through the township, where is one of its principal stations, a handsome building, situated near the viaduct which carries the Manchester and Chester road over the line. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £117; patrons, three Trustees on the part of the founders. The chapel is dedicated to St. John. Here are an endowed school, and a national school.
Hartford (All Saints)
HARTFORD (All Saints), a parish, in the hundred of Hurstingstone, union and county of Huntingdon, 1½ mile (E. by N.) from Huntingdon; containing 380 inhabitants. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £4. 1. 0½., and has a net income of £123; it is in the patronage of the Crown, and the impropriation belongs to Lady O. B. Sparrow. The church has portions in the Norman style.
HARTFORD-BRIDGE, a hamlet, partly in the parish of Elvetham, and partly in that of Hartley-Wintney, union of Hartley-Wintney, hundred of Odiham, Odiham and N. divisions of the county of Southampton, 9 miles (E. N. E.) from Basingstoke. It is situated not far distant from the South-Western railway, and derives some importance from its position on the great western road. A Cistercian nunnery was founded here about the time of the Conquest, according to some authorities, by Jeffrey, son of Peter, and to others, by Roger Coltreth and his son Thomas, for a prioress and 17 sisters, and dedicated to the Virgin Mary and St. Mary Magdalene; its revenue at the Dissolution was £43. 3., and the site was granted to Richard Hill, serjeant of the cellar to Henry VIII.
HARTFORD, EAST, a township, in the parish of Horton, union of Tynemouth, E. division of Castle ward, S. division of Northumberland, 4 miles (W. by S.) from the port of Blyth, and 5½ (S. E.) from Morpeth; containing 26 inhabitants. This was one of the Charron and Monboucher estates, and Bertram Monboucher died seised of the place in the 12th of Richard II., as did also his successor of the same name in the 5th of Henry V. It is situated between Bebside and West Hartford, on the southern bank of the Blyth, which is here very beautiful; and had its name from being on the ford over the river, which formed the her or boundary between it and the parish of Bedlington. The township is in one farm, comprising 303 acres, and the tithes have been commuted for £35. 5. 10., payable to the vicar of Woodhorn.
HARTFORD, WEST, a township, in the parish of Horton, union of Tynemouth, E. division of Castle ward, S. division of Northumberland, 5 miles (S. E. by S.) from Morpeth; containing 39 inhabitants. It lies at the western extremity of the parish, and on the south bank of the Blyth, which is here crossed by a bridge; the scenery is picturesque, and the acclivities on each side of the river are steep, and covered with hanging wood. At the time of the Dissolution the priory of Tynemouth had some slight property here, and since that period, lands have been held by the families of Grey, Riddell, Reed, and others. The township comprises 458 acres. The mansion-house, now inhabited by a farmer, and in a dilapidated state, was the residence of Mrs. Atlee and Mrs. Baker, who during a period of several years expended, from a moderate income, £500 per annum in acts of benevolence. The tithes have been commuted for £86. 15.
HARTGROVE, a chapelry, in the parish of Fontmell Magna, union of Shaftesbury, hundred of Sixpenny-Handley, Shaston division of Dorset, 4 miles (S. W. by S.) from Shaftesbury; containing 218 inhabitants. The curacy is annexed to the vicarage of IwerneMinster. The chapel is dedicated to St. Peter.
Harthill (All Saints)
HARTHILL (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Great Boughton, Higher division of the hundred of Broxton, S. division of the county of Chester, 2 miles (S. S. E.) from Tattenhall; containing 158 inhabitants. The parish is situated about three-quarters of a mile from the road from Tarporley and Nantwich to Wrexham, and comprises 481a. 1r. 21p., of which 129 acres are arable, 248 pasture, 40 woodland, 18 glebe, and 44 common. The soil is chiefly a light loam, with a small portion of peat, and some waste which is a wet sand. The surface is elevated and beautifully undulated, and the lower lands are watered by a brook which has its rise in the parish, and in one part spreads into a lake about four acres in extent, called Harthill Pool: the views are very fine, and extend to the Irish Channel. Red sandstone for building is quarried. The living is a perpetual curacy, endowed with the rectorial tithes, and in the gift of Thomas Tyrwhitt Drake, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £42; and besides the glebe in the parish, there is a farm in Is-y-Coed, Holt, Denbighshire, comprising 24a. 3r. 19p., and making the net value of the living £124: the glebe-house is a good residence. The church, erected about 1611, is a plain structure with a campanile turret. Thirty children are instructed in a school at the expense of Thomas Crallan, Esq., of Bolesworth Castle, who is proprietor of the parish.
Harthill, or Hartle
HARTHILL, or Hartle, a township, in the parish and union of Bakewell, hundred of High Peak, N. division of the county of Derby, 3¼ miles (S. S. E.) from Bakewell; containing 67 inhabitants.
Harthill (All Saints)
HARTHILL (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Workshop, S. division of the wapentake of Strafforth and Tickhill, W. riding of York, 8 miles (W.) from Worksop, containing, with the hamlet of Woodall, 709 inhabitants. This parish is bounded on the south by Derbyshire, and comprises 3427a. 35p., of which 99 acres are woodland, and 63 covered with water, forming a reservoir for supplying the Chesterfield canal, which passes through the parish; the surface is elevated, and chiefly in pasture, and the scenery is of pleasing character. About a mile from the village is Kiveton, where the first duke of Leeds, in the reign of Charles II., erected a handsome mansion, which continued to be the family seat till 1812, when the sixth duke took down the house, and threw open the spacious park for cultivation. The substratum abounds with red and white gritstone, much esteemed for whetstones, of which not less than 40,000 are annually made here. The village is on the road from Rotherham to Mansfield, and the Midland railway passes within four miles. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £18. 11. 10½.; patron, the Duke of Leeds; the tithes have been commuted for £700, and the glebe consists of 80 acres. The church is an ancient structure in the later English style, with a square embattled tower, and contains the sepulchral chapel of the Osborne family, in which are a monument to the first duke of Leeds, and the tombs of most of his descendants. A school was endowed in 1812, by the Rev. John Hewet, with £16. 13. per annum.
Harting (St. Mary)
HARTING (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Midhurst, hundred of Dumpford, rape of Chichester, W. division of Sussex, 3¾ miles (S. E.) from Petersfield; containing 1267 inhabitants. The parish is situated on the road from Petersfield to Chichester, and comprises by admeasurement 7832 acres; about 2719 are arable, 2900 meadow and pasture, 917 wood, and 1226 common and waste. The surface is pleasing, and in several parts richly embellished with wood. Up Pach, the seat of Sir Harry Fetherstonhaugh, Bart., is a handsome mansion, beautifully situated in an elevated demesne five miles in circumference; the house contains many stately apartments, and a collection of paintings, by the first masters. The living comprises a sinecure rectory and a vicarage, the former valued in the king's books at £26. 13. 4., and in the gift of Sir H. Fetherstonhaugh, and the latter at £9; patron of the vicarage, the Rector. The tithes of the vicar have been commuted for £292, and those of the rector for £753. The church is a cruciform structure, partly in the early and partly in the decorated English style, with a tower rising from the centre, surmounted by a spire, and contains some interesting monuments to the Caryl and Cowper families. There is a place of worship for Independents. An hospital for lepers, in honour of St. John the Baptist, was established here by Henry Hoes, in the time of Henry II. Cardinal Pole held the rectory.
Hartington (St. Giles)
HARTINGTON (St. Giles), a parish, partly in the union of Bakewell, and partly in that of Chapel-Enle-Frith, hundred of Wirksworth, N. and S. divisions of the county of Derby, 10 miles (N. N. W.) from Ashborne; containing 2197 inhabitants. It is situated on the east side of the river Dove, which divides the county from Staffordshire; and comprises by admeasurement 21,791 acres: the surface is mountainous, the parish being near the Peak of Derbyshire. Limestone is abundant, and extensively converted into lime; there are also ironstone and lead, the latter of which, however, is now but little worked. The Cromford and High-Peak railway passes on the east. A market and a fair held here have been long disused; but fairs are held at Newnhaven, for cattle, sheep, and hardware, on the second Tues day in September, and October 30th: the latter is also a great pleasure-fair. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £10; net income, £149; patron, the Duke of Devonshire; impropriator, R. Bateman, Esq.: the tithes were commuted for land at the time of the inclosure; the glebe contains 205 acres. The church is a fine cruciform structure. EarlSterndale, in the parish, forms a separate incumbency. Here is a place of worship for Wesleyans; and a school is supported. Hartington gives the title of Marquess to the Duke of Devonshire.
HARTINGTON, a township, in the parish of Hartburn, union of Rothbury, N. E. division of Tindale ward, S. division of Northumberland, 12½ miles (W. by N.) from Morpeth; containing 72 inhabitants. The village was anciently called East Hertwayton, probably meaning "the town at the way over the Hart," and was formerly more extensive than it is at present. It is situated on a dry limestone slope, fronting the south, and on the east side of the Elsdon road; the township comprises 2083 acres, and is the property of Sir John Trevelyan, Bart., of Wallington. The Fenwicks at an early period obtained possession of the lands at this place, as well as of the adjoining township of Hartington-Hall, and continued to hold them, as part of the Wallington property, until the latter end of the 17th century. There are some remains of the chapel which once stood upon the Kirk hill; on a part of its site some farm-offices are now erected.
HARTINGTON-HALL, a township, in the parish of Hartburn, union of Rothbury, N. E. division of Tindale ward, S. division of Northumberland; containing 36 inhabitants. This place, styled also West Hartington, comprises 907 acres, the property of Sir John Trevelyan, and lies between Hartington and the Elsdon road, and on the north side of the Hart river. It was generally the residence of a younger branch of the Fenwicks of Wallington, with whom it long remained. In 1544, the mansion is called "a strong bastell house of the inheritance of Sir John Fenwyke."
Hartland (St. Nectan)
HARTLAND (St. Nectan), a parish and sea-port, and formerly a market-town, in the union of Bideford, hundred of Hartland, Great Torrington and N. divisions of Devon, 13 miles (W. by S.) from Bideford, 53 (W. N. W.) from Exeter, and 215¾ (W. by S.) from London; containing 2223 inhabitants. This place probably owed its origin to a convent said to have been founded by Githa, wife of Earl Godwin, in the reign of Edward the Confessor; and re-founded for Canons regular of the order of St. Augustine, by Geoffrey Dinant, in the reign of Henry II.: the revenue, at the Dissolution, was £306. 13. 2¼. A modern residence now occupies the site of the conventual edifice, some portions of which, however, are retained, particularly the cloisters, forming the basement story of the eastern and western fronts of the mansion. The town is bleakly situated on a cape that terminates in the promontory of Hartland Point about three miles to the north-west, and on the south are some marshy heights: the government is vested in a portreeve. An act of parliament was passed in the reign of Elizabeth for completing the port, which is subject to that of Bideford. On the coast, two miles westward from the town, is a pier or quay, the descent to which is very steep; coasting-vessels here discharge cargoes of coal and limestone, and receive export ladings of corn, &c. There is a market-house; but the market has been discontinued for many years: fairs for cattle, however, are held on the Wednesday in Easter-week, and Sept. 25th; and a great market for cattle on the second Saturday in March. The parish comprises about 15,000 acres, of which one-third is arable, 1800 acres moor and waste, and 300 wood: the soil of about twothirds of the land is marshy and clayey, and that of the remaining portion sandy and rocky. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £97; patrons and impropriators, the Governors of the Charter-House, London. The church is situated on a lofty eminence between the town and quay, about half a mile from the latter, serving as a landmark for mariners: it is a large and handsome structure in the decorated style, with a screen between the nave and the chancel, and contains about 600 sittings. A chapel of ease was lately erected, capable of holding 200 persons. There were anciently eleven chapels in the parish, namely, St. Anthony's, at Harton; St. Leonard's, near Harton; St. Wenn's, at Cheristow; St. John's, at Long Furlong; St. Martin's, at Meddon; St. Mary's, at Firebeacon; St. Heligan's at South Hole; St. James's, at Millford; St. Clare's, at Philham; one at Velley; and another at Gawlish. The Independents have a place of worship. Paul Orchard, Esq., who died in 1812, bequeathed property producing £31 per annum, for the poor.
Hartlebury (St. James)
HARTLEBURY (St. James), a parish, in the union of Droitwich, partly in the Lower division of the hundred of Halfshire, but chiefly in the Lower division of the hundred of Oswaldslow, Kidderminster and W. divisions of the county of Worcester, 2 miles (E. by S.) from Stourport; containing, with the hamlet of Upper Mitton, 2051 inhabitants. This place, the name of which signifies in the Saxon language "the Hill or Place of Harts," has long been the residence of the bishops of Worcester, to whom the manor was granted by Burthred, King of Mercia, in the year 850. Walter de Cantelupe, bishop in 1257, commenced the building of a castle for the residence of himself and his successors in the see, which, about the close of that century, was completed by Godfrey Gifford, previously lord chancellor, who, on his advancement to the prelacy, embattled the building, and surrounded it with a moat. In 1646, the castle, which was then a place of great strength, and held for the king by Lord Windsor and Colonel Sandys, with a garrison of 120 foot and 20 horse, was assailed by a detachment of the parliamentarian army under Colonel Morgan, who summoned it to surrender. The garrison capitulated after two days, without making any defence; and the castle was soon afterwards dismantled, and taken down with the exception of the keep, which remained entire till the year 1781, when it was removed by Bishop Hurd, in his improvements. The present palace, which was erected after the Restoration, but still retains the appellation of Hartlebury Castle, is situated in a park of moderate extent, in a beautifully sequestered part of the county; it is a substantial and handsome castellated mansion of stone, and, without any ostentatious pretension to grandeur or magnificence, has an air of dignified retirement characteristic of an episcopal residence. The building contains a noble hall; a chapel, which was elegantly fitted up, and decorated with windows of stained glass, in 1750, by Bishop Maddox, at a cost of £1200; and a spacious library 90 feet in length, erected by Bishop Hurd, who stored it with a choice collection of works, including the libraries of Warburton and Pope. The approach to the palace is by a fine avenue, chiefly of lime-trees planted in 1700 by Bishop Stillingfleet; the grounds are tastefully laid out, and embellished with timber of venerable growth, and with thriving plantations.
The parish is bounded on the west and south-west by the rivers Stour and Severn, and comprises nearly 6000 acres, of which 4647 are in the manor of Hartlebury, and the remainder in the manors of Waresley and Upper Mitton, the former belonging to the Rev. Thomas Harward, of Winterfold, and the latter manor to Henry Talbot, Esq., of Kidderminster. The surface is in many parts pleasingly undulated; and is intersected from north to south by two ranges of terraces, between which is a beautiful and fertile valley terminating in the luxuriant vale of Severn. From the eastern terrace are extensive views of the Malvern and Cotswold hills, Hagley, and Westwood, with the tower of the cathedral, and the spires of the churches, in the city of Worcester. The western terrace also commands a wide extent of scenery, embracing the romantic windings of the Severn, the Abberley and Woodberry hills, and the woods of Areley, Ribbesford, and Wassall, with the Shropshire hills in the distance. The river Stour has its source in the grounds of the Leasowes, in the parish of Hales-Owen, and after a course of nearly twenty miles, falls into the Severn near Stourport; the Titton brook flows through the valley in the centre of the parish, into the Severn, about a mile below the mouth of the Stour. The soil is fertile, and, with the exception of about 220 acres of common and waste, is in a high state of cultivation, producing abundant crops of all kinds. The principal substratum is red sandstone, of good quality for building; and from the quarries was taken the stone for the erection of the present church: on the upper part of the common is a bed of rich marl. There are many good houses, occupied by the various landholders; Waresley House, erected by the late John Baker, Esq., is now the residence of the Rev. John Peel. At Wildon, in the parish, are some extensive tin-works. Facility of communication is afforded by the road from Worcester to Stourport, by the river Severn, and the Worcestershire and Staffordshire canal.
The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £30, and in the patronage of the Bishop; the tithes have been commuted for £1765, and the glebe comprises 126 acres. The ancient church, built by Bishop Gifford in 1269, and to which a tower was added by Bishop Sandys in 1575, was, with the exception of the tower, which was repaired and raised, and the chancel, which was rebuilt by the late rector, the Rev. Samuel Picart, taken down in 1836, and replaced by a new church, towards the erection of which £1000 were bequeathed by the late rector, £500 contributed by the bishop, £200 by the present rector, the Rev. Thomas Baker, and £150 by the Rev. John Peel. It is an elegant structure in the decorated English style, after a design by the late Mr. Rickman, of Birmingham, and contains 1000 sittings; on the north side of the tower is a plain tomb to the memory of Bishop Hurd, who died at Hartlebury in 1808. The free grammar school, the origin of which is unknown, existed in the year 1400, and in the first of Elizabeth's reign was made a royal foundation; it is now under the management of seven trustees. A school for girls was endowed by Mrs. Hannah Eyre, in 1728, with £200, which were invested in the purchase of land in the parish of Elmbridge; and in 1842 a house for the mistress, with two large schoolrooms, which are also used as Sunday schools for boys and girls, was built on land given by the rector of Hartlebury, who, and the churchwardens, are trustees. Richard Bentley, the celebrated critic, was rector of the parish in the year 1695.
Hartlepool (St. Hilda)
HARTLEPOOL (St. Hilda), a sea-port, incorporated market-town, and parochial chapelry, in the union of Stockton, N. E. division of Stockton ward, S. division of the county of Durham, 19 miles (E. S. E.) from Durham, and 257 (N. by W.) from London; containing 5201 inhabitants. This place, which is situated on the eastern coast, most probably derived its name from its finely sheltered haven, surrounded on all sides, except at the entrance on the south, by the peninsular promontory on which the town is built; and from the numerous herds of deer that formerly frequented the immediate vicinity. A monastery was founded near the site of the present town soon after the conversion of the Northumbrians to Christianity, by Hieu, a religious sister, by some writers identified with St. Bega, about the year 640; and after her decease, St. Hilda became abbess. The establishment was destroyed by the Danes, who in the year 800 made a descent upon this part of the coast, and burned the town, then called Hartness, which was rebuilt by Egfrid, Bishop of Lindisfarne, about the middle of the ninth century, and annexed to that see. After the Norman Conquest the manor became the property of Robert de Brus or Bruce, ancestor of the Scottish kings of that name, and whose grandson, William, obtained from King John a charter conferring upon the inhabitants the rights of free burgesses, and the privilege of a weekly market. This grant, with the addition of an annual fair, was confirmed by the same monarch to William's son, Robert de Brus, whose successor constructed a haven capable of receiving 100 vessels, and surrounded the town with a wall defended by ten towers, of which some vestiges may still be traced.
On the accession of Bruce to the throne of Scotland, in 1306, the manor became forfeited to the crown; and being given by Edward I. to Robert Clifford, who was killed in the battle of Bannockburn, in 1314, it continued for many generations to be the property of his descendants. In the reign of Edward III., when the Scots under Malcolm laid waste the country on the banks of the river Tees, the inhabitants of this place sought refuge in their ships, and placing on board all their moveable property, put to sea for security. In 1346, the town had become a port of considerable trade, and furnished five ships and 145 men towards the armament for the invasion of France. In the time of Bishop Hatfield, the place was the grand emporium of the see of Durham, whose bishops, as earls of Sadberge, exercising a temporal jurisdiction, issued mandates for rais ing ships and men to attend the king's high admiral, and appointed an officer of customs at the port to collect the duties on wines and other merchandise landed here. In the war in the reign of Charles I., the town was garrisoned for the royalists, and in 1644, when the Scots sent an army to assist the parliamentarians, was besieged and taken by the Earl of Callendar, who placed a garrison in the fortress, and retained possession of the place till 1647, when, with other northern towns, it was transferred to the parliament. The manor passed from the Cliffords to the Lumleys, with whom it remained till near the close of the last century, when it was purchased by Sir George Pocock, who sold it to the late Duke of Cleveland, from whom it has descended to his grandson, Frederick Aclam Milbanke, Esq. The remains of the fortifications convey a tolerable idea of the strength of this important town, and of the ancient method of fortification. Within the walls was the old haven, about 12 acres in extent, guarded by a range of bastions on each side, and having at the entrance two circular towers, from which a chain was thrown across its mouth; and all vessels entering the harbour had to proceed along the range of the southern wall within reach of the cannon of the fort, and to pass a half-moon battery at its entrance: the hooks were visible twenty years ago.
The town is about two miles to the north of the mouth of the Tees, and consists of numerous spacious and well-formed streets, whereof the principal are Northgate, Middlegate, and Southgate streets; and of several others intersecting these at right angles, and leading to the North-terrace, Darlington-place, and other ranges of building. To the south-east are Victoria-place, William-street, and Prissick-street, from which diverging at right angles, are George, Henry, and St. Hilda streets, leading to the South-terrace. The surrounding scenery is pleasingly diversified, and the aspect of the coast of truly romantic character, the shelving and precipitous rocks by which it is guarded having been worn by the action of the waves into caverns and recesses of fantastic and picturesque appearance. Within the last few years the town has been greatly extended and improved, and has become the resort of visiters during the season for bathing; handsome houses have been built for their accommodation, and several new lines of approach afford facilities of excursion in every direction. Near the Water-gate is a celebrated chalybeate spring called the Spa well, which at high water is covered by the tide; and near the South battery is another, containing iron and sulphur. An act for supplying the town with gas and water was passed in 1846.
The trade of the port appears to have retained its wonted prosperity till the close of the seventeenth century, though the custom-house establishment had been removed to Stockton in the year 1680; and in 1718 not less than 19 vessels cleared out of the port for London, while the port of Sunderland sent only two. But from that period it gradually declined, till the year 1832, when by the enterprise of the Hartlepool Dock and Railway Company new sources of trade were developed, and the abundant mineral produce of a wide district rendered available to the revival of its commerce, and to its establishment as one of the most flourishing ports on the eastern coast. The company was incorporated by act of parliament in 1832, for the improvement of the harbour, for constructing docks, and making a railway connecting the port with the most valuable coalmines in the county, with branches to Littletown, Thornley, and Cassop; thus opening out a coal-field nearly 50 square miles in extent. The whole line, from Hartlepool to Haswell, together with the branches, is upwards of 15 miles in length; it was completed at an expense of £250,000, and opened to the public 9th of July, 1835. The Stockton and Hartlepool railway diverges from the Clarence line at the township of Billingham, and, taking a north-eastern direction, winds along the coast, and terminates on the west side of the tide harbour at Hartlepool: the line is 8¼ miles in length, cost £190,000, and was opened to the public for the conveyance of coal in 1840, and for passengers and general merchandise in 1841.
The present harbour, which is distinct from the ancient haven, is formed by a pier 154 yards in length, extending from east to west, with a lighthouse at the extremity; and affords secure shelter as a harbour of refuge for ships navigating this part of the North Sea. The docks constructed by the company with a capital of more than £250,000, are extensive and commodious. The Victoria dock is more than 20 acres in extent, with a depth of 25 feet of water at spring tides, and communicates by an entrance lock 145 feet in width, with a tide harbour of the same area and similar depth of water; on the line of quay, which is very extensive, are placed 16 drops for lowering waggons containing coal for shipment. In 1835, three sloops only were registered as belonging to the port; but so greatly has the trade increased since the improvement of the harbour and formation of the two railways, that there are now 90 vessels of the aggregate burthen of 20,181 tons registered as belonging to Hartlepool. In the year 1842, not less than 2678 ships, with 559,766 tons of coal, cleared out coastwise from the harbour, and 41,994 tons of shipping entered inwards for refuge; and from the passing of the new tariff to the end of the last-mentioned year, 67 British and 141 foreign vessels cleared out for foreign ports. A considerable importation of timber from Canada and the Baltic has taken place; not less than twenty cargoes are landed annually, producing duties averaging £5000 a year. In 1840 the duties on timber amounted to £9000. Ship-building is carried on, and in one yard during the last three years, vessels of the aggregate burthen of upwards of 2000 tons have been launched. The turbot-fishery forms a lucrative branch of trade; the turbot taken off this coast are equal in quality to those found on the Dutch coast, and great numbers are sent to the London market. A pilot establishment is stationed here, consisting of a master and 40 experienced and skilful men; and two life-boats with crews, always in readiness, are maintained by subscription. The market, which is abundantly supplied with provisions of all kinds, is on Saturday: the fairs held on the 14th of May, 21st of August, 9th of October, and 27th of November, and to which courts of pie-poudre were attached, have nearly fallen into disuse. The market-place is in Southgate-street.
The inhabitants received a charter of incorporation from King John in 1200, and in 1593 another from Queen Elizabeth; but owing to irregularities and other causes the corporation latterly fell into decay, and there being no resident magistrate, the petty-sessions of the district were held at Stockton. To remedy this inconvenience Her present Majesty granted a new charter in 1841, re-constituting the burgesses a body corporate, under the style of "the Mayor and Burgesses," and appointing a mayor and twelve capital burgesses to be a common-council, with a recorder, town-clerk, two serjeants-at-mace, and other officers. The mayor is a justice of the peace, and continues such for one year after his mayoralty. Among the privileges of the freemen is the right of pasturage for a horse and a cow on the town moor, and of exemption from tolls. Courts leet and baron are held twice in the year before the recorder or his deputy, and at the latter, pleas are determined, and debts not exceeding 40s. are recoverable. The powers of the county debt-court of Hartlepool, established in 1847, extend over part of the two registration-districts of Easington, and Stockton and Sedgefield. The townhall is situated in Southgate, and is a neat building, erected in 1750.
The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Vicar of Hart; impropriator, Mr. Milbanke. The church is an ancient and spacious structure in the early English style, with a lofty embattled tower strengthened with flying buttresses and crowned by crocketed pinnacles, and contains some portions in the later Norman style; the chancel, which had sustained much injury from high winds, was rebuilt in 1724: among the monuments is one said to be of a member of the royal family of Bruce. There are places of worship for Presbyterians, Primitive Methodists, Wesleyans, and Roman Catholics. A school was founded in 1742, by Mr. John Crooks, who endowed it with land, now producing £20 per annum; and there is another school, endowed by Mr. John Wells. Various bequests have been made for the benefit of the poor, among which is one of £500, by Henry Smith, alderman of London, in 1620, which was vested in the purchase of 19 acres of land let for £110 per annum. A convent of Franciscan friars was founded here prior to the year 1275, the site of which is said to have been near a house now called the Friary, where the foundations of some ancient buildings have been discovered. In forming a new street upon the moor, the cemetery of the monastery of St. Hilda was discovered, with several monumental inscriptions in Saxon and Runic characters. William Romaine, a learned divine and Hebrew scholar, was born here in 1714.
Hartley (All Saints)
HARTLEY (All Saints), a parish, in the union of Dartford, hundred of Axton, Dartford, and Wilmington, lathe of Sutton-at-Hone, W. division of Kent, 6¾ miles (S. E. by S.) from Dartford; containing 224 inhabitants. It lies west of the Gravesend and Wrotham road, and comprises 1178 acres, of which 205 are in wood. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £7; net income, £275; patron and incumbent, the Rev. Edward Allen.
HARTLEY, a township, in the parish of Earsdon, union of Tynemouth, E. division of Castle ward, S. division of Northumberland, 6 miles (N.) from North Shields; containing 1911 inhabitants, chiefly employed in collieries, and of whom about 1000 are in the village. The manor was held by knight's service of the Gaugy barony, but in the 10th year of Elizabeth was the sole property of Sir John Delaval. The township comprises 1543a. 1r. 36p., and is now the property of Lord Hastings. The Presbyterians have a meeting-house here; and there are also places of worship for Primitive and Wesleyan Methodists, the latter erected in 1839. A chapel dedicated to St. Mary, and a hermitage, stood on Bates' Island, opposite to the village of Hartley.—See Seaton-Sluice.
HARTLEY, a township, in the parish of KirkbyStephen, East ward and union, county of Westmorland, 1½ mile (E.) from Kirkby-Stephen; containing 158 inhabitants. Veins of lead and copper have been wrought here since 1827, but much larger quantities of the former were raised some years previously; and coal has been obtained on Hartley Fell. Vestiges of Hartley Castle, a stately edifice the residence of the Musgrave family, of Edenhall, may still be traced on a commanding eminence; near which are a petrifying spring, and a cascade falling 60 feet perpendicularly, called Ewbank Scarr.
HARTLEY-BURN, a township, in the parish and union of Haltwhistle, W. division of Tindale ward, S. division of Northumberland, 4 miles (S. W.) from Haltwhistle; containing 288 inhabitants. The monks of Hexham possessed a considerable estate here, which at the Dissolution was granted to Dudley, Earl of Warwick, from whom it has descended, through the Featherstonhaughs, Howards, aud Ramseys, to the family of Ellison. The township comprises 2676 acres, of which 2180 are waste or common. It lies on the southern confines of the parish, under the north-east limb of Tindale fell; and though the situation is by nature lonely, yet the working of the coal-pits that the place contains, imparts a busy air to the spot, which is also exceedingly interesting in a geological point of view. The surface is traversed by numerous rivulets that feed the Hartley burn, and the name of the township is probably derived from the circumstance of that stream having run through a lea which abounded with harts, or deer.
HARTLEY-DUMMER, a liberty, in the parish of Shinfield, hundred of Theale, union of Wokingham, county of Berks, 3½ miles (S. W. by S.) from Reading; containing 359 inhabitants.
HARTLEY-MAUDYTT, a parish, in the union and hundred of Alton, Alton and N. divisions of the county of Southampton, 2¾ miles (S. E.) from Alton; containing 84 inhabitants. The parish, with the exception of the glebe, is the property of Lord Sherborne. In the park was an ancient and splendid mansion, the residence of Sir S. Stuart, Bart., taken down when the property passed into the hands of the late Lord Stowell. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £10. 1. 10½., and in the gift of the Rev. A. Houstoun Douglas: the tithes have been commuted for £284, and the glebe comprises 12 acres.
HARTLEY-ROW, a hamlet, in the parish and union of Hartley-Wintney, hundred of Odiham, Odiham and N. divisions of the county of Southampton, ½ a mile (S. W. by W.) from Hartford-Bridge. There is a place of worship for Baptists. Fairs are held on Shrove-Tuesday and June 29th, for pedlery. The London and South-Western railway, on which is a station about half a mile distant, passes through the hamlet.
Hartley-Westpall (St. Mary)
HARTLEY-WESTPALL (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Basingstoke, hundred of Holdshott, Basingstoke and N. divisions of the county of Southampton, 5 miles (W.) from Hartford-Bridge; containing 351 inhabitants. It comprises 1250 acres, of which about 1000 are arable, 60 wood, 60 waste or common, and the remainder meadow and pasture. The soil is a deep tenacious clay, but, by the addition of chalk, is rendered a fertile loam; the surface is gently undulated, and the lower grounds are watered by a branch of the river Loddon. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £16. 16. 8., and in the gift of the Dean and Canons of Windsor: the tithes have been commuted for £420, and the glebe comprises 9½ acres.
Hartley-Wintney (St. Mary)
HARTLEY-WINTNEY (St. Mary), a parish, and the head of a union, in the hundred of Odiham, Odiham and N. divisions of the county of Southampton, 1¾ mile (S. by W.) from Hartford-Bridge; containing 1370 inhabitants. The parish comprises about 2300 acres, of which 1760 are arable and meadow, and 45 woodland: the soil is chiefly of a gravelly nature; the surface is in general flat, and the grounds are watered by the river Loddon. A fair for cattle is held on the 4th of December. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £4. 0. 7½., and has a net income of £108; the patronage and impropriation belong to Lady St. John Mildmay. The poor-law union comprises thirteen parishes or places, and contains a population of 10,722. A Cistercian nunnery, in honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary, St. Mary Magdalene, and St. John the Baptist, was founded here in the reign of William the Conqueror, and at the Dissolution contained a prioress and seventeen nuns, whose revenue was £59. 1.
HARTLINGTON, a township, in the parish of Burnsall, union of Skipton, E. division of the wapentake of Staincliffe and Ewcross, W. riding of York, 10 miles (N. N. E.) from Skipton; containing 96 inhabitants. The township is situated on the eastern side of Wharfdale, and comprises 1320 acres of rough pasture, resting chiefly on limestone, and of which 800 are inclosed, and 500 are uninclosed moorland called Hartlington pasture.