Townships: Upper Rawcliffe with Tarnacre

Pages 267-273

A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 7. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1912.

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Rodeclif, Dom. Bk.; Rotheclif, 1301; Uproutheclyve, 1288. Up Rawcliffe was the form commonly used till about 1700, when Upper Rawcliffe, which appears in the 16th century, displaced it.

Trenaker, c. 1250.

This township, which contains the parish church, has a total area of 3,839½ acres, (fn. 1) of which two-thirds lie north of the River Wyre and the remaining third south. The population in 1901 was 518. Tarnacre or Trenacre, the acreage of which is now estimated as 486, is in the north-east, (fn. 2) Turnover Hall about the centre, on the north bank of the river, with Stockenbridge to the south; White Hall is on the western border. The Brock flows into the Wyre half a mile east of the church. The surface is flat and low; the highest ground, about 50 ft. above sea level, is in the north, in Rawcliffe Moss.

The principal roads go from east to west through the township, to the south and north of the river, from Myerscough to Great Eccleston (past the church), and from Catterall to Hambleton respectively. Near the church there is a bridge across the Wyre by which these roads are connected.

A parish council administers local affairs.

The soil is mostly light peat with subsoil of blue clay; oats, potatoes, turnips, &c, are grown.

There are ghost stories connected with two of the old houses. Major Longworth of St. Michael's Hall was said to have haunted the place after his death. To lay his ghost the 'combined power of priest and parson was brought into operation. The ghost was " laid " under the bridge near the hall, with the injunction that it had to remain quiet "so long as the water flowed down the hills and the ivy remained green." (fn. 3) The other ghost was said to appear in the garden of White Hall. (fn. 4)


In 1066 Earl Tostig held a RAWCLIFFE assessed as three plough-lands and a MICHAELKIRK assessed as one. (fn. 5) Probably the whole was granted together with Garstang to form the Wyresdale fee of the Lancaster family. (fn. 6) In 1242 Lambert de Multon held the twelfth part of a knight's fee in Rawcliffe (fn. 7) He was then apparently the immediate lord of the manor, but may not have retained it long.

William de Lancaster III gave part at least of Upper Rawcliffe to Richard son of Roger de Kirkby, (fn. 8) no doubt of Kirkby Ireleth. (fn. 9) Richard acquired from his brother Roger 2 oxgangs of land in Rawcliffe, with tofts and part of the meadow called Meadowgate, also the proportion of the fishery pertaining to 2 oxgangs and liberty of grinding at the mill without multure. (fn. 10) Roger had had the same from William de Tarnacre for the rent of a pound of cummin. (fn. 11) Richard made some further acquisitions, (fn. 12) and at his death left a son John to succeed him. (fn. 13) Another son Peter is also named. (fn. 14) By them Upper Rawcliffe was given to William de Whittingham, clerk, and Ellen his wife, (fn. 15) and in this way apparently passed to William de Southworth, (fn. 16) who was in possession of the manor in 1314, (fn. 17) and in 1316–17 granted it to his son Thomas, together with the reversion of lands held in dower by Ellen widow of John de Kirkby and by Elizabeth widow of Nicholas de Southworth son of William. (fn. 18)

Upper Rawcliffe: St. Michael's Village

Thomas de Southworth in 1331 obtained a messuage, &c, from William son of Robert the Miller of Upper Rawcliffe. Part of the tenement was then held in dower by Ellen widow of John de Kirkby. (fn. 19) He obtained from Ellen daughter of Nicholas de Southworth a release of her interest in the manor in 1336. (fn. 20) Edmund de Wedacre in 1348–9 claimed common of pasture in Upper Rawcliffe against Thomasson of William de Southworth and Alice his wife. (fn. 21)

The next step shows the Urswick family in possession, but the story is confused and doubtful. It would seem that Margaret the daughter and heir of Thomas de Southworth married one Robert de Hornby, for Robert and Margaret occur in 1350–2. (fn. 22) Soon afterwards Margaret de Hornby married Robert de Urswick, and in 1367 obtained the papal dispensation for an impediment of which they had been in ignorance at the time of marriage. (fn. 23) In 1369 Robert de Urswick and Margaret his wife claimed from William de Scargill and Rose his wife the custody of the land and heir of John de Balderston in respect of a plough-land, &c, in Upper Rawcliffe held of Thomas de Southworth, the father of Margaret. (fn. 24) Robert de Urswick the younger and Margaret his wife made a feoffment of the manor of Upper Rawcliffe in the same year. (fn. 25) Robert de Urswick of Tatham in 1376 obtained a grant of free warren for Badsworth, Tatham, Cantsfield and Upper Rawcliffe. (fn. 26)

Sir Robert Urswick died in 1402 holding jointly with Joan his wife a rent from Langbargh Wapentake in Yorkshire. His son and heir, Sir Robert, was thirty years of age. (fn. 27) Robert son of Robert de Urswick and Margaret his wife had acquired land in Yorkshire in 1391–2. (fn. 28) Sir Robert was Sheriff of Lancashire in 1415–16 and 1418. (fn. 29) As lord of the manor or vill of Upper Rawcliffe he in 1420 made an agreement with the free tenants, viz. the Abbot of Cockersand, Nicholas Boteler, and others. (fn. 30) In the same year he made a feoffment of his lands in Claughton, Rawcliffe, Eccleston, Goosnargh and Bilsborrow. (fn. 31) He died about the same time, and Thomas his brother was found to be his heir. (fn. 32) Thomas Urswick succeeded to Badsworth, (fn. 33) and apparently the same Thomas occurs in Lancashire, (fn. 34) but the manor of Upper Rawcliffe went to daughters and heirs of Sir Robert. These appear to have been Ellen, who married Roger Kirkby, and Joan. (fn. 35) The latter or more probably a daughter and co-heir Joan was wife of William Clifton in 1443–4. (fn. 36) Another sharer in 1454 was William Latus. (fn. 37) A certain Elizabeth about 1468 made a settlement of part of the manor in conjunction with her husband Henry Holme. (fn. 38) In 1484–5 a partition was sought between William Kirkby, Richard Latus and Robert Clifton as co-heirs of Sir Robert Urswick. (fn. 39)

Urswick. Argent on a bend sable three lozenges of the field each charged with a saltire gules.

Of these families the Kirkbys were resident. They appear to have inherited a moiety of the manor, and possibly acquired the whole. Going back a little, it appears that in 1454–5 John Kirkby and Clemence his wife had lands in Moorbreck. (fn. 40) In 1459 John Kirkby complained that Nicholas and John Boteler of Rawcliffe were obstructing the flow of water to his mill in Upper Rawcliffe. (fn. 41) William the son and heir of John Kirkby was about 1458 contracted to marry Isabel daughter of John Pudsey. (fn. 42) In 1475, perhaps after the actual marriage, John Kirkby granted his part of the manor to his son and heir William. (fn. 43) William and Isabel had a moiety of the manor in 1486–7, as well as lands in Goosnargh, Haighton and Kendal. (fn. 44) John the son and heir of William Kirkby was in 1485–6 contracted to marry Elizabeth daughter of Henry Banastre of Bank. (fn. 45) He was living in 1501, (fn. 46) but it is unlikely that he outlived his father, for in 1507 Isabel was widow of William, (fn. 47) and about the same time received dower from William son and heir of John Kirkby. (fn. 48)

William Kirkby the younger was in 1506–7 contracted to marry Elizabeth daughter of William Thorn burgh. (fn. 49) He was living in 1549, at which time he was involved in disputes concerning the chantry lands. (fn. 50) His son George died in 1558 holding the manor of Upper Rawcliffe and Tarnacre of the queen and John Rigmaiden as of the lordship of Wyresdale in socage by 6d. rent; also various lands there and in nearly twenty other townships. The heir was a brother William, thirty years of age. (fn. 51) William Kirkby made a settlement of the manor in 1564 (fn. 52) and recorded a pedigree at the visitation of 1567. (fn. 53) In 1588 inquiry was made as to the weirs on the Wyre, including one of William Kirkby's which had lately been pulled down, apparently because it was too high for the salmon to pass. (fn. 54) He and Isabel his wife in 1591 agreed that their son William should marry Joan daughter of Thomas Fleetwood of Colwich. (fn. 55) William Kirkby died in December 1596 holding the manor of Upper Rawcliffe, with messuages and lands there and in Tarnacre and Little Sowerby, a watermill, and a fishery in the Wyre, of the queen as of her honour of Lancaster by the twelfth part of a knight's fee. William his son and heir was fifteen years of age. (fn. 56)

Kirkby of Upper Rawcliffe. Argent two bars gules on a canton of the last a cross moline or.

The religious position of the neighbourhood in 1595 is shown clearly enough by someone zealous 'for the furtherance of Christ His glorious gospel, in the Protestant sense, who wrote to the authorities to urge attention to it. In the parishes of Garstang and St. Michael's, he said, there were 'as many farmers notorious recusants' as would make two grand juries. He therefore advised the prosecution of those known to be rich, naming among gentlewomen Isabel wife of William Kirkby of Rawcliffe, Anne wife of Henry Butler of the same, and Elizabeth wife of William son of Henry. The husbands of these attended church perhaps not so much as monthly and the churchwardens should warn them to conform once a month. If they would not do so the gentlewomen and their husbands should be confined 'during their obstinacy' to the houses of Protestant gentlemen, so that they could neither 'frequent shriving, massing, nor relieve papish priests or seditious seminaries, to the peril of their souls, great danger of their husbands, and utter spoil of their husbands' simple seduced tenants and neighbours. (fn. 57)

From this time the Kirkbys declined in importance. (fn. 58) William Kirkby was said to be of full age in 1602 (fn. 59); in that year he and his son Thomas were enrolled at Preston Guild. (fn. 60) They were or became recusants, as the above quotation indicates, and in 1632 Thomas Kirkby of Rawcliffe compounded by an annual payment of £5 for the two-thirds of his estate which was liable to sequestration for his religion. (fn. 61) In the Civil War he was a Royalist, and his estate, after being sequestered by the Parliament, was in 1652 ordered for sale. (fn. 62) Three of his sons were stated to have been killed in the service of Charles I. (fn. 63) He was dead in 1655, when Edward Tyldesley of Myerscough petitioned to be allowed to contract for the estate. (fn. 64) After that a family named Whitehead (fn. 65) long held the manor, but there is nothing to record of them. (fn. 66) The manor is now stated to be held by the Earl of Derby.

A considerable portion appears to have been sold before 1655 to George Westby, (fn. 67) a son of Thomas Westby of Mowbreck, who built White Hall, (fn. 68) in later times regarded as the manor-house. He also was a recusant and a Royalist, and suffered the sequestration and confiscation of his lands by the Parliament. (fn. 69) He regained them through the agency of friends. A pedigree recorded in 1664 shows that he had sons Thomas (aged ten) and John. (fn. 70) In 1717 John Westby of Upper Rawcliffe, son of John and nephew of Thomas Westby, registered his estate as a 'Papist.' (fn. 71) He was accidentally killed in a mill in 1728 and left a son Thomas as heir. This branch of the family succeeded to part of the Mowbreck estate, but all has been sold in the last half-century. White Hall was in 1857 sold to—Stevenson, whose son, J. C. Stevenson of Leamington, was the owner in 1891.

WHITEHALL, now a farm-house, stands close to the River Wyre, facing south, but is without architectural interest, having been almost entirely rebuilt and modernized about 1857; most of the old timbers were, however, again used. The building dated substantially from the beginning of the 17th century, the older house of the Kirkbys having entirely disappeared, but had been for a long time in a state of decay. The present structure is covered with rough-cast and whkewashed, the roofs covered with blue slates and all the windows are new. There is an old open fireplace in the kitchen now walled up. The west wing is three stories in height with an unequal gable to the front, but the house generally is of two stories, with a projecting gabled two-story porch. The east wing appears to have been pulled down about 1870. (fn. 72)

Other portions of the Urswick estate cannot be traced. One-fourth probably descended to Clifton of Kidsnape, but William Clifton in 1517 held only 'messuages and lands' in Upper Rawcliffe of the king and Thomas Rigmaiden as of their manor of Nether Wyresdale by a rent of 6d. (fn. 73) His widow Margaret claimed dower in the fourth part of the 'manor.' (fn. 74)

Rawcliffe gave a name to some of the earlier tenants, who with others were benefactors of Cockersand Abbey. (fn. 75) Warine de Cornay, one of them, in 1246 claimed certain land from the Abbot of Cockersand. (fn. 76)

TARNACRE or Trenacre also was used as a surname. The same abbey received land from William de Tarnacre, with his body, and from Alice his widow and Alan his son. (fn. 77) About 1270 the abbot and canons agreed with Thomas son of Adam de Inskip as to an exchange of land, (fn. 78) and other Inskips appear later in the township. (fn. 79) Alan son of William de Tarnacre and others gave land to Lytham Priory (fn. 80) and to the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem. (fn. 81) Alan's charter was alleged in a dispute in 1292 between Hugh son of Hugh de Mitton and Roger de Wedacre, when Richard son and heir of William son of Alan de Tarnacre was called to warrant. The Prior of the Hospitallers had granted the land to Maud daughter of Hugh de Mitton; she married Roger de Wedacre and bore him a son Robert, whose estate was in his father's hands. (fn. 82) The Cockersand lands (fn. 83) were after the Dissolution purchased by John Braddyll, (fn. 84) and the Hospitallers' lands by the Shireburnes. (fn. 85)

The pleadings afford some details of the mediaeval tenements (fn. 86); the inquisitions also preserve the names of landowners there. (fn. 87) In the 18th century and later the house called Turnover Hall was held successively by Shuttleworth (fn. 88) and Westby. (fn. 89)

Stockenbridge was owned by a family named Blackburne. Richard Blackburne of Eccleston and Tarnacre, holding in the latter place of the king, died in 1641, and had for heir a son John, aged forty-four. (fn. 90) Richard and Edward Blackburne, recusants, in 1654 sought to compound for the sequestrated portions of their estates. (fn. 91) A later Richard Blackburne, described as of Stockenbridge, yeoman, in 1717 registered his estate as a 'Papist.' He died about 1725. (fn. 92) John Blackburne of Field Plumpton, who had a son Thomas, made a settlement in 1727 of the capital messuage called Stockenbridge, lately in the possession of Richard son of (the said) John Blackburne, who had died leaving a daughter Margaret wife of Thomas Eccles of Dilworth. (fn. 93) From a deed of 1748 it appears that another daughter, Ellen, had married William Hathornthwaite, and their son John had Stockenbridge. (fn. 94) The estate afterwards passed by marriage to Leckonby of Great Eccleston and to Phipps. (fn. 95)

Tarnacre Hall, now St. Michael's Hall, near the church, was owned by the Longworth family, who recorded a pedigree in 1664. Isabella Longworth had it in 1770; next year, after her death, it was advertised for sale. (fn. 96) The Butlers of Out RawclifFe had from an early date estates in Upper Rawcliffe and Little Sowerby which were sometimes called manors. (fn. 97)

Longworth. Argent three walves' heads erased sable.

LITTLE SOWERBY was included in the Singleton estate; thus in 1293 Joan widow of Thomas de Singleton released to Thomas Banastre and Joan his wife all her right in land there. (fn. 98) Richard Balderston had land in Sowerby in 1456, (fn. 99) and the Earl of Derby's rental for 1523 shows lands in Upper RawclifFe and Tarnacre. (fn. 100) It was reckoned as a manor, for the manors of Great and Little Sowerby occur in feoffments of the Derby estates. (fn. 101) The manor is held together with the manor of Upper RawclifFe by the present Earl of Derby, and courts are held. (fn. 102)

From a grant by Richard son of Richard de Tarnacre to Cockersand Abbey it appears that Little Sowerby was also called Aldred Sowerby, for land in it touched the Brock. (fn. 103) Walter de Ellel granted land in Aldrith Sowerby to Walter son of Richard le Boteler. (fn. 104)

Some of the Commonwealth sequestrations for religion and politics have been recorded above. Dr. Wildbore, vicar of Garstang and then of Lancaster, had land in 'Up Ratcliffe' and Tarnacre which he gave to his daughter Elizabeth. She married Thomas Challoner, and the estate was sequestered for the husband's 'delinquency.' After his death she married Samuel Barker, who in 1650 petitioned for the removal of the sequestration. (fn. 105) Roger Hesketh as a 'Papist' had had two-thirds of his lands in Tarnacre and Claughton sequestered; after his death in 1649 his son Richard petitioned for the removal of the sequestration or leave to compound. (fn. 106) Thomas Wilkinson of Tarnacre was another who had twothirds of his estate sequestered for his religion. (fn. 107) Several 'Papists' registered estates in 1717. (fn. 108)

The parish church is situated in this township, and is the only place of worship there.

A school was in 1708 founded by Richard Cornall in Upper Rawdiffe. (fn. 109)


  • 1. The Census Rep. of 1901 gives 3,842 acres, including 38 of inland water.
  • 2. It appears from charters, &c, that this hamlet was formerly much more extensive, reaching to the south side of the Wyre by the church.
  • 3. Hewitson, Our Country Churches, 437.
  • 4. Fishwick, St. Michael's (Chet. Soc), 167.
  • 5. V.C.H. Lancs, i, 288b.
  • 6. Ibid. i, 357, n. 13; Final Conc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), i, 214; ii, 51.
  • 7. Lancs. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), i, 154. Lambert de Multon married Amabil daughter and co-heir of Richard de Lucy by Ada daughter and co-heir of Hugh de Morvill and Helewise de Stutevill, widow of William de Lancaster II. Ada de Lucy married for her second husband Thomas de Multon, the father of Lambert. It seems to have been in this way that Lambert obtained a part at least of Upper Rawcliffe; Cockersand Chartul. (Chet. Soc), i, 178 n.
  • 8. John son of Richard de Kirkby in 1285 gave to William de Whittingham, clerk, and Ellen his wife all the tenement and demesne in Upper Rawcliffe which his father Richard had had from William de Lancaster; Dods. MSS. cxlix, fol. 75.
  • 9. Richard was probably the son of Roger of Kirkby Ireleth by a daughter of Gilbert Fitz Reinfred, who is mentioned in 1222; see the account of Kirkby Ireleth.
  • 10. Dods. MSS. cxlix, fol. 75b.
  • 11. Ibid.
  • 12. Walter de Sowerby gave to Richard son of Roger de Kirkby the homage of two tenants of an oxgang of land in Rawcliffe for the rent of two barbed arrows; Kuerden fol. MS. 380. Richard de Kirkby obtained half an oxgang of land from Richard de Rise, also a fishery from Sir William de Carleton, who had received it from William de Lancaster for a rent of 6d.; Dods. MSS. cxlix, fol 96, 97.
  • 13. John son of Richard de Kirkby granted to Roger son of Henry de Forton a toft and a selion called Croftland in Upper Rawcliffe, and William de Whittingham, clerk, renewed or confirmed the gift; ibid. fol. 85b. The same John also granted to Sir William son of Sir Richard Boteler the moiety of his fishery in Out Rawcliffe; ibid. fol. 97b. To Ralph de Catterall he gave half an oxgang of land, &c., in Upper Rawcliffe at 1d. rent; Add. MS. 32104, no. 497. The same John son of Richard de Kirkby held 2 oxgangs of land of Henry de Beconsaw, who transferred his homage and service to Thomas son of Thomas Banastre; ibid. no. 1317.
  • 14. Peter son of Richard de Kirkby released to William de Whittingham all his right in the lands in Upper Rawcliffe which should have descended to him after the death of Roger de Kirkby his brother; Dods. MSS. cxlix, fol. 96.
  • 15. See preceding notes. In 1281 John son of Richard de Kirkby gave land, including a piece by the mill called Peule, to William de Whittingham; ibid. fol. 95, 96. William de Whittingham acquired half an oxgang of land from Richard son of Adam de Inskip, part of the mill of Skippool from John son of William son of Richard de Rawcliffe, and the fishery (formerly John de Kirkby's) in Out Rawcliffe from William son of Sir Richard Boteler; ibid. fol. 85b, 96b, 97b.
  • 16. It is possible that Whittingham and Southworth were the same person, or that the latter was son of the former. See Claughton.
  • 17. In that year William de Southworth, clerk, granted turbary in Upper Rawcliffe Moss to Henry son of Henry de Croft of Catterall, who had married his daughter Joan; Towneley MS. DD, no. 13. In or before 1315–16 he made an exchange of lands with Adam son of Richard del Hall, who transferred his part to John de Celer; Dods. MSS. cxlix, fol. 90b.
  • 18. Ibid. fol. 97. The settlement was confirmed by fine in 1318, with remainder to Adam the brother of Thomas. There was an exception of two messuages, 2 oxgangs of land, &c.; Final Conc. ii, 26.
  • 19. Kuerden fol. MS. 257.
  • 20. Dods. MSS. cxlix, fol. 90.
  • 21. De Banco R. 357, m. 27 d.
  • 22. Maud daughter of John de Celer (see above) in 1350 gave all her lands to Robert de Hornby and Margaret his wife; Dods. MSS. cxlix, fol. 95. In 1352 Roger de Kirkby gave to the same Robert and Margaret a messuage and garden in Upper Rawcliffe; ibid.
  • 23. Towneley MS. HH, no. 925. There appear to have been several Roberts, and this creates some uncertainly. Adam de Urswick, who had land in Westmorland, died in 1361, leaving as heir his son Robert the younger, of full age; Chan. Inq. p.m. 35 Edw. III, pt. ii (1st nos.), no. 88. In 1366 Sarah widow of Adam de Urswick made a grant to her son Robert; Dods. MSS. cxlix, fol. 91b. It is possible that Margaret died about 1370 and that Robert married again. Thus Robert de Urswick and Ellen his wife, executrix of the will of Sir John de Dalton, gave a receipt for money at Upper Rawcliffein 1372 and are named in 1379; ibid. fol. 97b, 92b. Again Robert de Urswick of Upper Rawcliffe, Ellen his wife and a daughter Ellen occur in 1382; Final Conc, iii, 12, 13. The same or another Robert, not described as a knight, was escheator for Lancashire in 1384–91; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc), i, 12, 45. One Robert de Urswick was an esquire of John Duke of Lancaster in 1395; Cal. Pat. 1396–9, p. 547. Robert de Urswick, one of the king's esquires, received an annuity in 1373, which was confirmed in 1378 and 1399; Cal. Pat. 1377–81, p. 240; 1399– 1401, pp. 29, 35.
  • 24. De Banco R. 433, m. 451. It is noteworthy that the Balderstons also occur at Badsworth in Yorkshire, where the Urswicks obtained an estate; Hunter, Deanery of Doncaster, ii, 438; Yorks. Arch. Journ. x, 349. In connexion with the Balderstons may here be cited a complaint by William son of William de Balderston, in conjunction with John and Nicholas sons of Thomas Banastre, in 1334, respecting 4 acres of moor in Upper Rawcliffe. It was alleged in defence that the same William son of William and a certain Adam Verious were lords of the vill; but the jury, while finding for the defendants, said that Adam Verio us never had anything there; Coram Rege R. 297, m. 103 d. An Adam de Aspinwall and Elizabeth his wife had some claim in the township in 1318; De Banco R. 223, m. 105.
  • 25. Final Conc. ii, 177.
  • 26. Chart. R. 162 (47–51 Edw. III), m. 6, no. 13.
  • 27. Chan. Inq. p.m. 4 Hen. IV, no. 15; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxiii, App. 4. In an inquisition taken in 1418 Sir Robert son of Robert son of Adam de Urswick ia stated to have been thirty-four years old and upwards; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc), 1, 136. Sir Robert de Urswick is mentioned in various ways from 1386 to 1402; ibid. 1385–9, pp. 233, 471; 1401–5 p. 130. In 1398 he had a wife named Joan; ibid. 1391–6, p. 375; 1396–9, p. 402. John de Urswick, who married Constance Banastre, but died without issue, is said to have been a son of Sir Robert; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc), i, 16.
  • 28. a Dods. MSS. cxlix, fol. 91. In 1412 it was stated that Margaret wife of Sir Robert de Urswick was divorced from him and married to Gilbert de Kighley; Towneley MS. HH, no. 936.
  • 29. P.R.O. List, 72. He is not described as knight in this place, but elsewhere is designated chivaler; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc), i, 134. In 1406 Sir Robert de Urswick gave to Thomas his brother all his lands; Dods. MSS. cxlix, fol. 92b. He made a feoffment in 1410; ibid. fol. 93b.
  • 30. Ibid. fol. 91.
  • 31. Ibid. fol. 95b.
  • 32. Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxiii, App. 19; Pal. of Lanc. Chan. Misc. bdle. 1, no. 14.
  • 33. Hunter, op. cit. ii, 436; Sir Thomas Urswick held Badsworth in 1424–5; it had in 1402 been held in moieties by Robert and Thomas Urswick. Sir Thomas had a son Robert who married Katherine Harrington of Hornby, and their daughter and heir Isabel (d. 1471) married William Vavasour; ibid. 437, 441.
  • 34. The feoffees of Sir Robert gave lands to Thomas Urswick in 1424; Dods. MSS. cxlix, fol. 95b. Thomas Urswick, esquire, and Dame Katherine Urswick are named together in 1443 and 1455; ibid. fol. 94. See also Yorks. Arch. Journ. xvii, 119. Thomas Urswick, receiver to the king's father and the king for twenty-four years, was in 1442 rewarded with an annuity of £10 secured on the herbage of Myerscough, Fulwood and Wyresdale; Towneley MS. RR, no. 1664. See also Cal. Papal Letters, vii, 330; Cal. Pat. 1422–9, p. 405; Anct. D. (P.R.O.), C 2978. In 1452 he was made serjeantat-law and attorney in all the king's courts of Lancashire; Pal. of Lanc. Chan. Misc. file 1, bdle. 1, no. 60. He was dead in 1456, when his successor was appointed; ibid. bdle. 1, file 11, no. 4. He is named in various pleadings, e.g. Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 7, m. 21. Another Thomas occurs in the Rawcliffe deeds as holding lands in Caton, Great and Little Eccleston, Elswick and Upper Rawcliffe in 1473; Dods. MSS. cxlix, fol. 94b. He was recorder of London in 1455 and chief baron of the Exchequer from 1471 till his death in 1479. He held manors, &c, in Essex; Foss, Judges; Dict. Nat. Biog. (called son of Thomas Urswick).
  • 35. Roger son of Sir Richard Kirkby in 1420–1, i.e. shortly after Sir Robert's death, demised to Thomas Urswick the moiety of the manor of Upper Rawcliffe which he (Roger) held by reason of the minority of (blank in the deed) the daughters and heirs of Ellen his wife lately deceased, viz. as father of the heirs, Roger being the nearest relative, to whom their estates held in socage could not descend; Dods. MSS. cxlix, fol. 91. This deed it is difficult to explain in view of others. It is usually stated (e.g. in the recorded pedigree) that it was John, a younger son of Sir Richard Kirkby of Kirkby Ireleth, who married Ellen Urswick. Roger was the son and heir of Sir Richard; West, Furness (ed. 1774), 240. A fragment of pedigree in Towneley MS. HH, no. 936, gives Sir Robert de Urswick and Margaret his wife two daughters, Joan wife of Richard de Kirkby and Ellen wife of Roger de Kirkby. In a pleading as to the manor of Badsworth in 1424 Thomas Urswick called the heirs of Sir Robert to warrant him, viz. John Worsley and Joan his wife, Margaret Kirkby and Joan Kirkby, of whom the last was under age; De Banco R. East. 2 Hen. VI, m. 329 d. (quoted in Gen. [new ser.], xvii, 22). The two Kirkbys may have been daughters of Richard, and may have married Latus and Clifton respectively; Joan was perhaps their mother, formerly wife of Richard. In 1437–8 John son. of Roger Kirkby by Ellen his wife, daughter of Sir Robert Urswick by Margaret his wife, made a settlement of his purparty of the manor of Upper Rawcliffe and lands, &c, in Thistleton and Tatham; also the reversion of others held for life by his brother Roger; Kuerden fol. MS. 213. A John son of Richard Kirkby had the manor and advowson of Waberthwaite in 1427–8; Dods. MSS. cxlix, fol. 98b. In the same collection of charters are some relating to the town of Kendal, where the Kirkbys of Rawcliffe later held land.
  • 36. William and Joan received lands, &c, from Thomas Urswick about that time; Kuerden fol. MS. 410, 87. From abstracts preserved by Towneley it appears that some at least had been acquired from Robert Jenkinson of Bispham; HH, no. 453.
  • 37. In 1454 John Kirkby received 40s. and William Latus 20s. from Thomas Urswick in satisfaction of profits he had taken of lands in Kendal, formerly Sir Robert Urswick's and then belonging to John and William and their co-heirs; Dods. MSS. cxlix, fol. 102. The proportions indicate a moiety for Kirkby, and half of the other moiety for Latus.
  • 38. Final Conc, iii, 132; they had a sixth part of the manor, i.e. the third of a moiety. It was to be held by Elizabeth for life and then to revert to Robert [?Clifton] and his heirs.
  • 39. Pal. of Lanc. Writs Proton.
  • 40. Dods. MSS. cxlix, fol. 99b. Clemence was living in 1488–9; ibid. fol. 101.
  • 41. Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 21, m. 25.
  • 42. Dods. MSS. cxlix, fol. 101; a grant to Isabel of lands in Bolton and other places, with remainder to William son and heir of John Kirkby.
  • 43. Ibid. fol. 101b.
  • 44. Ibid. fol. 101.
  • 45. Ibid. fol. 100, 100b; lands in Thistleton, Goosnargh, Wray, Over Kellet, Cantsfield and Tatham were assigned to her for life.
  • 46. Ibid. fol. 100b.
  • 47. Ibid. fol. 100.
  • 48. Ibid. fol. 99 (? misdated 23 Hen. VIII for VII). Isabel was to have 20 marks a year, half the heriots in Waberthwaite, Keltontree and Kendal, and should enjoy the demesne lands of Upper Rawcliffe with the mill and fishing until the following Martinmas; also the tithe corn of the demesne, paying 30s. for it. She was excommunicated at Kirkham in 1510; ibid.
  • 49. Ibid. fol. 98.
  • 50. Fishwick, St. Michael on Wyre (Chet. Soc), 59. William son of William Kirkby was engaged in further contests in 1579; ibid. 61.
  • 51. Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xi, no. 8; Towneley MS. 'Lancs. Tenures' (in possession of W. Farrer). The socage tenure is noticeable, as agreeing with the statement of a charter cited above. Ellen widow of George Kirkby was in 1567 the wife of Edward Horsfall; Dods. MSS. cxlix, fol. 100; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F, bdle. 29, m. 110.
  • 52. Ibid. bdle. 26, m. 199.
  • 53. Visit. (Chet. Soc), 41; George Kirkby is not named in it.
  • 54. Duchy of Lanc. Special Com. 426. It was deposed that William Kirkby had an ancient mill called Cross Mill and a weir for the same on the Wyre. It stood over the other side of the water from 'one white house called Cross House.' The foundation being washed out by the river, the mill fell, and was erected on a new site close by. At spring tides the sea water reached nearly a mile further up the river. The water called Sowerby or Vowcles ran into the Brock. The jury in their verdict noticed all the weirs; the mill weir at Dolphinholme was the highest up the Wyre. Corles Mill, Cleveley Mill, a mill weir near Goberthwaite Bridge and others are named.
  • 55. Dods. MSS. cxlix, fol. 88.
  • 56. Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xvii, no. 16. The change of tenure was perhaps the result of a search in the records, being the same as that recorded in 1242 for Lambert de Multon. Isabel the widow was in 1598 the wife of Gabriel Croft; Dods. MSS. loc. cit.
  • 57. Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 584–5. William Kirkby of Rawcliffe and Isabel his wife had been summoned before the ecclesiastical commission in 1583, but had conformed; English Martyrs (Cath. Rec. Soc.), i, 70.
  • 58. Fishwick, op. cit 163–5.
  • 59. Dods. MSS. loc. cit.
  • 60. Preston Guild R. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 54. They were also enrolled in 1622; ibid. 78.
  • 61. Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), xxiv, 178. About the same time he paid £10 for having refilled knighthood; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), i, 221.
  • 62. Index of Royalists (Index Soc.), 41.
  • 63. Castlemain, Cath. Apology, as quoted by Challoner. Their names are given as William, Thomas and Edward in Gillow, Bibl. Diet. of Engl. Cath. iv, 53.
  • 64. Royalist Comp. Papers (Rec. Soc. Lanu. and Ches.), iv, 46.
  • 65. To a fine of 1656 respecting the manor of Upper Rawcliffe the following were partiei: Plaintiffs—Richard Whiteheid and James Taylor; Deforciants— Edward Tyldesley, William Kirkby, Edward Kirkby, George Westby, Ralph Longworth, Richard Bannister, Dorothy his wife and James Curwen; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle 159, m. 93. Richard Whitehead acquired other lands; lancs, and Ches. Rec. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.). i, 33.
  • 66. See the accounts of Claughton and Forton and the pedigree in Fishwick, Garstang (Chet. Soc), ii, 254. Thomas Whitehead was vouchee in a recovery of the manors of Rawcliffe and Tarnacre in 1724; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 521. m. 4 d. Richard Whitehead was lord of the manor of Upper Rawcliffe and Tarnacre in 1794; Preston Guard. Loc. Notes, no. 1129.
  • 67. See the fine above cited.
  • 68. Fishwick, op. cit. 165–7, from which the later descent has been taken.
  • 69. Cal. Com. for Comp. iv, 3138, where his residence is called 'Ratcliffe Hall'; Index of Royalists, 44.
  • 70. Dugdale, Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 332.
  • 71. Estcourt and Payne, Engl. Cath. Nonjurors, 128.
  • 72. a Fishwick, St. Michael's -on- Wyre, 167. mentions a 'gateway half pulled down,' a secret place formerly used as a chapel and a priest's hole. The gateway had disappeared when Fishwick wrote in 1891. 'On pulling down the old house a secret room was discovered. The chapel was in what is now a bedroom on the third story'; ibid.
  • 73. Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. v, no. 21.
  • 74. Pal. of Lanc. Sessional Papers, bdle. 4.
  • 75. Cockersand Chartul. (Chet. Soc), i, 178–83. The benefactors were William son of Alan de Rawcliffe, William son of Alan de Tarnacre (perhaps the same person), William son of Simon de Rawcliffe, Warine de Cornay, Thomas son of Robert de Rice, Adam and William sons of Richard. One of the gifts was of half an oxgang of land, of which Richard son of William de Ireland was tenant at 12d. rent. Among the place-names are Northbreck, Old Goredale, Kirkflat, Waroxgang, Tunstead, Swineland, Dunandespool on the Wyre and Serlescalespool.
  • 76. Assize R. 404, m. 4 d.; he did not prosecute.
  • 77. Cocker sand Chartul. i, 247–51. Other benefactors were William son of Alan de Wath and Richard de Tarnacre. The place-names include Kirkcroft, Priestpot and Cleanfield.
  • 78. Ibid. 251–2. The canons gave an acre in Kilncroftneld for an assart adjoining their land and that of Roger de Wedacre.
  • 79. In 1288 Agnes daughter of Adam de Inskip complained that Richard son of Adam de Inskip had disseised her of half an oxgang of land; Assize R. 1277, m. 31. Agnes daughter of Richard de Inskip was plaintiff in 1301; ibid. 1321, m. 8 d. William son of Adam son of Richard de Inskip claimed 8 acres of land in 1351; Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 1, m. 5 d.
  • 80. Alan gave the monks of Durham 2 acres on the east of Morbreck and all his land called Culnstyde (Kilnstead), with easements in Rawcliffe and Tarnacre; Lytham D. at Durham, 2a, 2ae, 4ae, Ebor. no. 52. He gave Lytham also an oxgang of land in Rawcliffe, formerly that of Richard son of Alan, in pure alms; ibid. no. 54. Warine de Cornay gave the monks an acre and a perch in Rawcliffe; Lathbutt, Netherfield and the mill are mentioned; ibid. no. 53. Among the same charters is one from William son of Alan de Romecliue (? Rouecliue) to his brother Richard, granting 2 oxgangs of land formerly held by Gamel and Walter son of Hartholf, at a rent of 40d. As 'gersum' 40s. was given. The fishery and demesne were excepted, and in exchange for that part of the appurtenances lying in Holebrook Richard was to have two esselgones (selions) in Northfurlong; ibid. no. 55.
  • 81. Lands of the Hospitallers in Rawcliffe, Tarnacre and Sowerby are mentioned in 1292; Plac. de Quo Warr, (Rec Com.), 375.
  • 82. Assize R. 408, m. 73 d.
  • 83. For the tenants 1450–1537 see Cockersand Chartul. iii, 1270–1.
  • 84. Pat. 36 Hen. VIII, pt. ii.
  • 85. See the account of Stidd. Richard Shireburne held land in RawclifFe in 1628; Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xxvi, no. 4. The family, however, had held lands much earlier, for a pleading of 1334 already cited shows that Sir Robert de Shireburne held two messuages and half a ploughland in Old Upper Rawcliffe—a designation which has not been noticed again— and that Nicholas Boteler, Richard son of Richard Travers, and Thomas son of Thomas de Rigmaiden were also owners; Coram Regc R. 297, m. 103 d.
  • 86. In 1291 Richard son of William de Eccleston claimed a toft, the moiety of a water-mill and the fourth part of a fishery against Geoffrey son of William de Eccleston and John de Rigmaiden, but did not succeed 5 Assize R. 407, m. 3 d. In the following year Roger de Wedacre claimed the moiety of a water-mill against the same Richard (whose father William had died in seisin) and John de Rigmaiden, to whom Richard had demised it; ibid. 408, m. 63, 71. Alan son of William de Eccleston, William son of GeofFrey de Whittingham, Roger son of Alan de Rowall and Margery widow of Richard de Sale were concerned in pleadings in 1292; ibid. m. 44, 32, 54 d. In 1334 John son of Amice daughter of Alan de Sowerby claimed messuages, &c, in Upper Rawcliffe against John son of Roger Tunnison and John de Birewath; De Banco R. 300, m. 70 d.; 5304, m. 45 d. The Hornby family have been mentioned in the account of the Kirkbys; see also Final Conc, ii, 145; Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 6, m. 2 d. There are a number of pleadings respecting Tarnacre in Ducatus Lanc. (Rec. Com.), i (2), ii (3). In 1492 Agnes and Margery, daughters and heirs of Richard Walton, had lands in Upper Rawcliffe; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 78, m. 4 d. Agnes married John son and heir of Richard Boteler, and about 1528 her land in Upper Rawcliffe, Woodplumpton and Newsham was sold to Bartholomew Hesketh; ibid. 144, m. 19 d.; 154, m. 5d.
  • 87. William Walton of Walton-le-Dale in 1638 had the reversion of a messuage, &c, in Tarnacre; Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xxv, no. 35, 49. From the pedigree in the Visit, of 1613 {Chet. Soc), 100, it appears that this was inherited from William's mother, Priscilla daughter of John Cottam of Tarnacre and wife of Thomas Walton. John Cottam was a freeholder in 1600; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), i, 233. Thomas Eccleston in 1592 held three messuages and land in Tarnacre; Duchy of Lane. Inq. p.m. xvi, no. 38. James Raby died in 1635 holding a messuage and land in Tarnacre of Robert Viscount 'Kilnemurrie' and Eleanor his wife (in her right) as of the manor of Nether Wyresdale by knight's service; also, of the king, 2 acres improved from the waste there. His son and heir Richard was eight years of age ibid, xxviii, no. 22.
  • 88. Margaret Shuttleworth of Turnover Hall, widow of William, in 1717 registered her estate as a 'Papist'; Estcourt and Payne, op. cit. 141. A later William Shuttleworth died in 1745, leaving a son Thomas (s.p.) and a daughter Margaret, who married Thomas Westby of White Hall; Fishwick, op. cit. 167–8.
  • 89. The house was bequeathed to another Thomas Westby, who died in 1830, leaving it to three daughters; ibid.
  • 90. Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxix, no. 81. This family is stated to have been the senior branch of the more conspicuous (Protestant) family of Blackburne of Orford and Hale; Dugdale, visit. 36.
  • 91. Cal. Com. for Comp. iv, 3178, 3185.
  • 92. Estcourt and Payne, op. cit. 92. His wife Mary was daughter and heir of Lawrence Livesey of Ravenhead.
  • 93. Piccope MSS. (Chet. Lib.), iii, 234, from R. 1 and 2 of Geo. II at Preston.
  • 94. Ibid, iii, 354, from R. 22 of Geo. II.
  • 95. Ibid, i, 361.
  • 96. Dugdale, Visit. 190; Piccope MSS. ii, 244. According to this, Ralph Longworth, d. c. 1634, was the first of Upper Rawcliffe -s. Richard, d. 1660-s.Thomas -s. Richard, who married Fleetwood daughter and co-heir of Edward Shuttleworth of Larbreck, by Alice daughter and heir of John Woodhouse of Larbreck -s. Edward -s. Ralph. A letter from R. Longworth, St. Michael's, 1690, is printed in Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 247.
  • 97. Lands in Upper Rawcliffe and Little Sowerby are named among the Boteler possessions in 1333; De Banco R. 295, m. 102. See also ibid. 287, m. 307 d. The tenure is not recorded in the inquisitions beyond the rtatement that these (with others) were held of the king; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. viii, no. 8. Among their charters was a grant by Thomas de Galwayth in 1386 to Roger de Birewath of lands in Little Sowerby in the vill of Upper Rawcliffe; Dodi. MSS. liii, fol. 90b.
  • 98. Kuerden MSS. iv, S3.
  • 99. Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc), ii, 63.
  • 100. Rental at Lathom.
  • 101. Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 175 (1665), m. 143; 260 (1708), m. 53.
  • 102. Information of Mr. Windham E. Hale.
  • 103. Cockersand Chartul. i, 244. Styrop and the Sourlands are other field-names in the charter.
  • 104. Dods. MSS. liii, fol. 100b.
  • 105. Royalist Comp. Papers (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), ii, 17–19.
  • 106. Ibid, iii, 195–8. Some field-names are mentioned-Breckfield, Little Brickhill, &c.
  • 107. Cal. Com. for Comp. iv, 3178.
  • 108. In addition to those already given was the small estate of Richard Richardson of Garstang in the tithes of Tarnacre on the south-east side of the Wyre; Estcourt and Payne, op. cit. 142.
  • 109. Gastrell, Notitia Cestr. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 45; End. Char. Rep.