A History of the County of Huntingdon: Volume 2. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1932.
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Stocton (x cent.); Tochestone (xi cent.); Stotton, Scotton, Stokton, Magna Stouton (xiii cent.); Stowghton (xv cent.); Moche Stoughton (xvi cent.).
This large parish, which comprises an area of 6,407 acres, lies on the borders of Bedfordshire and in 1921 had a population of 685 persons. The banks of the River Kym, which runs through it, are about 80 ft. above the ordnance datum and the land rises to a little over 200 ft. to the north and south. The soil is chiefly clay with a gravel subsoil in the south. The parish was mainly woodland down to the 13th century, when it seems, from the licences to assart lands, the timber was being cleared. There is still a good deal of woodland about Agden and Perry, but the land is mainly arable growing wheat and beans.
The principal part of the village has grown up as a roadside settlement along the main road from St. Neots to Kimbolton. The village street here has been known since the 16th century as Staughton Highway. (fn. 1) At its eastern end the road crosses the River Kym by a bridge which was in the early 16th century called Wrong Bridge. (fn. 2) Along the street are some picturesque 17th-century timber-framed houses; the White Hart Inn, on the north side, has a gable projecting towards the road and a way for carriages to the yard behind under a modern wing on the east side. On the north side of Staughton Highway is what is called the village cross of the unusual date of 1637. It consists of a base of modern brickwork supporting a stone octagonal shaft with rolls divided by hollows on a square-splayed base; the shaft has a moulded capital upon which is a cube with a panel bearing the inscription '1637, E.I.' on the north side and a sundial on the south, the whole being surmounted by a ball. There are several other half-timber and brick houses in the village street. The church, with the earlier settlement consisting of a few houses and cottages and a 17th-century inn, a smithy and a windmill, is about a third of a mile to the west of the Highway on a bye-road to Pertenhall (co. Bed.). Some of the houses here are of the late 17th and early 18th centuries. The road again crosses the River Kym by a bridge, called Staughton Bridge in 1509. (fn. 3) The vicarage (standing on the north side of the road, a little east of the church, which is on the south side) was built in 1852 by the Rev. A. B. Wilson, then incumbent, who, for publication of an essay in Essays and Reviews for which he was prosecuted, was suspended from his benefice for a year, but obtained a reversal of the decision on an appeal to the Privy Council. The house now called the Rectory Farm, but formerly known as the Hermitage, was the old vicarage, nearly rebuilt for the purpose at the end of the 18th century. (fn. 4)
To the north-west of the church, on the opposite side of the road, is Place House, originally built on the site probably of a moated grange of the Charterhouse, by Sir Oliver Leader about 1539, when he acquired the Rectory Manor. (fn. 5) Here he imparked a considerable amount of land, which led to riots by the adjoining tenants, who claimed rights over it. He was residing here at the time of his death in 1557. The house built by him was a large, somewhat irregularly planned brick house of two stories, with tiled roof. It consisted of a main block, and north and south wings, with stone mullioned windows and doorways of Tudor type. A fire in the middle of the 17th century destroyed most of the house, leaving little but the south wing. It seems to have been partially restored and rebuilt about the middle of the 17th century. The greater part of the existing building belongs to this period. The interior has few of the original fittings. In the west front is an arcade of three bays in brick with four centred arches of two chamfered orders opening to a loggia. In the grounds are two barns of timber framing filled with brick nogging, probably contemporary with the house built by Sir Oliver Leader.
The lands south of the village apparently belonged to the chief manor, the manor house of which stood in the moated inclosure about a mile south-west of the church, now known as the Old Manor Farm. Here stood an interesting fortified manor house built probably about 1274 by Adam de Creting, which for nearly four centuries was the home of the Cretings and Wautons. The site has been already described. (fn. 6) The earthworks with double moats and the buildings were of great strength and withstood what was practically a siege in 1624. (fn. 7) The house was said to have been in great decay in 1705 and was probably allowed to fall into complete ruin. Staughton House, standing near the church in a park of 500 acres, was built as the manor house of the Rectory in the early part of the 18th century. The house was rebuilt, but the stables belong to the 18th-century building. Just outside the grounds of Staughton House, on its south-west side, is Garden Farm, built in the 16th century but altered a century later. There is another homestead moat marking the site of a medieval house, near Crown Farm, on the county boundary. (fn. 8)
To the north-east of the village is the hamlet of Dillington, and about a mile and a half from the village is Gaynes Hall, which takes its name from the family of Engayne, by whom the original house was probably built as the hall of their manor of Dillington. Viel de Engayne was evidently living here in 1238 when he had licence to have his private chapel at his manor of Dillington. References to St. Mary's Way and the road leading to St. Mary's Chapel indicate perhaps the dedication of the chapel. The park, now comprising some 300 acres, existed in the 13th century under the names of Littlehey and East Park. All that remain of the Engaynes' dwelling are the fragments of the moat; some worked stones of an ecclesiastical character may have formed a part of the chapel, but were more probably brought from the site of a neighbouring monastery, as they include the head and shoulders of an abbot with a crozier which are unlikely to have belonged to the chapel. (fn. 9) The present house is modern, but there are remains of the 17th-century house, probably built by Sir James Beverley, who purchased the manor in 1664 and died at Gaynes Hall in 1670.
At West Perry, another hamlet further north-east, is the Manor Farm, a moated brick house of the 16th century partially rebuilt in modern time. It may have been the manor house of the representative of one of the coheirs of Dillington manor when the manor was divided into moieties. (fn. 10)
The hamlet of Beachampstead, which included Agden, lies to the north of the village. The site of the manor house of the Beaufoys may perhaps be identified by the homestead moat north-east of Staughton Green. The house, we are told, was burnt and devastated in the middle of the 14th century, and there is no evidence that it was rebuilt. (fn. 11)
A farmhouse on the north bank of Duloe Brook opposite Bushmead Priory represents the former manor of Blaysworth.
Lands in Staughton, with 100 mancosa of gold, were bequeathed by Ælfhelm, by deed undated, to Leofsige and his wife. (fn. 12) She may have been the widow Livith, Leofwina, or Lefgiva, who granted Staughton, with Dillington, Gravely, and Yelling, to the abbey of Ramsey. (fn. 13) Livith's gift was confirmed to the abbey by King Edgar in 974; (fn. 14) by Edward the Confessor in 1060; (fn. 15) by William the Conqueror in 1078; (fn. 16) and by Pope Alexander in 1178. (fn. 17) But Staughton, its original value of £10 unchanged, was entered in the Domesday Survey among the lands of the Bishop of Lincoln, and though the abbot of Ramsey claimed it against him at that time, (fn. 18) the bishops of Lincoln remained in undisturbed possession. (fn. 19) Their tenure of the manor, as of their manor of Buckden, was recorded as late as 1612. (fn. 20) Six hides of land with 100 acres of underwood were held by the Bishop of Lincoln in 1086, his under-tenant being Eustace, probably the sheriff. In 1166 William de Eynesford held 6 knights' fees of the bishop, (fn. 21) who made a grant of a sheaf from each acre of his demesne in Staughton to Hinchingbroke Priory, which was confirmed by the Bishop of Lincoln between 1186 and 1198. (fn. 22) He was succeeded by a son Roger de Eynesford, whose son William died before 1194 (fn. 23) leaving a widow Eleanor, who married Hugh de Beauchamp. (fn. 24) William, son of the last-named William, in 1203 obtained licence to disafforest his manor of Staughton and to have free warren. (fn. 25) He died in or about 1231, when the custody of Staughton was delivered to the bishop, as overlord, during the minority of the heir, (fn. 26) William de Eynesford. This last William left coheirs, possibly daughters, who were represented in 1265 by Nicholas de Crioll and William Heringaud or Herengod, perhaps husbands of the coheirs, who, after the Battle of Evesham, were thought to be rebels. (fn. 27) They are later described as parceners of the inheritance of William de Eynesford. (fn. 28) It would appear that Nicholas de Crioll married firstly Maud, probably the daughter of William de Eynesford, (fn. 29) by whom he had three daughters, Nicholaa, Margery, and Beatrice, (fn. 30) and secondly Joan, daughter and heir of William de Auberville of Eynesford (co. Kent), by whom he had a son Nicholas, a minor at the time of his father's death in 1273. (fn. 31) Of the daughters, who inherited their mother's property, Nicholaa married Adam de Creting, (fn. 32) Margery seems to have died unmarried, and Beatrice married Anselm de Gyse. (fn. 33) Before the death of Maud, Nicholas's first wife, her moiety of the manor was conveyed to Roger de Leyburne. William Heringaud, who married the other coheir of William de Eynesford, succeeded his father Stephen in 1257 to the possessions in Kent. (fn. 34) William died before 1273, leaving a daughter Emma, but in 1293 the heir of Stephen is said to have been Christine wife of William de Kirkeby, from which it would appear that Emma died unmarried, so that the interest in her mother's moiety would pass to her cousins, the Criolls. (fn. 35) William Heringaud, however, had conveyed the interest of his wife's moiety of Staughton to Roger de Leyburne, who thus held the whole manor. (fn. 36) About 1271 Roger de Leyburne and Eleanor de Vaux, Countess of Winchester, his wife, exchanged the manor of Staughton, which they had of the gift of Nicholas de Crioll and William Heringaud, with Roger de Rolling and Maud, daughter of William de Eshetesford (Ashford), his wife, for lands in Kent and Sussex. (fn. 37) About this time the coheirs of Nicholas de Crioll claimed that the grant to Roger de Leyburne was void, as Nicholas held only by courtesy in right of his wife; consequently in 1274 the escheator was ordered to give seisin of a moiety of the manor of Staughton to Nicholaa, Margery and Beatrice. (fn. 38) By 1279 Margery de Crioll and Emma Heringaud were probably dead, as Adam de Creting and Anselm de Gyse are said to have held the whole manor. (fn. 39) The question whether Maud de Crioll (Kyriel) (fn. 40) was seised in her demesne as of fee of the manor of Great Staughton, of which one moiety was held by Adam de Creting and Nicholaa, and the other by Anselm de Gyse and Beatrice, was brought before the justices of assize in 1286 and the case was adjourned to Westminster, Adam de Rolling being vouched to warrant. (fn. 41) The Crioll title became established and in the same year Adam and Anselm were said to hold the manor with view of frankpledge and free warren. (fn. 42) By a series of conveyances, the whole manor and the advowson became vested in Adam de Creting and Nicholaa his wife. (fn. 43) In 1295 Adam died seised of the manor described as the manor of GREAT STAUGHTON, BLAYSWORTH and LA MORE held, with the advowson, of the Bishop of Lincoln by 4 knights' fees, and leaving a son and heir John. (fn. 44) Custody of the lands of Adam was in 1296 granted to Thomas de Creting, (fn. 45) and a fresh inquisition was taken two years later, when the age of John, previously given as 17–19, was returned both as 24 and as unknown, because he had been born in Wales. (fn. 46) John de Creting was holding the vill in 1316 (fn. 47) and in 1327–8, (fn. 48) and received a grant of free warren in his demesne lands in 1330. (fn. 49) He seems to have been succeeded by another John, probably his son, at whose death the manor passed to Edmund de Creting his brother, (fn. 50) who in 1337 obtained protection on setting out in the king's service in France. (fn. 51) Hawise, widow of the younger John, held a third of the manor and advowson in dower in 1348, the remaining two-thirds being in the hands of Sir Edmund de Creting. Sir Edmund granted the two-thirds of the advowson held by him, and the reversion of the third held by Hawise, to John de Abynton, citizen and clothier of London. (fn. 52) Hawise married Geoffrey de Drayton and by deed dated at Great Staughton in 1353 Edmund granted the third of the manor held by Hawise in dower to Geoffrey for life and sold the reversion to John Empol. In 1370, after the death of Hawise, Geoffrey de Drayton claimed a life tenancy under the grant of 1353. Meanwhile, John Empol had granted this third to Thomas de Wauton or Walton, a minor, son of Thomas de Wauton, and action was postponed until Thomas should be of full age. (fn. 53) The conveyance to Thomas Wauton was repeated when he came of age in 1376. (fn. 54) The other two parts of the manor passed to Alice Bray, who in 1385–6 conveyed them to John de Hemingford and others, evidently feoffees, who reconveyed them to her. (fn. 55) They were again settled in the same years (fn. 56) and in 1406 the whole manor was conveyed by John Stukeley and Robert Scott, two of the feoffees, to Thomas Wauton and Elizabeth his wife. (fn. 57) It would seem that Thomas de Wauton, who married Eleanor de Stokes of Boughton in Southoe (q.v.), had a son Thomas, aged 30, in 1349. His son Thomas was the grantee of the third of the manor in 1376 when he came of age, (fn. 58) and it was he and his wife Elizabeth who in 1406 acquired the whole manor. (fn. 59) He was succeeded by John de Wauton, his son or more probably his brother, who was returned as member of parliament for Huntingdonshire in 1393. Thomas, son of John, served from 1396 for 30 years as member of parliament for Huntingdonshire or Bedfordshire and became Speaker of the House in 1425. (fn. 60) He died in 1436 and was succeeded by his son Thomas. The manor later passed to Robert Wauton, mentioned in 1502 as lord of the manor. (fn. 61) John son of Robert married Joan, sister of Sir William Gascoyne, on whom the manor was settled about 1497. Joan after John's death married Thomas Knighton, and in 1529 Thomas Wauton of Great Staughton, the elder, and Thomas Wauton, the younger, were sued for forcibly entering the lands held in dower by Joan. (fn. 62) Thomas Wauton, the elder, was the son of John. (fn. 63) Thomas Wauton, the younger, his son, was dealing with lands in Great Staughton in 1541, (fn. 64) and in 1554 settled annuities payable out of the manor on his sons William and Gilbert. He died in 1555, his heir being his grandson George, son of his son Thomas. (fn. 65) In 1563 George Wauton conveyed the manor to Henry Laurence and William Thomas, (fn. 66) probably in connexion with a lease of the manor for 21 years to Thomas Beverley in 1562. In the course of Chancery proceedings it was alleged that while 'a young man, void of learning and knowledge in common affairs of the world,' George Wauton had made this conveyance to Thomas Beverley, 'a crafty and subtyll man,' the property being well worth £80 a year, in return for the sum of £80, of which he received £50 in hand, with 2 nags worth 5 marks, and a lute worth 5s. (fn. 67) Thomas Beverley must have retained possession of the lease, which he assigned in 1579 to John Farewell (fn. 68) at the rent of £34. In 1605 Sir George Wauton, who had been knighted at Whitehall by the king in the previous year, (fn. 69) was dealing with the manor and advowson, evidently in performance of a settlement of the manor made in that year on himself for life, with remainder to the heir male or issue male of John Wauton, deceased, son of Nicholas Wauton, deceased, uncle of Sir George, and second brother of Thomas Wauton, deceased, father of Sir George. (fn. 70) Sir George died in 1606 at Great Staughton without lawful issue, (fn. 71) when his heir male under the above settlement was the future regicide and brother-in-law of the Protector, Valentine Wauton, then a boy of twelve, the son of Nicholas Wauton, and grandson of John Wauton. (fn. 72) After Valentine Wauton had attained his majority, possession of the manor was again disputed, and something like a siege seems to have been sustained in 1624 by the old manor house, then in the possession of his kinsman, one of the heirs of Sir George, John Throgmorton. In January Sir Robert Osborne wrote from Godmanchester to Secretary Conway that the sheriff, going by commission from Chancery to take possession of the manor from John Throgmorton and deliver it to Mr. Wauton, was resisted and several of his men slain or wounded; he added that the house was double moated and of great strength, and that the company, most of whom were Papists, had intrenched themselves in it, with aid of divers foreigners who had joined them. (fn. 73) In March he wrote to the Council that he had made proclamation at Great Staughton against John Throgmorton, but found the house had been abandoned, and therefore placed ten men in it, till directions were sent as to who was to be put in possession. (fn. 74) The abandonment was possibly a ruse and evidently temporary, as on May 25th he wrote that John Throgmorton had surprised the sequestrators and taken forcible possession of the manor house, refusing to give up his servant Allabone, indicted for the death of one of the sheriff's men, but promising to surrender the house, if so ordered, when the Council had answered his petition. (fn. 75) Valentine Wauton was in 1651 (fn. 76) and 1657 (fn. 77) dealing with the manor, for possession of which there was keen competition after the Restoration in 1660, even before Col. Wauton's attainder was passed, between Robert Montague Lord Mandeville, son and heir-apparent of Edward Earl of Manchester, and Sir Charles Howard, the former succeeding in 1661 in obtaining a lease of the manor, site, chief messuage, etc., for 31 years, in spite of the king's intention to grant it to the Duke of York. (fn. 78) In the same year Sir Edward Green petitioned for a lease of 500 acres of pasture land in Great Staughton and 400 of fen ground, part of the estate there forfeited for treason by Valentine Wauton, (fn. 79) who is said to have lived disguised in Holland and worked there as a gardener till he died. John Gaule, minister of the parish, was a petitioner in 1660 for satisfaction of arrears from Wauton's confiscated estates. He represented that Valentine Wauton had detained for 6 years the benefits of his living, valued at above £400 a year, from the petitioner, who had been kept prisoner by Cromwell and Ireton for declaring the war against the king unlawful. (fn. 80) In 1662 the reversion of the manor, with a rent reserved upon the lease to Robert Montague Lord Mandeville, was granted to the Duke of York; (fn. 81) by whom, as King James II, a grant for 21 years in reversion was made in 1688 to Sir Theophilus Oglethorpe. (fn. 82) A fresh lease of the manor, site, etc., reciting these former grants, was granted in 1691 to William Harbord, of Grafton Park (co. Northampton) for 99 years. (fn. 83) It was followed by a grant made in 1705 to Dame Eleanor Oglethorpe, releasing her from any covenant entered into by her husband under the lease to him to keep the premises in repair, and permitting William Harbord to use the material of the chief messuage to repair and build all other messuages, outbuildings, etc. (fn. 84) (the chief messuage was described as then in great ruin and decay, and Sir Theophilus had undertaken to put it into good and substantial repair within 3 years of the grant to himself). In 1671 John Darbishire and Elizabeth his wife, apparently under a settlement, granted for the life of Elizabeth the manor and advowson to George Montague. Elizabeth died probably before 1684, when Charles Wauton, son of the regicide, conveyed to Richard Derbishire and Matthew Swallow, (fn. 85) and in the same year with his wife Frances to Richard Graham and Richard Bell, with warranty against the heirs of Frances. (fn. 86)
The property next appears in the hands of William Harbord, who bequeathed it to his four daughters as tenants in common. (fn. 87) His daughters were Dame Mary Ayscough, widow of Sir Edward Ayscough, kt.; Grace, wife of Thomas Hatcher; Margaret, wife of Robert Lord Kingston; and Letitia, afterwards Dame Letitia Winn. Before her death without issue, in 1698, Lady Kingston, with her sisters Dame Mary Ayscough and Dame Letitia Winn, had empowered Grace Hatcher, by indentures of 1689 and 1696, to dispose by will of her share, which she bequeathed to Philip Doughty, of Snarford Hall (co. Lincoln). Philip Doughty died in 1710, leaving a son, George Brownlow Doughty, who married Frances Tichborne, and died in 1743, his wife surviving until 1765. Their son, Henry Doughty, in 1768 conveyed his fourth part of the remainder of the lease to Peter Earl Ludlow. (fn. 88) Before the inclosure award of 1806 this lease had expired, and the king, George III, was returned as lord of this manor, his lessee being George Parker, who was also lord of the Rectory Manor of Great Staughton. (fn. 89) The Crown is still lord of the manor.
The RECTORY MANOR was of considerable value in the 13th century, its lands extending into Dillington and Beachampstead. (fn. 90) It was held by the incumbent until the rectory was granted to the Charterhouse, London, by Richard II in 1381 and confirmed in 1394. A vicarage was then ordained and the manor appropriated to the Charterhouse, which held it until the Dissolution. It was granted in 1539 to Oliver Leader (Leder) of London and his wife Frances, with lands in Great Staughton. (fn. 91) The Leaders had for a long time been connected with Great Staughton. Thomas Leader was attorney for Edmund Creting in 1348. (fn. 92) John Fisher of Great Staughton was pardoned in 1402 for killing John Leader in 1400 in self-defence. (fn. 93) Thomas Leader died in 1502 seised of a messuage and lands in the parish, and was succeeded by a son and heir Stephen, (fn. 94) who later engaged in a lawsuit about land in Great Staughton. (fn. 95) The Leaders, after acquisition of this manor, evidently made it their country seat.
In 1543 Oliver Leader and Frances his wife acquired from Walter Devereux Lord Ferrers of Chartley, and Richard his son and heir, Whitley Wood and Rushoe, (fn. 96) which were held thereafter with this manor. In 1545 Oliver, who was one of the six clerks of Chancery, was proceeded against for alleged unlawful arrest in a lawsuit as to land in Beachampstead in this parish: (fn. 97) he acted also as arbitrator with Thomas Wauton. (fn. 98) In 1554, when he was sheriff of the county, there were riots regarding inclosures in his parks of Rushoe and Whitley. He instituted proceedings against Robert Sapcote and others who had in warlike manner broken down hedges, shot with crossbows at the keeper and his wife in the lodge, and at other servants whom they had driven into the moat surrounding the lodge, and killed and maimed deer. (fn. 99) Oliver Leader, in his pleadings, described these parks as consisting of 100 acres of pasture and 100 acres of wood, time out of mind imparked and replenished with deer, the ditches and hedges of which he had caused, about sixteen years before, to be newly scoured and amended, and there also made a great ditch and quickset hedge about the park for the safe keeping of his cattle, which he had peaceably enjoyed during the reign of Henry VIII, and until the December of the riot. Sir Oliver Leader, who had been knighted, (fn. 100) and his wife, Dame Frances, made settlements in 1550 and 1554, (fn. 101) and both died without issue in 1557, seised of the Rectory Manor and advowson and of the parks called Rushoe and Whitley in Great Staughton and Hail Weston, and of a chief messuage in Great Staughton, (fn. 102) which 'at the dayes of their deaths they did inhabit.' (fn. 103) This was obviously Place House, in view of Leland's note in the Itinerary: 'From St. Neots to Staughton Village by sum inclosed ground a 3 miles. . . Ther hard by the church is a praty house of Olyver Leaders and pratie comodities about it.' (fn. 104) Thomas Baldwin, the uncle and heir of Frances Leader, immediately on inheriting this manor, made a grant in July 1558, to Sir James Dyer, Chief Justice, (fn. 105) and his wife Margaret, of the chief messuage, 4 closes of pasture adjoining, the conduit, conduit head, pipes, etc., and the close where they stood, of Rusho Park with the house or lodge there, of other closes, including Rusho Stocking, Whitley Close, the Stocking, the Hall Yard or Garth and house built in the same, parcel whereof was held of the manor of Beachampstead, and of Priors Pasture (100 acres), with a cottage or house, in Great Staughton and Kimbolton, parcel of the possessions of the late priory of Stonley, and covenanted not to alienate or sell any of the residue of the lands of the late Frances Leader within 4 miles compass of Staughton, or to make any lease of the parsonage without consent of Sir James Dyer, if he should be disposed to purchase for himself or his friends any parcel of the same, or the lease of the parsonage. Thomas Baldwin died at Clerkenwell in 1560, leaving a son and heir John, who succeeded him in the manor, (fn. 106) where the Dyers continued to hold the chief messuage, etc., of the Baldwins. Sir James Dyer received a grant of land in Great Staughton in 1560–1, (fn. 107) and in 1568 some fresh lease of the rectory appears to have been made by John Baldwin. (fn. 108) Sir James died in 1580 (his wife Margaret had predeceased him in 1560), and was buried at Great Staughton. (fn. 109) In 1582 his grandnephew and successor, Sir Richard Dyer, instituted proceedings against George Wauton, apparently consequent upon an endeavour by George Wauton to assert some title in the property leased to the Dyers, as it was complained that George Wauton had forcibly entered the chief messuage, base court, etc., and damaged the conduit and watercourse which Elizabeth, George Wauton's mother, had 'suffered the late Sir James Dyer to quietly hold.' (fn. 110) Sir Richard was also in the same year defendant in a suit brought against him by James Farewell, of Great Staughton (fn. 111) (where the Farewells held, under assignment, a lease of the Crown or Cretingbury Manor from George Wauton). James Farewell asserted that he had occupied and enjoyed the rectory or parsonage house as tenant-at-will under Sir James Dyer, who by word of mouth and a codicil promised to be made in his will (as Sir Richard, his cousin and heir, should witness) had intended him to remain tenant after his death. Sir Richard denied the claim of James Farewell to hold the parsonage, mansion house, etc., for the alleged rent of £10, and certain supplies of wheat, malt, pease, straw and brawne for the provision of the house of Sir James. (fn. 112) Sir Richard died at Fetter Lane, London, in 1605, and his son, Sir William (aged 22), succeeded him in the chief messuage, Conduit Close, Rushoe Park, etc. (fn. 113) Sir William Dyer, of Great Staughton, in 1607 mortgaged lands in Great Staughton and Kimbolton, his sureties being Sir Edward Harrington, Bart., and William Fitzwilliams, who in 1614 instituted with him Chancery proceedings to recover the land 'given as security in his extreme youth,' from Gabriel and Roger Tudor. (fn. 114) There is a reference in 1613 to Sir William Dyer's Hall at Great Staughton, (fn. 115) where he was succeeded in 1621 by his son, Sir Lodovick Dyer, created a baronet in 1627. (fn. 116) Sir Lodovick in 1645 compounded for his demesnes at Great Staughton. (fn. 117) He died without surviving issue in 1669, and was buried at Colmworth, in Bedfordshire. (fn. 118) He probably sold Place House together with the manor of Beachampstead in 1653, and it has passed with that manor (q.v.) ever since.
Meanwhile the Baldwins had continued to hold the manor, and John Baldwin (fn. 119) made a settlement of the manor, rectory and advowson of Great Staughton held of the king in chief, except a messuage called the Hermitage and a tenement, formerly Lancasters, on the marriage of his son Thomas with Judith, daughter of Thomas Hawes, in 1599. He died in 1611, (fn. 120) leaving a son and heir, Thomas, aged 40. In 1621 Thomas Baldwin and his wife Judith conveyed the manor, rectory and advowson to his son John, (fn. 121) and later John and his wife Anne were dealing with the manor. (fn. 122) The advowson is said to have been sold by John in 1631 to the Viscountess Campden, and from her it passed to Archbishop Laud. Laud gave it to St. John's College, Cambridge, of which he was president, who are still the owners. (fn. 123) The rectory manor and advowson became separated after the sale to Lady Campden, the manor being retained by the Baldwins. John Baldwin died in 1657, and was buried at Staughton, where there is a tombstone to Robert Baldwin (d. 1678), who was presumably the Robert Baldwin dealing with an estate here in 1663. (fn. 124) Sir John Conyers, bt., of Horden (co. Durham), married in 1675 Mary, daughter of Edward Newman of Folkesworth and kinswoman of Robert Baldwin, who refers to Conyers in his will as his adopted son and left him residuary legatee. (fn. 125) John Conyers was apparently residing at Great Staughton in 1678, for a monument to his daughter Mary, who died in that year, was erected in the church. Sir Baldwin Conyers, his son, succeeded him in 1719, and was dealing with the rectory and lands in Great Staughton in 1720. (fn. 126) Sir Baldwin died in 1731, leaving only daughters, and was buried at Great Staughton with his son John, who predeceased him in 1729. The Conyers are said to have been succeeded in this rectory manor by Peter Ludlow, created baron in 1755, and Earl Ludlow in 1760. The remainder of the lease of one-fourth of the crown manor was sold to him in 1768, and after his death in 1803 the manor was apparently purchased by George Parker, who is returned as lord of the rectory manor and lessee of the crown manor in 1806. (fn. 127) Parker was succeeded by General Denzil Onslow (d. 1838), and he by his son Denzil (d. 1879). After being next held in succession by W. J. Raffety, Robert Worthe, and Edward Robotham, the rectory manor passed to Harry Pickersgill-Cunliffe (grandson of John Pickersgill), who was holding it before 1906, and died in 1919. His only surviving child, Enid Saffron, who married as her second husband Captain E. H. Duberly, M.C., late Grenadier Guards, is now lady of the manor.
The manor of DILLINGTON, Dellingtune, Dilincthon (xi cent.), Dylington (xiii cent.), was granted, with the manor of Great Staughton (q.v.), to the abbey of Ramsey, which retained the overlordship as late as 1518. (fn. 128) The 6 hides there entered in the Domesday Survey among the lands of the abbot had fallen in value from £6 in 1066 to £4 in 1086. (fn. 129) Between 1091 and 1100 Ralph, 'dapifer regis,' brother of Ilger, received a grant from Abbot Aldwin and the abbey of the vill of Dillington for life at £3 rent. (fn. 130) This manor, which pertained to the barony of the abbey, (fn. 131) was for over two centuries and a half held of the abbey by the Engaynes, Dengaynes (Gaynes). The first member of the family whom we find holding Dillington was Richard de Engayne, who in 1166, as one of the knights of the abbey, was holding 6 hides there. He married Sarah, daughter of William de Chesney, and died in 1208. (fn. 132) His elder son Richard died without issue and was succeeded by his brother, Vitalis or Viel, who in 1238 had licence to have a chapel in his manor of Dillington. (fn. 133) He assarted his woods at Dillington, and gave leave for assarting his wood between St. Mary Way and Wepetes towards Grafham, and his wood of Dudenhey, and common of pasture in his foreign wood called Westwood as far as the road leading from the chapel of St. Mary to Perry. (fn. 134) In 1244 he acknowledged the abbot's claim to the service of one knight and suit of court at Broughton from his lands at Dillington. (fn. 135) He died in 1248, and was succeeded by his eldest surviving son Henry, (fn. 136) who died without issue in 1271, seised of the manor of Dillington and the parks called Littlehey and Est Park. He was succeeded by his brother John, (fn. 137) who was returned in 1279 as holding 300 acres in demesne and a windmill. (fn. 138) John was succeeded by his son John in 1296, (fn. 139) who married Ellen, daughter of Robert FitzRoger, and in 1303 received a grant of free warren. (fn. 140) He complained in 1316 that John de Littlebury and others had broken into his park and carried off his deer. (fn. 141) In 1318 he settled the manor on his wife Ellen. (fn. 142) After his death without issue in 1322, (fn. 143) the manor was held as dower by his widow Ellen, who died in 1339. (fn. 144) John's heir was his nephew John, son of his brother Nicholas, who married Joan, daughter of Robert Peverel, and died in 1358. (fn. 145) His eldest son John, a minor, died in his father's lifetime; his widow, another Joan, married before 1358 William de Colville. Thomas, second son of John the elder, settled the manor on his wife Katherine, daughter of the Earl of Devon, and died without issue in 1367. (fn. 146) He was succeeded by his three sisters and coheirs: Joyce, married to John de Goldington; Elizabeth, married to Laurence de Pabenham; and Mary, married to William de Bernak, who were also the heirs of John de Offord through their mother Joan. John de Goldington and his wife Joyce were dealing, in 1369, with a part of the manor. (fn. 147) A partition of the property of Thomas Engayne made in 1372 between his coheirs comprised this manor, (fn. 148) and they were dealing with a portion of it in 1374. (fn. 149) The whole manor was in the hands of Sir William Bernak and his wife Mary in 1376, when a settlement of it in tail was made upon them. (fn. 150) Mary, having married secondly Thomas de la Zouche, died in 1401. (fn. 151) Her son, Sir John de Bernak, who succeeded, died in 1408, leaving a nine-year-old son and heir John, (fn. 152) who died while a minor in 1421, a few days before a younger brother Edmund, their two sisters, Joan and Mary, being the coheirs of the brothers. (fn. 153) Mary, who survived her sister, married Robert Stonham, and they were dealing with the manor in 1427, (fn. 154) when it was held for half a knight's fee. (fn. 155) Mary died a widow in 1464, (fn. 156) when her trustees granted an annuity out of the manor. (fn. 157) Mary Stonham had a son Robert, whose daughter and heir Elizabeth married John Broughton of Toddington (co. Bed.). (fn. 158) They had a son John, who married Anne Denston (d. 1481). It would appear that John and Anne had two sons, John, who died a minor, and Sir Robert, who succeeded to the estates and made a settlement of the manors of Gaynes or Gaynes Hall and Dillington, as the property was then called, on his marriage with Dorothy, sister of Richard Wentworth, and died in 1506. (fn. 159) His heir was his son John, who died in 1518, leaving a son and heir John, aged six at his father's death. A settlement was made for the proposed marriage of John Broughton, the son, with Dorothy, daughter of Thomas Duke of Norfolk, with remainder to John's (the father's) brother Robert (d. 1521). (fn. 160) John, son of John, died in 1529 while still a minor, leaving two sisters, Katherine and Anne, as his coheirs. They had livery of their lands in that year. (fn. 161) The wardship of Katherine was delivered to Agnes Duchess of Norfolk, (fn. 162) and that of Anne apparently to Sir Thomas Cheyne, to whom she was married. (fn. 163) Katherine was married to Agnes's son William, Lord Howard, before 1531, (fn. 164) and their only child married William Paulet, Marquis of Winchester, (fn. 165) with whom in 1592 she conveyed the site of the manor of Gaynes Hall to William Wallopp and Richard Beckenshaw. (fn. 166) The marquis died in 1598, and in 1599 his widow was dealing with the manor. (fn. 167) Later in the same year, with Sir Giles Broughton, kt., and his wife Katherine, her daughter, she conveyed to Oliver Williams, alias Cromwell, the uncle of the future Protector, the manors of Gaynes Hall, alias Gaynes Perry and Dillington. (fn. 168) In 1600 Oliver Cromwell, as of Godmanchester, assigned to Richard Cromwell of the same, his brother, a lease of Gaynes Park made to him in 1599 for 21 years by Agnes, Marchioness of Winchester, widow; (fn. 169) and in 1601 he, with his second wife Anne, conveyed the manors of Gaynes Hall, alias Gaynes Perry, alias Dillington, to Sir Thomas Lake, kt. (fn. 170)
In 1619 the manors of Gaynes Hall, alias Gaynes Perry and Dillington, with that of Grafham, were settled for the purpose of paying the heavy fines imposed on Sir Thomas Lake and Mary his wife (fn. 171) and Lady Roos, their daughter, for defamation of character of Lady Exeter. (fn. 172) Sir Thomas Lake died in 1629 at Canons (co. Middx.), where he lived in retirement. (fn. 173) His eldest son, Sir Thomas Lake, kt., settled the manors in 1634 and 1639, (fn. 174) and in 1636 he was prosecuting an appeal in the Court of Arches on behalf of John Franklin, his tenant at Gaines, concerning a demand by the minister, Mr. Gall, (fn. 175) and the churchwardens for repair of the church, described as then 'much ruinated.'
The year before his death, which took place in 1653, he conveyed the manor as Sir Thomas Lake, described as of Great Stanmore, Middlesex, kt., (fn. 176) and barred the entail created in 1619 upon himself and his brothers, Arthur who had died in 1633 and was survived by his widow Anne, and Lancelot who had died in 1646, leaving a son Lancelot, knighted at Whitehall in 1660. In 1663 Lancelot the son, with Dorothy and Elizabeth Lake, the daughters and coheirs of Sir Thomas Lake, his grandfather, Mary Lake, widow, William Bokenham and Matilda his wife, Richard Gedes, Thomas Mann and Elizabeth his wife, and Ann Bigg, widow, conveyed the manor to Thomas Harris, of the Inner Temple, (fn. 177) by whom and by Dorothy Lake, then his wife, with Elizabeth Lake her sister, and Thomas Mann of Yoxford, co. Suffolk, the manor in 1664 was sold in two moieties to Sir James Beverley, kt., of Lincoln's Inn, for £11,330. (fn. 178) Sir James Beverley was buried in 1670 in the Gaynes chapel in Great Staughton Church, and Thomas and James Beverley were dealing with the manor in 1674. (fn. 179) In 1693 it was vested in trustees for sale, and in 1698 it was sold, again for £11,330, to Sir Henry Summers, merchant, to whom it was conveyed by the trustees, with Thomas Webster of St. Martin-in-the-Fields and his wife Elizabeth, daughter and heir of James Beverley, late of Begura (Beggary ?), in Eaton, co. Bed., the eldest son of Sir James Beverley; Thomas Beverley the younger, of the Inner Temple, son of Thomas Beverley the elder, of London, and next brother of James Beverley, late of Gaynes, deceased (which James was the eldest son of Thomas Beverley the father), and Mary wife of the said Thomas Beverley; Robert Beverley, clerk, brother of the last named James and of Thomas Beverley party to the sale; Dame Priscilla Beverley of London, widow of Sir James Beverley; Anne Beverley of London, widow of James Beverley; Thomas Docwra of Putteridge (co. Herts), executor of Jane Beverley, deceased, daughter of Sir James Beverley, and Richard Prince. (fn. 180) The next owners of the manor seem to have been the Handasydes. Thomas Handasyde, at one time Governor of Jamaica, appears in the vicars' books in 1717, and died in 1729, when his son, General Roger Handasyde, Governor of Berwick in 1745, succeeded him at Gaynes, (fn. 181) and died in 1763. George Handasyde was dealing with the manor in 1769, (fn. 182) and in 1771 it was conveyed with the chief messuage, parks, etc., to Elizabeth Galley, of Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, widow, as heretofore the property of Clifford and George Handasyde. (fn. 183) It was conveyed by her in 1777, together with the reversionary interest of John Cheshyre of Bennington (co. Herts.) and his wife Juliana, to Henry Galley. In 1786, for the purpose of barring the entail on Sir John Cheshyre, deceased, late of Isleworth (co. Middx.), kt., sergeant-at-law, it was released by Henry Galley to John Cheshyre and Julianna, and by them conveyed for settlement to Vicary Gibbs. (fn. 184) It was purchased about 1797 by Sir James Duberly, kt., who died in 1832. His eldest son, James Duberly of Gaynes Hall, who served in the 11th Light Dragoons, was present at Waterloo, and married Emily Hannah, daughter of Col. the Hon. William Grey, brother of the first Earl Grey. He died in 1864. His son William was a captain in the Grenadier Guards, and High Sheriff in 1884. He died in 1888, and was succeeded by his son Grey William Duberly, killed in action in 1915, whose widow, the Hon. Mrs. Duberly, now resides at Gaynes Hall, and her brother-in-law, Capt. Evelyn Hugh James Duberly, is now lord of the manor.
With the manor in Dillington, held of the Abbot of Ramsey from an early date, there had descended in the family of Engayne a property at PERRY (partly in Grafham, partly in Great Staughton) held of the fee of Lovetot. These properties descended together and were together divided into the moieties which became known as Gaynes Hall and Dillington. When, however, the moieties were reunited and Perry had come to be identified with them, the descriptions Gaynes Perry and Dillington Perry became adopted. (fn. 185)
At the Domesday Survey a hide in Perry was held of the Sheriff Eustace by Aluuin Deule. Its value of 40s. in 1066 had remained unchanged in 1086; there was a church there, and woodland for pannage a league in length and 4 furlongs in breadth. (fn. 186) William de Perry was dealing with half a virgate in Perry in 1218–19. (fn. 187) In 1272 this property was in the hands of the Engaynes, who held it of Eustace's successors, the Lovetots, and Henry Engayne died seised of 100 acres of arable, 2 acres of meadow, and 15s. rent held for one hide of land of Roger de Lovetot. (fn. 188) Roger's heir was Thomas de Lovetot, (fn. 189) who in 1279 was holding Perry as half a knight's fee of the fee of Lovetot, and under him Henry Engayne's son John, who had in demesne in arable land 80 acres of old and 60 acres of new assart, for which he paid the king 2s. yearly. (fn. 190)
In this half-fee were evidently included 140 acres of arable in the field called Gerard Stocking in East Perry in Grafham held of John de Lovetot by the service of a quarter of a knight's fee by John D'Engayne at his death in 1323. (fn. 191) William de Perry was one of the principal tenants of Adam de Creting in his manor of Great Staughton in 1279. (fn. 192)
The manor of BEACHAMPSTEAD, Bichamestede (xii cent.); Brichamstede (xiii cent.); Bychamstede, Bischamstede (xiv cent.); Bechamstede (xvii cent.), was held at an early date of the honour of Huntingdon, and between 1140–53 Earl Simon de St. Liz gave to Odo de Danmartin lands there and in Southoe, which Earl Simon III (1153–84) confirmed to Aubrey de Danmartin (brother of Odo) and his son Reginald. (fn. 193) Rents from lands in Southoe and Beachampstead were paid by Reginald de Danmartin Count of Boulogne, in 1194 and 1197. (fn. 194) The lands seem to have been forfeited probably as lands of the Normans, and early in the 13th century came into the possession of Julian de la Haye, (fn. 195) who gave certain woods here as dower to Sanicula, the wife of his son Maurice. In 1231, when Sanicula had been a widow ten years, she brought an action against Parnell, widow of Saher de la Haye, apparently son of Maurice, who had died during his minority, regarding the lands of their dowries. (fn. 196) Three years earlier Parnell, daughter of Geoffrey, had brought an action against some of her tenants of Beachampstead for customs and services which she held in dower by gift of Saher, formerly her husband, the heir being under age. (fn. 197) This heir was probably Julian de la Haye, who claimed rights in the woods of Agden here in 1240–1 and 1248–9. (fn. 198)
Julian had been succeeded before 1271–2 by Ingelram del Hay, who in that year was dealing with land in Beachampstead. (fn. 199)
By 1279 the manor had become deeply subinfeudated. The quarter of a fee in Beachampstead was held of Robert de Brus as of the honour of Huntingdon by Ingelram de la Hay, of Ingelram by Henry de Walpole, and of Henry by Geoffrey Beaufuy (Beaufoe, Beufitz, de Bealfo, or de Belafago). With his messuage there Geoffrey Beaufuy held 180 acres of arable land; the mowing of Mockespol Meadow and keeping of Agden Wood were included among the services of his villeins. (fn. 200)
One of the mesne lordships was probably eliminated in 1281 by the grant of 2 carucates in Beachampstead from Henry de Walpole and his wife Isabella to Geoffrey de Beaufuy and his wife Amice. (fn. 201) In 1356 Alice, widow of John Beaufuy, held at her death a property in Beachampstead, where there was a messuage burnt and devastated, lands and rents held of the king in chief as of the honour of Huntingdon, a croft called Greggiscroft held of John Dengayne, and 6 acres held of Edmund de Creting. Her heir, John son of William de Beaufuy, was of full age, but since her death the issues had been received by Sir Roland Daneys, kt., by grant of the king. (fn. 202)
In 1316 Dillington and Beachampstead were held as one vill by John Dengayne and Peter de Croft. (fn. 203) In the same year Peter de Croft was returned as holding a quarter of a fee in Beachampstead, claimed by Richard de Waleys and Eleanor his wife, formerly the wife of Robert de Brus, as part of the dower of Eleanor in the forfeited estates of Robert. (fn. 204) A Hugh Croft was dealing with land in Beachampstead in 1341–2. (fn. 205)
A manor or manors of BEAUFOES or BEUFITZ and CROFTS in Beachampstead was held in 1377 by Nicholas Stukeley, (fn. 206) and descended with the Stukeleys' manor of Great Stukeley (q.v.) to Laurence Torkington, (fn. 207) who with William Sterne and his wife Bridget in 1561 conveyed the manors to Sir James Dyer, kt., (fn. 208) already holding with his Rectory Manor, the hall, yard and house in the same, held of the manor of Beachampstead. (fn. 209) Sir Richard Dyer, grandnephew and heir of Sir James, granted an annuity in 1603 to his third son, Richard, out of his manor of Beachampstead, (fn. 210) described at his death in 1605 as the manor of 'Croftes alias Beaufittes alias Beachampstead.' (fn. 211) From his son William, who then inherited it, and who dealt with it as the manor of Beachampstead in 1609, (fn. 212) it passed to his son Sir Lodovick, who dealt with it in 1628. (fn. 213) In 1653 it was conveyed by Sir Lodovick Dyer, Richard Dyer, Katherine Dyer, widow, and Doyley Dyer to Sir Edward Coke, bart. (fn. 214) Sir Edward Coke, the youngest son of the celebrated Lord Chief Justice, married Katherine, sister and heir of Sir Lodovick Dyer, whose only child Henry had died in 1637. Sir Edward died in 1669. His son, Sir Robert, died without issue in 1687, as did the latter's brother and heir, Sir Edward, in 1727, all being buried at Langford (co. Derby). (fn. 215) Before this date, however, the manor had passed from the Cokes and was in 1717 held by John Howe, (fn. 216) the son, it is thought, of the eminent physician, Dr. George Howe, and of Letitia Foley. (fn. 217) John Howe was dead in 1729, and left only female issue. (fn. 218) Sophia, his daughter, married Christopher Walter, and in 1740 they conveyed the manor to Charles Clarke and Robert Palmer with warranty against the heirs of Sophia. (fn. 219) Arthur Walter in 1753 was dealing with it with Mary Walter, widow, (fn. 220) and his nephew was lord of the manor at the passing of the Inclosure Act in 1806. He died in 1821. (fn. 221) In 1822 Sophia Walter, Giles Smith and Anna Maria Eloisa his wife, James Stokes and Sophia Howe his wife, Richard Walter and Mary his wife, Arthur Walter and Adele Adelaide his wife, Christopher Walter, John Parr Walter, William Walter and Charles Walter (fn. 222) sold the manor which has now been held for some generations by the Duberlys with Gaynes.
Lymage Farm, in the north-west of the parish, appears to represent a manor of LIMINGE (Lymynge xiii cent.) which was granted by King John with the manors of Alconbury and Old Weston to Earl David of Scotland, (fn. 223) and descended with Brampton, Alconbury (q.v.) and other demesne manors of the honour of Huntingdon until the 16th century. John de Hastings in 1302 received a grant of free warren in Brampton and Liminge, (fn. 224) and in 1317 he obtained licence to grant Limage manor, as a member of his manor of Brampton, and held in chief, to William de Brom and Ascelina his wife, and John, son of the said William, for their lives. (fn. 225) It was held for life by John Waldegrave le Fitz, at whose death in 1349 it reverted to the Hastings family. During the minority of John, son of Laurence Hastings, the manor was in the wardship of Sir John Dengayne, kt. (fn. 226) Thomas, son and heir of John Dengayne of Dillington, was in 1359 pardoned the damage done by his father to houses and trees belonging to the manor of Limage while it was in his wardship. (fn. 227) The custody of the manor was in 1363 given to the King's clerk, John de Ditton, and in 1375 was granted as dower to Anne, widow of John de Hastings. (fn. 228) In 1543 Thomas Grey, who had succeeded to the manor from the Hastings, and Anne his wife conveyed it with tenements in Kimbolton and Stonley to Robert Burgoyne of London. (fn. 229)
It continued to be held by the Burgoynes, and was in 1651 allotted in moieties by an indenture of partition between Peter Burgoyne of the city of Coventry, Sir John Burgoyne of Sutton, co. Bed., bart., and Edward Cater of Kempstone, co. Bed. (1st part), and Jonathan Andrewes of the city of London, merchant (2nd part). (fn. 230) In 1655 the manor (or a moiety) was sold by Sir John Burgoyne, Edward Cater, Henry Porter of Parkwood (co. Warwick), and Robert Burgoyne of Sutton, son and heir of the above Peter Burgoyne, to Christopher Mercer, of the town of Cambridge, (fn. 231) after whose death it was conveyed, in 1673, to Francis Jaggard, citizen and grocer of London, by John Swale and his wife Ann, only surviving daughter of Christopher Mercer. (fn. 232) Francis Jaggard (d. 1680) bequeathed the moiety bought by him to John Jaggard, his brother and executor, citizen and merchant tailor of London, by whom and by Elizabeth, wife of the said John Jaggard, it was sold in 1682 to William Ingram, citizen and tallow-chandler of London, with fishings, franchises, courts, etc., appurtenant to the same in Limage, (fn. 233) as the manor of Lymage. In 1701 William Ingram and his wife Susan conveyed a moiety of the manor to William Welby. (fn. 234) The manor was being dealt with in 1734 by William Welby, (fn. 235) presumably his nephew and heir, who died in 1792 and whose only son, Sir William Earle Welby, was created a baronet in 1801 as of Denton, and died in 1815. His son, Sir William Earle Welby, 2nd bart., who succeeded him in the baronetcy and survived until 1852, appears to have bestowed the manor in his lifetime on his son and successor, Glynne Earle Welby, who was dealing with the manor of Lymage in 1827, (fn. 236) and succeeded him in the baronetcy in 1852. He assumed in 1875, the year of his death, the additional name of Gregory, now borne by his son Sir William Earle Welby-Gregory, 4th bart. (fn. 237)
The hamlet of AGDEN GREEN (Akeden', xiii cent.) probably represents one of the three berewicks returned in the Domesday Survey as held by the Confessor with Paxton. (fn. 238) The de la Hays held with their lands in Beachampstead (where its history has been given) a wood in Agden where rights of estover, etc., were in 1240–1 and 1248–9 held by Reginald, parson of Paxton. The Aungevins held lands at Agden and at Beachampstead, and William Aungevin, who in 1279 owned half the site of the mill at Beachampstead, had granted 6 acres of land to the Priory of Stonley. (fn. 239) With lands held by the priory at its dissolution and granted with the priory to Oliver Leader and his wife Frances in 1544, were included messuages in Great Staughton, common of pasture in Agden, and Agden mills. (fn. 240) In 1552 tofts, a windmill, lands, etc., in Agden Green were granted with the site of the late priory and appurtenances in Great Staughton, Kimbolton, and Stonley by Oliver Leader and his wife Frances to Thomas Mary Wingfield, and his wife Margaret. (fn. 241) Tenements in Great Staughton were conveyed by Sir James Wingfield, kt., and his wife Margaret to Sir Henry Montagu, kt., Sergeant-at-law in 1615, (fn. 242) and to him again as Henry Earl of Manchester, in 1633. (fn. 243)
A windmill in Great Staughton was in 1598 conveyed to John Baldwin by Edward, Thomas and Oliver Woodley. (fn. 244)
The manor of BLAYSWORTH was apparently held of the chief manor of Great Staughton (q.v.) by the Daneys family and may have been brought to them like Offord Darcy (q.v.) through the marriage of William le Daneys with Emma, daughter of Robert de Offord. In 1241 a knight's fee in Blaysworth was conveyed by John le Daneys to William le Daneys his brother. (fn. 245) The manor was apparently reconveyed to John, as free warren in their demesne lands in Blaysworth was in 1254 granted at the instance of Nicholas de Boleville to William de Boleville and Ella his wife who was daughter and coheir of John le Daneys, (fn. 246) In 1261 William le Daneys, grandson of Richard. brother of the above mentioned William le Daneys, sued Richard Pauncefot and Isabella his wife, the younger William's cousin, for 2 carucates of land (fn. 247) in Blaysworth which he claimed as heir of Ella. William lost his suit owing to a technical error in his description in the pleadings. Isabella retained possession and granted the manor in her widowhood about 1270 to the Priory of Bushmead (co. Bed.), and a little later Nicholaa, Margery and Beatrice Crioll, as ladies of the manor of Great Staughton in consideration of the affection of their mother Maud de Crioll to the priory, where she was buried, and for the health of the souls of their mother, of themselves and of Roger de Rollinges, released to the canons all reliefs and suits. (fn. 248) Isabella's grant was disputed in 1286 by Brice le Daneys, who claimed the lands as heir of Ella le Daneys, who married William de Boleville and died without heir of her body. He pleaded that on the death of Ella the fee went to Richard le Daneys, her uncle, brother of John, Ella's father; from Richard it descended to William his son, then to his son William, and so to Brice, son of the latter William. The prior contended that others besides Ella held the lands and amongst them was Isabella (Pauncefot), daughter of Maud, who was Ella's kinswoman and heir. The record of the case is unfinished. (fn. 249) The priory was holding the manor of Adam de Creting in 1279 (fn. 250) and, at the Dissolution, held in Blaysworth in the parish of Great Staughton a rent of 40s. (fn. 251) In 1537 all the lands in Blaysworth formerly held by the Prior of Bushmead were granted to Sir William Gascoigne and Elizabeth his wife (fn. 252) and in 1545 licence to alienate them together with the site of the priory, to Anthony Cokett of London was given to Sir John Gascoigne of Cardington (co. Bed.), son and heir of Sir William. (fn. 253) Blaysworth seems to have passed with the site of the priory in 1562 to William Gery, (fn. 254) who died seised of lands in Great Staughton in 1592, (fn. 255) leaving a son William who died in 1596. His son Richard died in 1638, leaving a son William. William married Anne daughter of Sir William Dyer of Great Staughton in 1633, when these lands formed part of the marriage settlement. (fn. 256) He suffered heavily on behalf of the royalist cause and died before the Restoration. His son William retired abroad complaining that he had been 'plundered to his shirt.' The existence of this property as a manor is lost sight of from this time, but the lands apparently remained in the possession of the Gery family and their descendants the Wade Gerys. (fn. 257)
Mention of the Moor occurs in accounts of tenants of the Cretings' manor, some of whom were also tenants of the Priory of Huntingdon in 1279.
At this date Geoffrey, son of Everard de Staughton, (fn. 258) held half a knight's fee in Great Staughton of Anselm de Gyse by homage and foreign service: he had in demesne 120 acres of arable land and a messuage, garden, etc.; his free tenants included William Scohisfot, who held a messuage and common rights in the pasture called the More. This hamlet of the Moor belongs now chiefly to Mr. Richard Wade-Gery.
The Church of ST. ANDREW consists of a chancel (36 ft. by 16 ft.) with north vestry (14 ft. by 10½ ft.), north chapel (15 ft. by 12¾ ft.), nave (58½ ft. by 20 ft.), north aisle (10½ ft. wide), south aisle (13¾ ft. wide), west tower (14¾ ft. by 14¾ ft.) and south porch. The walls are of stone and pebble rubble except the tower, which is of coursed rubble, and stone dressings. The roofs are covered with lead, tiles and slates.
The church is mentioned in the Domesday Survey (1086), but nothing of this early date remains in situ. At the end of the 13th century a gradual rebuilding was commenced by piercing three arches in each side wall of the nave, and this was quickly followed by an extension of the arcades by two western bays, the building of the aisles and rebuilding of the chancel. In the 14th century the south aisle was rebuilt and widened and a porch added, and the north aisle was partly rebuilt. In the latter half of the 15th century a considerable reconstruction took place; the nave arcades were rebuilt, using much of the old materials, a rood staircase formed and a clearstory added, the chancel arch and the east wall of the chancel being rebuilt. Somewhat later, a chapel known as the Gaynes chapel was erected on the north side of the chancel and the west tower was built. The vestry was built in 1526. In 1636 the church was said to be 'much ruinated' and a large sum was spent in repairs. (fn. 259) Considerable repairs were effected in 1848–50, and a complete restoration took place in 1866.
The late 13th-century chancel has a late 15th-century five-light window in the east wall. In the north wall one original lancet window remains, an early 15th-century window has been cut down to the floor and converted at some uncertain date into an opening to the north chapel, (fn. 260) and an early 16th-century doorway opens into the vestry. The south wall has an early 15th-century square-headed three-light window partly blocked by a 17th-century monument, a two-light window of c. 1300, another of c. 1340 forming a low-side window, and an original doorway. The late 15th-century chancel arch is two centred, of two chamfered orders, the lower resting on semi-circular shafts with moulded capitals and bases; the gable above has a sanctus-bell cot, which still retains its bell. The walls have lost their parapets, and the roof is modern and very flat, but two 15th-century tie-beams remain.
The north vestry has a modern two-light window in the east wall. The words 'Aō. Dō. 1526 E. Nel.' have been boldly cut on the north parapet. The contemporary roof has cambered tie-beams.
The north chapel, probably built about 1455, has a blocked three-light east window; on the north side is a shallow bay having a three-light window in its north wall and very small square-headed lights at the sides, and arched over with a panelled vault having three bosses carved with shields, (fn. 261) viz.: (1) in the centre, [Argent] on a cross [Sable] six escallops [Or] (Stonham), impaling [Argent] a horse-barnacle [Sable] (Barnack); (2) [Gules] a fesse dancette between seven crosses croslet [Or] (Engaine), impaling [Argent] two pales [Sable] (should be paly, for Burgatt); (3) [Argent] a cross engrailed [Vert] (Noon), impaling [Argent] three boars' heads couped [Gules] (Swinford). On the south is the altered window of the chancel, previously mentioned, and on the west is a modern arch to the aisle.
The 15th-century nave has an arcade of five bays on each side, having two centred arches of two chamfered orders resting on circular columns with moulded capitals and bases. The two eastern bays on each side are narrower than the others and perhaps indicate an earlier nave of only three bays, increased to five bays in the 13th century; but the whole was rebuilt (with the exception of the three western bays on the south) in the 15th century, when much of the old materials was used. The 15th-century rood-stairs remain in the south-east corner, both doorways being intact, and the contemporary clearstory has five two-light windows on each side. The modern roof is of hammer-beam type, (fn. 262) and the jack-legs stand on 15th-century carved stone corbels. The parapets are embattled, and the east gable has a sanctus-bell cot and bell.
The 14th-century north aisle has three 15th-century two-light windows and a doorway of c. 1300 in the north wall, and a 15th-century three-light window in the west wall. The roof is modern.
The mid-14th-century south aisle has an original three-light window with reticulated tracery in the east wall; in the south wall are three similar two-light windows, and a contemporary doorway with moulded arch resting on jambs having two engaged shafts with carved caps; the door itself has a 16th-century ornamental iron lock-plate. The west wall has a three-light window like that at the east end. The roof is modern.
The early 16th-century west tower (fn. 263) has a two-centred tower-arch of three moulded orders resting on attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases. The west doorway has a two-centred arch in a square head with traceried spandrils; above it is a four-light window. The next stage has a blocked recess on the west front, a two-light window on the south and a small opening above the roof on the east. The belfry windows are coupled two-lights with transoms. There is a broad plinth enriched with a band of quatrefoils: the buttresses stand square at the angles and rise to the sills of the belfry windows, at which point the walls are recessed and above the windows is a band of cusped lozenges; the whole being finished with an embattled parapet having crocketed pinnacles at the angles.
The mid-14th-century south porch has a two-centred arch with continuous mouldings in the south wall, and a modern two-light in each of the side walls. The porch has a mean slated roof and has been much mutilated and modernised.
The 13th-century font is a plain octagon; the upper part appears to be only roughly worked. It bears faint traces of red and black paint. It stands on a central and four smaller shafts, all modern. (fn. 264)
There are six bells, inscribed (1) '✠ To the Glory of God and in memory of those from this Parish who gave their lives in the Great War, 1919. J. W. Wragg, Vicar, C. W. Pearson, R. Ekins, Churchwardens.' (2) 'I H S. Nazarenvs Rex Ivdeorvm fili Dei miserere mei, 1633.' (3) 'Edmond Ibbott, Raphe Paine, C. 1633.' (4) 'Hac in conclaue Gabriel nunc pange suaue.' (5) 'John Appleby, Vicar, Edwd. S . . . A . . . (fn. 265) & John Rose, Churchwardens. Robt. Taylor, St. Neots, fecit, 1787.' (6) 'George Wauton Esquier, 1600. George (fn. 266) Walkre, Minister, George Darter, Willim Glover, Churchwardens.' A sanctus bell (blank) hanging in its cote and roped. In 1552 there were four bells and a sanctus bell. (fn. 267) In 1711 there were five large bells and the sanctus bell. (fn. 268) The bells were quarter-turned in 1901, and again rehung and a new treble added by Messrs. John Warner and Sons, in 1926.
At the west end of the nave is an oak screen formed of materials of two periods: the upper part being the back of a seat, inscribed 'Of your Charyte Pray For The Good Astate Of Olyver Leder and frances hys Wyfe, Anno dñi. 1539'; the lower, parts of the 17th-century pulpit. They were put together in their present form in 1903.
The chancel has a dado of 17th-century panelling, and the contemporary altar-rails have turned and twisted balusters.
The indents of four brasses remain in the chancel (1) An inscription plate and two shields, probably early 15th century; (2) covered by the seats, but the indent of a shield is visible; (3) a civilian and wife with children, two inscription plates, &c., early 16th century; (4) almost worn away.
There are several ancient stones lying loose in the church, including a corbel carved with a demi-angel holding a chalice, 15th century; and in the north chapel is an early 17th-century funeral helm and a pair of gauntlets, lying upon the Beverley monument.
In the chancel is a large double monument to Sir James Deyer, kt., d. 1582, and Margaret (Barrowe) his wife, d. 1560, and Sir Richard Deyer, kt., his great-nephew, d. 1605, and Marie (Fitzwilliam) his wife, d. 1601. The monument is of two bays with Corinthian columns supporting a cornice surmounted by obelisks and Elizabethan strap-work inclosing two shields of arms; in each half are kneeling figures of husband and wife facing each other under a double arch; the monument is carried by a heavy bracketed corbel enriched with shields of arms; and the whole is painted in colours; the eastern half was made by Sir Richard and the western half by his son.
In the north chapel a table-tomb to Sir James Beverley, kt., d. 1670, has a moulded top, panelled sides, and a shield of arms at each end.
At the east end of the south aisle is a monument to Sir George Wauton, eques auratus, d. 1606. The recumbent effigy rests on a stout stone shelf supported by two figures in Roman costume; behind the effigy is a shield of arms in a circular medallion flanked by double pilasters and with a shaped cornice over all.
There are other monuments: in the chancel, to Sarah, wife of John Spencer, and Sarah their daughter, d. 1632; Christopher and Mary, infant children of John Conyers, d. 1679; Sir John Conyers, bart, d. 1719, and Mary [Newman] his wife, d. 1714; Sir Baldwin Conyers, bart, d. 1731, John his son, d. 1729, and Margaret his wife, d. 1758; the Rev. Richard Walters, d. 1785, and Jane his wife, d. 1813; the Rev. James Pope, Vicar, d. 1822; the Rev. Thomas Clare, Vicar, d. 1830; General Denzil Onslow, d. 1838, Denzil his son, d. 1879, and Henry Cope, another son, d. 1870; the Rev. Henry Bristow Wilson, Vicar, d. 1888, and his father the Rev. Harry Bristow Wilson, d. 1853; William Stephen Watson, d. 1900; John Reynolds Pickersgill-Cunliffe, d. 1914; Harry Pickersgill-Cunliffe, d. 1919; and Harry Hardwick, d. 1927; floor slabs to John Baldwin, d. 1657; Anna wife of John Baldwin, d. 1663; Robert Baldwin, d. 1678, and Mary, daughter of John Conyers, d. 1678; Christopher William, son of Baldwin Conyers, d. 1703; Edward, 5th son of Sir John and Mary Conyers, d. 1705, and Ann Ward, daughter of Jane Ward, d. 1665; and glass windows to Frances Cox Robotham, erected 1900; and Emma Murfine, d. 1907.
In the north chapel, to Sir James Beverley, kt., d. 1670; Major General Thomas Handasyd, d. 1729, General Roger Handasyd, d. 1763, and Mrs. Ann Proby, sister of Roger, d. 1777; Sir James Duberly, kt., d. 1832, and his daughters Caroline, d. 1812, and Emily, d. 1819; Etheldred (St. Barbe), widow of Sir James Duberly, d. 1859; Cecil Vesey Duberly, d. 1878, Louisa, Lady Sandys, d. 1886, and William Duberly, d. 1888; Emily Hannah (Grey), widow of James Duberly, d. 1883; Charles Conrad Grey Duberly, d. 1893; Grey William Duberly, d. 1915; and glass windows to James Duberly, d. 1864, and Frederic James his son, d. 1851.
In the nave, War Memorial, 1914–19.
In the north aisle, to Lieut.-Col. Henry Duberly, d. 1890; Robert Moulton, d. 1895; South African War Memorial, 1899–1902; Martha Embleton, d. 1912; James Duberly, d. 1912; Grey William Duberly, d. 1915; Vernon Conrad Duberly, d. 1916.
In the south aisle, to the wife of James Nicholson, d. 1783; the Rev. John Negus, Vicar, d. 1785, and his wife, d. 1784; Margaret wife of John Byrn, d. 1794; and glass windows to the Rev. James Pope, Vicar, d. 1822; Elizabeth wife of Thomas Henry Murfin, d. 1872; and William Stephen Watson, d. 1900.
In the tower glass window to Thomas Henry Murfin, d. 1885.
The registers are as follows: (i) Baptisms, marriages and burials, 28 March 1540 to 22 Oct. 1652; (ii) the same, 17 Dec. 1653 to 24 July 1701; (iii) the same, 27 Sept. 1702 to — Oct. 1747; marriages end 24 July 1726; (iv) the same, 12 Feb. 1747 to 27 Dec. 1801; marriages end 24 Dec. 1759; (v) baptisms and burials, 4 Jan. 1802 to 29 Dec. 1812; (vi) the official marriage book, 7 June 1754 to 9 March 1804; (vii) the same, 29 March 1804 to 16 Nov. 1812.
The church plate consists of a large silver cup inscribed 'M. S. Carissimae suae conjugis Sophiae, Quae obiit 1 mo. Feb. Anno Dom. 1750, Ætat. 31, et sepulta jacet in hoc Templo, Dono Dedit C. Walter' and with coat of arms, Azure a fesse dancette between three eagles displayed Or; on a shield of pretence quarterly 1 and 4, Argent a fesse between three lions' heads rased gules, 2 and 3, Or, on a fesse gules three - - - for Christopher Walter and his wife Sophia, dau. of Col. John Howe, by his wife . . . dau. of White Kennett, Bishop of Peterborough, hall-marked for 1751–2; a silver standing paten with same inscription, arms and hall-mark, and inscribed 'Staughton Magna' on back; a silver alms dish as last; a silver chalice, inscribed 'Presented to St. Andrew's Church, Great Staughton, by the Members of Mrs. Gibson's Working Guild, 1894' hall-marked for 1886–7; a silver standing paten hall-marked for 1909–10; a plated chalice with no inscription.
The Domesday Survey (1086) mentions a priest and a church in the Bishop of Lincoln's manor, (fn. 269) and the church was in 1178 confirmed by Pope Alexander III to the Abbey of Ramsey, (fn. 270) whose protest against the bishop's tenure of this manor was recorded in the Survey. There is also mention in the Survey of a church in Perry that was represented in 1492 by the chapel of Perry to which Walter Brey then made a bequest. (fn. 271) Although the tenants of Eustace the sheriff, under-tenant of the bishop in 1086, are not found in the bishop's manor, they appear for a time to have retained rights in the church, as in 1238 when Vitalis Engayne was licensed to have a chapel (fn. 272) in the court of his manor house at Dillington within the parish of Staughton church, the consent of Sir Geoffrey de Mandevill, kt., the patron of Great Staughton, as well as that of Ralph, rector there, had first been obtained. (fn. 273) By 1279 the advowson was held with the manor, and Anselm de Gyse was patron. (fn. 274) With the manor it was held after Anselm again by Adam de Creting and his successors, and frequent grants of it were made by them with 2 acres of land in the manor appurtenant to it. After the death of John de Creting disputes resulted from grants made by his widow Hawise (remarried to Geoffrey de Drayton) with her dower third of that manor (q.v.). The advowson was claimed in 1363 by Laurence de Pabenham as nephew and heir of John de Offord, but his claim was disputed on the ground that John de Offord had held only under a grant made by Hawise, then already dead, and that the advowson was appurtenant to the manor of Edmund de Creting, of whose inheritance she had held it. (fn. 275) The church was valued in 1291 at £26 13s. 4d. (fn. 276) The foundation of the Charterhouse (1371) (fn. 277) was followed by efforts on the part of the prior to secure the right of advowson from the king. (fn. 278) In 1377 Richard II acquired 2 acres of land in Great Staughton and the advowson of the church from Thomas de Wells (of co. Norfolk), (fn. 279) and in 1381 granted the same to the prior and convent of the Charterhouse. (fn. 280) This appropriation was confirmed by the pope, but on the ground that it had been obtained by false suggestion on the part of Charterhouse, efforts were made to oust the priory, which in 1393 had obtained a decree in Chancery confirming its rights, (fn. 281) which were again confirmed to it in 1394. In 1419 a dispute between the perpetual vicar and the priory of Charterhouse was terminated by a release to the priory of all personal actions. (fn. 282) The rectory, appropriated to the Charterhouse, was valued at the Dissolution at £38 yearly and the vicarage at £20, (fn. 283) and the advowson was granted with the rectory as part of the possessions of Charterhouse to Oliver Leader in 1539, its subsequent history being given in that of the rectory manor (q.v.) (fn. 284)
Tithes in Perry in Great Staughton were in 1771 conveyed by George Elliott and others to Robert Godley senior; (fn. 285) and tithes in Great Staughton by William Henry Chauncey and others to Henry Galley in 1775; (fn. 286) and by John Hughes and his wife Sarah to Bernard Baldwin in 1787. (fn. 287)
The following charities constitute the Great Staughton parish charities and are regulated by a scheme of the Charity Commissioners dated 23 May 1865:—
The Town Field Charity consists of an allotment of 24 a. 3 r. 37 pls. allotted on the inclosure of the parish in or about 1808 to the minister and churchwardens, the rents to be applied to the poor in bread.
The Poor's Estate consists of certain pieces of land at Agden Green in the parish containing 3 a. 1 r. 3 pls., allotted on the above-mentioned inclosure to the minister and churchwardens and 4 cottages at Agden Green, the rents to be applied in bread to the poor.
The Rectory Dole. The endowment of this charity consists of a rentcharge of the value of 4 bushels of wheat and 10 bushels of barley secured upon an estate in the parish which was allotted in lieu of the rectorial tithes. The value thereof is distributed to the poor in bread.
Shudbolt's Gift. Edward Shudbolt, in or about 1806, gave £20 to the minister and churchwardens the interest to be distributed among poor widows.
Rachael Johnson's Charity consists of an annuity or annual sum of 18s. payable out of the net income of the Poor's Estate aforesaid.
The Church Lands Charity consists of a piece of land in the moors in the parish containing 1 r. 22 pls. and a piece of land in Agden Green aforesaid containing 1 r. 2 pls. allotted on the aforesaid inclosure to the minister and churchwardens.
The Bell Rope Charity. Certain pieces of land situate in the Town Field at Great Staughton containing 2 a. 1 r. 13 pls. were allotted upon the aforesaid inclosure to the minister and churchwardens.
By an order of the Charity Commissioners dated 25 February 1896 the Church Land Charity and the Bell Rope Charity were separated from the rest of the Great Staughton parish charities and called the Great Staughton Ecclesiastical Charity. The income of the charity, amounting to about £4 per annum in rent, is carried to the churchwardens' account and applied towards church expenses and repairs to the bellropes.
By a further order of the said Commissioners dated 31 May 1907, the whole of the endowment of the Great Staughton parish charities—except the annual sums referred to in clause 8 of the scheme of 23 May 1865, and amounting in the aggregate to £34 7s.—were determined educational and form the endowment of the Great Staughton Educational Foundation.
The above-mentioned sum of £34 7s. is distributed by the vicar and churchwardens in bread to the poor and doles to widows in accordance with the provisions contained in the above-mentioned scheme.
Mrs. Sophia Ann Pope, by will proved in the Principal Registry 22 December 1920, gave to the vicar and churchwardens of St. Andrew's Church the sum of £2,800 upon trust (1) as to £2,300 thereof to be applied in providing and maintaining a nurse whose services shall be available among and for the benefit of the parishioners of Great Staughton, and (2) as to the remaining £500 to maintain in good order the Burial Ground in the parish.
The above-mentioned legacies are now represented by sums of (1) £3,080 8s. 5d. and (2) £669 13s. 2d. India 3 per cent. Stock held by the Official Trustees and producing (1) £92 8s. 4d. and (2) £20 1s. 8d. yearly in dividends which are applied in accordance with the directions contained in the will of the donor.
Emma Dinah Murfin, by will proved in the Principal Registry 20 March 1907, gave to the vicar and churchwardens (1) a sum of £2,000 the income to be distributed to the poor in coals, blankets and bread, and (2) a sum of £200 for keeping in repair and good condition the organ of the parish church. The above-mentioned legacies are now represented by (1) £1,483 14s. 8d. India 3 per cent. Stock and £472 L.M. & S. Rly. 4 per cent. Pref. Stock (1923) held by the Official Trustees producing a total income of £63 7s. 8d. yearly in dividends which are distributed to the poor in coals, and (2) £189 L.M. & S. Rly. 4 per cent. Pref. Stock (1923) held by the Official Trustees producing £7 11s. 2d. yearly in dividends which are applied towards the upkeep of the organ.
Duberly Memorial Fund. The endowment of this charity, founded by declaration of trust dated 2 May 1918, consists of £400 2½ per cent. Consols held by the Official Trustees. The income amounting to £10 annually in dividends is applied by the vicar and churchwardens in gifts of £1 every Christmas to each of the deserving and necessitous poor persons resident in the ecclesiastical parish of St. Andrew, Great Staughton.