A History of the County of York East Riding: Volume 7, Holderness Wapentake, Middle and North Divisions. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 2002.
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Barmston village is situated at the southern end of its parish, c. 8 km. SSW. of Bridlington. (fn. 1) It extends almost from the south-western parish boundary for c. 750 m. to the North Sea, which forms the eastern boundary. To the north and west the parish was bounded by Earl's dike, an ancient stream which was one of the boundaries of Holderness wapentake, and on the south and south-west by other early streams, partly improved as Barmston Main drain. (fn. 2) The name, often recorded as 'Berneston' in the Middle Ages, is probably Anglian, meaning 'Beorn's farm'. (fn. 3) The parish also included the settlements of Hartburn and Winkton. Hartburn lay in the north-eastern corner of the parish in the late 12th century, next to Earl's dike and the sea. The name is Anglian or Anglo-Scandinavian and means 'Hart stream'. (fn. 4) Coastal erosion was probably the reason that the settlement had been deserted by the 15th century. (fn. 5) Winkton, 'Winchetone' in 1086, may be an Anglian name meaning 'Wineca's farm'. (fn. 6) It evidently lay in the northern half of the parish, (fn. 7) but no evidence has been found to support the traditional site. (fn. 8) Winkton seems still to have been inhabited in the 15th century but was evidently abandoned soon afterwards. (fn. 9)
In 1851 the ecclesiastical parish of Barmston comprised 2,966 a. (1,200 ha.) of which Barmston township, later civil parish, accounted for 2,418 a. (979 ha.) and 548 a. (222 ha.) lay in the adjoining township of Ulrome; the rest of Ulrome belonged to Skipsea parish, and the history of the township is treated under Skipsea. (fn. 10) Measurements taken suggest that the coastline was eroded at an average rate of about 1 yd. a year between the mid 18th and mid 19th century, and Barmston civil parish had been further reduced to 2,391 a. (968 ha.) by 1891 and 2,373 a. (960 ha.) by 1911. (fn. 11) In 1935 most of Barmston civil parish, comprising 2,274 a. (920 ha.), was combined with that of Fraisthorpe with Auburn and Wilsthorpe as the new civil parish of Barmston, with a total area of 4,269 a. (1,728 ha.). The remaining 99 a. (40 ha.) of Barmston was then transferred to the new civil parish of Ulrome. (fn. 12) Local farmers complained in 1978 that much land was lost by the removal of concrete coastal defences put up during the Second World War, (fn. 13) and in 1991 the area of Barmston was 1,695 ha. (4,188 a.). (fn. 14)
There were 46 tenants on the manor in 1292. (fn. 15) Barmston was omitted from the 1377 poll-tax return. Twenty-six houses were assessed for the hearth tax in 1672, and 8 discharged. (fn. 16) There were 27 tenants on the manor at the end of the 17th century, and c. 30 families in the parish in the mid 18th. (fn. 17) From 163 in 1801 the population rose to 206 in 1811, increased more gradually in the 1820s and 1830s to stand at 254 in 1841, fell sharply in the 1850s to 206 in 1861, and was thereafter relatively unchanged, with 198 inhabitants in 1911. Numbers declined to 185 in 1921 but stood at 194 in 1931. At that time 260 lived in the area of the civil parish created in 1935, whose population, 301 in 1951, fell sharply in the 1960s to 236 in 1971. It had recovered by 1981, when 291 were usually resident and holiday visitors increased that number to 320. (fn. 18) The population was 314 in 1991. (fn. 19)
The landscape of the parish is gently undulating. Most of the land exceeds 8 m. above sea level, rising in the northern half of the parish to over 23 m. at Hamilton hill. As a result, most of the eastern boundary, apart from an area called Low grounds, comprises cliffs. Lower ground borders the boundary streams to north, west, and south. Alongside the streams there are deposits of boulder clay, alluvium, and river gravel, but otherwise the parish lies on a mixture of sand, gravel, and laminated clay. (fn. 20) Most of the parish had been inclosed by the end of the 17th century; the remaining commonable lands were dealt with by agreement in 1758 and by Act in 1820. (fn. 21)
The parish is now drained into the North Sea by Earl's dike, Barmston Main drain, and smaller streams, but formerly much water was carried south-westwards into the Hull valley. In 1367 Earl's dike and a drain between Barmston and Ulrome, presumably that later improved as Barmston Main drain, were said to be defective. (fn. 22) In the west of Barmston the boundary with Gransmoor, in Burton Agnes parish, was described in the later 15th century as comprising ditches belonging to each parish separated by land called a 'broad mere' or 'twenty foot'. (fn. 23) In the early 18th century it was marked by a 20-foot bank with a drainage ditch on either side. During a dispute between the tenants of Gransmoor and those of Barmston over drainage c. 1720, it was alleged that the bank dividing the two lordships had been secretly cut, the drains neglected, and water allowed to overflow into Barmston following the inclosure of Gransmoor c. 1700. (fn. 24) The drainage was later improved under the Beverley and Barmston Drainage Act of 1798. (fn. 25) The principal change made was the diversion of the waters of north Holderness from their accustomed course southwards into the Hull valley to the sea by way of the southern boundary stream of Barmston, then improved as Barmston Main drain. A barrier was made in Beeford to divide the northern and southern sections of the level which were later administered separately. The northern and western boundary drains were improved by the commissioners as Water Mill beck and Burton drain respectively. (fn. 26) Low grounds in Barmston amounting to 340 a. were assessed to the work of the commissioners by the drainage award of 1811. (fn. 27) About 1850 the insufficiency of the drainage to the sea resulted in the flooding of c. 300 a. (fn. 28) Responsibility for the northern part of the Beverley and Barmston drainage passed from Barmston Drainage Board to North Holderness Drainage Board c. 1970, in 1989 to the National Rivers Authority, and to the Environment Agency in 1996. A long sea outfall was constructed at Barmston c. 1976. (fn. 29)
The main road of the parish is that running north-south from Bridlington to Beeford, Hull, and Beverley. From its southern end a minor road, along which Barmston village is built, leads eastwards to the shore, and in the north of the parish another branches from the main road to Fraisthorpe. In the south of the parish the course of the Bridlington road c. 1300 was evidently much the same as at present: mention was then made of the corner by Barmston manor house where the road turns south-westwards as a continuation of the village street towards Lissett, in Beeford. (fn. 30) The road was carried over the drain into Lissett by Fisher bridge, named from 1590. (fn. 31) Formerly, the chief road to Bridlington was probably that through Barmston village which then continued northwards along the coast. It was included in the White Cross to Bridlington turnpike under Act of 1767; problems caused by erosion have been suggested as the reason for the trust not being renewed, and the route was later abandoned. (fn. 32) All traces of the coast road had disappeared by 1996. Another early road was that leading from Lissett to Winkton and Hartburn, over which Bridlington priory was given leave to pass in 1299. (fn. 33) It presumably followed the course of the LissettBarmston road, before turning northwards to Winkton and then eastwards to Hartburn and the coastal road. From the Hartburn road a side road led north to Fraisthorpe c. 1300, crossing Earl's dike by Fraisthorpe bridge, which was in disrepair in 1367 and was probably that referred to as the 'stone bridge' in 1473. (fn. 34) With the failure of the turnpike and the progress of erosion, the chief route to Bridlington became the inland one from Barmston village through Fraisthorpe. (fn. 35) That road was later improved as a trunk road. In 1924 it was straightened, bypassing Fraisthorpe village; the new carriageway there crosses Earl's dike by the contemporary New bridge. (fn. 36) Barmston bridge, which carries the road over the main drain near the village, was rebuilt in 1958. (fn. 37) Other roads have included a minor road, now a field road, leading westwards from the main road towards Burton Agnes by the mid 18th century. (fn. 38) A road to the old inclosures and Hamilton hill was awarded in 1758, and by 1818 it had been extended to the former Hartburn road. A road across South field to Ulrome, used intermittently from the mid 18th century, was confirmed at the inclosure of Barmston in 1820. (fn. 39)
BARMSTON village is built east-west along the northern side of a shallow valley through which a stream evidently once flowed. (fn. 40) The village is of two parts: the church, former manor house, and one or two other buildings stand at the west end of the street, and the rest of the village c. 500 m. further east. The early houses probably all stood south of the street, but by the mid 18th century a farmhouse at the west end and half a dozen houses further east also stood on its northern side. One of the latter was an almshouse built in 1726, and neighbouring houses occupying long garths may have been recently-made model cottages with allotments; no documentary evidence of such a development has been found, however. At the east end of the village one or two houses had also been built in a southern side lane, later Southfield Lane. By the mid 19th century two farmhouses had been added north of the street, and the earlier cottages there replaced by a school. (fn. 41) In the 1920s and 1930s some 30 chalet bungalows were built on the cliff at the end of Sands Lane; most have since been lost to the sea. (fn. 42) The name Sands Lane, now applied to the whole village street, appears in the 19th century to have denoted only its eastern continuation to the coast. (fn. 43) A large caravan park was also established close to the cliff c. 1960. (fn. 44) Other modern houses include half a dozen council houses on the main street, and the same number on Hamilton Hill Road. Sewage pumping stations for the new developments were provided c. 1965. Later in the century, Holly Croft, a private estate of c. 50 houses, was built south of the street on the site of Holly House farm. (fn. 45) Boulder construction is found in the churchyard wall and several buildings, but most of the village is of brick. (fn. 46) Noteworthy buildings include those formerly used as the manor house, parsonage (now Barmston House), and an almshouse. (fn. 47) Manor Farm is dated 1768, Red Rose Cottage 1788, and No. 51 Sands Lane is a single-storeyed cottage of the 18th century. (fn. 48)
There was an alehouse in Barmston in the early 18th century. (fn. 49) The Bull and Dog, recorded from 1823, was later variously called the Bull or the Black Bull, the name in 1997. The house was rebuilt in a contemporary, urban style in the 1930s. (fn. 50)
A lodge of the Loyal Order of Ancient Shepherds was founded at Barmston in 1842. (fn. 51) In 1931 a small cottage was used as a men's reading room, (fn. 52) but there was no other meeting place until the Barmston Village Institute Trust, created in 1948, bought land next to Barmston church, and built a village hall for Barmston and Fraisthorpe c. 1955. (fn. 53) Nearby land was then leased for a cricket pitch. (fn. 54) Allotment gardens were provided on c. 1 a. in the village in the later 20th century. (fn. 55)
There was a beacon in Barmston in the mid 16th century. It probably stood on Hamilton hill, where there was a beacon c. 1800. (fn. 56) A lifeboat station, owned by the National Lifeboat Institute and manned from Bridlington, stood near the outfall of Barmston Main drain until it was given up in 1898. (fn. 57) Eight concrete gun emplacements, set up c. 1940, survive on the cliffs.
MANORS AND OTHER ESTATES
Four manors of BARMSTON, comprising 8 carucates, were held in 1066 by Thorkil, Sigeweard, Bonde, and Alfkil. They had passed to Drew de Bevrere by 1086, (fn. 58) and were later part of the Aumale fee. The principal estate at Barmston, held as 1/6; knight's fee in 1346, (fn. 59) was sometimes regarded as three manors, of Barmston, Hartburn, and Winkton, but at others as a single manor of Barmson, with members at Hartburn and Winkton. (fn. 60)
Most of Barmston was held by the Monceaux family. (fn. 61) Their tenancy may have originated, as in the case of their land at Boynton, in the grant made by Stephen, count of Aumale, to Alan de Monceaux, possibly in the 1120s, (fn. 62) and Alan occurs in the earlier 12th century as the donor of land at Winkton. (fn. 63) He (d. after 1161) was succeeded by his son Sir Ingram (probably d. by 1205), and Ingram by his son Sir Robert (fl. 1207-8) and supposed grandson Sir Ingram de Monceaux. In 1287 Sir Ingram was said to hold 5 carucates and 6 bovates in demesne at Barmston, Winkton, and Lissett, in Beeford, and his tenants occupied nearly 2 carucates more at Barmston and Winkton. (fn. 64) Shortly afterwards, Sir Ingram (d. 1292) gave Barmston manor to his son John (d. by 1297), a minor, (fn. 65) who was succeeded by his brother Thomas. (fn. 66) From Thomas (d. 1345), the estate descended in turn to his son Sir John (d. 1363) and grandson John (d. 1381). (fn. 67) The manor was held by Joan, widow of the last John, in 1410, (fn. 68) and in 1428 by Maud, widow of their son John. (fn. 69) On the death of Maud's and John's son William in 1446, the manor passed to his sister Maud, wife of Brian de la See, and their son (Sir) Martin de la See had inherited it by 1463. (fn. 70) In 1497 Sir Martin's daughter Margaret, wife of Sir Henry Boynton, received all her late father's property in Barmston and Winkton. (fn. 71) The Boyntons (fn. 72) retained the estate, which comprised 2,375 a. in 1819. (fn. 73) After the death of Sir Henry Boynton, Bt., in 1899, Barmston passed to his daughter Cycely, whose husband, Thomas Lamplugh Wickham, added the surname Boynton. Mrs. WickhamBoynton (d. 1947) was succeeded by her son Marcus, who in 1948 sold the estate, then comprising 2,232 a. in Barmston, to Glendon Estates Co. Ltd., the owner in 1997. (fn. 74)
The manor house, mentioned from 1297, (fn. 75) occupied a moated site at the west end of the village near the church. It is said to have been rebuilt by Sir Thomas Boynton (d. 1581 or 1582) and his son Sir Francis (d. 1617), (fn. 76) but it may have been the work of Francis's successor, Sir Matthew Boynton, Bt. (d. 1647), for Celia Fiennes later called the Barmston house 'newer built' than Burton Agnes Hall, which is of 1601-10. (fn. 77) In 1672 the family's heir, William Boynton, lived in the house at Barmston, which then had 10 hearths, (fn. 78) but it was later abandoned by the Boyntons and used as a farmhouse. In 1582 the evidently large house had included great, little, old, and garden parlours, many chambers, and a gatehouse and porter's lodge, besides service and farm buildings. In the mid 18th century the house was taken down, except for one wing of two storeys, basement, and attics, which was later remodelled and survives as part of Old Hall Farm. Materials from the house were said to have been used in building other farmhouses. (fn. 79)
William de Forz, count of Aumale, gave 2 carucates and a chief house at Barmston to his chamberlain, Gerard de St. John, c. 1250. Gerard later granted most of the estate to Adam, servant of the rector of Barmston, his wife Agnes, Gerard's daughter, and their heirs. Two bovates had already been granted to Dame Hawise de Monceaux. (fn. 80) Gerard was dead by 1287, when 1 carucate and 2 bovates were held in demesne, and the rest of the land was occupied by lay and religious tenants. (fn. 81) At least part of the estate descended to Agatha, another of Gerard's daughters, (fn. 82) and her sister Alice may also have held a share. (fn. 83) It was perhaps one of the daughters' shares, comprising 1/3 of a house and 4 bovates in Barmston, which William Hall (d. by 1353) held of the Crown as successor to the counts of Aumale as 1/96; knight's fee; his heir was his son Amand. (fn. 84) No more is known of the St. Johns' estate.
St. Mary's hospital, Bridlington, reputedly a foundation of Bridlington priory, was granted 2 bovates and 2 a. at Winkton by Alan de Monceaux in the earlier 12th century, (fn. 85) and c. 5 a. there by Walter Burdon about 1200. (fn. 86) The hospital's endowment seems later to have been subsumed in the estate of Bridlington priory in Barmston. That house had been given 1 bovate there by Peter Peto c. 1200, (fn. 87) and in 1535 its estate in Barmston was valued at £3 4s. net. (fn. 88)
Alan de Monceaux also gave 2 bovates with tofts in Barmston to the Knights Templar. (fn. 89) The estate was evidently transferred on the suppression of the Templars in 1312 to the Knights Hospitaller, (fn. 90) who held land in Barmston in 1473 and later. (fn. 91) After their suppression in the 16th century, their former estate, then also including land at Winkton, was held of the Crown by Matthew Boynton's heirs for 8s. 6d. a year. (fn. 92) The land was briefly restored to the Hospitallers in 1558. (fn. 93)
Nunkeeling priory is said to have been given 1 bovate in Barmston by Peter de Pettywyn, perhaps the Peter Peto who gave land to Bridlington priory c. 1200. (fn. 94) Nunkeeling priory had evidently been endowed with other land in Barmston, for in the same period it exchanged 2 bovates there for land in Hatfield, in Sigglesthorne. (fn. 95) In 1535 Nunkeeling's estate in Barmston was valued at 13s. 4d. a year. (fn. 96) The Crown sold land in Barmston and Hartburn formerly belonging to the dissolved house in 1574. (fn. 97)
Between 1197 and 1210 Sir Ingram de Monceaux granted Meaux abbey a little land in Hartburn which was evidently later lost to the sea. (fn. 98) He also gave a toft with appurtenant common rights in Hartburn to Thornholme priory (Lincs.). (fn. 99) Thornton abbey (Lincs.) held land at Winkton of the Monceauxs by 1297, (fn. 100) and in the mid 14th century had a house and 4 a. there. (fn. 101)
COMMON LANDS AND INCLOSURE. It is probable that each of the vills had its own common lands, and Winkton field was referred to in 1292. (fn. 102) No other documentary evidence of commonable lands there has been found, but ridge and furrow in the north-west of the parish may indicate the location of Winkton's open field. (fn. 103) If Winkton had separate commonable lands, they were evidently inclosed early, (fn. 104) or added to Barmston's grounds, in either case perhaps when the settlement of Winkton was abandoned. (fn. 105)
Barmston contained 8 ploughlands in 1086, but the land, valued at £3 in 1066, was then said to be waste. (fn. 106) South field was recorded in the later 13th century and again in 1416, when North field, lying between the village and Hamilton hill, was also mentioned. (fn. 107) Ridge and furrow surviving in the mid 20th century suggest that North field probably extended at least as far as the inland road to Bridlington. (fn. 108) By 1473 it was divided into two parts, called East and West fields. (fn. 109) The bovates in the fields were made up of the broad and narrow strips noticed elsewhere in Holderness. (fn. 110) Meadows adjoining South field in the late 13th century were probably common, (fn. 111) and pieces of meadow belonging to strips in North field were recorded in 1434. Part of the village's pasture land was presumably then in the common carr, or marsh, called Tokholme, north of North field. (fn. 112) Another common pasture was at Hastem hills, in the northwestern corner of the parish; the earlier name, 'Hest Holm', is believed to mean 'horse meadow'. (fn. 113) Horse carr near West field was also mentioned in 1590, when there was overstinting of pigs at Barmston. (fn. 114) Much of Barmston was evidently used for rough grazing in 1582, when over 900 sheep and more than 150 head of cattle were kept on the demesne; the tillage was then mostly sown with rye. (fn. 115)
Early inclosures in the parish may have included a meadow called 'Erlands' and pasture at 'Hest Holm', the latter possibly taken from Hastem hills pasture; (fn. 116) both were mentioned as parts of the demesne from the late 13th century. (fn. 117) The area of closes was evidently increased at the expense of the commonable lands, and in 1590 many closes, including 'Winton garths', presumably for 'Winkton garths', and South New close, were held by tenants, often in partnership. (fn. 118) Among closes named in 1697 were West Field close, Intack closes, Winton Marr close, West New close, East New close, and Great New close. (fn. 119) There were said to be some 450 a. of closes in the parish by 1739, all still in joint occupation. (fn. 120)
East and West fields were inclosed by agreement of 1757 and award of 1758. The open fields then contained 25½ bovates, of which 23½ belonged to Sir Griffith Boynton, Bt., and 2 to the rector. The two fields were separated by a hedge, and that and furlong boundaries were followed in the making of the closes, several of which had the characteristic long, curving shape of the old selions. There was almost 100 a. in East field, (fn. 121) and 91 a. in West field. Boynton was allotted 173 a. and the rector 15 a. South field was described as common pasture in 1758, but it may merely have been lying fallow then, since it was later referred to as an open field. (fn. 122) The rest of the commonable lands were dealt with by Act of 1819 and award of 1820. (fn. 123) They then comprised South field, of 127 a., the 109-a. Hastem hills pasture, and c. 1 a. of waste plots along the street. Sir Francis Boynton, Bt., was awarded all the land, except for a piece of waste. That, and a small piece of old inclosure, were awarded to the rector in exchange for his rights of ownership and pasturage in a parcel of coastal land called the Tetherings; he also received 7 a. of old inclosure for his glebe in the lands inclosed.
TURBARIES, FISHING, AND FOWLING. Besides for their rough grazing, the carrs were valued for turves, and the dikes and areas of water in the parish as sources of fish and wild fowl. Turbaries in Hartburn were exploited by the commoners in the later 12th century, and others were recorded later in Barmston and Winkton. (fn. 124) In 1299 Thomas de Monceaux granted Bridlington priory exclusive right of fishing in Earl's dike between Fraisthorpe bridge and the sea. (fn. 125) In 1590 pains made in the manor court included the prohibition of fishing and fowling in Barmston, presumably because they belonged to the lord. (fn. 126)
LATER AGRICULTURE. In the mid 18th century the new husbandry was introduced at Barmston by Benjamin Outram, the Boyntons' steward, and later a five-course rotation of crops, including turnips, rape, and clover, was operated. (fn. 127) In 1801 there was 781 a. under crops in the parish. (fn. 128) Barmston had 1,924 a. of arable land, 338 a. of grassland, and 12 a. of woodland in 1905. (fn. 129) The parish remained predominantly arable in the 1930s, when the grassland was concentrated mainly south-east of the village and on the higher ground of Hamilton hill, High Stonehills, and Red hill. (fn. 130) Of the 1,094 ha. (2,703 a.) returned for Barmston civil parish in 1987, 821 ha. (2,029 a.) were arable, 255 ha. (630 a.) grassland, and 6.5 ha. (16 a.) woodland. Nearly 700 cattle were then kept. (fn. 131)
There were 7-10 farmers in Barmston during the 19th century, and one or two more in the earlier 20th. Eight of the farms were of 150 a. or more in 1851, and there were nine larger farms in 1948. (fn. 132) Of the twelve holdings enumerated in 1987, three were of 100-199 ha. (247-492 a.), eight were of 50-99 ha. (124-245 a.), and one of 40-49 ha. (99-121 a.). (fn. 133)
INDUSTRY AND TRADE. There has been little employment in Barmston unassociated with agriculture. Stone and gravel were being taken from the beach at Barmston by the early 19th century, evidently under licence from the Constables, who claimed rights over the shore as lords of the seigniory. Extraction from the beach caused dispute, the rector complaining in 1814 about the damage done to Barmston's roads, and Sir Francis Boynton, Bt., attempting to restrict access to the parish in 1810 and again in 1817. Francis Constable upheld his rights, however, and the inclosure Act of 1819 was specific in its exception of the shore. (fn. 134) In 1843 and 1858 Sir Thomas Constable, Bt., granted 14-year leases of the shore to the Boyntons, allowing the collection of gravel and stone for purposes other than use in cement. (fn. 135) Away from the shore, gravel has been dug in the north-west of the parish, (fn. 136) and in 1932 about 40 a. near High Stonehills farm was let to an extraction company, Messrs. Maddox and Marlow, which was to pay royalties of 1s. a ton to the WickhamBoyntons. (fn. 137) The quarry was worked by the East Yorkshire Gravel Co. Ltd. in 1948, and later by Harold Needler Quarries Ltd. By 1946 quarrying had removed most of Spring hill, and operations there had ceased by 1957, when the land was returned to the owner for reconversion to agricultural use. (fn. 138) Brickmaking near the west end of the village is suggested by 'Bricke Kiln' close, or closes, named from 1697. (fn. 139)
A firm of motor engineers was established beside the main road c. 1935, and from the late 1960s boats and caravans were sold on the same site. An agricultural engineering concern was also operated in the village in the mid century. (fn. 140)
Barmston began to be visited by holidaymakers in the 1930s, some with caravans, and a permanent caravan park was laid down near the sea cliff c. 1960. (fn. 141) Since 1979 the site has been owned by Haven Holiday Group, the proprietor in 1997. There were then bases for up to 400 caravans, as well as a supermarket, entertainments club, and children's playground. (fn. 142) Visitors have also been catered for by a café nearby, and by the one or two shops in the village. (fn. 143) Another caravan site, behind the Black Bull inn and used since the Second World War, had 23 bases in 1997. (fn. 144)
Barmston dock was mentioned in 1683, (fn. 145) and a landing beside the coast road to Bridlington was used in the 18th century. (fn. 146) The dock seems to have been destroyed by coastal erosion before the end of the 19th century. (fn. 147)
MILLS. A water mill at Hartburn, presumably on Earl's dike, was used by Bridlington priory in 1292, and land next to the drain was later called Watermill grounds. (fn. 148) It may have been another water mill which was recorded in the later 16th century (fn. 149) and again in 1697, when a location near Fraisthorpe bridge is suggested by the association with the mill of Coney Garth close. (fn. 150) A windmill mentioned from the 16th to the early 18th century (fn. 151) may have stood on Mill hill in the south-west corner of the parish, near Lissett. (fn. 152)
About 1280 Sir Ingram de Monceaux claimed the profits of the assize of ale throughout his lands and, as a suitor to the three-weekly wapentake court of Holderness for his four manors of Barmston, Winkton, Lissett, and Hartburn, exemption from the county court. (fn. 153) Court rolls for the manor of Barmston survive for 1468 and 1590. Besides the ale assize, the court had view of frankpledge, and its jurisdiction extended to Lissett, in Beeford. In 1468 a constable was appointed for Barmston and Winkton, a dike-reeve for each of the vills, and a general dike-reeve. Other officers of the court included two aletasters, and in 1590 two bylawmen. (fn. 154) Rights of wreck and freedom from Admiralty jurisdiction were also claimed by the lord of the manor. In 1528 Dame (Margaret) Boynton had confirmation of those franchises, (fn. 155) but the claim to wreck by her descendant, Sir Matthew Boynton, Bt., in 1626 was ultimately rejected, and only flotsam and jetsam allowed to him. (fn. 156)
Three people were receiving permanent outrelief at Barmston in 1802-3, and 9-11 between 1812 and 1815; in the early 19th century 2-5 were also helped occasionally. (fn. 157) No parochial records from before 1835 survive. Barmston joined Bridlington poor-law union in 1836. (fn. 158) It remained in Bridlington rural district until 1974, when it became part of the North Wolds district, later borough, of Humberside. In 1981 the borough's name was changed to East Yorkshire. In 1996 Barmston civil parish became part of a new East Riding unitary area. (fn. 159)
The architectural evidence suggests that Barmston church was built in the earlier 12th century. (fn. 160) Barmston parish included 548 a. in Ulrome township, most of which lay in the ecclesiastical parish of Skipsea. (fn. 161) In 1929 the curacy of Fraisthorpe chapel, then combined with Carnaby vicarage, was united instead with Barmston rectory; the parishes remained distinct until 1979, however, when they were united as the new parish of Barmston with Fraisthorpe. Also in 1979 the benefice of Barmston with Fraisthorpe was united with that of Skipsea with Ulrome. (fn. 162)
Possibly soon after it was built, Barmston church was given by Alan de Monceaux to Whitby abbey; his grant was confirmed c. 1170. (fn. 163) The details of the patronage are unknown before 1287, when the abbot of Whitby and Sir Ingram de Monceaux were disputing the right of presentation. Monceaux's claim evidently succeeded, (fn. 164) the Crown presenting during the minority of John de Monceaux in 1292 and 1295, (fn. 165) and in the early 14th century Dame (Emma) de Monceaux, widow of Sir Ingram (d. 1292), holding the advowson as part of her dower. (fn. 166) The patronage remained with the Monceaux family until the mid 15th century, and then passed successively, with the manor, to their heirs, the de la Sees and the Boyntons. (fn. 167) At the union of Barmston with Fraisthorpe and Skipsea with Ulrome in 1979, the right of presentation was given jointly to the Wickham-Boynton family and the former patrons of Skipsea and Ulrome, the archbishop of York and Dr. Winifred Kane. (fn. 168) The Hon. Susan Cunliffe-Lister later succeeded to the Wickham-Boynton interest. (fn. 169)
The church was valued at £13 6s. 8d. a year in 1291, and the net value in 1535 was £13 11s. 10d. (fn. 170) The improved annual value in 1650 was £123 6s. net. (fn. 171) The annual net income averaged £1,065 between 1829 and 1831, and the gross value was given as £900 in 1893. (fn. 172)
Most of the income was from tithes, which were valued at some £13 gross in 1535, (fn. 173) and in the later 16th century were leased to the lord of the manor for £13 6s. 8d. a year. (fn. 174) In 1722 the composition for the tithes from the commonable lands in Barmston was £14 2s. a year; the tithes of the old inclosures were paid for at the rate of 2s. in the pound of the rentable value, and 10s. was received for the tithes of the manor house and windmill. (fn. 175) The tithes of Barmston were commuted at inclosure in 1820 for a rent of £880 a year, reviewable every 14 years. They were worth some £650 c. 1855. (fn. 176)
The rectorial tithes of the part of Ulrome township which lay in Barmston parish were valued at £26 gross in 1650. (fn. 177) They comprised the corn and hay tithes of the 23½ bovates belonging to Barmston parish, and hay tithes from some of the old inclosures. By 1716 a sum of 15s. 8d. a year was being paid instead of the hay tithes in Ulrome. (fn. 178) At the inclosure of Ulrome in 1767 the rector was awarded 75 a. and an annual rent of £19 0s. 9d. for his tithes. (fn. 179) The allotment evidently included land assigned to the curate of Ulrome for his glebe rights and tithes but awarded in error to the rector of Barmston. An attempt to rectify the error by transferring 32 a. to Ulrome curacy in 1823 was unsuccessful. (fn. 180) The land at Ulrome remained unsold in 1978. (fn. 181)
In 1535 the glebe was valued at £2 3s. 4d. a year gross. (fn. 182) In the early 18th century it comprised 2 bovates, c. 17 a. of closes, and grazing rights. (fn. 183) The rector was allotted 15 a. for his land in the open fields at the inclosure of 1758, and a further 7 a., adjoining the rectory house, when the rest of the common lands were inclosed in 1820. (fn. 184) Practically all of the glebe land at Barmston was sold between 1948 and 1961, the 36-a. farm being bought by W. N. Harris in 1958. (fn. 185)
A parsonage house was mentioned in 1473, and had four hearths in 1672. (fn. 186) In 1743 the brick and tile house had been recently rebuilt following a fire, and consisted of four rooms; (fn. 187) it may have been remodelled by 1770, when it had eight. (fn. 188) William Dade, rector, enlarged the house at 'very considerable expense' in 1776, building a threestoreyed block on the west side, and between 1809 and 1817 the house was further extended to the north. (fn. 189) The site was evidently much enlarged during the improvements to the house. (fn. 190) The rectory house, later Barmston House, and c. 1 a. were sold in 1961, and a new house was built in another part of the rectory-house grounds. (fn. 191) Barmston rectory house was made the residence of the new benefice in 1979. (fn. 192)
Robert de Askeby, rector 1295-1301, was in minor orders at his institution, and in 1298 he was licensed to be non-resident. (fn. 193) Amand of Routh, rector 1304-49, was also non-resident, and a parochial chaplain, Robert of Goxhill, was serving Barmston church for him in 1320. (fn. 194) Cuthbert Tunstall, a kinsman of the patronal family and later bishop of London and Durham and a high officer of the Crown, was briefly rector in 1506-7. (fn. 195) Another non-resident was probably Richard Hildyard, rector 1516-34: in 1525-6 five chaplains were employed in the church, two receiving £4 13s. 4d. a year each and the others £4 each, (fn. 196) and from 1528 Hildyard was also rector of Winestead. (fn. 197) Thomas Dade, rector 1735-60, also held Burton Agnes vicarage, and lived at both places before 1743, when his assistant curate was fulfilling the residence requirement at Barmston. Two services were then provided every Sunday at Barmston, and Holy Communion was quarterly, with 30 usually receiving. (fn. 198) Dade's successor, John Holme, assistant curate from 1735 and rector 1760-75, (fn. 199) lived at Brandesburton, where he was also rector, and he similarly employed a curate to do his duty at Barmston and at Ulrome chapel, which then, as later, was held with Barmston. The curate held only one Sunday service at Barmston in 1764 because of the small congregation there. (fn. 200) Thomas Dade's son, William, rector 1776-90, was a prominent antiquarian upon whose collections Poulson based his history of Holderness. (fn. 201) Griffith Boynton, rector 1859-98, one of three members of the patronal family presented to the rectory, was providing two Sunday services by 1865; communion was monthly in the later 19th century, with on average a dozen communicants. (fn. 202) In 1871 Boynton was resident in France, and the church was, once again, in the charge of a curate. (fn. 203) In 1931, after union with Fraisthorpe chapel, communion was celebrated there on the first Sunday of every month, and on the others at Barmston. (fn. 204) In 1997 a Sunday service was held in rotation at Skipsea, Ulrome, Barmston, and Fraisthorpe, and each place similarly had a monthly communion service. (fn. 205)
The church of ALL SAINTS, so called in 1390, (fn. 206) is built of rubble and boulders with ashlar dressings, and comprises chancel and nave with south aisle, south porch, and south-west tower. The nave is 12th-century in origin, the thick, north wall being substantially of that period, as also may be a section of walling at the east end of the aisle arcade, which is pierced with a narrow, round-headed arch, possibly the entrance to a former porticus. The cylindrical font, decorated with diaper ornament, is also 12th-century. A blocked, ogee-headed doorway in the north wall may be 14th-century, and the south aisle seems to have been added then or early in the 15th century. There is a squint between the aisle and the chancel. John Monceaux requested burial in the aisle, which was dedicated to St. Mary, in 1426. (fn. 207) The shouldered-lintel, south doorway may have been reset from the 12thcentury nave at the building of the aisle.
A post-medieval remodelling of the church seems to have included the rebuilding of the south arcade and chancel arch, and the addition of the tower and porch. Although the overall style is 15th-century, the east and south windows of the chancel, and those of the tower and nave, have peculiarities of detailing which suggest that they are in fact of c. 1600. A narrow, round-headed, blocked doorway overlapped by the south porch may be 12th-century, reset as an entrance to a screened-off south aisle. The Boyntons continued to use Barmston as their burial place following their removal to Burton Agnes, probably in the later 17th century. (fn. 208) The church was repaired and rendered c. 1720, (fn. 209) and restoration and refitting was carried out in 1874. (fn. 210) In 1938 the nave and aisle were re-roofed at the expense of Lady (Elizabeth) Boynton. The church was repaired by an anonymous benefactor in 1986, (fn. 211) when access to it from Sands Lane was also provided. (fn. 212)
The chief memorial is in the chancel; it is an alabaster table tomb bearing the effigy of a man in armour, and almost certainly commemorates William Monceaux (d. 1446). (fn. 213) In 1996 the tomb was in serious disrepair. Memorials of members of the Boynton family formerly included one for Peregrine (d. 1645), infant son of Sir Matthew Boynton, Bt., from which a table supported by four marble urns survives in the chancel. (fn. 214) The outer walls of the aisle and porch contain early 18th-century stone memorials, one with a momento mori of skull and cross-bones in the lower panel. Two fragments of medieval glass remain in the south window of the aisle, but most of the windows are filled with modern stained glass; those commemorating members of the Boynton family include the east window of 1965 by L. C. Evetts. (fn. 215) Part of a 10th-century hogback monument, supposed to have been brought to the rectory house by William Dade, rector, (fn. 216) was kept in the church porch in 1996, as was a medieval water stoop. The plate includes a cup of 1724, and a paten and flagon, both given in the earlier 19th century. (fn. 217) The registers begin in 1571 and are complete. (fn. 218)
In 1567 the rector was said to be a 'misliker of the new order'. (fn. 219) Five parishioners were presented as recusants in 1664, and in 1676 there were said to be 10 protestant dissenters in Barmston. (fn. 220) A family described as Anabaptist lived in Barmston or Ulrome in 1743, but dissent was otherwise weak or absent in the 18th century. (fn. 221) Unidentified congregations of protestants registered houses in Barmston for dissenting worship in 1824 and 1833, and a barn in 1839. (fn. 222) In the last year the Wesleyan Methodists built a chapel on land rented from Sir Henry Boynton, Bt. (fn. 223) It was still used in 1997. (fn. 224)
There was evidently a school at Barmston by 1726, when a schoolmaster was recorded. (fn. 225) By his will, Sir Griffith Boynton, Bt., (d. 1731) charged his manor of Haisthorpe, in Burton Agnes, with a stipend of £5 a year for a master or mistress to teach the children of Barmston reading and their catechism free of charge. The teacher was also to be provided with a house, the maintenance of which was also a charge on Haisthorpe. (fn. 226) Some 20 children were taught in the school in 1743, (fn. 227) but by 1764 it seems to have been closed. (fn. 228) In 1818 Sir Francis Boynton, Bt., built a new school, (fn. 229) which was later evidently supported by the Boyntons, the rector, and parents. (fn. 230) It also took children from Ulrome, and was attended by c. 30 boys and girls in 1833; 16 were counted at inspection in 1871. (fn. 231) The school was closed c. 1885, and the children later went to Lissett school. (fn. 232) The school building was demolished c. 1947, and the site used for houses. (fn. 233)
A private, boarding school for boys was opened at Barmston in the 1760s, but no more is known of it. (fn. 234)
CHARITIES FOR THE POOR.
In 1726 Sir Griffith Boynton, Bt., built and endowed an almshouse in Barmston for the free accommodation of four poor men from Barmston, Burton Agnes, Haisthorpe, and Roxby (Yorks. N.R.), each of whom was also to receive £3 15s. a year. The maintenance of the house, which comprised four separate dwellings, and the payment of the stipends were charged on the manor of Haisthorpe by his will. (fn. 235) Only some of the stipends were being paid c. 1930, and later the income was distributed to the poor of Barmston with Holme's charity. In 1945 twenty people each received doles of 10s. The annual rent charge of £15 which had formerly covered the stipends was transferred from the Haisthorpe to the Burton Agnes estate, before being redeemed, apparently for £1,000, in 1947. By the 1940s three of the almshouses were rented for a total of £36 a year. A Scheme of 1954 allowed income not used for repairs to be spent on the almsmen. (fn. 236) The almshouse was sold in 1958 under a further Scheme of 1957, and the proceeds of the sale were also invested. The single-storeyed almshouse, of six bays under attics and a pantile roof, has since been converted into two houses. (fn. 237) The income of the charity, thereafter called the Boynton Almshouses Fund, was to benefit poor men of Barmston, Burton Agnes, Haisthorpe, Roxby, or Rudston. (fn. 238) In 1962 four men received £1 10s. each and four married couples £2 10s. each, and eleven people from Barmston benefitted in 1995. (fn. 239)
Robert Winter of Bridlington by will dated 1739 bequeathed the interest on £18 to the poor of Barmston, but by the end of the 18th century the charity had become dormant, (fn. 240) and it seems later to have been lost.
John Holme, assistant curate from 1735 and rector 1760-75, bequeathed a quarter of the income on £400 of turnpike securities to the poor of Barmston, and £3 7s. 6d. a year was distributed among them c. 1820. (fn. 241) Barmston's share of the income was c. £2 in the earlier 20th century. In 1911 payments of 2s. 4d. each were made to 18 recipients, and in 1931 there were seven doles of 5s. and £1 was spent on refreshments at Christmas. (fn. 242) Since the 1940s the charity's income has been distributed with that of Boynton's almshouse charity. (fn. 243)