Calendar of Border Papers: Volume 1, 1560-95. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1894.
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886. Carey to Burghley. [Sept. 7.]
"Havinge occasion to send to my lord my father, and to my honorable good frende Sir Robert Cecill, by reason of ij° lettres which Mr Lock sendes to them owt of Scotland, I thought yt fytt and my dewty (albeit I had none for your lordshipp) yet to accompanye theme with thes fewe occurrentes, which here inclosed your lordship shall see, sent to me by a very frend, who dothe assure me they are of trothe." Berwick. Signed: Jhon Carey.
½ p. Addressed. Indorsed.
887. Scroope to Burghley. [Sept. 7. 1593.]
Mr Bowes the ambassador in Scotland having signified to me the "forwarde redines" of the Earl Bothwell to enter into justice and redress for Liddesdale, since my acceptation of this office, and his desire that Thomas Carleton my constable may be addressed to him, fully empowered—wherein the earl has written two letters to Carleton—I have resolved to send Carleton to Bothwell with full instructions how far to proceed. My servant specified in my last is returned without more news than "a present quietnes in courte: of Bothwells purposed jorney to the Kinge on Saterdaye laste, and intencion to contynue in courte til dissolvinge of the convencion, which is this daye to assemble at Sterlinge; and that the parliament shalbe at Edenburgh the xth of the next moneth. . . Not doubtinge but your lordship hearethe of the grett slaughters and spoiles betwixt th'Erles of Argyle and Huntley, raised for the slaughter of the Erle of Murrey, in revenge wherof, it is saide the Erle of Argyle hath latelie slaine 300 of Huntleys people and taken a gret booty to the nombre of 12,000 head of cattell of all sortes." Carlisle. Signed: T. Scroope.
1 p. Holograph. Addressed. Indorsed.
888. Carey to Burghley. [Sept. 13.]
"Ther is lettres nowe lately comde into Scotland from Coronell Semple owt of Spaigne, that ther is xxviijgth shippes to come owt of a place called the Passage in Spaigne, wherof vj or vijen are of the burthen of viijcth tonne, the pece. And ther is vijen royall cannons already shipped there. It is gyven owt they are to comme to the ryver of Burdeux, but feared that thei shall rather comme to our coastes. Ther is in theme a great nomber of soldiers, but how manye, not yett certenlye knowne. . . It is certenly written into Scotland from the Bushopp of Rosse, that whatsoever the Guyses and those of his faction will enterprise or take in hande, they have got the King of France so fyrmly joynd in with theme, as that he will not withstand and hinder yt, but rather take part with theme (howsoever his embassadours directed to our court, shall make showe of the contrarye). The said bushopp of Rosse hath openly and plainly gyven yt owt that within this half yeare, ther shall masse be songe in all the churches of Scotland, and doubtes not but to have yt in England, whose overthrowe he expectes, for that yt hathe bene the cause of all other countreys seditiouse tumultes.
There secret lettres which thei send into Scotland (as I am informd) are fyrst delyvered from those princes of France to the Bushopp of Glascoe, who sendes them downe to Roane to the Bushop of Rosse, and he directeth them into Scotland."
Instead of the three ships I certified to be ready for Spain, I now hear there are twelve ready, who go through the narrow seas, giving out they are for Bordeaux. "Yt were good service yf they might be light on. And he that informes me herein is not only pryvye to there going, but a partner also with some that goes in the said shippes.
Upon Fryday the vijth of this moneth, thErle Bothwelles men were commanded owt of Sterlinge. And upon the xth of the same a lettre was wryt in secret to him and brought by the Master of Katneys from Mr John Colvile to come with a xen or xij horse within six myles of Sterling, where the Pryour of Blantyer the president, and Sir Robert Melvin, should mete him and bring him to the King; and that then he should againe desyer pardon, and therby the better content the King. But thErle Bothwell hath taken an other deliberacion and sent for all his frendes, to ryde with him to Sterling; but it is thought he will not be suffred to enter the towne with any forces, so as yt is very aparant that he standeth greatlye in the Kinges dislyke, and very likely so to continewe unles he wilbe reconcyled with Huntley, who is thought will not only get court againe, but also be greater then ever he was, and be made lieutenant generall in the northe."
This last convention at Sterling has but encouraged the northern and papist lords—and as far as I can judge, the King is altogether "addict and enclyned" to Huntly and his faction. It was concluded there that all who have been the King's servants should now come to court except Maitland the late chancellor. "And yet the King himself talking with Capten Haggerston, a depender of thErle Bothwelles, confessed to him that he was the only author of the last reconciliation betwene the chancelor and the Lord Hume, Cesford, and there complices." Having these from a friend of mine as undoubtedly true, I could not conceal them, "but accompany these lettres of Mr Bowes therwith.
I must compleyne my self of a litle hard measure—by whome I knowe not—but eyther my lettres or the copyes of some of my lettres, have bene returned into Scotland to the viewe of her Majesties embassador there, who thinks much that I should deale with thinges not apperteyning to me (as he thinkes)." Berwick. Signed: Jhon Carey.
2 pp. Addressed. Indorsed. Wafer signet as before.
889. Forster to Burghley. [Sept. 14.]
Things between the King and Bothwell remain as when I wrote last. The agreement between Lord Hume and the chancellor was made by some of the council instructed by the King. Hume and Cesford have entered into assurance till Easter next. "The King helde a conventyone of some indeferente noble men att Starlinge the vijth of this instante, of whos proceedeings theratt I hear nothing as yet, but that he is in as harde a conceite with Bothwell as ever he was befor. The Lord Hume hath had conferance with the Master of Glames, the Erll of Mourton, and other his confederatts att Loughleame from whence he hath sente for one hundrede horsemen well furnishede to repaire unto him, eyther to ryde to the King or to strengthen him againste Bothwell." Signed: John Forster.
1 p. Addressed. Indorsed.
890. Carey to Burghley. [Sept. 16.]
Recommending to his "honorable consideracion" the enclosed petition from the captains and gentlemen whose names are attached. Berwick. Signed: Jhon Carey.
½ p. Addressed. Indorsed.
891. Forster to Burghley. [Sept. 16.]
"I have receaved some occurrances owte of Scotlande as well from one of Bothwells factione as from one acqaintede with my Lord Humes affaires—the one certifieinge that the Kinge hath latelie wrytten to thErll Bothwell to desire him to accepte the frendship of such as he will byd him, and he shall come to the conventione appointede to be holden att Starlinge verie shortelie, viz., to agree with Huntlie, Hume, the old chauncelor and Carmychaell. Therll Bothwell hath taken him to his advisementes, and saieth he will doe nothinge withowte thadvise of them that made the indente between them, namelie her Majesties ambassadore, the Churche of Scotlande and the Counsell and towne of Edenbroughe, and what they thinke convenyente he will agree unto and not els. Yt is thoughte the Kinge seakethe to agree them all for mayntenance of papistre, and for the better accomplishemente therof, the Kinge will take the slaughter of the Erll of Murrae uppon him selfe, and confessethe the same befor the churche and counsell, and cravethe perdone for ytt, and he hath movede Huntlie to make such offers to Murraes freinds as his Majestie thinckethe shalbe acceptede. And this done by the advise and practise of the chaunceler who hath ben theis six weeks both in the weste parts with the Hameltons, and in the northe with Huntlie. Therll Bothwell is att Edenbroughe takeinge advise in theis causes. I am likwise advertisede that my lord Hume is presentlie att Fawklande with the Kinge, and the Kinge is bente againste Bothwell, and hath sente him offers, eyther to departe the realmes of Scotlande, Englande and Irelande, and to enjoye his leaveinge, or otherwaies att his perill—the which offers it is thoughte he will take . . . I thinke the Kinge favourethe papists too muche, and wilbe broughte over to plante that religione in Scotlande yf he cane, and I doubte he hath small favoure to Englande." Bambroughe. Signed: John Forster.
1½ pp. Addressed. Indorsed.
892. Scroope to Burghley. [Sept. 19.]
"I am this daye informed (by a Scotsman yeildinge good offices to her Majestie in my fathers tyme), that the kinge intendeth to resorte to these Borders and to be shortlie at Dunfreis, both to demaund and see redresses for all border causes hanginge in suspence and question betwixte her Majestie and him at this hand." If he follow "precislie" his former directions to Lord Maxwell, as signified to me, and forwarded to your lordship, the advantage will be greatly against us, and "overburthensome" to her Majesty's subjects. I therefore enclose a brief estimate of the value of those bills, and pray your direction how to satisfy the king if he happen to come. Carlisle. Signed: Th. Scroope.
¾ p. Addressed. Indorsed.
Inclosed in the same:—
Brief estimate of the value of bills filed by the Commissioners at Berwick for the West Marches of England and Scotland, and also for the West Marches of England and Liddesdale.—
1 p. Written by Scrope's clerk. Indorsed.
893. Huntingdon to Scroope. [Sept. 26.]
Her Majesty's care for her Borders, "specified" both by her commissions and instructions, and also "by her owne earnest speache, given me in charge, having nowe the second tyme in this somer drawne me into these partes," I was very desirous to have met and conferred with you and the other two wardens at Newcastle, on your several charges, and the evils requiring remedy, which was the occasion of my late writing to you and them, and summoning the under officers and gentlemen.
Your "occasions" detaining you and the rest, I have endeavoured as particularly as I could, though not so thoroughly as I would, to accomplish my instructions. First—as to the state of your charge,—I have had conference severally with Sir Robert Carey your deputy, also with him and other gentlemen together, on the articles given me when you lately visited me at York (for which I heartily thank you), my answer to which was deferred by my disability of body. It seems to me that in your wardenry, offences spring from two causes—partly from your opposite neighbours, and partly from want of duty at home, either in your under-officers, or the misbehaviour of your ill disposed borderers, or unlawful customs grown in common use. For Scotland (as I learn by Sir Robert Carey's report) seems to demand above 30,000l. more than the English bills come to, not that any such sum or near it has enriched the English by spoil or otherwise. "But that the streit lawes of the Marche provide with all severitie to punishe unlawfull attemptes in their strictest interpretacion, layeth the whole burden of the Scottishe fact uppon some one of the Englishe complicies possessing any the smallest parte of the spoyle." It is to be hoped that the mutual amity of the princes will exact not the strictest law, but the justest equity herein, and that only the evil deserver may receive punishment, and the true subject on either side have seasonable recompense.
Therefore since Scotland in the attempts at Falkland or the feuds between the Maxwells and Johnstons, or the like, has not been damaged by loss of goods, except some small trifles, this is more justly reparable by their own laws at the hands of the trespassers of their own nation, rather than in equity "by way of estoppell," to recover such "huge sommes" from the English. Probably if your lordship lays this before the Queen's ambassador at Edinburgh and he before the King, it might find acceptance. If not successful, I think it would be better "to deliver the Englishe faltors, being but a fiewe and those not of the best desert," thus to satisfy strict demand, and deliveries on all sides to follow, rather than the honest subjects being many and poor, to go without remedy on account of a few ill disposed offenders, especially since these being "of so great surnames, the feare of feede were likely to deliver them from their greatest dainger."
Another evil from Scotland being the incursions of the Armstrongs, Ellotts, and such like, seems easily avoidable by restoring the ordinary course of justice, or furnishing your March with fit horse and armour, as I hear you have begun, whereby your people may be remedied either by law or force. As for the second part, want of duty at home. First—your lordship has wisely delivered your intention as to your under officers in Bewcastle, Gillsland and Burgh barony, in your articles. To which might be added (if you think good) that the said officers being such as you of courtesy will not readily complain of, or remove, should give bond with good sureties, in good sums, to answer their duties, whereby if you show some severe example, they may keep in better compass than hitherto.
For the second inconvenience—the disordered surnames of the Grahams, Fosters, Rowthledges, Taylors, Hetheringtons and such like, I take the best course to be for the chiefest of each surname to notify and bring before you all their dependants, renouncing the rest openly, resetting of whom must be severely punished. And to this end I could wish you to consider timely, into how many branches the Grahams or other surnames possessing the Queen's lands, may be fitly divided, so that the Queen's several leases being granted to such persons on fit conditions of forfeiture, the Queen's lessees might by your approbation have their under tenants and dependants only such as they would answer for as aforesaid.
Caution in case of necessity might be taken of all the worst disposed surnames, "rather by pledges of some principall persons, then by bondes of inlandes men"; both to avoid too much kindness between them and the gentlemen, and also that "the seeking to recover forfeitures will make the faltes as muche borne downe by true men as by theives." Among such disposed people, I should think English or Scottish pledges the best assurance.
"Yf your lordship will not be too mercifull in executing your marshall lawe, and also see the justices of peace from tyme to tyme keape their sessions, prosecute their inditements, and above many other thinges, to forbeare unlawfull bailmentes and reprivings, no doubte the subject may in short tyme both be reduced and reteyned in due obedience."
Lastly—it seems that sundry unlawful customs have disordered the whole Border, your lordship's in particular: as intermarrying with the Scots; Englishmen holding lands in Scotland, and carrying themselves as native Scots; "feedes, by awe whereof the surnames aforesaid beare downe all prosecuting of lawe, even by the gentlemen and persons of best quality; also inconvenient kindnes and assuraunces enterteigned betwene the gentlemen and the ryding borderers;" all which I trust your lordship will cut off with especial care; "namely that monstruous cruelty of bloodshedding." Praying you so to strengthen and knit together the gentlemen and true men by good persuasion, that on the least suspicion of "feed" brought before you, the surnames may be compelled either to renounce it openly, or if they refuse, the chiefest of them to be imprisoned without bail or mainprise, till they become bound to secure the honest men. Thus much I thought good, from my duty, and also out of love to your lordship to commend by way of advice.
3 pp. closely written. Contemporary copy. Indorsed: "A copy of a lettre from the Erle of Huntingdon to the Lord Scroope the xxvjth of September 1593."
894. Payments at Berwick by John Clopton. [Sept. 29.]
A brief reckoning for the treasure received and payments for the garrison, works, &c., at Berwick for the half year beginning 25th March 1593, ending 29th September next following—as by warrant from Mr John Carey deputy governor, and "bookes" from Mr Comptroller and clerk of musters appears.—
Received—from Thomas Scudamore receiver of York, 5000l.; Roger Rante receiver of Lincoln, 2000l.; and "myself" receiver of Northumberland, and others, 2000l., . . . 9000l.
Payments.—Lord Hunsdon governor of Berwick, officers and garrison for this last half year, 6990l. 15s. 7d.; works for the whole year (besides 128l. 13s. 7¾d. paid to Mr Vernon at the Annunciation) 610l. 2s. 1d.; Mr Rauphe Graye by warrant of the Lord High Treasurer, for repairing Warke castle, 300l. Sum total, 8914l. 7s. 2¾d.
Balance of the treasure received 85l. 12s. 9¼d. Signed: John Clopton.
1 p. Indorsed.
895. Berwick Accounts. [Sept. 29.]
"A note what sommes have bene checked, and do remayne in the threasorer or payemaster his handes, to be answered by him, sithence Michaelmas 1581 untill this Michaelmas 1593, and do still remayne to her Majesties use, answerable as before, viz."
Amounts due.—John Ourde sometime master of the ordnance, his pension of 20l. a year since Michaelmas 1581; Thomas Carlill pensioner 20l. a year since Michaelmas 1587. On the death or discharge of 4 pensioners, William Leftwich, John Crane the elder, Robert Ardern and Roger Carewe, &c.
Sum total, 600l. 18s. 2d. Signed: Nic. Erington, and at foot: "Per Johannem Crane."
1½ pp. Indorsed.
896. Carey to Burghley. [Sept. 29. 1593.]
I have now, as directed by her Majestys commission, kept a marshall's court, which I could not well do sooner—"for that fyrst, hay tyme, which is lateward in this countrey, was an occasion to withholde both soldiers and townsemen—presently after, harvest commyng on (which is nowe scarse ended) yet having many clamors and cryes, was forced to make proclamacion for a court to be holden the xvijth of this instant." Which it appears was greatly needed—for there were presented to the juries, "tenne score and xvjen actions (and these of no small valewe for soldiers)." Some for 54l., some for 40l., some 33l., and others more and less. Some 17 years old, others 14, 12, and the "least of them," 3 or 4 year old. Which is very strange to me, and I fear unless your lordship favour this poor garrison, there will be few able to serve. For the law here is, that the jury find either "debt or no debt," and being once found a due debt, it must be paid in 14 days, or the provost marshall takes their bodies to prison, to lie there till the debt is satisfied. If this is carried out, there will be many, both soldiers and officers, imprisoned, for most of these debts "do growe" for want of the two years' pay. Yet some of cunning practice have got "this litle hole" to help themselves with, viz., though I am appointed by her Majesty chief officer of the court, yet it has been the custom for the clerks and provost marshall under me, to make out the warrants for arrests and executions under the provost marshall's hand. And although I have her Majestys warrant, which was openly read and allowed by them, yet the provost marshall is not qualified, for I (not being marshall) have no power to appoint him, and besides neither before my coming or since has he been sworn in his office, which I have no authority to do, for none but the marshal can make a provost. So there is controversy like to arise.
Mr Comptroller has been very careful and diligent and "even this day" has ended the work of the pier—so well and quickly done, that all men here say they never saw the like speed and good workmanship on the Queen's works. The bridge, though not fully done, is almost ended—as no more can be done before next summer—much of the timber for it remains, if not otherwise required. The Comptroller has been very careful and honest in the business, but the particulars will not be ready to send your lordship for a fortnight or three weeks.
"For the newes in Scotland, I knowe not well what to say—but this I am sure the King dothe too much appose him self to the papistes faction for our good, I feare. Yet here is nothing but peace and seeking to link all the nobilitie togither, which I hope wyll never be. The Papistes doe only beare swaye, and the King hath none to put in trust with his owne body but theme. What will comme of this, your lordshippes wisdome can best discerne. And thus much I knowe certen that yt were good your lordshipps lookt well whome yow trust, for the King and the nobilitie of Scotland have too good intelligence owt of our court of England."
I humbly ask your lordship to allow me 50l. or 40l. to make a lodging at Norham castle "for a man to lie in, and such other necessary roomes as I shall thinke neadfull. Wherin I wyll assure your lordship on my faithe, I will not deceave her Majestie in one penny and shall be verie gladd if I can doe any thing there, without as much chardge more of myne owne purse. I doe not seeke this in respect to make any great buildinge or fortification, but onlye for a lodginge and such stablinge as shall be fytt for a servant or ij° to lye in—for when her Majesties officers viewed yt, to make any buildinges theron, or to raise yt uppe as yt was before, they could not devise under xvjc li. to make any worcke to showe. I only desyer to have a lodging there for a man to lye drye in." Berwick. Signed: Jhon Carey.
2½ pp. Addressed. Indorsed by Burghley: "29, 7ber 1593. Mr Jhon Care from Barwyk."
897. Berwick Bridge and Pier. [Sept. 30. 1593.]
Berwick last of September 1593. A declaration how the sum of . . . allowed by the Lord Treasurer of England for repairing the "longe bridge" over Tweed, and the pier at the haven mouth is spent.
"Provisions as well for the bridge as for the peire."—1 ton 6 cwt. 2 stone English iron, 16l. 12d.; 1 ton 4 stone of Danske and Spanish iron, 13l. 16s.; 10 chalders of Newcastle coals, 6l. 13s. 4d.; ropes for the "gyn" for unloading timber, for the lighters and boats bringing timber to the bridge, and to fasten the same "at the bridge for the carpenters to stand in," 4l. 16s. 7d.; pitch and tar for "cawkinge" the lighters and boats, 45s. 8d.; "hather" to burn the same, 16d.; total, 55l. 11s. 5d.
"Lande and water carriadges."—For 60 ton of timber from Chopwell wood to the water side at 4s. the ton, 12l.; cutting and loading 5 tons ash timber from Beomishe park to the waterside and thence to Newcastle, 57s. 6d.; bringing 40 of the 60 tons from Bladen to Newcastle, 26s. 6d.; total 16l. 4s. 4d.
Freight of 2 ships from Newcastle to Berwick with timber, 20l.; William Michelson and William Moodey pilots, 75s. 2d.; the master carpenter of Berwick riding charges 47 days at 2s. 6d. per diem, 117s. 6d. Sum total of the provision, land and water carriage, &c., 104l. 10s. 3d.
Wages of carpenters, sawyers, smiths, lighter men, labourers, "coble hyer," repairing the bridge between 2d August and 29 Sept. 1593, 42l. 14s. 3d.
Wages of masons, quarrymen, carpenters, labourers, "boyes," smiths, &c., repairing the pier between 18 June and 29 September 1593, 144l. 19s. 3½d.
Total charges, as in the "particuler booke," made up, seen, perused and signed by the comptroller of her Majestys works in Berwick and the surveyor there, appears, amount to 292l. 5s. 9½d.
So there remains of the 300l. allowed only for the bridge and pier, 7l. 14s. 2½d.
Note. There remain of these provisions to be employed in this year now coming, as the season was almost past before they could be brought for the work on the bridge, 20 tons of the "oken" timber from Chopwell wood, "parcell" of the 60, for shipping could not be had in time, 4 ton of the ash timber, 9 chalder of the Newcastle coals, 1 ton 2cwt. of the iron, &c. &c., and all the ropes bought.
As 194l. 15s. 4d. is yet to be received of the 300l., and the workmen are very poor and needful, and were promised ready money, the Lord Treasurer is prayed to order it. Signed: Nic. Erington, Will'm Acrigge. At foot: per Johannem Crane.
6 pp. Indorsed.