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James I: August 1609

Pages 263-282

Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, 1608-1610. Originally published by Longman and Co, London, 1874.

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James I: August 1609

453. An Estimate what the charge of transport, victualling, and apparelling of 1,000 men out of Ireland into Swethland [Sweden] may amount unto. [Aug. 3.] S.P., Ireland, vol. 227, 112.

£ s. d.
First, for their transport, after 10s. the man, amounting unto 500 0 0
For their victuals, after 5d. per diem a man, amounting to per diem 20l. 16s. 8d., and for one month, at 30 days to the month 625 0 0
For their apparel, which shall be one cassock, one pair of hose, one pair of stockings, one pair of shoes, one shirt, one cap, at 20s. the man, which in the 1,000 will amount to 1,000 0 0
Sum total of the whole charge of 1,000 men in manner aforesaid 2,125 0 0

p. 1. Endd.

454. Lords of the Council to Sir Arthur Chichester. [Aug. 3.] Philad. P., vol. 3, p. 421.

Pending the return of the King from his progress, they proceed to give answer to the most pressing parts of his (Sir Arthur's) late letter.

And first, for Sir Neale Garve, they approve of his (Sir Arthur's) proceedings both in preparing his trial and in causing the Attorney General to withdraw the indictment, and to dismiss the jury, when he perceived their strange combination and obstinate resolution to acquit him. So they also allow that he made use of that example in forbearing the trial of Sir Donel O'Cahan, which has fallen out so contrary to the King's expectation and theirs (the Lords), that His Majesty has resolved upon bringing them over thither, for which Sir Arthur shall receive direction under the King's hand.

Although there are only these two named in the warrant, yet, conceiving it fit that Sir Neale's son be brought over, they send an order of themselves until they can procure another letter from the King. As regards the brothers of Sir Neal, seeing that no criminal offence has been laid to their charge after so long imprisonment, he may discharge them according to his suggestion. But the younger sons of Tyrone and Caphar O'Donnell may be continued in their present restraint awhile, and may be as conveniently sent over, if any alteration appear. But they cannot be induced to think that it is worth the trouble and charge to send over into England such children of the Moores as, being without parents of other near kinsmen to take care of them, yet remain among their fosterers in Leinster, seeing His Majesty and the country has been already at charges enough with the transportation of the gross of them; amongst whom these, as well as the other young imps of that generation, may have their breeching by the care and provision of Patrick Crosby, who hath been well rewarded by His Majesty, and is to receive good contribution from the country for the same, and who, having been now dealt with to that effect, is willing to remove them to the rest.

Are glad to hear that the few soldiers that Captain Bingley has prepared for Sweden are in readiness, if (as they hope they are) they are such as were swordmen and ill affected. It seems that if he (Chichester) had had more money and better acquaintance among the Irish, he might have had more than these two or three hundred, which His Majesty would have liked of, so as he did not carry away amongst the Irish any English bodies, or any arms, which are always bought for the King's soldiers.

For they esteem it a special good service, as well for the state of the kingdom as for the plantation, that as many of the native Irish as possible were vented out of the land. With this view His Majesty has resolved to send 1,000 men more to be levied in that land; and they (the Lords) suggest that some of the gentlemen of the better sort, of their own nation, be chosen to be their commanders, who by their love and credit amongst them will make the levying of them easier. The King will be at the charge of their transportation, and is willing that he (Chichester) shall disburse some small sums to put them into some such clothing as may cover their nakedness, and only take away the mark of their miserable and barbarous condition, and that it be made of English fashion, but of country stuff, which they are informed is cheap; it being only to serve them at sea, for upon their arrival in Sweden they are to receive new apparel, and to be furnished with arms. They have already provided shipping, but it is detained in the river by contrary winds. They are to set sail in 14 days, if the wind serve, for the port of Derry. Besides this letter (which they send that he may have time to prepare) there will presently follow the commander of this regiment, Sir Robert Stewart, brother to the Earl of Orkney, His Majesty's near kinsman, or his brother.

They send him the commander's commission, and the quality of the entertainment, that he may the better know how to persuade or engage to those that shall be employed.

He is to take care that no English, whether as commander or otherwise, be permitted to transport himself with the rest; for this would be to deprive the realm of so much of its best defence, well remembering the confidence he has often expressed in the sufficiency and fidelity of numbers which are not now in pay within that kingdom, some of them being natives, and though Irish, yet descended of their (the Lords') nation; preferring them far beyond those they (the Lords) can upon a sudden send from England. And this much they hold sufficient upon that point.

For the recalling of those children of Ireland that are beyond sea, they agree with him in thinking that some clause should be inserted in the proclamation, and request him to frame one and send it over to them for their consideration.

They let him know that the old friar, Owen Groome Magrath, shall have the King's pardon, he having been condemned upon Lord Delvin's evidence, who appeared personally in court to justify it, on condition that he (the friar) confine himself to some part of Ulster, where he may best serve the uses the Lord Delvin promises himself of him. Not that the King expects much fruit from it, but because they think it of more use for the King that the Lord Delvin has given evidence against a friar, than to take the life of one where there are so many. They remind him how the event concurred last year with his observation of the frequent rumour of Tyrone's welcome; as they doubt not but that this year he finds the seeds sown by these viperous priests, who desire nothing more than to hinder the plantation by these rumours. But they inform him that they (the Lords) do not expect any such descent of forces as may make any great charge. But he may rely upon succour, if any such thing should occur.—Whitehall, 3 August 1609.

Signed: T. Ellesmere, Canc., R. Salisbury, T. Suffolke, W. Knollys, Julius Cæsar.

Pp. 3. Add. Endd. by Sir Arthur Chichester: "Of the third of August 1609. From the Lls. of the Councell, in answer of myne of the [ ] of July to send over Sir Neal O'Donnell, &c. Men into Sweden, &c. Owen Groom Magragh to be pardoned. Re. Att [the Campe, near Dungannon, the 16th of August."

455. Lords of the Council to Sir Arthur Chichester. [Aug. 3.] Philad P., vol. 3, p. 417.

The City of London being willing to undertake such a part as might befit them in the project of the plantation of Ulster, and to be a means to reduce that savage and rebellious people to civility, peace, religion, and obedience, and having commissioned the bearers, John Brode Goldsmill, John Monroes, Robert Treswell, painter, and John Rowley, draper, to view of the county, and make report on their return, he (Sir Arthur) is to direct a supply of all necessaries in their travel into those countries, and to aid them in every way. And they (the Lords) have directed Sir Thomas Philips to accompany them, whose knowledge and residence in those parts, and good affection to the cause in general, they assure themselves will be of great use at this time; seeing there is no man that intendeth any plantation or habitation in Ulster, who ought not to be most desirous of such neighbours as will bring trade and traffic into the ports.—Whitehall, 3 August 1609.

Signed: T. Ellesmere, Canc., R. Salisbury, H. Northampton, T. Suffolke, W. Knollys, Jul. Cæsar.

P. 1. Add. Endd. by Sir Arthur Chichester: "Of the third of August 1609. From the Lordes of the Councell, tutchinge the sendinge over of the agents of London to view Colrayne, the Dyrrie, &c. Re. the 29th eodem."

456. Lords of the Council to Sir Arthur Chichester. [Aug. 3.] Philad. P., vol. 3, p. 419.

Referring to their foregoing letter recommending certain citizens appointed by the City of London to view the Derry and Colrane, and the country between them, they anxiously entreat him to select discreet persons to conduct, and accompany them, who shall be able to control whatever discouraging reports may be made to them out of ignorance or malice.

The conductors must take care to lead them by the best ways, and to lodge them in their travel, where they may, if possible, receive English entertainment in Englishmen's houses. And though they (the Lords) have the opportunity to lay the first hand upon this offer (of the city's) and to make the project to the city; yet that it may be well followed up they send the same in that their letter enclosed; and must leave it to him to perfect. The persons sent with these citizens to conduct them must be prepared beforehand to strengthen every part thereof by demonstration, so as they may conceive the commodities to be of good use and profit; on the other hand, that matters of distaste, as fear of the Irish, of the soldiers, of cess, and such like, be not so much as named, seeing that he (Sir Arthur) knows that discipline and order will easily secure them. If there be anything in the project, whether it be the fishing, the Admiralty, or any other particular which may serve for a motive to induce them, although his Lordship (Sir Arthur) or any other have interest therein, yet he (Sir Arthur) should make no doubt but His Majesty will have such consideration thereof that no man shall be a loser in that which he shall part with for the furtherance of this service. As for his Lordship (Sir Arthur), he cannot, besides his general duty, but be glad, in his own particular, to have such good neighbours to his plantation.—Whitehall, 3 August 1609.

Signed: T. Ellesmere, Canc., R. Salisbury, H. Northampton, T. Suffolke, W. Knollys, Jul. Cæsar.

P. 1. Add. Endd. by Sir Arthur Chichester: "Of the third of August 1609. From the Lordes of the Councell, tutchinge the London agents, &c. Rc. the 29th eodem."

457. Lords of the Council to Sir Arthur Chichester. [Aug. 4.] Philad. P., vol. 3, p. 421.

Request him to confer with the Attorney-General how far it may be fit to grant to the corporation of Limerick the cocquet customs which have (as they allege) been granted to all the other towns of Munster.—Whitehall, 4 August 1609.

Signed: R. Canc., T. Ellesmere, R. Salisbury, T. Suffolke, W. Knollys, Thos. Parry.

P. ½. Add. Endd. by Sir Arthur Chichester: "Of the 4th of August 1609. From the Lls. of the Councell, in the behalfe of the cyte of Lymerick. Re. the 10th of April 1611. Delayed in the deliverie by the death of Patrick Arthur, the then mayor. This lr̃e is enrolled in ye Councell Booke.— Pa. Foxe." Enrol. Encloses,

Report of Sir John Davys to the Right Honourable the Lord Deputy.

The principal towns in Munster have the cocquet granted them in this manner:—

1. Waterford has them under charter of Henry V., as appears by the certificate of the judges in England.

2. Cork is discharged of the cocquet customs payable by their citizens, as appears by the same certificate.

3. Youghal had license to collect them in perpetuity by charter of Henry VII., and to employ them in repair of their walls.

4. Kinsale has a lease of them for twenty-one years, dated 31st Elizabeth.

5. Limerick had them in perpetuity by charter of Henry V., but that grant is resumed [Act of Resumption, 10 Hen. VII.], in which there is no saving for them, as there is for Waterford.

As it is the King's pleasure, therefore, that Limerick should enjoy the same privileges as the other towns of Munster, he conceives Chichester might grant same to the corporation of Limerick, provided some farm be reserved to His Majesty.— 11 May 1611.

P. 1. Signed. Jo. Davys.

458. Lords of the Council to Sir Arthur Chichester. [Aug. 4.] Philad. P., vol. 3, p. 428.

They have chosen Sir Thomas Philips, from his experience of the country, where he has served and resides, to accompany the city agents to Ireland, and to convey them safely and give them comfort when they are there, so as to give them heart at their return to animate the city to go on with the enterprise that they (the Lords) so much affect. They find that he has by his conference with some of the citizens, and by the light he has given them, given them good encouragement.

They (the Lords) intend he shall return back with them, and in due time the King will reward them.

Meantime he (Chichester) is to give him every countenance. —Whitehall, 4 August 1609.

Signed: R. Cant., T. Ellesmere, Canc., T. Suffolke, W. Knollys, Thos. Parry.

P. ½. Add. Endd. by Sir Arthur Chichester: "Of the 4th of August 1609. From the Lls. of the Councell, signifieing their good opinion of Sr Thomas Philips, and his employment with the agents of London. Re. the 29th eodem."

459. Sir Alexander Hay to [Salisbury]. [Aug. 6.] S.P., Ireland, vol. 227, 113.

Since he last saw his Lordship, has received, by packet from their Chancellor, a roll of new undertakers for Ireland, being men of greater stuff and ability than those in the first roll; so all the delay in this business until the next spring will do much good, for their Council will accept surety of all who offer themselves to undertake. And when order shall be given for their going over, then the Council intends to select and make choice of such as are of greatest ability; and where in the first division made the most part of undertakers had 2,000 acres apiece, they may now be put to the smallest proportion, which will be a great surety to the service and a good means for peopling of these bounds. Has written to the Lord Chancellor that no direction for the undertakers going over can be expected before the spring.

Had a letter from a countryman of his out of Brussels, who, being acquainted with a novice of the Jesuits' College there, showed him that he had been at Graveling the 15th of the last month conducting four or five of their society over to England, with some necessaries which they carried over with them; and they were landed in the river of Thames in a fish boat. None of them are Englishmen, but Flemings and Walloons, who pass and repass in the habit of merchants at their pleasure. His Lordship's directions may soon procure a trial of this matter, and to certify some other things, which he will not commit to the uncertain carriage of a letter, if it be worthy of his Lordship's hearing, he will be bold upon his first coming to bring him to his Lordship. Was demanded by His Majesty, concerning his Lordship's remove from London, which he told His Majesty was upon Thursday, and that the Sunday was kept, as he supposed, solemnly at Basinge, his Lordship being there attending the Queen's Highness. His Majesty and Prince are all his Lordship can wish.—Bewlye, 6 August.

P. 1. Signed. Endd.

460. Briefs of Remembrance (by Sir Arthur Chichester) for the Lord Danvers. [Aug. 8.] S.P., Ireland, vol. 227, 114.

To declare the state of the kingdom, and that all here carries the face of quiet. But the sea is not sooner altered by wind or tempest than this people by reports which the Jesuits, seminaries, and priests (by their directions) frame of invasion or home insurrection, which doth best please the greater part of the people who are loose, idle, and discontented persons, and keeps many a good man from resolving on the better part.

That some course may be taken from [for] keeping those caterpillars from resorting hither, and for banishing those that are here (he means those that are factious and seducers of the people). The means to do this he knows not, in that the law has not provided sufficient punishment for them here, as in England, but must leave that to his Lordship's consideration. The best course he can advise is, seeing they depart not according to the proclamation, to hang them by martial law, and to confiscate the goods, or to imprison the bodies of such as are known to harbour or relieve them.

That the education of gentlemen's children, of the children of merchants, and others of this nation in the seminaries and colleges beyond the seas is a pernicious sufferance and fit to be provided for.

That Tyrone's return is lately bruited and by many expected, which has given fresh hopes to the discontented. If there be foreknowledge thereof, they must be enabled to encounter him upon his first arrival, otherwise he will soon grow great as well in force as in opinion.

Confesses the King's charge here is very great, and would feign [fain] abate it, but until the North be planted and men's minds touching the point of Tyrone's coming better settled, it is neither safe nor convenient to advise it.

Care has been taken and some allowance made for fortifying and repairing some of the forts in Munster and that of Gall way. The like would be had for others in Leinster and Ulster, according to a note lately sent over by him. If all be not presently granted, yet Philliptowne and Maryborough in Leinster, the Derry, Liffer, Balleshenon, and Dungannon in Ulster, would specially be cared for. Something is done to the rest, but these being places of principal import for keeping and governing the country are left very weak, for these they want money to do them effectually. To patch them up were to small purpose.

That how well soever they wish to the plantation of Ulster, according to the project laid down, yet he despairs to see it effectually performed upon private men's undertaking; for such an act must be the work of a commonwealth, and upon the common charge, towards which a subsidy or two were well given; and that (if he be not deceived) will save many a subsidy in 40 years.

If that be not liked of, let every parish in England contribute towards the planting of a man, two or three, according to their circuit and abilities; the men to be sons or natives of the parish, but such especially to be chosen as are now in employment here, and next unto them old soldiers that have served.

By this course towns will be fortified, houses will be built, men of valour and understanding enabled to plant there, who will defend their own and make good what they have undertaken; and the Irish will be put out of hope to weary or overmaster them, and towards so good a work he thinks every well-affected subject will contribute willingly.

Pp. 3. Endd.

461. Exchequer Issues for Service of Ireland, from Easter 1603 to 14 August 1609. [Aug. 14.] Lansdowne MSS., 159, 74. f. 234, B.M.

Money issued out of the receipt of His Majesty's Exchequer since the Feast of Easter 1603 until this present 14th of August 1609.

P. 3. Endd.

462. Sir Arthur Chichester to Salisbury. [Aug. 17.] S.P., Ireland, vol. 227, 115.

Has now received the King's letters, by which he is required to send over Sir Donnel O'Cahane and Sir Neale O'Donnell, with other letters from his Lordship and the Council, by which he is directed, among other things, for sending hence 1,000 men of this nation to the service of the King of Sweden, together with a private letter of his Lordship, the contents of which assure him of his good opinion, and bind him more and more to love and serve his Lordship.

The Earl of Clanricarde went from him yesterday, before the receipt of those letters. At his Lordship's being here he acquainted him with the course they hold in this new survey. The work is very intricate and full of labour, and will be chargeable to His Majesty, but when it is finished after the form they have begun (which shall be this journey, if conveniently they may), hopes it will give His Highness and his Lordship good satisfaction.

They want the presence of the Lord Bishop of Derry, who, for what he hears, is not yet arrived. The Bishop's absence made him send for the Lord Chancellor, albeit he was not well able to take these travels upon him. Having been now a week with him, hears he has not done and will not do anything in matters appertaining to the church without his and the Lord Primate's privity, advice, and consent. Confesses that the Lord of Derry's complaints, grounded upon imagination, from which no public officer or minister can be free if he please not at all times, have in some kind made him more wary, but can never make him more honest in his proceedings than he has been towards His Majesty, the church, himself, and the commonwealth.

The consideration of the service in hand and of the large dispatch he is to make soon after his return to Dublin, emboldens him to pray his Lordship to accept of a summary answer to certain especial points of his letters, and the rest at this time, and to assure him that he will perform what remains as soon as he may and as he shall be enabled.

For Sir Neale O'Donnell and the rest, cannot conveniently send them over until his return or towards Michaelmas; about which time he prays his Lordship to give direction to the sheriff of Cheshire and other counties to give assistance on their way towards London to him that shall have the conduction of them.

Touching the thousand men to be sent into Sweden, will make the substance of the Lords's letters in that point known to the Lord President of Connaught, the Earl of Thomonde, and the Vice-President of Munster, from whose countries and jurisdictions more men are to be expected than from other parts. For all that went with Captain Bingley were raised in Leinster and this province, being in number full 240 men, most of them idle swordmen that served on the one side or the other in the last rebellion of Tyrone, and some of them were with O'Dogherty. Arms, they had none; no more shall these, but such as they keep of their own secretly, the loss of which will be no weakness to them. Will direct their Lordships to make choice, each of the most factious and stirring men to take the charge and command of the soldiers to be levied, who will soonest gather idlers together, and there will be a good riddance of them all when they are gone. But to draw so many ill-disposed persons, for of such he wishes this body to be composed, together into this, the worst affected province of the kingdom, at this time, he cannot hold to be convenient, nor to send any ships from thence to transport them; but he wishes rather that it may stand with his Lordship's good allowance to have them conveyed from several ports, as they may be gotten together by hundreds or more; where convenient shipping will be had with less charge than any can be imprested from the Thames, and will not run the hazard of attending their freight at an extraordinary charge to His Majesty, as those must, seeing the men are not to be compelled, but of such only as will voluntarily put themselves into the service. Found by the trial he lately made in that kind that the swordmen of this nation do not affect the service of that kingdom, which, as they are informed, is worse than their own; and in this province (when Bingley went hence) they gave it out that it was a device of his (Chichester's) to send them out of the way in order that they might not assist the fugitives, who (as they presumed, and so much the rather for his advising and urging them to be gone), were to return this summer. What this will beget he knows not; but all their labour will be in vain unless Sir Robert Stewart, or some other sufficient man, comes with money to keep them together and transport them when they are levied; and to give each of them apparel after the English fashion, will be very chargeable, albeit the same be made of the cloth of this country. A side cassock to cover the upper part of their trousers will be sufficient and graceful enough, if it please the King to bestow so much upon them, which by supposition will amount to 1,000 marks. Prays that the ships may be stayed, if they be not already come from thence, and that the general commander of them may be dispatched with money, and he will do his best to fit him with men and shipping.

The base money of which his Lordship makes mention is the main point that concerns him, since the project (as it is taken) went from hence. Prays him to make stay of sending any of those small coins (unless they be of the same fineness with the standard of England), until he (Chichester) shall impart that affair to the Council here, and take their opinion and advice therein. His Lordship will hold this request very reasonable when he calls to mind that it concerns them all in general, and reflects what a distaste and danger it may bring upon him (Chichester), if to the present loss of a fourth part of their pays, which some of the servitors sustain by reason of the harp shilling only, he should assent to add a fifth part more without their privity or advice; but if the pay of His Majesty's servants here, as well the soldier as the officer, might be reduced to the same it was before Tyrone's rebellion, by coining a portion of small moneys, 20l. or 25l. in the 100l. of baser metal than the fine standard of England, it were a princely deed; and he thinks it would be gratefully accepted of most men in the kingdom until the same were well replenished with that coin, and the rather, if the moiety of their pay came over in pieces of sixpence and shillings; and it is not to be doubted when there shall be wars in this kingdom, the poverty of the soldier living on his bare entertainment, and doing his duty, and the complaint of the better sort for want of sufficient means, will restore them to their ancient pay without that profit which in the meantime may be made by bringing those base moneys to be current; besides which, the project was that a mint should be erected here, where, he understands, there is good store of base silver and some mixed money to set it on work, and that it should be vented when it was converted into coin, as well to the rest of the subjects as to the servitors. He had ever hoped and does still, that his Lordship would have transmitted the project after he had perused it, to be considered of and debated here before it had been concluded; otherwise he was assured to plunge himself into an irrecoverable ill opinion of all men in general, from which he hopes his Lordship will free him by hearing the opinions of this Council before he shall resolve to send the money. Otherwise he doubts it will not be taken for current without infinite distaste and murmur. For the loss of 25l. in the 100l. is more repined at than his Lordship is informed of; and if by the alloy this other 20l. should be likewise taken, he fears it will be held intolerable, and will draw on him much infamy.

Makes bold to deliver what he wishes and what he thinks in this matter, and so leaves it to his Lordship's grave consideration. Has given to my Lord of Clanricarde an abstract drawn out of several letters received yesterday from Munster, making mention of the arrival there of 10 or 11 ships of pirates, under the command of Byshope, their admiral, and that they expect as many more to abide with them upon that coast this winter. Has, with the advice of the Council here, drawn a proclamation to hinder the commerce which is held with them and to strengthen the Vice-President in the prosecution of them; but they are grown to that height of strength and pride that he doubts his endeavours will hardly prevail without the assistance of some of His Majesty's good ships. He (the Vice-President) desires to understand whether he may assure pardon to such as submit themselves. Cannot satisfy him therein without allowance and directions from the King or his Lordship, but has advised him to preserve the good subjects, and to annoy the pirates all he may. There came lately hither some few gentlemen and others from Scotland to undertake of the escheated lands, and when he told them he was sent at this time to survey and not to make a distribution, they departed in ill fashion; and he hears they mean to complain of him, which he hopes will not hurt him, the same being so weakly grounded.

Sir Donnogh O'Connor is lately dead. A letter from his brother, who is his heir, has just arrived. He is an unstaid man, and in the late Queen's days long served the Spaniards. This happened since the Earl of Clanricarde came from Connaught, so did the death of O'Connor Roe, and the sickness of Sir Hugh O'Connor Dune, who (as the Judges of Assize write) is thought past recovery. The accident is the more remarkable, the deaths happening within two days one of another.

The King requires him to return the Bishop of Derry with the survey of the ecclesiastical lands. Mr. Treasurer is very desirous to make a step thither about that time, and if it stand with his Lordship's good allowance, he shall bring the survey of the rest with such other remembrances and occurrents as shall fall out fit to be imparted, in which he desires to receive his Lordship's directions.—At the Camp, near Dungannon in Tyrone, 17 August 1609.

Pp. 7. Signed.

463. Sir Arthur Chichester to Salisbury. [Aug. 17.] S.P., Ireland, vol. 227, 116.

Abstract of the above.

Pp. 2. Endd.

464. The King to Sir Arthur Chichester. [Aug. 18.] Philad. P., vol. 1, p. 361.

Grants to William Bourne, for his good service done in Ireland in the late Queen's time, the office of constable and keeper of the King's gaol of Ardmagh.—Salisbury, 18 August 1609.

P. 1. Signed at head. Add. Endd. by Sir Arthur Chichester: "Of the 18th of August 1609. From the Kinge's Matie, to passe the office of geolershipe of Armagh to William Bourne, &c. Re. the 20th of No. 1609."

465. The King to the Lord Deputy. [Aug. 20.] Docquet Book, August 20.

Letter to the Lord Deputy for a grant to be made of the office of constable or keeper of the gaol of Armagh to Wm. Bourne, for life. [Docquet of 464.]

466. Lord Howth to the King. [Aug. 21.] S.P., Ireland, vol. 227, 117.

Is bound by the gracious favour which His Majesty has shown him to endeavour to make known that which a honest and high-rewarded subject ought to perform. But some of highest estate here and their allies having reported that he is dangerous, and thus withdrawn his friends and kinsmen from him, his expectation cannot have such success as is to be expected, nor he himself the end of his desire. Others of no less estate have threatened to hunt him out of this island, of which they could chase out none more faithfuller to His Majesty. Some of their allies have in public (as cannot be denied) ranked him amongst the unworthy sort of cowherds.

Most humbly bemoans and appeals to His Majesty, as to the only stay of his life, honour, and fortune, to have a princely respect of his (Howth's) poor honour which is brought in question. Most humbly upon his knees craves pardon, if he seeks his own right before these submissive letters be presented to His Majesty, with which (he takes God to witness) he yields a faithful heart, with this poor life of his, if occasion be proffered, in His Majesty's service. For he sees those letters which it pleased His Majesty to send by him at his last being with His Highness is (sic) rather con stered [construed] disgraceful than of favour or protection for him. So that it stands ill with him when those that are his professed enemies shall be his judges, and, only for doing His Majesty service; for any private of his own, he protests to God he never gave the cause. His Majesty knows how far he trusted the Deputy, and how he made choice of him, to lay his honour in his hands; but how he has dealt with him, he leaves it to God. But now the Deputy will not look at him, notwithstanding he proffered his service to attend him this journey, which he refused, in order that he might give the world the more notice of his former disgraces done to him, which he forbore to acquaint His Majesty withal at his last being with His Highness. He writes in the passion of his grief, moved with his wrongs; humbly craving His Majesty's farther protection, and his princely letters commanding them to succease [surcease] their course, or his favourable license to quit this unfortunate country and to live in England a poor private life; which he will hold to be a high and princely favour, where he will become his humble beadsman. Must confess he presumes much in daring to write thus to His Majesty; but his estate being upheld by none other than by His Majesty's princely bounty and favour, he prostrates himself before his feet, humbly craving pardon to bemoan his woes or wrongs to none save himself, who, he knows, can and will relieve him; with the expectancy of which he most earnestly and daily prays for his long and happy reign in highest prosperity, and upon his knees most humbly kisses His Majesty's hand, and with humble pardon takes leave.—Howth, 21 August 1609.

P. 1. Signed. Add. Endd.

467. Lord Howth to the Privy Council. [Aug. 21.] S.P., Ireland, vol. 227, 118.

Upon their Lordships' command he is come to this unfortunate country, where it seemed to him there was some use of his service; but here he finds there is none, for he proffered his service to the Deputy, but it pleased him to refuse it, and he will not seem to look at him. So that his being here cannot stand the King in any good, but may fall to his own ill, if the practices of his enemies may take force, as now by the entreaty of the Lord Chancellor and Sir Gerald Moore. Notwithstanding the command their Lordships gave Sir Gerald in his presence at the Council table to forego the Carolans, yet he will not forbear them, but has wrought the Deputy to protect them; although my Lord had promised him that he would never show them favour in regard they had committed so vile a murder as they did of a man of his; there was four or five and twenty of them upon three men of his, of which they kilt (sic) one and gave the other two eighteen wounds apiece. He was forced to follow it by the course of law, and could not get that allowance till he was fain to procure my Lord Treasurer's letter to my Lord Deputy; and now when he has brought them so that they could not escape their deserts, my Lord Deputy has protected them. At present they are both horse and foot, and he assures their Lordships it is not for his good. Humbly desires, therefore, that the Lord Deputy may be dealt withal to withdraw his favour from them, and that he (Howth) may have the just course of law against those common murderers which have had 20 pardons and protections. Prays that he be not held to give any cause of offence, for this concerns both his own life and his followers. Protests that he dares not go anywhere but when he is as well provided as he was in the last wars, and this is his life since his coming hither. Craving pardon for his boldness, he leaves himself to their care and takes leave.—Howth, 21 August 1609.

P. 1. Signed. Add. Endd.

468. Lord Howth to Salisbury. [Aug. 21.] S.P., Ireland, vol. 227, 119.

Has long expected his Lordship's letters promised to him upon his leavetaking, and assured to be posted after by his secretary, Mr. Northon [Norton], which as yet he has not received. Does not marvel however he should use him thus in this, having had the practice of it in other matters concerning him which he doubts not his Lordship has notice of. Finds that the State here has no feeling of the good disposition entertained by his Lordship towards him, whose protection only he desired, having, upon his promise, ceased to seek or make means for any other upon which he should rely and ground his fortune. And now he begins to bemoan the wrongs that some of his Lordship's friends of the State here do him, not doubting to be righted by his Lordship, how well soever he has dealt with them. Doubts not but that his Lordship remembers how (concerning the Carolans) he wrote to the Deputy that the course of law might be extended against them, which the Deputy promised; yet has he protected them, and where the chiefest of them, during his being in rebellion, had but his boy, now he has of his confederates both horse and foot. Knows not what the reason of this may be, but is assured it tends not to his good. Has been sent hither to attend the Lord Deputy in this service, who will scarce afford him a good look. Has proffered his attendance, which not being accepted, he must imagine there is no use of his being here, albeit there be of his company. Beseeches him, therefore, to be a means to His Majesty to license him to return into England again. What dishonours, what imputations, and disgraces are laid upon him by the Lord Chancellor and Sir Gerald Moore, he under the burden of their authority must heavily bear, being bound thereto by the bounds of his duty, which he must never seek to violate. They affirm that he upon his honour before his Lordship and the rest of the Lords of His Majesty's Council, affirmed that all such as he put in his pardon were of the late conspiracy with Tyrone and the rest; for the clearing which, to satisfy his friends, he humbly beseeches him to signify what he declared, and how far he engaged his honour in that matter, letting his friends also understand his favour towards him, and causing the rest to forbear in their authority to do him wrong.—Howth, 21 August 1609.

P. 1. Signed. Add. Endd.

469. Sir Richard Moryson to Salisbury. [Aug. 22.] S.P., Ireland, vol. 227, 120.

The continual repair of the pirates to the western coast of this province, in consequence of the remoteness of the place, the wildness of the people, and their own strength and wealth both to command and entice relief, is very difficult for them to prevent or remedy. Howsoever others, not natives, not knowing this country well, may be persuaded that, living in such security as they have been accustomed and daily do, and being so plentifully relieved with men and all other necessaries, it is not without the toleration of some of His Majesty's officers here. In which, for so much as concerns himself, now interested in the government (in Lord Danvers' absence) and the rest of the Council, he is bold (according to his duty) humbly to send their excuses to his Lordship's favourable acceptance, and to suggest the best means he can conceive to divert them from this ill course of life and to ease His Majesty and his Lordship of the continual clamour of those poor people that are daily robbed and spoiled by them, besides what use may be made of them (being so well manned and shipped and so good mariners) in some remote service, having made themselves unfit (for the present) for His Majesty's gracious pardon and returning into their country, where they will be continually followed by the proprietors of those goods they have so unlawfully taken, and will not be able ever to satisfy the least part thereof. The only hindrance he has yet been enabled to give them has been by proclamation, to warn the people from holding commerce or traffic with them, or relieving them, and when they came in weak, by sending some horse and foot to attend those harbours, and both hinder their landing and the people's resort unto them; which they both performed and took divers of them prisoners, whom he has sent over, according to his instructions from the Lord Deputy. But they are now here of that strength, being 11 sails and 1,000 men, that he is enforced to forbear any prosecution of them, fearing to engage this unruly multitude into any act either of spoiling or burning the country that might make them despair of pardon, and fit to be entertained by any illaffected to the quiet of this kingdom, or to be made fit instruments to second our banished fugitives, of whose return this people is, by the continual persuasion of the priests, as confidently persuaded as ever. They have elected one Busshopp for their admiral, a man, he is informed, of such parts and experience in that profession that, if his courses of life were any way suitable to them, good use might be made of him in His Majesty's service. Howsoever, he thinks he might be a fit instrument to disperse this unruly multitude, which in thus increasing may prove dangerous. He has lately desired to speak with Captain Skipwith (a gentleman that the Lord President had formerly employed unto him) to acquaint him (Sir Richard) with some desire of his. Has permitted Skipwith accordingly to meet him, and has instructed to keep him in hope of his being a means for his pardon, until he shall further know his Lordship's pleasure; so that he will undertake to dispatch the company and deliver up all the ships to be re-delivered to the proprietors. But of this he has little hope (being only to entertain time with him). Should his Lordship please to allow of their employment in the intended plantation of Virginia, which he has not yet motioned to them, he thinks good use might be made of them for the present there, both in defending them now in the beginning, if they shall be disturbed by any in their first settling, in relieving their wants from time to time, and in easing the charge of the journey coming so good cheap. Besides, being active men and good mariners, hereafter when time shall wear out their former offences, with better desert in other countries not troubled so near at hand with their spoiling, they may return and prove necessary instruments of His Majesty's service. But if they be thus permitted to continue in number and offending, they may prove dangerous, as has been many times seen from less beginnings. They expect 10 sail more to join with them, hearing of a fleet setting forth to suppress them. Begs to be informed what course his Lordship shall be pleased to command him to take with them if they stay here or return; which there is no doubt but they will shortly, this being their only place of relief, being so plentifully supplied for all sea provisions by the fishermen that come daily out of England with merchandise.—Youghall, 22 August 1609.

Pp. 2. Signed. Add. Endd.

470. Henry Pepwell to Salisbury. [Aug. 22.] S.P., Ireland, vol.227, 121.

Presumed some time past to write to his Lordship from the roode [road] of Livorno [Leghorn] of divers wrongs done by the late Duke of Florence. From thence (according to his directions from the Lord Admiral) he departed to Tunis, to persuade Ward and his confederates to forsake their wicked course of life and to follow the instructions given him; but, not prevailing, he laboured all he could to destroy them and their proceedings. In the meantime, what with gifts and further hope of spoils, Ward so won his (Pepwell's) sailors that they became pirates with him, whereby he was compelled to part with his pinnace at an under rate to the Turks, and so, returning into England, he was desirous to give account to his Lordship of his endeavours in that voyage, and for that purpose he gave his attendance and requested one Mr. Bruton (one of his Lordship's secretaries) to make him known to his Lordship; but failing thereof, and pressed through want, he took his journey for Ireland, where, having since heard of the many robberies committed by those pirates, and now lately of one Edward Bisshopp and divers others to the number of nine ships being on the coast of Ireland, he has again adventured to write to him to declare that now which he would gladly before have delivered by speech.

At his being in Tunis there were four captains and chiefs of those pirates, John Ward, John Kerson of Embden, Edward Bisshopp, Anthony Jhonson, William Graves, Samson Denball, Toby Glanfield, one Harris, and Captain Dansker of Flushing. Being past hope to reclaim Ward (the head of them), he made a proposal to Kerson, who was captain of a ship of 300 tons, and who hated Ward extremely, that, if by any opportunity or means he would take or destroy Ward, his ship, and company, he would assure him that he would procure his protection in England, and that he should there possess his gotten spoils; for the execution whereof he promised his best assistance. He agreed and vowed to do accordingly. But Ward's hap was such that Kerson, being forced by one Crosomond, captain of the Janissaries, to depart forthwith for a place called Sio [Scio], to bring to Tunis divers Janissaries who there had made shipwreck, his ship and pinnace were surprised by one of the Galiasses of the Venetians, himself and some few being slain and the rest taken; whereof 36 the next day were hanged in view of the town of Zant [Zante], the rest in other places, amongst which number were divers Englishmen This news came with great speed to Tunis; whereupon he [Pepwell] was driven again to bethink himself of some other course, and finding that Captain Bisshopp was of a different inclination and a better understanding, and had more desire to enjoy his country than the rest; hearing him withal many times complaining of the wrongs Ward had done him, especially detesting his associating with Turks at sea, his taking of Christians and selling them, with divers other outrages;—he propounded to him terms like those which he offered before to Kerson. He seemed to consent thereto willingly; but he (Pepwell) being forsaken of his sailors, and Bisshopp being then of small strength, they found their weakness, on examining all their means, to be such that they were unable to put in execution that which they had determined. Leaves to his Lordship's consideration how much it imports to effect the destruction of these fellows in such manner that they may never have refuge or be trusted hereafter by the Turks, and that they themselves may hardly trust one the other. In which services he will do his uttermost.

For the affairs here in Ireland, can write little but that the captains and such as have wards (for the most part) have not half the company they receive pay for, and such as they entertain are mostly Irish soldiers without pay, only to be protected by them, howsoever they shuffle in their musters. Besides he has observed that the Blackwater, which was so worthily defended by Sir Thomas Williams and cost so many valiant men's lives, is now inhabited by three especial ministers of Tyrone, two of them dwelling in the late forts, one called Sheale, the other Murto Okiron [Murtagh O'Kieran], and just on the other side of the water Bartholomew Owen, who spare not openly to commend the actions of Tyrone, the habitation being far better for honester men.—Dublin, 22 August 1609.

Pp. 2. Signed. Add. Endd.: "22 Aug. 1609. Henry Pepwell, from Dublin.

"That Capt. Bisshop will seize or destroy Capt. Ward when he may have the means.

"That the bands and wards are compounded of many Irish and keep not half their numbers.

"That dangerous persons inhabit Blackwater."

471. Sir John Davys to Salisbury. [Aug. 28.] S.P., Ireland, vol. 227, 122.

They are now in the county of Coleraine, which contains O'Chane's fruitful country, and is the third stage in their journey. From thence he gives this third advertisement of their proceeding. They pursue their first course in describing and distinguishing the land. Their geography has had the speedier dispatch, inasmuch as here the county is but little, consisting only of three baronies, and as they had sent two surveyors before to perambulate the country and to prepare the business by gathering notes of the names, sites, and extents of the townlands. This they performed well and readily, being accompanied with but a slender guard. Speaks of a guard as of a necessary circumstance; for though the country be now quiet and the heads of greatness gone, yet their geographers do not forget what entertainment the Irish of Tyrconnell gave to a map-maker about the end of the late great rebellion; for one Barkeley being appointed by the late Earl of Devonshire to draw a true and perfect map of the north parts of Ulster (the old maps being false and defective), when he came into Tyrconnell, the inhabitants took off his head, because they would not have their country discovered.

For the distinction of the church lands in this county they had a jury of clerks or scholars; for the jurors, being fifteen in number, thirteen spake good Latin, and that very readily. These clerks being chosen in the presence of the Lord Primate, should, by reasonable presumption, rather be partial for the clergy than for the King. They conceived their verdict or presentment in a singular good form and method, and gave them more light than ever they had before touching the original and estate of Herenaghes and Termon lands.

Here at length, after long expectation the Lord Bishop of Derry came to the camp, and was present at the getting up of the jurors' presentment; wherein, because it was found that the lands possessed by the Herenaghes and their septs were their proper inheritance, and not the inheritance of the bishops, and that the bishops had only rents out of those lands and not the lands themselves, (though herein they concurred with the verdicts given in Tyrone and Armagh this year, and with all the presentments made the last year, being indeed the manifest and infallible truth), yet, because it contradicts his Lordship's suggestion, made in England with great confidence and assurance;—viz., that these lands were the very demesne lands of the bishops, upon which suggestion His Majesty was specially moved to confer all those lands to their several sees;—therefore his Lordship took exception to that part of the verdict, affirming that he would not believe that they all agreed in that point; and thereupon he examined them by the poll, before the Lord Deputy and the rest of the commissioners; and though he expostulated with them somewhat roundly and sharply (which might have altered such poor men as must live under his jurisdiction), yet every one held his opinion constantly, and every one severally gave such plain and probable reasons of his opinions that the commissioners were fully satisfied, and the presentment was received. In this little county they have had a great gaol delivery, but no execution of any prisoner; for the Lord Deputy has spared and reserved them all to fill up the companies that are to be sent into the wars of Swethen [Sweden].

The Londoners are now come and are exceeding welcome to them. They all use their best rhetoric to persuade them to go on with their plantation, which will assure this whole island to the Crown of England for ever. They like and praise the country very much, specially the Banne and the river of Loghfoyle; one of the agents is fallen sick, and would fain return, but the Lord Deputy and all the rest here use all means to comfort him and to retain him, lest this accident should discourage his fellow citizens. Desires pardon for his boldness in giving so many rude and ill-written letters to his Lordship, which this rude place and distraction of business may excuse.—The Camp near Limevaddy in O'Chane's country, 28 August 1609.

Pp. 2. Signed. Add. Endd.

472. Earl of Clanricard to Salisbury. [Aug. 30.] S.P., Ireland, vol. 227, 123.

Having landed here at Holyhead at this instant, thinks it fit to send his Lordship a packet which the Lord Deputy sent after him from the camp, with the particulars whereof his Lordship made him acquainted before his departure. Was forced to stay twelve days at Dublin for a wind, which makes him commit this the rather to the running post, who can make much better expedition than they can; and he himself will wait on his Lordship as soon as he can possibly.—Holyhead, 30 August, at seven at night.

P. 1. Signed. Add. Endd.: "Received at Conwey the last day at 4 in the afternoon, at Riothland (sic) at 10 of the clock at night."

473. The King to the Lord Deputy. [Aug. 30.] Docquet Book, Aug. 30.

Letter to the Lord Deputy for a grant to be made to James Sherlock of a perpetual freedom, without fine, in certain demesne lands called Tample Iwrick, Bally David, and Rathmoylan in Waterford.

474. Henry Schypwych to [Aug. 31.] Add. Papers, Ireland, P.R.O.

The servant's haste prevents him of rendering so large discourse as he willingly would, having much to say, though he must confess it insubstantial. For this kingdom affords nothing but trivial, rather for laughter than for observation; news being good merchandize, but not new where none arrives but at the tenth hand, like mackerel in the hamlets near London, where few buyeth in regard of the staleness. Hears that Sir Barnarde Grimhall is with the Lord President in Wiltshire; must entreat therefore, that his absence, joined with the messenger's haste, may be his excuse, his service ever attending him. Hears that Mr. Bellew, with his bride, is coming over, whom they hourly expect, being as desirous of his presence as he is joyful of his destiny, and it well becomes him. Bellew would be glad to see him (the correspondent) in his own fashion, for he has long enough been a "good fellow;" and if he cannot speak for himself, let him find out the match and he (Schypwych) will woo for him if he please. Doubts, however, that he has read a better lesson than he (Schypwych) was ever able to follow, knowing the difference of ease and trouble; so that he will take order they shall not laugh at him for company. In what state soever he shall remain, he (Schypwych) will ever wish his society.—Carekenassy, August the last, 1609.

His servant Joseph Harrys cannot pay money, but it shall suffice whenever he conveniently may.

P. 1. Orig. Signed.