The parish of Claughton

A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 8. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1914.

This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.

Citation:

, 'The parish of Claughton', in A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 8, (London, 1914) pp. 210-217. British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/lancs/vol8/pp210-217 [accessed 23 May 2024].

. "The parish of Claughton", in A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 8, (London, 1914) 210-217. British History Online, accessed May 23, 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/lancs/vol8/pp210-217.

. "The parish of Claughton", A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 8, (London, 1914). 210-217. British History Online. Web. 23 May 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/vch/lancs/vol8/pp210-217.

In this section

CLAUGHTON (fn. 1)

Clactun, Dom. Bk.; Clahton, 1208; Clacton, 1212; Clauton, 1241; Clagton, 1255; Claghton, 1297. Local pronunciation Clafton.

This parish, with a single township only, is the smallest in the county, the area being 1,581 acres, including 9 acres of inland water. (fn. 2) The north-west boundary is formed by the Lune, which here flows through a green and level valley over half a mile wide. To the south-east of this the surface steadily rises from about 60 ft. above sea level to over 1,150 ft. at Hewrigg. The lower slopes of this hill-side are pleasantly wooded, and the surface is broken by a number of little doughs, some of them well wooded, down which run Claughton Beck and other brooks to join the Lune. In one place, behind the church, is a fine waterfall. The upper slopes are bare moorland.

The principal road, that from Lancaster north-east to Hornby, goes along the foot of the hill. The parish church stands by it, and, though there is nothing to call a village, a number of houses, including the old hall, are ranged along the road. The Midland Railway Company's line also passes through the township, below the main road, but there is no public station. The population in 1901 numbered 140.

The parish has no distinctive history, but it is interesting to notice that one of its landowners about 1220 took his way to the Holy Land, and apparently never returned. (fn. 3) To the county lay of 1624, based on the old 'fifteenth,' Claughton paid £5 16s. 10½d. when the hundred of Lonsdale had to raise £100, and so in proportion. The soil is fertile, overlying limestone, and there are 956 acres of permanent pasture and 156 of woods and plantations. (fn. 4) Bricks and tiles are made, and formerly the flagstone quarries on the hill-side were worked.

At one time Claughton was regarded as a hamlet of Caton, (fn. 5) and as late as 1717 Caton-with-Claughton was considered a single township. (fn. 6)

The parish is governed by a parish council.

Manor

In 1066 CLAUGHTON like Caton was among the manors of Torfin of Austwick (fn. 7); the assessment is not given separately, but was in later times 9 or 10 oxgangs of land. Early in the 12th century it was held by the ancestors of the Kellet family in thegnage and became subdivided. In 1212 Gilbert de Kellet held it with Kellet and Bare, but a third part had been granted out to a certain Adam, and 30 acres had been given to Gospatrick the White at 1s. free rent. (fn. 8)

It is impossible, on account of the scanty and conflicting evidence, to trace the descent of the various portions clearly. (fn. 9) A moiety of the lordship soon descended to the Crofts of Dalton, but in later times they did not claim anything except the advowson of the church. Roger de Croft died in 1255 holding 4½ oxgangs of land in Claughton of the king by a rent of 26d.; also the fifth part of a water-mill there. (fn. 10) The other moiety was held by a family surnamed Claughton. (fn. 11) In 1297 Roger de Croft and William de Claughton held each a plough-land and 2 oxgangs in Claughton and Over Kellet by a rent of 5s. 9d., (fn. 12) while about the same time Roger son of Henry de Croft and William de Claughton were stated to be jointly seised of the lordship of Claughton. (fn. 13) In 1324 three lords are named—John Fleming holding a third, Henry de Croft a fourth, and John de Claughton a third, rendering 20d., 12d. and 20d. respectively to the Earl of Lancaster, or 4s. 4d. in all. (fn. 14) The Fleming portion appears to be that anciently granted to Adam, (fn. 15) while Henry de Croft's, from its service, was Gospatrick's. (fn. 16)

Quite another distribution is shown in the survey of 1346, though the total service is the same. At that time John de Croft of Dalton held 2 oxgangs of land and two-thirds, paying 12d.; Henry de Croft of Claughton held 3 oxgangs by 17d.; Edmund de Hornby the same; and William Doggeson 1 oxgang by 6d. (fn. 17) The last-named seems to have held the twelfth part of the lordship not recorded in 1324. The Hornby share then represented that of Claughton. (fn. 18) Though the Fleming share is not expressly named it existed, (fn. 19) and descended with Coniston until the 16th century (fn. 20); it was then acquired by Thompson. (fn. 21) The Doggeson share can be traced a little further. (fn. 22) The share of John de Croft appears to have been acquired by the Redmaynes (fn. 23) and Claughtons. (fn. 24)

The Crofts of Claughton, who resided in the township and ultimately became sole lords, were a branch of the Dalton family, receiving the remnant of Claughton as an inheritance, (fn. 25) but little definite appears (fn. 26) until the death of John Croft in 1416. He was found to have held a third part of the manor of the king as duke by the rent of 18d. (fn. 27) From this time the record is complete until the beginning of the 17th century. The Redmayne and Claughton third of the manor was acquired in 1565 (fn. 28) and 1581, (fn. 29) and the Fleming or Thompson share probably about the same time, so that William Croft at his death in 1606 (fn. 30) and his brother and successor Edward in 1614 held the whole manor by a rent of 4s. 4d.; also the advowson of the church (or a moiety of it) and various messuages and lands. (fn. 31) Cockersand Abbey had long had an estate in the township, (fn. 32) and this also had been acquired by the family. (fn. 33)

Croft. Lozengy argent and sable.

Henry Croft, son of Edward, succeeded and at his death in 1625 the manor went to his brother Edward. (fn. 34) The family had hitherto adhered to the Roman Catholic religion, (fn. 35) but Edward conformed and in 1632 he compounded for the arrears due for recusancy. (fn. 36) The estates were soon afterwards mortgaged and sold, Francis Sherington of Worsley and his descendants becoming owners of part at least. (fn. 37) The manor was in 1702 purchased by Thomas Fenwick of Burrow, (fn. 38) and descended with that manor till 1898, when it was sold by the late Thomas F. Fenwick to the Claughton Manor Brick Company, Limited, the present lords of the manor. The lord's rents, free fishery, mines and minerals, the old hall and the advowson of the church were included in the purchase. The last court baron was held in 1903. (fn. 39)

CLAUGHTON HALL, (fn. 40) the home of the Croft family, is a picturesque building now used as a farmhouse, standing on the lower slope of the hill just above and south-west of the church, overlooking the Lune valley to the north. The main building is [capital L]-shaped with north and east wings, the inner sides of which facing south and west are respectively 57 ft. and 45 ft. in length. The house appears to have been built at two different times, the east wing being the older, its south end yet showing detail apparently of Elizabethan date. The whole of this wing may, indeed, represent a 16th-century house which faced the east, but this is very uncertain, though the present disposition of the buildings on that side suggests a house of the usual middle-hall type. The north wing appears to have been added in the 17th century when probably the older portion of the structure was remodelled, assuming more or less the appearance of the later work. The architectural history of the building is, however, difficult to follow, nearly all the internal walls having been removed in comparatively recent times and the interior adapted to the requirements of a modern farm-house, the original plan being consequently lost.

The building is of stone and two stories in height with mullioned and transomed windows and stone slated roofs. The north front is rather unusual in design, being broken up with chimneys and flanked by towers standing well in front of the main wall, that to the west having a low-pitched hipped roof with overhanging eaves and the other, which is smaller at the base but corbelled out above, finishing with a stone gable and saddle-backed roof. The total length of the principal or north front is nearly 80 ft. and of the east front about a foot less, and there is a low building 40 ft. by 29 ft., now used as a shippon, attached to the north-east angle, and a smaller one-story block 16 ft. wide built out at right angles from the south end of the east wing, which together form a kind of courtyard (now a garden) on the east side of the house. The west half of the west wing is in a semi-ruined condition and is now used as stables and shippons, and the north-west tower is gutted. The hall and dwelling rooms seem to have been in the north wing and the kitchen and offices in the east, the principal entrance to the hall being by a projecting porch, going up both stories, on the south side, the upper part forming a large bay window on the first floor of six double-transomed lights and two on each return, now all built up. The mutilation of the north wing, however, has been so great that the size of the hall and its actual position are difficult to determine, but it seems unlikely that it extended further west than the fireplace on the north side, leaving a room at the west end from which the north-west tower was gained. There was a door, now built up, in the north wall, with a window on either side, but there is no trace left of a screen arrangement, the entrance under the north-east tower being apparently a modern insertion. The north wing is now, however, divided into at something less than half its length by a modern wall. Over the hall there appears to have been a large room at the west end with fireplace on the north side and a mullioned and transomed window of nine lights, now built up, on the south, the south front having been originally of much more importance than now The north-west tower measures 10 ft. square internally, its two lower stories being lighted by plain two-light windows on the north side. Its top story, however, has a mullioned and transomed window of eight lights the full length of its north wall with two lights on each return, forming, along with the two adjoining chimneys, a very picturesque feature. (fn. 41) There are two transomed windows of four lights each in the upper story of the main north front, which finishes with a straight parapet of dressed stone, and the north-east gabled tower has an eightlight window facing north in the top story and two smaller mullioned windows each of four lights below. At the south end of the east wing facing east is an oriel window of four trefoil-headed lights in the upper floor carried upon bull-nosed corbels, with embattled transom and sill, near which in the wall below is a carved stone with the arms of Croft held by a figure, and another with the initials and date I. C., 1673. The latter, however, may belong to some other building or to the later portion of the house, having been found in an adjoining field in modern times and afterwards placed in its present position. (fn. 42) A wide archway at the south end of the east wing, below the oriel window, is now built up, though a door remains in the opening. The roof of the shippon to the north-east of the house is supported by two carved oak principals, or crucks, 16 ft. apart and 9 ft. from each end of the building.

Claughton Hall: North Front of North Wing

A minor branch of the Croft family once resided at West Hall in the township, (fn. 43) and the surname exists in the district to the present time. Margaret Croft, widow, and William her son registered their estates as 'Papists' in 1717. (fn. 44) One or two others did the same. (fn. 45)

Claughton Hall: The South Front, showing Entrance to Great Hall

An inclosure award was made in 1806. (fn. 46)

Church

The church of ST. CHAD stands on rising ground on the south side of the road close to the hall, and is a small rectangular stone building measuring externally 50 ft. by 20 ft. erected in 1815 on the site of an older building, of which the east window is the only part now remaining. (fn. 47) The church was restored in 1904 and enlarged by the addition of an aisle, vestry and porch on the north side, the old west door being built up and the former vestry, which was at the south-east corner, pulled down. The aisle is 8 ft. wide, and is separated from the nave by an arcade of three semicircular arches on round piers, the total width of the building inside being now 25 ft. 10 in. The older walling is of rubble and appears to have been originally rough-cast, and the roofs are slated and have overhanging eaves. In the west wall, immediately over the built-up doorway, is a panel within a moulded stone frame with the arms and initials of W. Croft and the date 1602. (fn. 48) The east window is pointed and of three trefoiled lights with the mullions crossing in the head forming three quatrefoils, but is without hood mould, and may be of 14th-century date. The three windows on the south side are of 1904 date, replacing the original early 19th-century lights. The interior has no features of antiquarian or architectural interest, (fn. 49) all the fittings being modern. In the vestry, however, is preserved an oak communion table dated 1636, and there are a portion of a trefoiled window head and an 18th-century classic font. The font in use was given by Canon Grenside when curate here in 1855. In the south-west corner of the churchyard, which falls from south to north, is the base of a cross, the shaft of which, set upside down, is in the adjoining lane near Claughton Hall.

There are two bells hung in a stone turret with segmental pedimented head over the west gable. One of these bears the inscription + ANNO · DNI · M · CC · NONOC° · AI, and is the oldest dated (1296) bell in the kingdom. (fn. 50) The second is by Luke Ashton of Wigan, and is inscribed 'Nicholas Fenwick Esqr. H. Croft. T. Sweetlove Wardens 1727.'

The plate consists of a silver chalice of 1709–10 inscribed 'The Gift of S. Needham sometime Rector, Claughton Communion Cup 1710,' and a plated paten with ' De° et Ecclesiae S. Ceddae Claughton A° 1851' scratched on the underside.

The registers begin in 1701.

The church afforded sanctuary (fn. 51) in 1537.

Advowson

Originally no doubt the advowson of the church belonged to the lord of the manor, (fn. 52) but became divided with the land, and in the time of Henry III Roger son of Henry de Croft gave his moiety to Cockersand Abbey, (fn. 53) the other moiety being given to the canons by Godith daughter of William son of Orm de Kellet. (fn. 54) These grants, though ratified by the heirs of the benefactors, appear to have been invalid, for in later times the patronage was exercised by the Crofts (fn. 55) of Dalton, and on a partition in 1489 it was agreed that the lords of Dalton and Leighton should present alternately. (fn. 56) There was a dispute as to the right in 1557, (fn. 57) and a little later the Crofts of Claughton purchased the Leighton share of the advowson, (fn. 58) the Leghs of Lyme, as heirs of Croft of Dalton, likewise claiming. (fn. 59) The sole right of the latter appears to have been recognized ultimately, though in 1650 they were said to present alternately with the lords of the manor, (fn. 60) and in 1807 the co-heirs of Peter Legh sold the advowson to Thomas Fenwick of Burrow, (fn. 61) and it has since descended with the manor to the Claughton Manor Brick Company; their chairman, Mr. John William Craven, acts as patron. (fn. 62)

The value of the rectory was estimated as 10 marks in 1291, but as only 4 marks after the Scottish invasion of 1322 (fn. 63); and 53s. 4d. was also the value of the ninth of sheaves, &c., in 1341. (fn. 64) In 1527 it was estimated at £6 13s. 4d., (fn. 65) as in 1291, and in 1535 at £9 14s. 10d. clear. (fn. 66) This had risen to £28 by 1650, when an augmentation of £20 was also paid out of Royalist sequestrations by order of the Committee of Plundered Ministers. (fn. 67) The value was certified as £27 about 1717, (fn. 68) but is now given as £112. (fn. 69)

The following have been rectors:—

Instituted Name Patron Cause of Vacancy
oc. 1230 Richard (fn. 70)
oc. 1246 Robert (fn. 71)
c. 1300 Ralph (fn. 72)
oc. 1302–3 Thomas (fn. 73)
oc. 1326–45 Hugh de Kernetby (fn. 74)
oc. 1363–75 Bernard de Pullow (fn. 75)
oc. 1396 John de Claughton (fn. 76)
31 Oct. 1427 John Gressingham (fn. 77) Nicholas Croft d J de Claughton
10 June 1437 Thomas Bellingham (fn. 78) " d J Gressingham
Oct. 1445 John Primett (fn. 79) "
20 Jan. 1456–7 Oliver Bland (fn. 80) Sir Thomas Harrington d. J. Primett
11 June 1474 Robert Allanson (fn. 81) Heirs of N. Croft d. O. Bland
oc. 1489 Roger Middleton (fn. 82)
c. 1515 John Dockwray (fn. 83) Sir Piers Legh
c. 1540 Thomas Levyns (fn. 84) Gervase Middleton
1557 Thomas Croft (fn. 85) Thomas Procter d. T. Levyns
John Foster
Thomas Carter (fn. 86)
20 June 1584 Richard Senhouse (fn. 87) Gabriel Croft d. T. Carter
12 Nov. 1628 Richard Newton, M.A. (fn. 88) Edward Croft d. R. Senhouse
8 Jan. 1630–1 Edward Cresswell, M.A. (fn. 89) Sir Piers Legh depr. R. Newton
oc. 1647–52 Edward Ashton, B.A. (fn. 90)
1659 Henry Kidson, M.A. (fn. 91)
30 Sept. 1678 Leonard Jackson, M.A. (fn. 92) Gabriel Croft d. H. Kidson
27 May 1681 Samuel Needham, B.A. (fn. 93) Richard Legh "
22 Feb. 1683–4 Ralph Standish (fn. 94) " res. S. Needham
14 Mar. 1690–1 Richard Weever, B.A. (fn. 95) Peter Legh depr. R. Standish
7 Aug. 1691 Anthony Procter, B.A. (fn. 96) " res. R. Weever
27 Jan. 1700–1 Samuel Lever, M.A. (fn. 97) " d. A. Procter
8 Mar. 1711–12 Thomas Holme (fn. 98) Bp. of Chester
5 May 1741 Thomas Knowles, M.A. (fn. 99) Peter Legh d. T. Holme
5 May 1773 Robert Armitstead (fn. 100) " d. T. Knowles
16 Apr. 1807 Thomas Wilson, B.D. (fn. 101) Lord Lilford, &c. d. R. Armitstead
20 Dec. 1813 Henry White, M.A. (fn. 102) Thomas Fenwick d. T. Wilson
28 Sept. 1844 John Reid, B.A. (fn. 103) Fenwick Trustees d. H. White
1857 John Chaine " res. J. Reid
1862 Percival Bowen, M.A. (fn. 104) Edward Matthew Fenwick d. J. Chaine
1873 Thomas Machell Remington, M.A. (fn. 105) Fenwick Trustees d. P. Bowen
1885 Edward Kent Green, M.A. (fn. 106) Thomas Fenwick-Fenwick rs. T.M. Remington
1899 Edward Harrison, B.A. (fn. 107) J. W. Craven res. E. K. Green

The list of rectors does not call for any comment except that Samuel Needham was ejected as a nonjuror in 1689. A curate is named in the visitation lists of 1548 to 1562, but it may be doubted whether there were then usually two priests resident at Claughton. Many of the later rectors did not reside. Thomas Wilson, rector from 1807 till his death in 1813, was a scholar of some distinction; he had been master of Clitheroe Grammar School, and published an Archaeological Dictionary in 1783. (fn. 108) There is no school.

There was formerly a Roman Catholic chapel near the hall, (fn. 109) but this was in 1820 removed to Hornby.

Charities

Francis Croft in 1690 gave £50 for the poor, (fn. 110) and the sum of £2 14s. 6d. is still paid out of the manor; it is divided among eight or nine poor persons in sums of 5s. to 8s. (fn. 111)

Footnotes

  • 1. For parish map, see Lancaster, ante.
  • 2. a Census Rep. 1901.
  • 3. This was Gospatrick the White, who before setting out gave a piece of land to his daughter Milda as a marriage portion. The gift was confirmed by his son William; Cocker sand Chartul. (Chet. Soc.), iii, 888.
  • 4. a Statistics from Bd. of Agric. (1905).
  • 5. In a charter of 1395–6; Dods. MSS. cxlix, fol. 94b.
  • 6. Gastrell, Notitia Cestr. (Chet. Soc), 11, 481; 'the parish consists of but one little village called Claughton, which is about one-fifth part of the township of Caton with Claughton.'
  • 7. V.C.H. Lancs. i, 289a.
  • 8. Lancs. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), i, 90. The gift to Adam (living 1169) had been made by his brother Orm son of Bernard (or Bernulf), ancestor of Gilbert; that to Gospatrick by Gilbert's father William. Adam is usually identified with the Adam de Urswick who was ancestor of the Fleming family. In 1226 the thegnage rent of Claughton appears as 4s.; ibid. 141. Later it was 4s. 4d. Henry de Kellet in 1208 complained that Hugh de Morewich had been diverting the courses of Solebeck and Micklebeck to a mill in Farleton, to the injury of Henry's tenement in Claughton. On Hugh's paying 5 marks the diversion was allowed; Final Conc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), i, 34.
  • 9. Gilbert de Kellet's son William left two sisters as heirs: Alice, who married Henry de Croft, and Godith, who married Vivian Gernet and afterwards John de Bigging; Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 91. See the account of Over Kellet. In 1241 William son of Orm (apparently the same as William son of Gilbert) released to William son of William (? de Claughton) 2 oxgangs of land which the latter claimed by descent; Final Conc, i, 86. In 1242–3 complaint was made that the men of Claughton had raised a dyke to the injury of Hornby; Close, 57, m. 1.
  • 10. Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 200. Henry was the son and heir, under age.
  • 11. This appears from the grant of the advowson to Cockersand Abbey. One moiety was held by Godith daughter of William son of Orm de Kellet, who had a son William de Claughton, and the other by Roger (d. 1255) son of Henry de Croft, Henry's widow (1272) being Alice; Cockersand Chartul. (Chet. Soc), iii, 883–92.
  • 12. Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 292.
  • 13. In a pleading of 1303, when John de Claughton had succeeded his father William, concerning land inclosed by the Abbot of Cockersand and the rector of Claughton; Assize R. 419, m. 8. John son and heir of William de Claughton in 1316 gave 3 acres in the vill to Edmund de Nevill; Add. MS. 32107, no. 375. Edmund de Nevill in 1330 granted certain land in Caton and Claughton (of the gift of his sister Joan) to John de Lancaster and John his son, with remainder to Agnes his daughter; Anct. D. (P.R.O.), A 6524. William son of Edmund de Nevill was called to warrant the Lancasters in 1357; Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 6, m. 1.
  • 14. Dods. MSS. cxxxi, fol. 42b.
  • 15. In later times Richard Fleming had a charter by which Gilbert de Kellet granted to Adam son of Gilbert de Coupmanwra the whole third part of the vill of Claughton in Lonsdale, excepting the advowson of the church; Lansdowne MS. 559, fol. 60b. This gift corresponds with that of Orm to his brother Adam, but must be of much later date; probably it was a confirmation of the old grant. Gilbert de Kellet died in 1236.
  • 16. Robert son of Gospatrick the White gave two parcels of land to Cockersand Abbey. In one spot a boundary was marked by a heap of stones; in another by the 'beck which has its rise in the neighbouring hills.' The lower well or spring below Varicke Park is also named; Cockersand Chartul. iii, 888–9.
  • 17. Surv. of 1346 (Chet. Soc), 76; Doggeson should perhaps have been allowed only the third part of an oxgang. His rent of 6d. (omitted in the print) appears in a later version; Dods. MSS. lxxxvii, fol. 63b.
  • 18. John de Hornby in 1314 claimed land in Claughton and Caton against John de Caton; De Banco R. 204, m. 40 d. In 1325 Hugh de Kernetby was licensed to enfeoff John and Edmund de Hornby of a moiety of the manor of Claughton, &c., then held in chief of the king as of the honour of Lancaster; Cal. Pat. 1324–7, p. 180. A settlement was made by the same parties in 1328–30, Edmund being then under age; Final Conc. ii, 74. Edmund son of John de Hornby the elder in 1337–8 made a further settlement of his manors, &c., in Ireby, Tunstall and Claughton; ibid. 108. Sir John de Harrington the younger in 1342 required Edmund de Hornby to fulfil an agreement respecting the third part of lands in Claughton; De Banco R. 330, m. 124 d. In 1395–6 John de Hornby of Warrington, saddler, nephew and heir of John de Hornby, lately rector of Tatham, granted to feoffees all his interest in Caton and Claughton, on which the trustees granted the lands to Sir Robert de Urswick; Dods. MSS. cxlix, fol. 94b, 94. There seems no explanation of the differences between the extents of 1324 and 1345. In the former year it would appear that Claughton and Croft of Dalton held the manor, while Fleming, Croft of Claughton and perhaps one Roger were under-tenants. The Hornbys seem to have displaced both Claughton and Fleming by 1346, yet, perhaps by a later readjustment, the Fleming rent afterwards agreed with that of Hornby.
  • 19. John Fleming died in 1352 holding two markates of rent from tenements in Claughton held of John de Croft; Inq. p.m. 28 Edw. III (1st nos.), no. 37. Jane widow of Sir John Fleming in 1355 claimed dower against Roger de Slene and Isabel his wife in sixteen messuages, 12 oxgangs of land, &c., in Claughton and Caton; Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 4, m. 8. The defendants, who said there were but eight messuages, 2⅓ oxgangs of land, &c., called Richard son and heir of John Fleming to warrant them; ibid. m. 13 d.; 5, m. 16.
  • 20. John Fleming of Rydal was in 1522 found to have held a third part of the manor of Claughton of the king as duke in socage by 17d. rent; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. v, no. 42. Hugh Fleming died in 1557 holding the same by a rent of 16d.; ibid, xi, no. 49.
  • 21. William Thompson died 6 Jan. 1565–6 holding the Fleming estate in Claughton—a third part of the manor, with six messuages, &c.—of the queen as of her duchy by 16d. rent. He had in 1564 made a settlement of it, with remainder to his wife Isabel for life and then to his heirs. He had lands, &c., in Bolton, Hornby and Gressingham also. His heir was his son Oliver, aged fortytwo; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xi, no, 32. Oliver Thompson died in 1571 holding the same estate by 16d. rent, and leaving as heir a son John, twenty-four years old; ibid, xiii, no. 9. Oliver had had a dispute in 1567 with Brian Newton, Isabel his wife and Isabel Newton, widow, respecting his inheritance, the Newtons having the deeds; Ducatus Lanc. (Rec. Com.), iii, 356. Brian's wife was probably William Thompson's widow. Gabriel and Ralph Thompson, bankrupts, in 1693 held the Scale House and various lands; Cal. Exch. of Pleas, C 154.
  • 22. William, Thomas, Adam and John sons of Roger de Claughton were in 1375 charged by the rector with depasturing; Coram Rege R. Hil. 49 Edw. III, m. 26 d. In 1395 Thomas son of William de Claughton obtained messuages and land in Claughton and Caton against John Cuthbertson of Farleton and Katherine his wife; Final Conc. iii, 45.
  • 23. Edmund Redmayne died in 1511 holding messuages and land in Claughton of the king as duke in socage by a rent of 2d.; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. iv, no. 42. His son Thomas in 1536 held similarly; ibid, vii, no. 2. Another of the family, William Redmayne of Urswick, at the same time held land in Claughton of Thomas Croft; ibid, viii, no. 34. William Redmayne of Irby (the heir of Thomas) and Isabel his wife in 1562 made a settlement of messuages, &c., in Claughton; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 24, m. 44.
  • 24. Peter son of William Claughton died in 1540 holding messuages and lands in Claughton and Ireby of the king as duke by a rent of 10d.; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. viii, no. 14. His son John held similarly in 1561; ibid, xi, no. 45. He left two infant daughters as heirs—Alice and Frances. The rents of Redmayne and Claughton together make 12d., the rent of Croft of Dalton in 1346, and according to the fines quoted below each of the two families held a moiety of the third part of the manor.
  • 25. Roger son of Henry de Croft (of Dalton) in 1309 granted to his brother Henry all his part of the manor of Claughton, as well in demesne as in services, at a rent of £10 of silver during the grantor's life, and afterwards rendering only the services due to the chief lords; Lansdowne MS. 559, fol. 60.
  • 26. In 1333 Aline widow of Roger de Croft claimed dower in a moiety of the manor of Claughton against John de Bredkirk, custodee of the lands of Henry son of Henry de Croft; De Banco R. 293, m. 177. As stated in the text, Henry de Croft of Claughton held 3 oxgangs of land in 1346. John de Croft of Claughton was plaintiff in 1370; ibid. 440, m. 56.
  • 27. Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc), i, 131. Henry Croft the son and heir was over thirty years of age in 1418. He died in 1421 holding the same estate and leaving a son also named Henry, aged twenty in 1423 5 ibid, ii, 4. The younger Henry lived on till 1480, and was then succeeded by his son Henry, aged forty or more in 1484; ibid. 115. Writs of livery to the first and second Henry are in Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxiii, App. 16, 24. The third Henry Croft died in 1510, having made a settlement of his third part of the manor in 1508, by which it was given to his son and heir John, aged about sixty. The said third part was held of the king as duke in thegnage by the yearly rent of 18d.; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. iv, no. 40. No lands outside Claughton are recorded in any of the above inquisitions. John Croft died in 1524 holding the third part of the manor as before, also land in Thornton; ibid, v, no. 53. His son Simon, fifty years of age, was heir, but died in the same year, a few months after his father, leaving a son Thomas, aged twenty-four; ibid. no. 60. Thomas Croft's inquisition shows a considerably increased estate. He died in 1556 holding the third part of the manor as before, with messuages, water mill, lands, &c., in Claughton, and other lands in Tatham, Melling, Gressingham, Bolton, Over Kellet and Ireby. His heir was his son Henry, thirty years of age; ibid, x, no. 28. From the later inquisitions it appears there were other sons— Gabriel, William and Edward.
  • 28. Henry Croft purchased from William Redmayne of Ireby and Isabel his wife four messuages, a sixth part of the manor, a free fishery in the Lune, lands, &c.; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 27, m. 49. Henry died in 1570, but no sign of the purchase appears in the inquisition which records (as before) a third part of the manor held by 18d. rent; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xiii, no. 23. The next heir was a brother Gabriel, aged thirty-eight. Gabriel Croft was the queen's auditor in Ireland in 1561; Ducatus Lanc. (Rec. Com.), ii, 247. Henry and Gabriel Croft acquired part of Over Kellet.
  • 29. Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 43, m. 73; a purchase of four messuages, a moiety of the third part of the manor, &c., by Gabriel Croft from Marmaduke Redmayne, Alice his wife, Ambrose Pudsey and Frances his wife. The inquisition after Gabriel's death has not been preserved, but he purchased the Middleton share of the advowson and probably acquired the remaining (Fleming) third, for in 1587 he granted the manor, lands, water mill, advowson of the church &c., to trustees for division between his brothers William and Edward, the latter to have the Nether Hall; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), i, 49–50. He died soon afterwards, for his will dated 1587 was proved at Richmond in the same year and in 1590 a settlement was made by William Croft, Jane his wife, Edward Croft and Elizabeth his wife; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 52, m. 169.
  • 30. Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc.), i, 49–56. The rent is the ancient thegnage rent for the whole of Claughton. William Croft married (as his second wife) Mary daughter of John Gascoyne, and by her left a daughter and heir Mary, born in 1604. She married John Leyburne of Cunswick and was mother of George Leyburne of Nateby. Caton and other parts of William's estate went to his daughter.
  • 31. Ibid, ii, 90. Edward obtained the manor as heir male. It seems quite safe to identify him with the Edward Croft, rector of Heysham, 1568–83. He left a son and heir Henry, aged twentyseven, in 1618. Elizabeth wife of Edward survived him.
  • 32. Cockersand Chartul. ii, 883–93. Some of the gifts to the abbey have been mentioned already. The other benefactors were Gilbert de Kellet, William son of William de Kellet, Adam de Arncliffe, Simon de How, Roger and Gilbert sons of Adam the brother of Asulf, Adam son of Hugh and Anabil his wife. The following are among the place-names: Sletholme Beck, Langland Beck, Meres Beck and Bacstan Beck; Fele Bridge and Grete Bridge; Wetholme, Benstock Rigg and Levenath Ridding. John son of Adam son of Adam de Appletreethwaite of Caton in 1299 claimed 7 acres, as heir of his grandfather, against the Abbot of Cockersand; De Banco R. 127, m. 115; 132, m. 149 d. See Chartul. iii, 890. Furness Abbey also had some land in Claughton; Lancs, and Ches. Rec. (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), i, 17.
  • 33. The Cockersand lands in Caton, Claughton and Gressingham were sold to Richard Pimond in 1544; Pat. 36 Hen. VIII, pt. ix. Edward Croft in 1614 held the Cockersand lands in Claughton of the king by the hundredth part of a knight's fee; Inq. ut sup.
  • 34. Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxvi, no. 33. Three widows were living—Mary, Elizabeth and Martha.
  • 35. In 1607 the king made a grant of lands in Claughton, Poulton, Gressingham and Over Kellet sequestered for the recusancy of Edward Croft; Pat. 5 Jas. I, pt. i.
  • 36. Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), xxiv, 180. Administration to Edward Croft's estate was granted in 1641.
  • 37. The following fines relating to the manor, &c., give an indication of the changes: 1633—Feoffees v. Edward Croft and Frances his wife; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 123, no. 11. 1634— Francis Sherington and Thomas Collet v. Edward Croft, Frances his wife and the feoffees; ibid. bdle. 126, no. 18. 1659— Alexander Mawdesley v. Francis Sherington, Audrey his wife, Robert and John Sherington; ibid. bdle. 164, m. 120 (rent from Booths and Claughton). 1690— Feoffees v. Francis Sherington and Martha his wife; ibid. bdle. 225, m. 65 (lands in Claughton). 1695—Richard Tatham v. Thomas Brabin and Mary his wife; ibid. bdle. 235, m. 54 (manor, mill, fishery, view of frankpledge, &c.). For disputes between Sherington and Croft about 1638 see Lancs, and Ches. Rec. ii, 249, 262. The Crofts continued to hold the manor, for the will of John Croft, 1694, devised his manor of Claughton and land there to trustees for his wife Mary and her heirs and assigns. A sister Susanna Croft is mentioned.
  • 38. Baines, Lancs. (ed. 1870), ii, 610. A later Thomas Fenwick was vouchee in a recovery of the manor in 1801; Duchy of Lanc. Aug. Assizes 41 Geo. III, rot. 5. In 1836 all the farms paid a lord's or feefarm rent, and the lord of the manor had also the fishery on the Claughton side of the Lune as well as mines and minerals; Baines, Lancs, (ed. 1), iv, 591.
  • 39. Information of Mr. J. T. Hatton, secretary of the company.
  • 40. There are drawings of Claughton Hall in the Abbey Square Sketch Bk. (Chester 1872), i, plates 25–8 inclusive.
  • 41. The upper part of the nearer chimney, however, is gone, a single modern shaft taking its place.
  • 42. Ex inform. Mr. J. Richardson, the present tenant (1909).
  • 43. A Nicholas Croft of Claughton died in 1590, desiring to be buried 'in the little quire where I was accustomed to sit.' He left bequests to sons Henry, Anthony and Thomas, the last being sole executor. Another Nicholas died in or about 1692, leaving a widow Elinor and a son Henry. He had land in Claughton and the tithes of Gressingham; Cal. Exch. of Pleas, G 164. The epitaph on Gabriel Croft of West End states that he spent his youth in a merchant's office in Liverpool, but preferring books to riches retired to Claughton and devoted his leisure to Homer, Virgil and Horace. He died a bachelor in 1795, aged seventy-one; Baines, Lancs. (ed. 1836), iv, 592. 'By the marriage of the heiress of Henry Knowles, whose father married the heiress of Henry Croft, [West End] became the property of Samuel Still of London, esq.; ibid. (ed. 1870), ii, 610.
  • 44. Estcourt and Payne, Engl. Cath. Nonjurors, 143.
  • 45. John son of John Dobson of Crossfield House and William Foxcroft; ibid. 143, 146.
  • 46. Under an Act 45 Geo. III, cap. 94 (private). The award is at Lancaster; Lancs. and Ches. Rec. i, 56.
  • 47. The church is said to be much smaller than its predecessor. The sexton in 1884 said he occasionally came upon foundations of old walls when digging. Palatine Note Bk. iv, 121. The interior dimensions of the church as rebuilt in 1815 are 45 ft. 10 in. long by 15 ft. 10 in. wide.
  • 48. The panel was formerly in a mortuary chapel belonging to the Crofts on the south side of the old church.
  • 49. T. D. Whitaker states that in the old church there were 'a fine Norman zigzag arch about the south door,' the effigy of a priest and a 'rood loft, richly painted with vermilion and gilt'; Richmondshire (1820), ii, 244. He also quotes a description of the arms remaining in the east window about 1665, at which time there was also a chapel, called Croft's chapel, on the south side of the chancel. This was probably 'my new chapel of Claughton, which I made of mine own proper costs and charges' as a burial-place, named in William Croft's will, 1604; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), i, 55. A drawing of the Croft chapel in 1814 is in Capt. E. Jones's sketch book (W. Farrer).
  • 50. See Palatine Note Bk. iv, 121–3, where a facsimile of the inscription is given. The date was discovered in. 1853 by Canon Grenside when curate at Claughton. The bell measures 16½ in. in height to the crown, exclusive of the canons, and 21¼ in. in diameter at the mouth. The inscription is high up near the canons.
  • 51. Pal. of Lanc. Indictments, Aug. 29 Hen. VIII, bdle. 2. John Jobson, late of Kingston in Kent, scholar, took sanctuary there, having committed divers felonies; in particular he had stolen a horse from Thomas Carter at Scotforth.
  • 52. The advowson of the church was reserved in the grant by Gilbert de Kellet to Adam son of Gilbert de Coupmanwra; Lansd. MS. 559, fol. 60b.
  • 53. Cockersand Chartul. (Chet. Soc.), iii, 884. The grant was made for the soul of Henry, King of England. Alice the widow of Henry de Croft in 1273 formally resigned any claim she had to the patronage; ibid. 892.
  • 54. Ibid. 883; her grant was the earlier of the two. Its motive also was patriotic—'for the souls of King Henry and all the kings of England.' Her son William afterwards confirmed the gift; ibid. 894.
  • 55. In Kuerden's version of the inquisition after the death of John Croft of Dalton in 1416 the advowson of Claughton is named; Kuerden MSS. ii, fol. 235.
  • 56. Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 68, m. 7. The next gift was to go to the lord of Leighton, the next after that to the lord of Dalton. In practice the lords of Leighton seem to have presented twice to the others' once.
  • 57. Ibid. 204, m. 5; 205, m. 13. Both parties claimed as representatives of Middleton of Leighton. Gervase Middleton had presented Thomas Levyns and then sold the next presentation to John Tunstall and others, who in 1549 granted it to Thomas Procter and John Foster. The plaintiff, John Aglionby, claimed in virtue of another grant made by Gervase Middleton in 1531. He seems to have failed, as the clerk presented by the defendants retained the benefice.
  • 58. Henry Croft in 1566 purchased the advowson from George Middleton and Anne his wife; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 28, m. 197. The advowson is not named in the inquisition after his death, but was in 1590 in the possession of his brothers William and Edward; ibid. bdle. 52, m. 169. Edward Croft was said to be the patron about 1610; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 7.
  • 59. The advowson of Claughton is named in the inquisitions, e.g. Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xv, no. 38.
  • 60. Commonw. Ch. Surv. (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), 119; by the lords of the manor twice and the heirs of Sir Peter Legh once. The advowson of the church is named in a fine concerning the manor in 1695; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 235, m. 54. Gabriel Croft had presented in 1678. In 1717 Mr. Legh of Lyme was sole patron; Gastrell, Notitia Cestr. (Chet. Soc), ii, 480.
  • 61. Baines, Lancs, (ed. 1870), ii, 611.
  • 62. Information of the Rev. E. Harrison.
  • 63. Pope Nich. Tax. (Rec. Com.), 307.
  • 64. Inq. Nonarum (Rec. Com.), 36. The reduction was accounted for by 40s. altarage and 40s. destruction by the Scots.
  • 65. Duchy of Lanc. Rentals and Surv. bdle. 5, no. 15.
  • 66. Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), v, 259; the parsonage-house and glebe were worth 4s., tithes of grain £7, other tithes 26s. 6d., and Easter roll, &c., 27s. 4d. Out of this synodals and procurations had to be paid—3s.
  • 67. Commonw. Ch. Surv. 119–20. The glebe was 'about 3 acres'; there was a prescription for tithe hay. An augmentation of £50 (not £20) had in 1647 been granted out of Sir George Middleton's sequestered estates, and this charge was in 1651 transferred to Lord Morley's estates; Plund. Mins. Accts. i, 115.
  • 68. Gastrell, loc. cit.
  • 69. Manch. Dioc. Dir.
  • 70. Lanc. Ch. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 362.
  • 71. Assize R. 404, m. 23 d. Malefactors had broken into his house, and as the town of Claughton made no pursuit it was fined. It was reported that Robert was dead, but no proof was given, though he did not appear in court; his sureties were therefore fined.
  • 72. Ralph the chaplain of Claughton came to a violent end in or before 1302; Lancs. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), i, 311. He may not have been rector.
  • 73. In 1302 he complained that various persons had carried off his goods; De Banco R. 144, m. 310. Next year he was a defendant; Assize R. 419, m. 8.
  • 74. He is named in 1326; De Banco R. 264, m. 52 d. He was still rector in 1340 and 1345, being then described as brother and heir of Roger de Kernetby, clerk, who had lands in Whittington; ibid. 324, m. 358 d.; 344, m. 21.
  • 75. Bernard rector of Claughton was plaintiff in 1363; De Banco R. 414, m. 81. He was trustee in 1369; Final Conc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), ii, 177. He again appeared in 1373 as Bernard de Pullow; De Banco R. 451, m. 32.
  • 76. He was a trustee in 1395–6 (Dods. MSS. cxlix, fol. 94) and again in 1396–7; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 140. He occurs again in 1403 and 1411; Cal. Pat. 1401–5, p. 191; B.M. Add. Chart. 20515.
  • 77. Raines MSS. (Chet. Lib.), xxii, 407.
  • 78. Whitaker, op. cit. ii, 245.
  • 79. Raines MSS. xxii, 375. Primate or Primett was rector in 1450; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 69.
  • 80. Raines MSS. xxii, 381. He is named as rector in 1464; Hunter, Doncaster, ii, 403.
  • 81. Raines MSS. xxii, 385–6. On the death of Oliver Bland in January 1473–4 an inquiry was made as to the right of presentation, Sir James Harrington claiming in virtue of a purchase made by his father Sir Thomas. On the other hand Mabel widow of Piers Legh and Robert Middleton claimed as heirs of Nicholas Croft of Dalton, and established their right.
  • 82. He was rector at the time of the arrangement about the next presentation in 1489; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 68, m. 7.
  • 83. Duchy of Lanc. Rentals and Surv. bdle. 5, no. 15. He was still rector in 1535; Valor Eccl. v, 259. In the pleadings of 1557 it was alleged that Levyns was presented before February 1530–1.
  • 84. His name occurs in the visitation lists of 1548 and 1554.
  • 85. His nomination was the occasion of a dispute about the patronage in 1557, as above related; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 204, m. 5; 205, m. 13.
  • 86. Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxviii, App. 518, in a deposition dated 1607.
  • 87. From the York registers, the see of Chester being vacant; note by Mr. Earwaker. The original presentation is at Hornby Chapel. Senhouse was described as 'a preacher' in 1610; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. xiv, App. iv, 7. This rector was uncle of a more famous Richard Senhouse, Bishop of Carlisle, 1624–6; Burke, Commoners, i, 215.
  • 88. The Church Papers at Chester Dioc. Reg. begin at this point.
  • 89. The records in the Inst. Bks. (P.R.O.) begin here. Cresswell was presented 2 Oct. 1629. He was also curate of Disley in Cheshire and died at Edale near Castleton in 1643; Earwaker, East. Ches. ii, 98.
  • 90. Plund. Mins. Accts. i, 102, 115. He signed the 'Harmonious Consent' in 1648.
  • 91. Curate of Hornby in 1650 and of Gressingham in 1652. He compounded for first-fruits on appointment to Claughton in April 1659; Lancs. and Ches. Rec. (Rec. Soc. Lancs, and Ches.), ii, 414. Henry Kidson, B.A. of Christ's Coll., Camb., was incorporated at Oxford as M.A. 1648; Foster, Alumni Oxon.
  • 92. Though Croft's nominee seems to have been duly instituted, his title is doubtful, as Richard Legh at once (17 September) claimed the patronage. Leonard Jackson was educated at Christ's Coll., Camb.; M.A. 1677.
  • 93. Nominated 5 Jan. 1678–9, but not instituted till 1681. He was educated at St. John's Coll., Camb.; B.A. 1674. See the account of Newton-in-Makerfield.
  • 94. He was a nonjuror and therefore deprived in 1689; Baines, Lancs, (ed. Croston), v, 534. One of the name was educated at Emmanuel Coll., Camb.; M.A. 1681.
  • 95. Educated at Brasenose Coll., Oxf.; B.A. 1684. Became vicar of Over, Ches., 1695; rector of Wistaston 1704 and Barrow 1707; Foster, Alumni. He died in December 1736; Ormerod, Ches. (ed. Helsby), iii, 335.
  • 96. He was curate of Caton. Another of the name was rector of Dean in Cumberland. Three Anthonys graduated at Cambridge—from St. John's College, 1668, and from Christ's College, 1675 and 1676.
  • 97. Educated at Brasenose Coll., Oxf.; M.A. 1699; Foster, Alumni.
  • 98. Curate of Stalmine 1725–37. He did not reside at Claughton, which was served in 1727 by the curate of Aughton; Church Papers at Chester Dioc. Reg. The holy sacrament was administered three times a year.
  • 99. Curate of Stalmine 1737–73.
  • 100. He was schoolmaster of Caton and held the curacy of Gressingham. He was son of John Armitstead of Stocks in Slaidburn, and was ordained in 1753–5.
  • 101. The patrons were Thomas Lord Lilford and Henrietta Maria his wife (in her right), George Anthony Legh Keck and Elizabeth his wife (in her right), James John Hornby and Hester his wife (in her right) and Elizabeth Pye Benet, widow.
  • 102. Henry White was of Christ's Coll., Camb.; M.A. 1819. He resided at Kew Green, Surrey.
  • 103. The trustees were Alexander Pearson, surgeon, and Francis Pearson, both of Kirkby Lonsdale. Mr. Reid was educated at St. John's Coll., Camb.; B.A. 1839. He resigned Claughton for the rectory of Tregoney with Cuby, Cornwall; Croston's Baines.
  • 104. Educated at All Souls' Coll., Oxf.; M.A. 1829. He was head master of Sheffield Grammar School 1831–63.
  • 105. Educated at Trin. Coll., Camb.; M.A. 1863. He was vicar of Arkholme 1866–73.
  • 106. Educated at Brasenose Coll., Oxf.; M.A. 1858.
  • 107. Educated at St. John's Coll., Camb.; B.A. 1888.
  • 108. Dict. Nat. Biog.; he was B.D. of Trinity Coll., Dublin, 1794.
  • 109. Bishop Gastrell records sixteen 'Papists' in the parish in 1717. The churchwardens the same year reported thus: 'The Papists sometimes meet at an house in our parish. We know not what sort of worship one or two of the parishioners frequent, or whether any at all.' Ten years later they reported: 'We have no Dissenters but Papists, who with their neighbours of the same profession in the adjacent parishes hold their meeting in a building of a private house about once in the month.' A separate chapel was built by Mrs. Fenwick in 1763; Misc. (Cath. Rec. Soc), iv, 322–4.
  • 110. Gastrell, Notitia, ii, 481.
  • 111. End. Char. Rep. 1898. Official inquiries were held in 1837 and 1898. The original benefaction included a further £10 for a sermon on St. Mark's Day, but this ceased about 1870, apparently because the rector did not claim it and discontinued the sermon.