Cecil Papers: March 1604

Pages 37-48

Calendar of the Cecil Papers in Hatfield House: Volume 16, 1604. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1933.

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March 1604

George Bowes to Lord Cecil.
1603–4, March 1. Reports his proccedings in the gold works in Winlock Water, commanded by the King. The journey there of his company of 50 workmen and 12 loaded horses was delayed in the mountainous passages by the deep snow, frost and wind; and he was enforced to leave behind 12 men and 8 horses. After 6 days travel he and the rest came to Winlock, where the snow was so deep that it was with great difficulty he could provide food for them. He cannot work till the snow be gone, and fears that when meet weather comes they will be disabled. One of Lord Cloasburne's officers has done what he could to further them.—Winlock Water, 1 March, 1603.
Holograph. Endorsed: "From the mines in Scotland." 1 p. (98. 17.)
Sir Edward Coke, Attorney General, to Lord Cecil.
1603–4, March 5. Carr, a prisoner in Norwich gaol, persuaded the rest of the prisoners that now it was "interregnum, a lawless time, and that it was no offence to break prison at this time." They were like to have done so had it not been for the gaoler, The offence is greater in Carr, as he professes law. He is not informed whether Carr be "in execution" or not; if he is, the matter should be examined by some gentlemen dwelling near Norwich; if he is not, suggests that he should be sent for.— Holborn, 5 March, 1603.
Holograph. 1 p. (98. 19.)
Lord Burghley to the Same.
1603–4, March 5. Has written again to the Lords of things fit to be considered; and though he is contented to take the care, yet he is loath to take upon him the whole charge; neither can he hear out of Scotland what order they take. It is sufficient for him to entertain the King both here and at Burghley. Knows no man upon whose fortune so much charge is laid as upon his; and yet at this time he can be content to be the entertainer of so noble a prince. Mr. Ashton has promised to send him notice of all things.—York, 5 March, 1603.
Holograph. ½ p. (98. 20.)
Sir Edward Watson to the Same.
1603–4, Mar. 7. Details the arrangements he is making for the prosecution of some disorderly persons who have committed spoil in Cecil's Park of Brigstock. As to the rioters bound over in May last, he will grant warrant against them to be further committed to their good behaviour till Michaelmas Sessions.— Rockingham, 7 March, 1603.
Holograph. 1 p. (98. 22.)
Fray Thomas Geraldine to his cousin, John Geraldine, at Valladolid.
1603–4, March 8/18. Has been informed by a friend that his cousin called him a fool and an idiot having seen his letters to Mr. Morish. Did not expect this treatment at his hands and prays him to think otherwise for he shall see that he is not so foolish but that he is able to give a reason for what he has said or done.—St. James the 18 of March 1604.
Addressed: "A Don Joan Gerraldino en trenido de su real magt. en Vallodolid. El porte medio real."
Signed. ¾ p. (188. 94.)
The Vice-Chancellor and Senate of Cambridge University to Lord Cecil.
1603–4, March 9. Pray his patronage of those laws which are used by the Church of England and all Christian nations. They have whole colleges and in almost every college students who are dedicated to the study of the civil law. But if, when they have completed their studies, there is no room in the state for the exercise of their profession, of what avail all their labours? The common law is too potent for them. All their hope is in the justice of a most wise and impartial King. They have been requested by their scholars who have gone down from them to take up the cause and Cecil can have no juster or more honourable an one.—"E Senatu nono die Martii 1603. Dignitatis tuæ studiosissimi Procancellarius reliquusque Senatus Academiæ Cantebrigiensis."
Latin. Endorsed: "On recommendation of the Civilians." 1 p. (136. 110.)
John Semple.
1603–4, March 11/21. Licence by the King of Spain to John Semple, purveyor of the household of the King of England to export 250 butts of wine, 50 pipes of oil, 200 quintals of raisins, 100 of figs, 50 of almonds and 10 "quaterolos" of olives for the said household, paying only the ancient ordinary dues and not being obliged to pay the thirty per cent new dues or to give any pledge that he will go to the States of Flanders. Further there are not to be levied from him the new dues on the lead, calf-skins, wax, cloths, bays and kerseys which he has brought from England.—"En Valladolid a veynteyuno de Marco de 1604 anos."
Signed at the head: "El Rey" and at the foot "Yo el Rey." Spanish. 2 pp. (188. 95.)
The Laird of Buccleugh to Lord Cecil.
1603–4, March 12. Mr. Winwood upon the warrant and direction he received has proposed and recommended unto the Estates General touching my place of commandment over the Scottish nation in this service, and this was done very circumspectly by him after that he had acquainted particularly his Excellency and Barnifeld with the matter by whose answers he could best judge of the resolution to be taken by others. In effect it holds nothing but that they may know his Majesty's earnest wish to have it so, which makes me have recourse to your favourable means both towards his Majesty and by yourself. The particular which I do intreat yourself may be pleased to do farther I remit to the information of Mr. James Hudsone. "Dunhag," 12 March, 1604.
Holograph. Signed: Baclughe. Seal. Endorsed: "from the Hague." ½ p. (104. 84.)
Lord Fyvie to the Same.
1603–4, March 14. Understanding Mr. Alexander Hay my special friend is of mind to visit Court, I take occasion to salute you with these few lines. Our estate here (praised be God!) for the present is as calm, quiet and under as perfect obedience as ever I remember to have seen, without any other appearance for anything I can perceive. This Union is the most at this time of all men's hearts and speeches. I find none of any account here but glad in heart to embrace the same in general: some suspect the particular conditions may engender greater difficulties. I hope the wisdom of the Prince who is both the ground and the cornerstone of this happy Union, with your and other wise men's assistance shall set by all such difficulties: as also I think there can be no particular condition desired for the weal of one of the nations, but it must be profitable to the other, nor nothing prejudicial to one, but must be hurtful to the other, albeit only by the distracting of their due concord which wise men will think of greater consequence nor any particular may be subtly cozened in. This is all I can write even of our thoughts hereaway: I doubt not there are divers apprehensions there also. Whatever favour you may extend upon this gentleman I shall be debtor for.—Dunfermline, 14 March 1604.
Holograph. Seals. 1½ pp. (104. 93.)
Thomas White to Lord Cecil.
1603–4, March 15. Prays for Cecil's favour in behalf of his son-in-law, the bearer, in a suit which he has.—Fytleford, 15 March, 1603.
Signed. ½ p. (98. 26.)
Lord Zouch to the Same.
[1603–4], March 16. He came late to the Court, thinking to wait upon the King to the chapel, but the King's pleasure was not to be there. Had purposed to see Cecil, to understand how he did after yesterday's travel. He met Sir Francis Goodwin, of whom he heard complaint was made for miscarrying himself in choosing knights of the shire. Goodwin tells him there is a writ to go out for making a new choice; and that must be grounded upon outlawries long since procured against him, for small matters not followed against him, and pardoned by divers pardons. Goodwin married the writer's near kinswoman. Thinks it sharp that a man should in every place be discredited for things so long laid asleep; and besides, if due course is to be had, the Parliament is to consider whether it be a due choice or not, and from thence should go a new writ, if the present one be not duly executed. If Goodwin's cause be just, prays Cecil to take the patronising of him, so that his punishment be not greater than his fault.—"From my house in Philip Lane, 16 March.
Holograph. Endorsed: "1603." 1 p. (98. 27.)
Ralph Winwood to Lord Cecil.
[1603–4], March 21. In former letters he has given hope that his Excellency would undertake some exploit for the relief of Ostend, but when it was expected that the business should have been in hand, they received news that the practice for the surprise of Antwerp was discovered by those who were employed to survey the place. How so populous a town, commanded by a citadel esteemed impregnable, could be surprised by a handful of men, passes his understanding. Thereupon the States General, that all care should not seem to be abandoned for the preservation of that town, consulted with the Council of State as to a project of some present service, whereto his Excellency should be entreated to lend furtherance. As surprises were uncertain, and no siege could be found of that importance that could withdraw the enemy from before Ostend, the only means remaining was by force to disassiege it, which was by casting a sufficient power into Flanders, which might either draw the enemy out of the trenches to fight, or assail him there. Details the objections made to any attempt, such as the season of the year, the want of money and of men, the uncertainty of passage by sea, the difficulty of descent, the want of provision and of retreat, and the unwisdom of besieging the enemy's trenches if he will not fight. Details also the answers to the objections, namely that Geruyenberg and St. André by Bomel were both taken in March and April, and that so important a service would be the means of hastening the consents of the Provinces, and in the meantime the States of Holland might be moved to advance their portion for this year, &c.
These reasons overswaying, it was concluded that the Mutineers should join with the cavalry of the country, enter Little Brabant and, so ravaging and spoiling all in their way, advance as far as they should find passage open. This irruption will confuse the enemy, so that he will not have leisure to provide against the descent of the foot, which is to land between Blackenburg and Ostend, and from thence to march directly towards the enemy's trenches. Deputies were appointed to pray his Excellency's consent, to move him to forbear his presence in the action, and to remain here in the country to ballast the State.
The deputies on their return related that his Excellency alleged the difficulties above named and others; yet that he would advise of it with C. [Count] William. The next day he answered that he would conform himself to the desire of the States for the preservation of Ostend, and to that purpose which was purposed: but all particular circumstances for the carriage of the business he prayed them not to be curious to understand. He utterly refused to be absent from the action himself. The cavalry which shall enter Brabant will be between 3 and 4 thousand horse; the infantry, with which some horse shall land in Flanders, will be about 9000. To embark men and munitions will require 800 bottoms, which must come out of North Holland. The action will either "faicte or faillie" in five days upon landing, so no great quantity of victual will be required.
Now that Sir Francis Vere has resigned his charge into the hands of the States, the writer does not find that they have purpose to resolve in what manner the English troops shall be disposed, until they see the issue of this business, and an end of the siege of Ostend. Then they have a meaning to make a new reglement of all their affairs. They resolve to make no general. Sir Horace Vere, as colonel, for the present shall have command of the troops, whose provision is to be doubled from 30l. to 60l. the month, and if in the service now in hand there shall be use of another colonel or more, they shall be made only provisional. As Sir Francis likewise resigned his company of horse, the States purpose to tender him to retain it, though he ever shall be absent. If he will not accept it, they will confer it on Sir Horace. Though Sir Francis leaves them, they would not willingly so leave him, in whom they desire to hold an interest, the better upon all occasions to recall him to their service. They confess to the writer how much they have wanted Vere's judgment and experience in this deliberation, and more want they will have of him in the execution.
The Mutineers have been of late in the bishopric of Padenbru, in the land of Munster, where they have put to the sword 700 souls, and ransomed the country for 40,000 rixdollars. They are now returned to the Grave. Ghestelt the governor of Ostend is slain, and Colonel Loane is confirmed Governor in his place.
As to Embden, they of the town have levied certain new companies of men for the guard of the town, and have published a placard whereby they threaten by force to constrain the Plat Pays to bring in the contribution covenanted in the last treaty for the pay of the garrison. At the instance of the States, the Count assembles the states of his country the 26th of this month.—The Hague, 21 March.
Holograph. Endorsed: "21 March 1603. Received 30 March." 4 pp. (98. 31.)
Sir Edmund Baynham to Lord Cecil.
1603–4, March 21. Expresses his gratitude for Mr. Secretary's favour, which he begs him to continue.—Marshalsea, March 21, 1603.
Holograph. 1 p. (187. 9.)
Memorial of Public Business.
1603–4, March 23. "All the Privy Council being members of the House.
Lord Clinton, Lord Buckhurst, Sir Robert Wroth, Sir Henry Nevill, Sir Francis Bacon, Mr. Solicitor, Sir George More, Sir Francis Moore, Sir Edward Hoby, Mr. Nathaniel Bacon, Sir Edward Stafford, Sir Herbert Croft, Sir John Hollis, Sir Hugh Beston, Sir Francis Hastings, Mr. Wentworth, Sir Thomas Crompton, Sir Edward Montague, Mr. Recorder of London, Sir Thomas Holcroft, Sir Daniel Dunn, D. James, Sir Edward Herbert, Sir Robert Wingfield, Serjeant Dodridge, Sir Henry Billingsley, Sir Robert Mansfield, Sir Francis Knowles, Sir Francis Popham, Sir Richard Verney, Sir William Wray, Sir Richard Leveson, Mr. Fuller, Serjeant Tanfield, Mr. Lawrence Hide, Sir Edward Lukenor, Sir Peter Manwood, Sir Nicholas Saunders, Sir Roger Aston, Sir Edwin Sands, Mr. John Hare, Sir Jerome Bowes, Sir Henry Bromley, Sir John Scott, Sir Edward Herbert, Sir Edward Grevill, Sir John Leveson.
These committees are appointed to consider of sundry important causes offered this day by way of motion to the House by Sir Robert Wroth, the heads whereof appear in these particulars.
1. Confirmation of the Book of Common Prayer.
2. The wardship of men's children.
3. The abuse of purveyors and cart takers.
4. Monopolies.
5. Dispensations of penal statutes.
6. Transportation of ordnance.
7. The writ De Quo Titulo, &c.: abuses in the Exchequer, &c.
And the same committees are to make report of all or any of these from time to time as they shall find fit, or as the House shall direct them.
To meet this day in the afternoon in the Exchequer Chamber."
Endorsed by Cecil: "Memorial of P. causes." 3 pp. (98. 33.)
The Bishop of Lincoln to Lord Cecil.
1603–4, March 24. Recommends for a small preferment the bearer Mr. Russell, a grave, learned, discreet and painful preacher, well accounted of in those parts near Lincoln where he is resident.—From my house in Westminster, 24 March, 1603.
Signed. ½ p. (99. 46.)
Sir John Popham, Lord Chief Justice, to the Same.
1604, March 26. I have taken order already with the Judges to meet together to-morrow in the morning very early. And, God willing, will be with your Lordship before ten of the clock in the morning.—At Serjeants' Inn, 26 March 1604.
Holograph. Endorsed: "1603" (sic). Seal of arms. ½ p. (104. 109.)
The Mayor and Aldermen of Kingston-upon-Hull to the Same.
1604, March 26. The daily pitiful complaints of their distressed neighbours, both in regard of their grievous loss sustained by the King of Denmark in their fishing voyage to Wardehouse, and also the great want which these five years they have endured, move the writers to be suitors to Cecil in their behalf, that he would be a means to the King that some final end may be made upon this their long suit; the town being unable to support so heavy a charge any longer.—Kingston-upon-Hull, 26 March, 1604.
Signed. 1 p. (99. 50.)
Christopher Peyton to Lord Cecil.
1604, March 27. I beseech your letter to Mr. Thomas Watson for payment of my exchange money of 171l., which I delivered to Mr. Treasurer of Ireland two years since, not having received my fee or entertainment these two years, either there or here, so that Mr. Watson who is Mr. Treasurer's agent may make payment of my due both of fees and exchange money and take in his bill again. The Earl of Devonshire has not given me answer for restitution of my office of the wars and entertainment for the same (whereof his man James Ware is possessed since the last of September last by letters patent during pleasure), deferring answer until he hear from my Lord Deputy of Ireland. —27 March, 1604. Signed. Seal of arms. 1 p. (104. 110.)
The Earl of Sheffield to the Same.
[1604], March 27. Since the sealing of my last letters I received intelligence from the assizes what sources the business I had there concerning my government has had, which I have thought good to acquaint your lordship with, in some respects also desiring the King may be certified thereof, because it concerns blood and if your lordship remember I told you at my departure that he commanded me, if there were any execution to be made upon priests or others for religion, I should stay them till his pleasure were known. One Welbourne and Browne were by me and the Council committed to York Castle being servants to Mr. Darse of Hornbie for seducing of the King's subjects from their obedience and many other undutiful pranks. They have been tried this assize and condemned of high treason but I thought good to wish their reprise till the King's pleasure might be known. If the King incline to mercy I shall not mislike it, knowing that mercy joined with justice works the best effects and especially in these priests whose nature can endure nought of the one nor the other to great proportion. I sent their examinations to the Judges, who I think mean to send them up to the King. Your lordship may then see more at large the nature of their offence. The coolest thing is that being asked whether if the Pope should invade any of his Majesty's kingdoms, they would fight against him, they refused, both when examined and when tried, to answer. Likewise one Robinson, another that I and the Council sent to the Castle for beating a minister in the church and uttering very seditious speeches against the King, being a notable recusant, was condemned to stand on the pillory, lose his ears, and be other ways punished by law for his recusancy. This judgment is executed to the great terrors of these priests and no doubt will give great stay to the irregular courses which many in these northern parts do run. Likewise there have been 900 recusants new and old indicted at these assizes and yet no doubt many not yet met with for the Archbishop's courses are so slack, being now more fit to sleep than govern a province, that there is little done by his authority, so that all lies upon myself and the Council, who will not fail to do our duties. For the better performing my charge at this time till things be a little better settled, I desire, if so it please the King, I may have leave to stay. Else you know by my oath I must attend the King at St. George's day, wherein I desire to hear from you with what speed you may choose. I have run over some of the "necessariest" accounts this place affords at this time.—Normanbie this 27 Mar.
Holograph. Endorsed: "1604." 2 pp. (188. 98.)
Sir George Home to Lord Cecil.
[1604], March 29. The Secretary of Scotland wrote to me upon some particular offers of his Majesty, and among his other purposes he showed me by his letter that you was gone to bed and was somewhat sick. I showed his Majesty the same, and he was so evil contented that he says he will not be well pleased till he hear of your estate. He gave me express direction to cause a post to run night and day to bring the certainty of your health, which I pray you may be returned with speed. There is a humour fallen in his Majesty's knee, with a great pain and some swelling, that has kept him from rest all this last night, and he keeps his bed all this day, but God willing I hope he shall be well to-morrow. His Majesty has resolved to take journey upon Sunday in the afternoon to Sir Olepher Cromwell's, there to hunt for some two or three days, and then to return here to Roystowne.—Roystowne, 29 March.
Holograph. Endorsed: "1603." 1 p. (187. 17.)
Sir Edward Cecil to the Same.
1604, March 30. I desire to witness your happiness with my best blood, not for any end of my profit, for then would I not have followed the wars with that desire I do, which I ever found rather to "gratte" of my own fortune, than make me better to live by them. But now that my love to them is encouraged by your favour, I will embrace them as a true means to deserve your good opinion. I cannot say that I am a colonel, nor have I received any denial of the States in claiming my due as being one of their oldest captains; yet I find they will make some delay to show their love to our General Sir Francis Vere, which if it would please you to write to Mr. Winwood to know their answer, would make me most bound to you, and make my good hope turn to happiness. I hope you will have care of me that my desire to make me more able to serve the King shall not make me lose my place in the Privy Chamber, which I hold rather for my grace here and my reputation there, than for any other cause.
You may know already of the extremity wherein Ostend is at this present reducted, being out of hope to be defended any longer, the enemy being ready to pass the ditch; yet the States do send in some 40 companies more than there is, rather to make good composition for those that are within. The last work the enemy took in of ours they did put them all to the sword that was in it, to make the rest be the sooner quitted. We have lost two governors of that town. The dangers of Ostend make many of the Zeelanders fly both from Flushing and Middleborough apace. We make many proffers of rising, as though we would do some great enterprise; but I rather think they are policies to cause the enemy to divide his forces, and to draw in length the loss of Ostend.—From the Hage, 30 March 1604 old style.
Holograph, signed: "Ed. Cecyll." 2 pp. (99. 69.)
Sir Edward Coke to Lord Cecil.
1604, March 30. I have drawn a bill according to a warrant under your hand for the denization of Sir James Areskyne Kt. his wife and children: and the bill contains a confirmation of letters patent to Sir James of certain marsh grounds in Kent, saving to others their rights. It is the usual form that his Majesty signify his pleasure for the passing of the bill, otherwise the Lord Chancellor or the Speaker will not read it.—30 March, 1604.
PS. in autograph: "If your lordship will be pleased to peruse the crosses in the margent you shall perceave some thinges need amendment."
½ p. (104. 111.)
Ralph Winwood to the Same.
[1604], March 31. Monday last the States General sent for me into the Assembly: where M. Barnevelt, who was then President, after declaration how sorry they were for the departing of Sir Francis Vere from their service, delivered that the States had communicated the proposition, which lately I had presented by his Majesty's commandment, in the Laird of Boucloughe's cause unto his Excellency and the Council of State, who had taken resolution to intreat his Majesty to excuse their not assenting to this demand, which was a novelty in their State, and could not be granted without making way to the like petitions of other nations which would cause an anarchy in their government. Though the English had heretofore enjoyed over them a particular general, that was brought in first by a special treaty and continued since in acknowledgment of Sir Francis Vere's long and worthy services. The States would therefore wish (said he) that the Laird of Buccleugh should be content to accept, for a while at least, a commission according to the act sent to him for the levying of his regiment. If he further pressed them, they must have recourse to the Provinces apart, which as he thought would not vary much from the judgment of their Deputies and Council of State. I answered that I was addressed by my charge to the States General upon whom his Majesty presumes all power to be transported from the several Provinces: and therefore from them I expected my answer for discharge of my duty, howsoever the Laird of Buccleugh could be content to forbear to solicit it, which I desired might be in writing, for that Commonwealths did not speak but by their pens. I received it yesterday and send it herewith. I think if the matter be followed the Provinces will ask time before they return their resolution, which in all likelihood will be conformable to the instance of that affection wherewith they shall understand his Majesty is pleased to embrace the cause. In the mean time the States do take it ill that he [Buccleugh] forbears to take a commission for the government of his regiment.
The design for the relief of Ostend holds. All preparations are in a manner in readiness and by the middle of the next week the whole forces will be assembled in Zeeland. All diligence must be used or else they will come ut imbres post tempora frugum, for the enemy gathers daily and has got the Polder ravelin where 30 of our men were put to the sword. Since Ghestelt, his successor Col. Loane is slain, and Captain Drake who commanded the English.
The States this week have given order for the levying of 1400 Suissers, 600 are to come out of the canton of Basil and 800 of Zurich.
This letter this week was delivered to me from Lord Grey which in discretion I held myself bound to send you.—The Hague, the last of March.
Holograph. Endorsed: "1604." Seal of arms. 2 pp. (104. 112.)
Captain Francis Burnell to Lord Cecil.
1604, March 31. I am grieved to find that notwithstanding my late attempt to satisfy you, I am both censured by you, and calumniated or rather scandalized to you. I am therefore drawn to clear myself further as follows.
Upon the banishment of Francis Tilleston and other priests, about a year since (whom in respect of my place of service I accompanied to their ship) I informed my master the Earl of Nottingham, as soon as I could return, with the speeches which the said Tilleston uttered to me on the seas: and my Lord then told the same to you at Whitehall.
On Maundy Thursday last being with my old uncle Thomas Blundevile at his house at Newton Flotman in Norfolk, my uncle prayed that the King might safely come and be crowned, since the greatest danger to princes was at their coronations. I then imparted to my uncle, but to no other some of the speeches which the priests had used at sea.
In June or July last my uncle wrote to the King altogether without my consent. I hope you will not count this to my prejudice. As to other calumnies—my housekeeping has been well known for 25 years together, and I beg you to deem of me as I am, not as others falsely pretend.—Last of March, 1604.
Holograph. 1½ pp. (104. 113.)
Dr. Richard Neile to Levinus [Monck.]
1604, March 31. I have not stirred from my lodgings since my Lord's and my last coming from Court together on Monday night, so take leave to trouble you to move his lordship Mr. Thomas Chitesley, of Wimpole in Cambridgeshire, aged 26, was in France at the Queen's death with a licence to travel for three years. He came home last summer for the marriage of one of his sisters, by which I take it, his licence is determined. He desires to complete the period, and the times being less scrupulous, thinks his lordship's licence may enable him. He desires to return to France, go into Italy, and return home. Sic Te Deo.—From the Savoy, 31 March, 1604.
Holograph. Seal of arms. 1 p. (104. 115.)
Lord Grey to Lord Cecil.
[1604, March ?] I will ever acknowledge the care I have found from you touching my estate, which how small soever shall satisfy my desires; for I have learnt to frame my content by what I have, and never forget my offence nor the miraculous mercy which has preserved my being. Therefore might it please your lordship by the speediest gradations possible to bring me to the free enjoying of that little, my obligation shall be as much as were my estate equal to the greatest subject in England. My Lord Harry in all my troubles has showed himself a very noble friend and I doubt not will join with you for my good. My Lord of Suffolk I know will further it, and I hope my Lord of Devonshire will not hinder it. For the King, I hope his displeasure begins to clear; and knew he all my unfeigned penitency, to redeem my transgression, the same royal mercy which saved my life would now begin to ease this extreme misery: especially upon so good an occasion as this enforced remove and general joy of this first celebration of his glorious government, altogether disproportionate to the last and doubtful proceedings of the late Queen. Your power I know, your favour I have tasted, only now I shall chiefliest prove it and will ever deserve it.—Undated.
Holograph. Seal broken. 2 pp. (106. 109.)