Townships: Out Rawcliffe

Pages 273-276

A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 7. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1912.

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In this section


Rodeclif, Dom. Bk.; Routecliue, 1206; Routheclif, 1212.

Middelrotheclyue, 1273; Mideste Routheclif, 1309.

Outroutheclif, 1328.

The surface is undulating, much of it very low, but rising both in the south-east and in the west to 50 ft. above sea level. In the former more elevated patch is Rawcliffe Hall, the village lying a mile to the west. Liscoe is in the extreme south-west and Ashton in the north. The Wyre forms the southern boundary. The area measures 4,593 ½ acres, (fn. 1) and there was a population of 705 in 1901.

The principal roads run from east to west, one near the river from St. Michael's to Hambleton, and another further north from Garstang to the same place. Cartford Bridge in the south-east gives a passage over the Wyre, and from it a road goes north to Pilling.

The township has a parish council.

The soil is clay and moss, with clay subsoil; wheat, oats and potatoes are grown


The portions of the township once known as MIDDLE and OUT RAWCLIFFE seem originally to have been separate manors, and in 1066 the two Rawcliffes, each assessed as two plough-lands, were part of the Preston lordship of Earl Tostig. (fn. 2) A century later they were part of the fee of the Botelers of Weeton, (fn. 3) and Hervey father of Hervey Walter gave to Orm son of Magnus, with his daughter Alice, four plough-lands in Rawcliffe, Thistleton and Greenhalgh, tenable by knight's service. (fn. 4) The Rawcliffe here intended seems to be Mid Rawcliffe, which was in 1249 held by Sir John de Thorn hill of Theobald Walter by the twelfth part of a knight's fee, (fn. 5) Out Rawcliffe at the same time being held by tenants at will for the most part. (fn. 6) In 1346 it was recorded that the Earl of Ormonde held four plough-lands in Out Rawcliffe, (fn. 7) and his mesne lordship, as in the case of Weeton, passed to the Earls of Derby.

Theobald Walter in 1266–7 granted to his 'cousin' Sir Richard le Boteler all the land of Out Rawcliffe together with an oxgang in Staynall, for which he was to render the farm the men of the place had been accustomed to pay. (fn. 8) At the same time he ordered these men to render their services to the said Richard, (fn. 9) whom they were to consider as their lord. The rents seem to have amounted to £7 a year, for this was the sum remitted or commuted to a pair of gloves or 1d. by Theobald Walter, butler of Ireland, when William le Boteler, the son and heir of Richard, married Joan de Syfrewast. (fn. 10) Richard had also acquired Mid Rawcliffe from Richard de Thornhill (fn. 11) and John Debaud, (fn. 12) and thus held the whole, though by different tenures. From this time until 1716 his family retained possession, and there are practically no records of any other tenants. The manors seem to have been regarded as one, called indifferently either Middle or Out Rawcliffe; but sometimes these were named separately. The Botelers also held manors and lands in Hoole, Whittle-le-Woods, Freckleton, Goosnargh and other places.

Sir Richard le Boteler, brother of Sir William le Boteler ofWarrington, (fn. 13) was living in 1273, (fn. 14) but must have died not long afterwards, leaving a widow Alice. (fn. 15) His eldest son William did not long survive him, being dead in 1287; his widow Joan had by that time married Thomas de Singleton. (fn. 16) The son Nicholas was a minor at his father's death, (fn. 17) and by his wife Mabel left a son William, a minor in 1 305. (fn. 18) This son also appears to have died young. By his wife Isabel he left a son Nicholas, who served as knight of the shire in 1344, (fn. 19) and occurs from 1328 (fn. 20) until about 1364. He was succeeded by his son Sir John Boteler, (fn. 21) who rendered public service as sheriff of the county (fn. 22) and in other ways. (fn. 23)

Sir John died 27 September 1404, leaving as heir his son Nicholas, about twenty years of age, and married in 1401 to Margery daughter of Sir Richard Kirkby. (fn. 24) Nicholas Boteler, who was knight of the shire in 1419, and 1426, (fn. 25) was about 1452 succeeded (fn. 26) by a son John, (fn. 27) who died in September 1488 a very old man, his heir being a great-grandson James, twenty years of age. The manor of Out Rawcliffe, with messuages, lands, &c, there and in Stalmine, Staynall Thistleton, Kirkham and Freckleton, was held of the Earl of Derby by knight's service and the rent of 8s. (fn. 28) James Boteler, who married Elizabeth daughter of Sir Thomas Molyneux of Sefton, (fn. 29) died in 1504, leaving two sons John and Nicholas, (fn. 30) of whom the former proved his age in 1 512. (fn. 31) This John Boteler recorded a pedigree in 1533, (fn. 32) and died in 1534, leaving by his wife Anne Shireburne four daughters as co-heirs, viz. Elizabeth, who married James Standish of Duxbury; Isabel, who married Thomas Radcliffe of Winmarleigh, and left a daughter Anne, afterwards wife of Sir Gilbert Gerard; Eleanor, who married Henry Rishton of Rishton; and Grace, who married Hugh Anderton of Euxton. (fn. 33) The manor of Rawcliffe, however, went with other estates to the heir male, the abovenamed Micholas, brother of John. He died about 1555, leaving a son Richard, (fn. 34) who was succeeded by his brother Henry, (fn. 35) with whom the pedigree recorded in 1664 begins.

Butler of Rawcliffe. Azure a cheveron between three covered cups or.

This family, like most of those in the district, adhered to Roman Catholicism at the Reformation, but appear to have attended the reformed services occasionally in order to avoid fines and sequestrations. (fn. 36) Henry Butler, grandson of the above-named Henry, (fn. 37) lived through the Civil War period, and lost his son in the king's service; but, though his estates appear to have been sequestered by the Parliament, it was for 'delinquency' only. (fn. 38) Another Henry, great-grandson of the foregoing, succeeded to the estates later, (fn. 39) and had a son Richard, (fn. 40) who joined the Jacobites in 1715, and was tried and condemned for high treason. He died in prison. (fn. 41) His estates were declared forfeit, (fn. 42) and the manor of Rawcliffe was in 1729 acquired by Thomas Roe, an attorney, whose daughter carried it in marriage to John France of Little Eccleston, and it descended in this family for a time. (fn. 43) Mr. Robert John France Aiston is said to be the present lord of the manor. Courts have been held in recent times. (fn. 44)

RAWCLIFFE HALL stands in a pleasant situation a little over a quarter of a mile to the north of the right bank of the Wyre, facing south, and is a twostory building of 17th-century date very much modernized and added to in recent years. It has, however, at one time been of considerable interest and yet retains some of its ancient features, though the disposition of the original plan is no longer easy to trace. The principal elevations face the south and west where the walls are covered with rough-cast and the windows modern. All the roofs are covered with blue slates. The greater part of the building appears to be of late 17th-century brickwork, but this only shows at the back where no rough-cast has been applied. The north side of the principal or south wing, however, retains its original timber construction facing a small courtyard about 24 ft. by 21 ft., possibly a late 17th-century development of the original plan, the east and west walls having apparently been built up against the timber framing of the main wing. This timber work remains a very picturesque feature and may indeed be of Elizabethan date, or at any rate part of the 'new buildings of the Hall of Rawcliffe' which are mentioned shortly before 1619. (fn. 45) The timber framing extends the whole height ot the building, but the lower part is filled in with 2¼ in. brickwork, including, however, a good door with traceried panels. The upper part has a long range of mullioned and transomed wood windows glazed with diamond quarries, and a plaster cove below the eaves, the framing under the windows being composed of two rows of square panels with quatrefoil and other fillings. The timber is without paint, and the work being generally very little 'restored' makes a very charming picture. The courtyard, however, has been encroached upon on the west side, and has been altered on the north, from which side it was entered. At the north end of the west wing is a large room going up the full height of the building, now used as a billiard-room, but said to have been originally the chapel. The west front, though modernized, retains substantially its 17th-century lines, being well broken up with chimneys, one of which is incorporated in an embattled two-story bay window. The south front is uninteresting, although John France, who died in 1774, left instructions in his will that this side of the house should never be altered. 'It is questionable, however, whether the wish was observed, as the modernization seems to be later in date. (fn. 46) There is a central porch going up both stories, but the roof runs the length of the front with overhanging eaves and a gable east and west. The entrance hall has the remains of an open fireplace, and there is a small oak staircase with dog gate. There are 18th-century additions on the north-east side and in other parts (fn. 47) and on one of the outbuildings to the north-west is a stone inscribed 'Tho. Roe, Ano. Dni. 1734.' On the lawn on the west side is a lead statue of a girl in haymaker's costume commemorating one of the farm servants who lost her life under peculiar circumstances.

Apart from the Butler family there is little to relate of the township, (fn. 48) but several 'Papists' registered estates in 1717. (fn. 49)

For the Church of England St. John's was built in 1838; the vicar of St. Michael's presents to the vicarage. (fn. 50)

The Wesleyan Methodists built a chapel in 1844, but services were discontinued in 1873, the congregation having dwindled away. (fn. 51)


  • 1. The Census Rep. of 1901 gives 4,501 acres, including 13 of inland water. There are also 45 acres of tidal water and 147 of foreshore.
  • 2. V.C.H. Lancs, i, 288b.
  • 3. In 1205–6 Rawcliffe's 12s. of tallage follows next after Weeton: Farrer, Lancs. Pipe R. 202.
  • 4. Lancs. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), i, 37, 115, 145.
  • 5. Ibid. 174. Of the two plough-lands 2 oxgangs were held in demesne, and the other tenancies are thus recorded: Roger son of Roger, 2 oxgangs at 51. rent; Jordan son of Roger, 1, at 2s. 6d.; Uctred the Smith, 1, at 2s. 6d.; Sir Otto de Rowall, 5, by knight's service; Richard de la Hay the same.
  • 6. Ibid. 172–3. Of these two ploughlands 15 oxgangs were worth 106s. 3d. yearly, and the remaining one was held by the service of performing suit to the county and wapentake courts. The mill was worth 16s. a year, the moor 6s. 8d., and the marsh 12d.
  • 7. Survey of 1346 (Chet. Soc), 54; for castle ward 5s. was payable.
  • 8. Dods. MSS. xxxiii, fol. 29 5 liii, fol. 99.
  • 9. Ibid, xxxiii, fol. 29b; this charter supplies the date.
  • 10. Ibid. fol. 30. Should William and Joan have no issue the rent was to revert to the grantor or his heirs.
  • 11. Dods. MSS. liii, fol. 85; a grant of all Thornhill's land, made about 1253, Sir Robert de Lathom being sheriff and attesting. Richard de Thornhill directed his tenants in future to answer to Richard le Boteler as to their lord; ibid. Richard de Thornhill granted 2 oxgangs of land and a half in Middle Rawcliffe to Richard de Thornton in free marriage with his 'cousin' Olive; ibid. In 1308–9 William son of Nicholas Boteler made a claim respecting a tenement in Midst Rawcliffe against John de Thornhill and others, but did not prosecute it; Assize R. 423, m. 2 d. 5.
  • 12. Dods. MSS. liii, fol. 99; a direction to the tenants to render services to Richard le Boteler.
  • 13. Raines MSS. (Chet. Lib.), xxxviii, 93; Beamont, Annals of the Lords of Warrington, i, 60, 79.
  • 14. In 1273 the sheriff was ordered to fix a boundary between the lands of Richard le Boteler in Middle Rawcliffe and those of the Abbot of Cockersand in Pilling Grange; De Banco R. 3, m. 24. There had already (in 1270) been an agreement as to bounds, which were to go from the head of Pilling straight between Scytholme and south by the hedge to the head of Westpool; Dods. MSS. cxlix, fol. 120. In 1273 Richard, in bequeathing his body to the abbey, released his right in Pilling pasture; ibid.; Cockersand Chartul. (Chet. Soc), 1, 47–50.
  • 15. She was the daughter of William de Carleton; Whittle-le-Woods and part of Goosnargh appear to have come to the Botelers through her. In 1281 dower was granted to her by her eldest son William, viz. the whole manor of Middle Rawcliffe. The other sons were Henry, John, Richard, Edmund and Geoffrey; Dods. MSS. liii, fol. 85. For Richard see the account of Marton ia Poulton. Alice, when widow, granted to Richard son of Sir Henry de Kighley all her part of the fishery of Wyre, given her by her brother Adam; ibid. fol. 97b.
  • 16. At the beginning of 1287 Joan widow of Theobald le Boteler claimed dower in Rawclifte-as to 6 oxgangs of land, &c., against Nicholas son of Theobald le Boteler, who was custodee of the land and heir of William son of Richard le Boteler; and as to 10 oxgangs, &c., against Thomas de Singleton and Joan his wife; De Banco R. 66, m. 27 d. It appeared that Joan, who held in dower, was the widow of William le Boteler, whose son and heir Nicholas was under age; ibid. 68, m. 21 d.
  • 17. Nicholas occurs in a Wrightington plea in 1292; Assize R. 408, m. 41.
  • 18. Assize R. 420, m. 9 d.; from which it appears that William's wardship had been granted to Richard de Lathom by John de Kirkby as superior lord of Wrightington, where the family had lands. The lord of Weeton seems for the time to have been overlooked, but in 1313 Edmund the Butler of Ireland appeared against William son and heir of Nicholas Boteler for having intruded himself into the manor of Out Rawcliffe, which had been held of plaintiff by the said Nicholas by knight's service, so that William's wardship belonged to him; De Banco R. 198, m. 10 d.
  • 19. Pink and Beaven, Parl. Repre. of Lancs. 29.
  • 20. In that year Nicholas son of William Boteler claimed the third part of £7 rent from Out Rawcliffe against Randle de Singleton and Mabel his wife. Mabel was the widow of Nicholas Boteler, who had held the manor of a certain William (sic) Boteler by the rent of a pair of gloves. From Nicholas it had descended to William as son and heir, and he had granted Mabel a third of two-thirds of the manor for dower. The descent of the manor was traced (as in the text); it was stated that Joan, as widow of the first William (son of Richard), had received the £7 rent until her death, and it was argued that a third part of this was due from Mabel to the lord of the manor. The defence was that the rent had been extinguished by the charter to William and Joan; Assize R. 1400, m. 233d.; De Banco R. 276, m. 93. Isabel widow of the second William (father of Nicholas) had married Sir Henry de Croft by 1331; ibid. 287, m. 307 d. Dower was claimed in seventytwo messuages, lands, &c, in Middle Rawcliffe, Out Rawcliffe, Upper Rawcliffe, Great and Little Sowerby, Inskip and many other places against Nicholas son of William Boteler; ibid. 295, m. 102; Cal. Pat. 1330–4, p. 388. Nicholas occurs again in 1346–7; De Banco R. 348, m. 286; 351, m. 109 d.
  • 21. Sir John son of Nicholas Boteler of Rawcliffe in the time of Richard II recovered a moiety of the manor of Freckleton; Dods. MSS. cxlix, fol. 116. Sir John Boteler of Rawcliffe and Agnes his wife occur in 1401; Final Conc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), iii, 62.
  • 22. From 1371 to 1374; P.R.O. List, 72.
  • 23. In 1386 he went to Ireland with Sir John de Stanley on the king's service; Cal. Pat. 1385–9, p. 126. John Duke of Lancaster in 1397 retained Sir John Boteler of Rawcliffe for his service in peace and war, giving him a fee of £20 yearly; Add. MS. 32106, no. 860. A similar grant was made to him in 1399; Cal. Pat. 1396–9, p. 557.
  • 24. Towneley MS. DD, no. 1460. The tenure of the lands in Middle and Out Rawcliffe is not stated. The marriage is also noted in Dods. MSS. cxlix, fol. 97b.
  • 25. Pink and Beaven, op. cit. 50, 52. Licence for an oratory was in 1428 granted to Nicholas Boteler of Rawcliffe and Margery his wife; Raines MSS. (Chet. Lib.), xxii, 407.
  • 26. In 1441 Nicholas appears to have married Katherine widow of Sir Thomas Radcliffe, and lands in Catterall, Garstang and elsewhere were assigned to her; Doda. MSS. liii, fol. 93. Nicholas was living in 1443 and 1451, as appears by the note following, but was dead in 1455; ibid. fol. 98. John Boteler of Rawcliffe, as son of Nicholas, granted lands to Katherine, his father's widow, in 1464; ibid. fol. 92. John son of John Boteler and brother of Nicholas released to trustees all his right in lands in Catterall, &c.; ibid. cxlix, fol. 115b.
  • 27. A feoffment by Nicholas Boteler occurs in 1443; Final Conc, iii, 108–9. In 1423 an agreement was made between Nicholas Boteler of Rawcliffe and John son and heir of Sir Richard Boteler of Warrington for the marriage of John son and heir of the former and Elizabeth sister of the latter; Dods. MSS. liii, fol. 83b. In 1451 Nicholas made a grant of moss and turbary to his son John; ibid. An earlier deed (about 1430) records an agreement between Nicholas Boteler and John his son on the one side and Sir Thomas Radcliffe on the other for the marriage of John's son and heir-apparent Nicholas to Thomas's daughter Alice. There are mentioned Sir John, the father of Nicholas, Margery his wife and Elizabeth wife of his son John; ibid, fol, 97. John and Richard, sons of Nicholas Boteler, were defendants in 1449; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 12, m. 2. In 1467 William son of John Boteler of Rawcliffe received landa in Freckleton, and in 1502–3 John son and heir of William Boteler, on marrying Beatrice daughter of Richard Singleton, had lands in Esprick, Thistleton and Freckleton; Dods. MSS. liii, fol. 101–2.
  • 28. Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. iii, no. 43, 45. The descent is thus given: John Boteler the elder -s. Nicholas -s. John -s. James. From later pleadings it appears that the younger John married Elizabeth, one of the daughters and heirs of Robert Lawrence of Ashton, &c.
  • 29. The agreement was made 18 July 1488; Dods. MSS. liii, fol. 98b. But in it James Boteler is styled 'esquire.'
  • 30. Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. iii, no. 109. The manor of Rawcliffe was held of the Earl of Derby by knight's service. James Boteler had in 1500 granted various messuages and lands in Freckleton, Warton, Tarnacre, &c, to trustees for Anne daughter of Sir Richard Shireburne and wife of his son John Boteler; in 1501 James made a grant to his brother Richard, and in the same year another to his son Nicholas. At his death his son and heir John was fourteen years of age. Elizabeth Boteler, widow of James, died in Nov. 1508, and Richard Boteler in Oct. 1507; ibid, iv, no. 33.
  • 31. Ibid. no. 23. It was stated that John Boteler was born at Rawcliffe on 16 Aug. 1489, and baptized at St. Michael's; John Rigmaiden and Margaret wife of John Kirkby of Thornton were sponsors. 'A certain missal was shown, and in the calendar of the said book the day of birth of the said John Boteler was written by Richard Brid, a brother of the order of Preachers on the said Morrow of the Assumption . . . in these words: John Boteler son of James Boteler was born 1489. One witness remembered being sent by the father to announce the birth to Dame Anne Molyneux, who sent him back with a 'royal' for the said John. For a recovery of the manor in 1521 see Pal. of Lane. Plea R. 132, m. 11d.
  • 32. Visit. (Chet. Soc), 93.
  • 33. Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. vii, no. 4. The manor is herein called Middle Rawcliffe. John Boteler's will is given, and it is recorded that he had begun a chantry and service in St. Michael's Church. The ages of the heirs are given: Daughters— Elizabeth, twenty-seven; Isabel, twentyfive; Eleanor, twenty-two; and Grace, twenty-one. Brother—Nicholas, thirtythree. Anne the -widow received dower in 1534; Dods. MSS. liii, fol. 98b. The daughter Eleanor was engaged to marry Henry son and heir-apparent of Richard Rishton in 1527; ibid. fol. 94b. For the descent gee Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 172, m. 11.
  • 34. Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. x, no. 4; the will of Nicholas Butler is recited, his two sons Richard and Henry being mentioned, and daughters Elizabeth (wife of John Orrell), Alice and Catherine. There was a remainder to William Butler of Esprick and heirs male. Richard was fifteen years old at his father's death. The manor of Middle Rawcliffe, with windmill, messuages, &c., was held of the Earl of Derby by knight's service. Out Rawcliffe is separately named, but no tenure is recorded. For an inventory of the goods at Rawcliffe see Fishwick, St. Michael's (Chet. Soc), 147. Nicholas Butler in 1538 obtained a dispensation from Archbishop Cranmer to enable him to marry Anne Bradshagh, widow; Dods. MSS. liii, fol. 94b. His will (ibid. 91b) mentions also a bastard son James and a son-in-law John Butler of Kirkland. Richard Butler, the heir, is said to have married Agnes daughter of Sir Richard Hoghton; Dods. MSS. liii, fol. 98b. The date is wrongly given; perhaps it should be 31 Hen. VIII.
  • 35. Richard Butler in 1564 settled Rawcliffe and Stalmine on himself for life, with remainder to his brother Henry; Dods. MSS. liii, fol. 98b; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 26, m. 253. In 1571 an agreement respecting the Butler manors and lands was made by Gilbert Gerard, Anne his wife, Thomas Standish, Margaret his wife, James Anderton—these representing John Butler—Richard Butler, Henry Butler and Anne his wife; ibid, bdle. 33, m. 79; Fishwick, op. cit. 150; Lancs. and Ches. Rec. (Rcc. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), ii, 254.
  • 36. See the note on Kirkby of Upper Rawcliffe; also Fishwick, op. cit. 151–2.
  • 37. In 1591 William Burgh of Larbreck charged Henry Butler of Middle Rawcliffe with trespassing on his fishery in the Wyre, catching twelve salmon called mortes, worth 12s., twenty flukes (20d.) and 100 eels (6s. 8d.); Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 268, m. 9. The elder Henry Butler died at Middle Rawcliffe on 24 Feb. 1620–1 holding the manor of Middle Rawcliffe and Out Rawcliffe of the Earl of Derby by fealty and 6s. 8d. rent; also two ferry-boats for the passage of the water of the Wyre in the said manor and a free fishery in the same river, with other manors and lands. Anne his widow died a week after him. William Butler, his son and heir, was sixty years of age; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxvi, no. 36. The manor of Middle Rawcliffe, &c., was the subject of a settlement in 1632 by William Butler, Henry his son, and William son of Henry; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 121, m. 1. William Butler died in 1639, his son Henry being then fifty-four years of age; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxx, no. 18. Various settlements are recited, from which it appears that William married Elizabeth daughter of Cuthbert Clifton of Westby, and Henry married Dorothy daughter of Henry Stanley (of Bickerstaffe). William had brothers named Nicholas (with son Richard), Thomas and Robert, and younger sons Cuthbert, Nicholas and John. The tenure of Rawcliffe was recorded as before; there were there sixteen saltcotes.
  • 38. Royalist Comp, Papers (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), i, 260–1. Henry Butler's sequestration is just mentioned. His son Richard had left a widow Elizabeth, whose jointure lands had been in part sequestered for her 'popery.' She was dead in 1655, when Henry petitioned for the removal of the sequestration, the lands having reverted to him. The son named, Captain Richard Butler of Rawcliffe, had been taken prisoner at the capture of Liverpool in 1644, and died soon afterwards, apparently while a prisoner at Manchester; War in Lancs. (Chet. Soc.), 60. The same writer states that '— Butler, the young heir of Rawcliffe,' was killed at Brindle in the fight of 1651. Dugdale, contrary to his custom, does not record these facts in the pedigree of 1664; Visit. (Chet. Soc), 64. Two other members of the family, William and Edward Butler of Rawcliffe and Myerscough, have been noticed in the account of the latter place. The pedigree referred to gives: Henry Butler, aged eighty -s. Richard, d.v.p. -s. Richard, aged thirty-two -s. Henry, aged six. Henry Butler the elder died in .1667; Fishwick, op. cit. 154, where an abstract of his will is given. Richard Butler of Rawcliffe, with Henry and five other sons, were Preston burgesses in 1682; Preston Guild R. (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), 182.
  • 39. Henry Butler was vouchee in a recovery of the manor of Out or Middle Rawcliffe in 1708; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 488, m. 7.
  • 40. Richard Butler was vouchee in a recovery of the manor in 1714; ibid. 501, m. 20.
  • 41. Gillow, Bibl. Dict, of Engl. Cath. i, 364–5. Catherine the daughter and heir of Richard married Edward Markham and had Thurland Castle. See Lancs. and Ches. Rec. (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), i, 177. It appears that Henry Butler, the father of Richard, was still living in 1720, when he put in a claim to the estate for himself and Anne his wife, but as they were both Papists they were incapacitated and their interest declared void; Fishwick, op. cit. 155. Henry Butler, Catherine his daughter, and Mary the widow of Richard in 1717 registered their estates as 'Papists'; Estcourt and Payne, Engl. Cath. Nonjurors, 145,148–9.
  • 42. Rawcliffe was sold in 1723 to the Rev. Richard Cromleholme, John Leyland, Cornelius Fox and James Poole for £11,260; Fishwick, op. cit. 156.
  • 43. Op. cit. 156–7, where the succession is thus given: John France, d. 1774 -s. John, d. 1817, having bequeathed to Thomas Wilson, who took the name of France and died in 1828 -s. Thomas Robert Wilson France, d. 1853 -s. Robert Wilson France, d. 1858, having bequeathed Rawcliffe to his natural son, Robert John Barton Aiston, who assumed the name of Wilson France. 'In the event of his death without issue, the property, subject to certain contingencies, will [1891] go to Greenwich Hospital. The manor of Out Rawcliffe was held by John France in 1775; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bile. 393, m. 86.
  • 44. a Fishwick, op. cit. 40.
  • 45. Fishwick, Sr. Michael's-on-Wyre, 157. In a document drawn up by Henry Butler shortly before his death (24 Feb. 1620–1) the following places are mentioned in Rawcliffe Hall: 'All the buildings on the south side of the gates, the chamber over the gates, the chappell, the east buttery with the chamber over it called the lower Heigh chamber, the closet in the same over the porch, the kitchen, the larder, the old rye barn, the slaughter house, the slaughter house barn, the old stable, and the kiln.' Also the 'chamber where my son William usually does lie.
  • 46. a Ibid.
  • 47. Fishwick, writing in 1891, says the east side was modernized and partly rebuilt 'about thirty years ago.
  • 48. a Geoffrey the Carpenter about 1247 released to William de Eccleston an oxgang of land in the vill of Rawcliffe, Hugh the chaplain having been the tenant; Dods. MSS. cxlii, fol. 57. This may refer to Upper Rawcliffe.
  • 49. Estcourt and Payne, Engl. Cath. Nonjurors, 96, &c. Their names were Hilary Ashton, Philip Butler and Henry Curwen, in addition to the three Butlers above mentioned.
  • 50. Fishwick, op. cit. 95–6.
  • 51. Ibid. 132.