Henry VIII: June 1544, 16-20

Pages 441-457

Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 19 Part 1, January-July 1544. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1903.

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June 1544, 16-20

16 June. 712. Russell to the Council.
R. O. Takes shipping this afternoon if the wind will serve, as hitherto it has been "contrarious and the sea very misty." The captains of the bulwarks here lack powder, men, &c., so that they cannot well serve. Is desired by the captains to move the Council to set order therein, upon certain considerations enclosed herein, and that some commission may be "awarded down to view them." Thinks every hour a whole day till he be over, as he trusts to be this next tide. Dover, Monday morning, 16 June. Signed.
P. 1. Add. Endd.: 1544.
16 June. 713. Fane and Wyndebank to the Council.
R. O. We have received your letters of the 11th and declared to the King's coronell, Chr. van Landenberghe, his Majesty's good opinion of him and pleasure that he should wait upon his royal person in the battle; leaving to declare that his band should be divided, lest he should take displeasure and the rest refuse to go further. This day we saw both horsemen and footmen in battle march forth towards Arey, a goodly company and well armed, as bearer can declare. Of the footmen above 2,000 are armed and of the 1,200 horsemen are 700 lances and the hacquebuttyers, well horsed, save the messengers (to every twelve), who are young men and few of them armed. A great number of the horsemen are gentlemen, fifty or sixty of whom are wondrously "well armed as men of arms saving bardez, whereof they have none," and they claim 24 geldrens the month. This we said that we had no commission to fulfil unless the horses had been barded, as Landenberg promised the King that 200 of the 1,000 should be. Divers said they had "bardez" and had aforetime used them, "but would never more adventure their lives with so cumbrous a thing, and was of no purpose but for bravery"; and they had never less than 24 geldrens of the Emperor. We said that we had no commission to give above 12 geldrens, and the Coronell said that he had kept war against the Sowches with a greater number, both of horsemen and footmen, and would bear the overplus himself rather than have the King unfurnished. We answered that the King should be unfurnished of 200 barded horses; and he replied that the King would rather be deceived by such than served. When required to be sworn by six at a time, according to our instructions, and as to whether their horses and harness were their own; it appeared that all the horsemen were under the gentlemen who brought from six to thirty each and would be sworn for those under them, as in the Emperor's service. They agreed to all the articles we received of Mr. Vaughan and Chambrelayn at Andwerpe, saving for the messengers, for whom Landenberghe's compact is 6fl. the month, whereas the Emperor gives 12fl. We agreed that they should have as the Emperor gave, provided that they were armed and horsed accordingly; and delivered to Landenburghe in prest 7,000 cr. and to each of the ten ensigns of footmen 600 cr. We have not yet taken the muster of the carts and wagons, which Landeburghe advises us to muster on the march. Landenburghe desires "th'astate of the horsem." compacted between the King and him sent hither with all expedition. The ensigns both of horsemen and footmen are very fair, "of white and green, and red crosses." The horsemen's standards bear the King's arms in the midst of the cross. Landenburghe thought these to be the King's colours, and says that "if he had had time, all the horsemen should have been in the colours of the King's Majesty's battle." Where you wrote that we were privy to the compact with Landenberghe, we knew no part of it till we came to Andwerpe, thinking to be charged only with the view of the horsemen and footmen. Had we known that we should be charged as we are, we would not have been so unprovided. Acon, 16 June, at 12 at night.
P.S.—This bearer, Hammes, brought a packet of letters to Landenberghe from John Democke at Andwerpe. One is from the bp. of Beme, (fn. n1) as Landenberghe says, but we cannot learn the contents. Two others are from the bps. Of Uxbrudge and Trent in commendation of one Ludovicus delle Arme to the King's service, being in the Emperor's displeasure. Signed: R. Fane: Rechard Wyndebank.
Pp. 6. Add. Endd.: 1544.
17 June. 714. Henry VIII. to Charles V.
R. O.
St. P., ix. 710.
His secretary Paget, lately despatched to Charles upon the common affairs, having now returned together with the Sieur de Courriers, Henry has learnt, by Paget's report and the writing delivered by De Courriers, Charles's opinion touching the overture ("pur." for purpos, i.e. propos) made; and has declared his intention to de Courriers. Westm., 10 (fn. n2) June 1544.
French. Draft, broadsheet, p. 1. Endd.: Mynute. The K. Mte to th' Emper, xvijo Junii 1544.
Vienna MS. 2. Original letter of which the above is the draft, described in Spanish Calendar VII., No. 123.
R. O. 3. "The answer given to Mons. du Courryer in writing."
Mons. de Courryer's charge rests upon two points, (1) the Emperor's request for the King's abode and (2) his contentation that of the 42,000 men the King shall send by his lieutenant 30,000 and dispose of the rest as seems convenient. The King's answer to the first is that he heartily thanks the Emperor and prays him to have like respect of his own person, albeit he is now well recovered since his "said" secretary's (fn. n3) departure hence, and determined to pass to Calais where, embracing the Emperor's request, he will resolve whether to go further. As to the division of the army according to the overture which his secretary made to the Emperor, he will order it for the benefit of both their affairs; and desires the Emperor to weigh deeply his going to Paris, and foresee that the enemy's power or the want of victuals constrain him not to return before achieving his enterprise, considering how uncertain it is to trust for victuals to the enemy's subjects, as he himself proved in his journey into Provence. (fn. n4) His advice is to follow the journey as the raison de guerre and respect of victuals allow.
Draft, corrected by Paget, pp. 2. Endd. as above.
R. O. 4. Another, and later, draft of § 3; with the additional preface to the portion about the going to Paris that, since the French king assembles such a force as the Emperor showed to the secretary, and will probably, as in times past, not give battle, but cut off victuals and waste the country, as he has already done in Champaigne, the Emperor should weigh deeply his going to Paris, &c.
Draft, corrected by Paget, pp. 2.
R. O. 5. French translation of § 4 in Mason's hand with a few corrections by Paget.
Pp. 3. Endd.: Copy of th'answere to Mons. de Courryers charge.
17 June. 715. Henry VIII. to the Queen of Hungary.
R. O.
vii. 122.]
Bearer, the Sieur de Courrieres, delivered his commission and spoke of the proposals made to the Emperor by Paget, and will relate Henry's answer. Westminster palace, 17 June 1544.
Modern abstract from the original at Vienna.
17 June. 716. Paget to Cobham.
Harl. MS.
283, f. 273.
B. M.
According to my promise I have this day procured the assignment of your bill, which tonight passed the Great Seal and is delivered to bearer, your servant. Tomorrow night Mons. Curriers will be with you at supper, "if you prevent him not at Gravesende, and so thinketh to have your company forward to Cales." Pray let him know that he has somewhat the better for my sake. In case you cannot be ready to depart with him "you may command Francisco to tarry and go with him to Cales, who else is appointed to ride his way before to the Emperor's Court." Offers services. St. James's, 17 June 1544.
PS.—"My lord, I depart tomorrow in the morning to my house and will not be here again until Saturday."
Hol., p. 1. Add.: deputy of Calais.
17 June. 717. Lord Cobham,
Deputy of Calais. See Grants in June, No. 59.
17 June. 718. Sir Ant. Knyvett and Others to Henry VIII.
R. O. Hearing of a great number of French ships abroad, remind him of their former letters concerning the fortifications here. 1. The new fortress now making will be to the seawards defensible and meet to receive ordnance within 12 days; but of the proportion they signified to the Council, only two small sacres are come, whereas 20 great pieces of brass and iron will be little enough for the fortress and the two turf bulwarks, besides "bassys and hagbuttes of crok necessarie to bee had, aswell, for the same." In this town is none of that kind of ordnance. 2. Lately advertised both the King and his Council that the 500l. received by Sir Ric. Caurden was expended; and required 1,000l. more to be sent for the pay appointed to have been here last Saturday. Hear nothing of its coming. For lack of it the works have been hindered and the writers put to much business to stay the workmen and labourers. The victuallers also lack money to make provision. Beg that it may be sent with speed; and also to know whither to resort for more after the King sets forward into France. Portesmouth, Tuesday, 17 June, 4 p.m. Signed: Antony Knyvet: Ric. Caurden, d. Cicestr'n.: John Chaderton.
Pp. 2. Add. Endd.: 1544.
719. Portsmouth.
R. O. List of the King's ordnance in Portsmouth, 61 pieces in all, including four "bumbardes and greate poorte pieces that were made for the old Greate Henry, shoting xj and xij inchys high"; for which I (fn. n5) have but eight gunners, while the defences are of turf, much decayed, and there are "not within the said town and the isle wherein the same standeth (being compassed with the sea and marshes, and no way to it from the land but over one bridge) above 100 of able persons." In the first wars there were 100 gunners; in the last 50, besides 400 or 500 brewers and bakers, and also labourers repairing the walls. Six years past, the ship royal called the Henry and other of the King's ships being there, "the late lord Privy Seal being then Lord Admiral," (fn. n6) there were 50 gunners besides 1,500 mariners and gunners appointed for the ships, as Master Gonson can declare. As it is one of the chief ports of the realm, where the greatest ships can go in and out at all tides, and is but one night's sailing from the New Havon, Dieppe, Trepoort, Harflete, Hondflete and the river of Seyne, I beg "your good lordships" "to be mean to the King's Majesty that some number of men, though part thereof be labourers" to repair the decayed walls, may be sent thither "now in time of war."
Pp. 3. In the same hand as the preceding, bat probably some weeks earlier (see No. 659). Endd.: A view of things needful to be considered for the safety of Portismowth.
17 June. 720. Hertford and Others to Henry VIII.
Add. MS.
32,655, f. 39.
B. M.
ii., No. 266.
Yesterday night arrived John Rogers with a letter (herewith) from Sir Thos. Holcrofte. Rogers is departed in post and can declare the circumstances of their journey into Scotland. Dernton, 17 June. Signed by Hertford, Shrewsbury, Tunstall and Sadler.
P. 1. Add. Endd.: 1544.
17 June. 721. Hertford and Others to Henry VIII.
Add. MS.
32,655, f. 41.
B. M.
ii., No. 267.
Forward letters received from Wharton this afternoon, with a packet from Glencarne containing letters to Lenoux and others. Dernton, 17 June. Signed by Hertford, Shrewsbury and Sadler.
P. 1. Add. Endd.: 1544.
17 June. 722. Sadler to the Council.
R. O. In pursuance of their letters of 11 June to Tunstall and Sadler, sends a brief declaration of the monthly charge of the lord Lieutenant and garrisons. Very little more remains in his hands and Mr. Uvedale's than will pay for the 28 days from 17 June to 14 July next; so that, if the King will continue these charges, money should be sent before 14 July. Darneton, 17 June. Signed.
P. 1. Add. Sealed. Endd.: 1544.
ii. "A brief declaration of the King's daily and monthly charges employed upon the diets and wages of his Highness' Lieutenant in the North parts and others resiant there with him, with also the wages of his Majesty's garrisons now lying on the borders foranempst Scotland."
Showing the monthly charge of the diets of the Lieutenant General, at 5l., and the wages of his retinue of 100 men, at 8d., of a herald, at 4s., and a trumpet, at 18d.; diets of the high treasurer, at 26s. 8d., and wages of his retinue of 30 servants, at 8d., four clerks, at 2s., and a messenger, at 12d.; diets of the under treasurer, at 4s., and wages of his retinue of ten servants, at 8d., and two clerks, at 10d.; wages of the captains and garrison, at 84l. 14s. 2d. Total monthly charge 2,708l. 16d.
All these charges are paid to this present 17th of June. And there remains with the treasurers 3,072l. 12s. 5d.
Pp. 2.
17 June. 723. Arran to Paul III.
Theiner, 616. Has written twice about the affair of Dunkeld, on behalf of the Queen, whose office he exercises by the consent of all the Scots and by right of proximity of blood. For this cause nominated his brother John, abbot of Paisley, to the vacant see, and at the same time begged that a certain unjust competitor (fn. n7) might be put to silence. Is grieved to hear a rumor that the matter is, nevertheless, protracted and disputed, to the contumely of his Princess and the defamation of his own office. Begs instantly that the abbot of Paisley, as commended by the royal letters, may be appointed to the bpric. of Dunkeld and the unjust competitor who trusts to Arran's letters fraudulently obtained (surreptitiis nostris litteris) repelled. Seeing how he labours for the dignity of the Holy See and is pressed by war, it becomes the Pope to assent to his petitions and to defend him. Credence to John Steinson. Edinburgh, 15 kal. Julii 1544.
17 June. 724. Russell to [the Council].
R. O. Could not ere this pass to Calleice, but intends tomorrow at 4 a.m. to take shipping. "The wind this day hath been so contrarious and the sea so calm that those which went forth this morning shall not come there this [night]"; but he will be at Calleice tomorrow although forced to row over. Hears yet of no men come out of Themys, and fears that if this wind hold they will not come. Has, with Ant. Auchier, viewed the King's brewhouse, bakehouse and other offices at the Meason Dieu, which are fair and large and will do wonderful service. It is pity they are not set to victualling the King's army, (fn. n8) as this is the meetest place for the Narrow Seas. Has this day spoken with a brewer who offers to serve the King at 16s. the tun, after —— (blank) tuns the week, better beer than is now had, laid upon the wharf ready for shipping and warranted to keep for six weeks at this season; provided that the King find cask and give him commission to take up some brewers, and malt "not passing the price of vjs." It now stands the King in 20s. the tun ere it come on ship board from Sandewiche; "and here they shall stand the King not in one penny, for their own boats shall serve them." As the house is ready, it is pity it should stand vacant, "this port standing so necessary for that purpose as it doth, which is the godliest act that ever king made these thousand years within this realm."
Is sorry to hear the exclamations of the poor men arrived out of Scotland. "Many are sick, and great scarcity among them," and their captains have done their utmost. Begs that some way may be taken for their payment. Touching the brewhouse and bakehouse, as the writer's "friend and fellow," Ant. Auchier, has charge thereof, begs them to obtain a commission to him, or any other, therein.
Mr. Wyndham, captain of the New Barke, has just come to him, with others, saying that they are commanded to go Westwards but "they neither have powder, bows nor pikes, and scantly pavissed in so ill order as, they say, were never men to serve their Prince." With so goodly a vessel, well furnished with ordnance, Wyndham has but half a barrel of powder, "which is [not] able to discharge four of his pieces." The captains have such scarcity of munition that they cannot help each other. Commanded Wood-housse to help Wyndham with two firkins of powder, as he is thus appointed to serve Westwards. Without speedy remedy, great disorder must ensue of this scarcity.
The admiral of Slewce (fn. n9) sent his bastard brother to dine with me this day. After dinner I sent him half a buck, and he sent me two flagons of Rhenish wine and a cheese. He thought to find the admiral of England here, who, I said, was lately come out of Scotland and had gone to see the King. His ships "be no great ships, but they be well apparelled and triumphantly decked for the war." Dover, Monday, (fn. n10) 9 p.m.
P.S.—"I had no leisure to write any more but this present hour of iiij of the clock in the morning in the Great Pynow[ce] with a scant wind." Signed.
Pp. 4. Flyleaf with address lost.
R. O. 2. This morning, Tuesday, 17 June, "one of mine espials" reports that, if Norfolk had not encamped upon Sunday last, the Frenchmen intended to have camped beside Foxhole and revictualled Arde. Hearing of Norfolk's encamping they departed into garrisons; but when siege is laid to Boloyne, they mean to revictual Arde unless the Burgundians hinder it. They have appointed certain desperate persons to suddenly burn Base Boleyne after the English enter it.
P. 1. Endd.: Advertisements from the lord Privie Seale, xvijo Junii ao 1544.
17 June. 725. Vaughan and Dymock to Wriothesley, Suffolk and Browne.
R. O. On the 13th Mr. Dymock arrived with three bills of credence and your letters, and we instructed Thomas Lock accordingly. We then sent for Jasper Dowche, our broker, and declared that the bills of credence which he desired were obtained and prayed him to use like diligence that the money might be paid. He promised to "use more than a diligence"; and we straight went to the merchants to whom the bills were addressed, and asked whether they would give us credit for the sums contained in them. To this they "sang all one note, taught by the elder bird, Bonvice," who said that, as their company was now dissolved and they divided from Ant. Bonvice, to promise credence for 100,000 cr. would weaken their credit among the merchants. Perceiving this answer to be ill taken, and loth to leave us so unsatisfied, they then offered that if any persons here would take their bills for 100,000 cr. they would give it; and we took them at their word, saying that we had a man that would give 100,000 ducats or crowns, and so got them to write their names upon the bills. But they went straight to the Welsars, of whom we should have received the money, and so practised that the Welsars sent us word that, the company of Bon- vices being dissolved, he would take those left here for no more than a third part of 100,000 cr. The Bonvyce had meanwhile practised with the houses of the Viva[lde] that neither of them would credit us for more than a third part. Considering that your Lordships expected no such canvassing, and had appointed us to convey 15,000l. of the money to my lord of Norfolk, we resolved that they should not be rid of us thus, thinking that when once we have them in for 100,000 ducats it will be easier to prick them to credit us for more; and so we answered that we would take their credence for 100,000 ducats, each to be bound for a third part of the same with the interest at 38 stivers the cr. To this they agreed, provided that new bills of credence were made; for neither the sums of the first bills nor the day of payment is here agreed upon. It is now agreed that the house of Vivalde in London shall send new bills of credence consigned, as before, viz. to John Carlo delli Affaitadi and his company and to Vincent Baldasar Guynygy and John Balbany, and that Ant. Bonvyise shall send a procuration in Latin, made by a notary known to the Italian merchants, authorising his folks here to bind him; each of these to be for 38,772 cr. of 38 stivers payable next Cold mart. Till these new bills come we are promised 15,000l. st., which we begin to receive this day and will send with all diligence to my lord of Norfolk. We thought by taking these 100,000 ducats the more easily to bring merchants in for greater sums. Other houses in London will be credited here, as John Geralde and Bartholomeo Campanya. What we have written of Bonvyce's dealing is by conjecture; and it should not be known that we have made such report, or it will be to our hindrance here.
Statement of the loan of 100,000 ducats and the interest thereon for nine months, at 10½ per cent., in Flemish money. All this money will be received of the company of merchants called Welsars, and will be a mean to practise with them otherwise. Have made a motion to them for lead and are promised an answer in 15 days. Their house has lent 800,000 cr. to the Emperor and is not yet empty. "This house is meet to meddle withal if we find them not too greedy to gain; yet, be they what they will, we mind to taste them as it were a loaf. A little I perceive that they would break with us in something, which we look not that they will do till they hear out of Almayn from the chief of their company; either it is for lead or some other thing that they would have th'only doing of."
Mr. Dymmock is much troubled by poor men who have made him traces for which he has no money to pay. Remind them to send the new bills of credence with speed. The 15,000l. st. promised today will take three days to receive. Andwerp, 17 June. Signed: S. Vaughan: John Dymmocke.
P.S.—Are receiving part of these 15,000l. st. It were good that you practised with the other houses in London for payments next month, dissembling "the dealings of th'other." We cannot be paid in French crowns, for it were hard to find so many in all this country, but we begin to receive "crusados, Frenche crowns and crowns of this country, dalers and such other current money as we can get." Money waxes very scant here. Our broker showed us a letter from the Queen requiring 200,000 gylderns for the Emperor. Sorer, who made the exchange lately to Franckfort, is going to England; and could credit here for a good sum. I told him, as you commanded, that the King, hearing that he was a loser by the said exchange, meant to consider it with some gentle recompense. I suppose he lost 100l. st. but will swear that he lost 200l. or 300l. If you "gently obtain Bonvyce" for the credence now in hand the rest will be easier obtained; if not, "we much doubt in all the rest." Signed: S. Vaughan.
In Vaughan's handy pp. 6. Add. Endd.: 1544.
17 June. 726. Christopher von Landenberg.
Add. MS.
5,753, ff. 182-5
B. M.
Receipts given by Chr. van Lanndenberg for money, on account, received from the commissaries Windebank and Fane, at Achen, viz.:—
f. 184. Corpus Christi Day, '44, — 6,113 cr. (?)
f. 183. 10 June, 1544, — 1,000 cr.
f. 185. 15 June, '44, — 2,000 cr.
f. 182. 17 June, '44, — 4,000 cr.
German. Four papers, each, p. 1. Sealed. Endd.: The Coronelles quittance, etc.
18 June. 727. Henry VIII. to the Queen of Hungary.
The letter described as of this date in Spanish Calendar, VII. No. 126, is of the 18th July.
18 June. 728. Christopher von Landenberg.
R. O. "Th'answer given by the Council of the King's Majesty of England to the count Debersten and other the commissaries (fn. n11) of Mons. de Landenberge to be declared to the said Landenberge on behalf of the King's said Majesty."
That the King has seen their commission and their clerks' declaration that Landenberge's band will not serve unless they have at least 1,700 dead pays more than the Emperor gives to any like number; and, being sorry for this alteration (because it will be "a slander to the whole nation that they should not keep their pacts and promises made with kings and princes in such cases"), answers as follows:—
Landenberge, in his signed covenant to bring the horsemen and footmen, specially provided that he would ask only allowance of 60 dead pays in every ensign, and would serve "in every ensign with 440 testes." Since then Landenberge, after returning to his country, declared to the King's agents that he could not so serve without loss; and begged the King to give like entertainment as the Emperor gives. Out of favour for Landenberge, and to have picked men, the King condescended to rise from 60 to 100 dead pays in every ensign, which is the largest entertainment that the Emperor now gives; and he expected Landenberge to have been well satisfied. Now, seeing their unreasonable desire for 1,700 dead pays more than the Emperor gives, he is resolved not to meddle with them; but, to show the world that the fault is not his, he is content that, with the money already received, they shall have one whole month's wages at the Emperor's rate of 100 dead pays in an ensign.
Draft in Wriothesley's hand, pp. 6. Endd.: "Th'answere given by the Counsell to Landenbergh's commissaries, xviijo Junii ao 1544."
R. O. 2. Draft French translation of the above.
Pp. 6. Endd.: "A minute of th'answer," &c.
R. O. 3. Fair copy of § 2. Endd.: The answer given, etc., xviijo Junii 1544.
729. Christopher von Landenberg.
R. O. "The number of pays concerning Landenberghes band."
For 4,100 footmen at the rate of 5,000 pays for 4,000 men, 5,125. Thirty men which have been captains at 6 pays each, 150 (sic). The men of the country for 12 days, for every man a stiver, 482 pays. The banner bearers, "for every banner 3 pays and a florin," 32½.
Total pays 5,789, which "dow amounthe in pond Flamys" (do amount in pounds Flemish), 4,824l. 11s. 4d.
P. 1. Endd. as above.
R. O. 2. "A note of Landenbergh his first covenant and of his demands."
Landeburg should have, by his bargain, for every ensign of 400 men 60 double pays, which in 4,000 men is 600 double pays. And accounting for every ensign 100 double pays "like as the Emperor payeth" amounts to 1,000 double pays for the whole army. "And as they ask they amount to" 2,739 double pays.
P. 1. Endd. as above.
18 June. 730. Chapuys to Charles V.
R. O.
vii. 124.]
On the 12th inst. arrived Mons. de Courieres and Secretary Paget, by whom Chapuys received the Emperor's letters of the 3rd. Next day their audience was excused because of the arrival of the earl of Linus, Scottishman. On the 14th De Courrieres and Chapuys were with the King, who showed great satisfaction at the Emperor's good health and also at the congratulations of the Emperor and Queen of Hungary upon the news of Scotland, and, coming to the principal point, began by saying that the basis of the Emperor's excuse rested upon two points, the promise to the Estates of the Empire to go personally and the quality and diversity of the chiefs (des chiefz) of his army; and, as to the first, the Estates would be satisfied when they heard the reasons touched upon by Henry's secretary and that the thing was more hazardous than was thought heretofore, as the French king was marvellously reinforced and had begun to lay waste the victuals, and what the Emperor said of Henry's illness was still more against himself, for Henry's malady was only by chance and had no certain return like the gout, the proper season for which was the autumn, and that to venture into France without having gained ground to secure his flanks and the free passage of victuals would not be prudent, and that it would be better to take two or three frontier places than to have burnt Paris, and that to count upon the rebellion and assistance of the people of France was but vanity, for it was never seen that the people of France rebel; and as to the second point, the diversity of the chiefs, that was rather an, argument against the Emperor's putting himself among them. De Courrieres and Chapuys replied graciously in accordance with the Emperor's will; and the King, to exaggerate the dangers, told them, with rather an ill grace, that he was advertised that many of the men levied by the Emperor had deserted, and that the French had occupied Nanci and, in Italy, the whole marquisate of Montferrat except Sainct Salvador and one other place, and that the men of La Mirandole had joined those of Piedmont. Could not dissuade him from such news, and, finally, he said that, after reading the writing of the answer given to his Secretary, which he desired to have, he would consult with his Council and give a brief answer.
On the 15th they consulted upon the said affair, and on the 16th, because count Oversteyn was come with certain others from Christopher Landemberg, we were not called to Court; but next day, which was yesterday, we were very early with the Council, who, by their master's command, communicated to us what had been first agreed here with Landemberg and how, although the agreement was only to give 60 dead pays for each ensign they had increased the number to 100, and now Landemberg refused to' serve unless he had 400 for an ensign, which the King was not willing to give, so as not to introduce that bad custom. For that cause, and because Landemberg had boastfully told his commissioners that he had dared formerly to displease the Emperor and the King of the Romans and would much more easily displease the King, he did not intend to use Landemberg's services. The King wished to communicate the above to De Courrieres and Chapuys, both for his own justification and that the Emperor might prevent Landemberg's passing to the enemies. [Asked] whether he did not make provision of other strangers instead of these, they (the Council) answered that it was too late to seek strangers, and also that there was no need, their own men being as capable as any that could be found; and that the want of Landemberg would not diminish the number capitulated but rather it would be greater, for, without fail, they would have over 40,000 Englishmen in their pay, without counting those who should come under the charge of Mons. de Buren. They count upon 6,000 English horse and 3,000 strangers, including those which the Emperor shall send.
After dinner the King repeated to De Courrieres and him the substance of the above touching Landemberg, adding that it was well that Landemberg declared himself before joining his men, for disorder might have ensued. He then said that they would have heard, by his men, the answer to De Courrieres, which was that the King prayed the Emperor to have regard to his health, taking counsel of the wise and friendly representations he had himself made to him (Henry), and that he was well and intending to pass to Calais as soon as possible, to set forward the 30,000 men and prepare the rest to be used as he caused his said Secretary to tell the Emperor, and that when at Calais he would resolve about marching forward as he should see necessary or convenient; and, thanking the Emperor for the care shown for his health, he prays him (the Emperor) reciprocally to have the same regard to his, which he esteems no less than his own. This he said with very good grace, desiring moreover that the Emperor should send a personage to see his army when it shall be all assembled, he supposing that the Emperor will be pleased to hear the report of it.
However soon the King may say he wishes to leave, De Courrieres and Chapuys have learnt that he will not dislodge hence before the 8th of next month, and although he may speak of passing further than Calais, Chapuys holds it very certain that he will not pass thence unless perchance he has resolved to besiege Montreul, to which he seems inclined; for even before he left to go to the Emperor, the Secretary had given Chapuys clearly to understand that the King [would not listen?] to the urgent request of his Council and other good personages to excuse his going in person (fn. n12); and it is to be feared that he will be very unwilling to send his army far into France, to judge by the difficulties he alleges, unless he has news of the Emperor's entry into France and of some success there with every hope of victory.
By what has been said to De Corrieres and Chapuys it seems probable that the aforesaid earl of Lynus will espouse the King's niece, daughter of earl Douglas. Does not know what entertainment will be made to him elsewhere in recompense of his band of 100 men of arms which he has left in France, to which he succeeded after the death of Mons. d'Aubigny, his uncle. He is young and handsome and has brought with him a brother who is bishop. (fn. n13) Affairs of Scotland go on improving in favour of the King, who told De Courriers and Chapuys that a very few of his men (so few as to be incredible, even though he had the report of it from one who was there) had defeated a great multitude of Scots and taken many of the principal men, and so had taken and burnt the best town (fn. n14) of Scotland after Ydembourgh. London, 18 June 1544.
Fr. Modern transcript of the original (almost all in cipher) at Vienna, pp. 5.
18 June. 731. Chapuys to the Queen of Hungary.
R. O.
vii. 125.]
Lately received her letters of the 8th inst., and, afterwards, those of the 11th. As to the conduct of the wagons, the Council say that the duke of Norfolk ought to have provided therein. As to the transports (charruez) she will have heard, by his last, of their arrival. The Emperor's ships of war under Mons. de Beurez have also since arrived at the Dunes, at which the King and those about him are pleased; and, although they said that they had long ago all their men at sea, many are still wanting and all possible haste is made in the preparation, they having meanwhile written and prayed the Sieur de Beures to have patience for four or five days and not to be offended at the delay. The King was also to send him gracious letters of welcome. No mention has been made of the mares arrested at Gravelinghes. Thinks that prohibited merchandise should not be permitted to go out of Flanders without certificate that it is for the King or his service, by his command. Delivered her patents in favour of the King's admiral; at which, and at the news of the recovery of Luxemburg, those here were pleased. Hopes to send Octavian Bos by the next transport (charue) that leaves this. For the rest, refers to the report of Mons. de Corrieres and the copy herewith of his letters to the Emperor. London, 18 June 1544.
P.S.—Forgot to say that the King has taken in good part her sending him the letters of Mons. de Roeulx, and agrees in her opinion of the French practices, saying that, since, in his last answer, he gave the French clearly to understand that they were mistaken in thinking to put jealousy between the Emperor and him, they will avoid resuming the practice.
Fr. Modern transcript of the original at Vienna, pp. 2.
18 June. 732. Cranmer to Edmund Bp. of London. (fn. n15)
Wilkins, iii.
869.C.'s. Works,494.
Burnet. iv.529
Intimates that he has received the following letter from the King, and commands him not only to order all other the King's injunctions for the establishment of religion to be observed, but, with all speed, to cause these suffrages and prayers, of which a copy is annexed, to be published throughout his diocese of London, and by all other bishops suffragan of the province of Canterbury. Dated [1]8 June 1544, consec. 12.
Lat. From Cranmer's register.
ii. Henry VIII. to Cranmer.
Remembering the present miserable state of Christendom, everywhere plagued with wars, resolves "to have continually from henceforth general processions in all cities, towns, churches and parishes"; and as the people, for lack of instruction and of understanding of the "prayers and suffrages" used, have come very slackly to processions commanded heretofore, has set forth "certain godly prayers and suffrages in our native English tongue," sent herewith, not to be "for a month or two observed and after slenderly considered, as other our injunctions have, to our no little marvel, been used," but to be earnestly set forth. He is to cause these prayers and suffrages to
be published frequently within. his diocese and to command the other bishops of his province to do the same. St. James's, 11 June, 36 Hen. VIII.
In English, incorporated in § i.
18 June. 733. Vaughan and Dymock to Wriothesley, Suffolk and Browne.
R. O. Wrote yesterday by Hams, the King's herald, what passed with the merchants here. Find today that the merchants will only credit for crowns at the Emperor's valuation, which is 36 stivers, and not for 38 stivers as current here; so that the bills of credit should be made for so much the more. The bills sent hither were for credit of six months; but they must be made "to pay in the payments of the Cold Mart next, which is ix. months." The merchants look narrowly to the wording of the bills. Wrote that the merchants said they could not credit for more than 100,000 ducats, which is 33,333l. 6s. 8d. Fl. and the interest, which is 3,500l. Fl.,—in all 116,316 cr. of France of 38 stivers, which value of the crown must be comprised in the letters of credence. Till the bills come, no more than 15,000l. will be received. Sorer, who made the exchange in Franckfort, leaves to-morrow for England; and, if made much of, will credit here for a good sum. Gentleness should be used with Bonvyce and the rest there; for if Bonvyce perceive, by word or countenance, that anything has been written against him he "will be the worse willing to further this matter." Have this day received about 4,000l. Fl. When all the 15,000l. st. is received it shall be sent straight to my lord of Norfolk, but that will not be for four days. Andwerp, 18 June, towards night. Signed.
In Vaughan's hand, pp. 3. Add. Endd.: 1544.
18 June. 734. Charles V. to Chapuys.
R. O.
vii. 135.]
This will be only to advertise Chapuys of his arrival here, accompanied by duke Maurice of Saxony and marquis Albert of Brandenburg, with their men of arms and some ensigns of foot. Yesterday, on the way, received news that Comercy had surrendered, after some cannonade, to the discretion of Don Fernande, his captain general, who will have advertised Chapuys of it and now goes with the army against Ligny. Also heard yesterday, and it is confirmed today by the count of Landriano, despatched expressly by the marquis of Gasto, of the defeat of Petro Strossy and the count of Petigliano and all their men, 60 ensigns, of whom most of the captains are prisoners and the rest killed and defeated, as will be seen by the copy enclosed. Hopes that by this defeat the enemy's design to send part of the said Italians hither and to strengthen Piedmont will be thwarted. It will be well to impart this at once to the King of England. Metz, 18 (fn. n16) June 1544.
Fr. Modern transcript of the original minute at Vienna, p. 1.
19 June. 735. Chapuys to the Queen of Hungary.
R. O.
vii. 127.]
The lords of this Council, and, principally, the bp. of Winchester and others who have the overseeing of the victuals, pray her to permit transport hither of certain fish bought by Robt. Reynold, merchant of this town, through his factors Thos. Beston and Thos. Roo, at Camphere.
Fr. Modern transcript of the orginal at Vienna, p. 1. Headed: 1544, Junii 19.
19 June. 736. Bonner to Henry VIII.
R. O.
St. P., i., 762.
Has received, of Sir Wm. Petre, two letters, the one to stay giving the prebend of Kentishetowne, then belonging to the late dean of York, and the other to send the King a collation of the said prebend "with a glass window for the name." Has, accordingly, made a stay and written to his "register" to send the collation, although he intended the prebend "for a nephew of mine, being at Oxforde at my charge, and of great towardness in learning and virtue, as I am credibly informed." Cannot bring the collation himself, for, as he certified by Mr. Hennage, one of his folk [di]ed out of his house in London. Protests his desire to serve the King, which, but for his poverty, he would declare. Has desired Mr. Hennage to present the money of the benevolence of the clergy of his diocese, who, "notwithstanding their great poverty have declared their benevolence herein to the best and uttermost of their power." As he cannot come himself to take leave of the King, "before this your Grace's great voyage," will pray for the success of the King and all his company. Fulham, 19 June.
Hol., p. 1. Faded. Add.
19 June. 737. Edmund Bp. of London, to the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's.
Add. Ch.
B. M.
Eccl. Docts.,
(Camden Soc.,1840.)
Has received letters (recited) from Thomas abp. of Canterbury, dated Lambeth, 18 June, requiring him to publish a letter from the King of 11 June 36 Hen. VIII., therein recited, to set forth certain prayers and suffrages, which he requires them to execute. London, 19 June, translat. 5. Seal lost.
Lat. Parchment. Endd. as presented, 21 June, to the Dean and Messrs. Reston (?) and Crafford, resident [canons].
19 June. 738. Norfolk to Henry VIII.
R. O. Begs that this "plain writing" may be taken in good part. Has several times written to the Council that victuals here might be sold at such prices as the soldiers might live on their wages; and they have replied that the lords of Winchester and Chamberlaine shall make him answer, which they have not done. The unheard-of prices caused the Flemings to increase their prices, which it will be hard to bring down again. The new devised ovens were to have served the army, but unto this hour not one loaf has been baked in the camp; "and if the Flemynges had not helpyd us with brede [(althou]gh [at] pryces unreasonable) many one shulde have lac[kyd] or now, as at the leaste 2,000 dyd yesterdaye, as nere Calyce as we be." It was said that the wagons would carry 30cwt. and they carry only 20cwt., so that rates made in England for three days will serve but for two. English carts would be better than wagons of Flanders, which are weak and break daily. "Also the proportion of carriages for munitions, boats, and Jeronimus new carts for my lord Privy Seal and me, was made so scant that we are enforced to send to my lady Regent for ——— (blank) wagons more, and lymoners to serve for those purposes." Perceives, by the Council's last letters, that no more money will be sent than he has received already, viz., 59,000l., of which is paid coats, conduct money, hire of carriages and wages of the army to 8 July, leaving but 9,000l. to pay the Almains when they come. Unless the King is sure of joining this part of the army by that time, 40,000l. should be sent to him and the lord Privy Seal, or else the soldiers will have no money for their victuals, "and what the strangers will do, not being paid, your high wisdom can best consider."
Is just removing to Beawlieu, in the enemy's country, and will thence draw towards Monstrell. Trusts to be joined by the lord Privy Seal in four days and will then be ready either to return towards Arde or go straight towards Monstrell, or take any way the King may command. Begs instructions with diligence. Wrote on Saturday last (fn. n17) of his conferences with Mons. de Reux; and still awaits answer, which he begs to have by Sunday at furthest. Trusts, by Tuesday, to be joined by Mons. de Beure with some part of his band. Is grieved to continue so long doing nothing; and will keep, as hitherto, in the enemy's countries, without touching the Pale. "From the [furst?] campe removinge this xixth mornyng of June." Signed.
Pp. 3. Add. Endd.: 1544.
19 June. 739. Wotton to Henry VIII.
R. O.
St. P., ix. 712.
On the 16th inst. the Emperor arrived at Metz, and, the same day, had letters from Italy of a great victory of his men against the Italians gathered at Myrandula for the French king. Next day arrived the conte de Landrignano, who was at the battle. Describes how the French Italians (above 80 ensigns, "for their ensigns are not of that number that Germaynes are") were making their way betwixt Genua and Alexandria towards Carigneane, and had turned aside to avoid the marquis of Guasto, when, at Serravalle on the river Struiva, they were overtaken by the prince of Salmone (son to Maingoval, sometime viceroy of Naples) with the Emperor's horsemen, who, although repulsed, detained them until the prince of Salerne and Cesar de Napole came up with the footmen, for Guasto remained sick by the way. The French Italians fought valiantly, but in the end 3,000 or 4,000 were slain and the rest taken, with the loss of very few Imperials (only 100 according to a letter which Granvele showed Wotton). Three score of the captured ensigns were brought into Pavia that day. Count Galiotte de Concordia or Mirandula was not at it. Peter Strozzi with 2,000 footmen escaped into some hills, where he is likely to be taken. The loss to the French king is great, as the captains slain and taken were his chief partizans in Italy. The duke of Some being a Neapolytane and certain Milanese noblemen are in danger to be put to death. The French king would have left these men in Piedmont and revoked the others into France, which he cannot now do. Mons. d' Enghien has written to the French king that his men had the victory and the Imperials are fled; and the French king has written to certain of his lords and towns to make fires of joy for it, adding that he supposes that the Emperor will now sue for peace, having been twice overthrown in so short space in Italy. The Emperor and his Council seem to take this more grievously than they should; for likewise the French king sent a gentleman to the Bishop of Rome to signify the great victory of the Scots over Henry's army of late. God send them many such victories, seeing they can so well set them forth. Encloses bill of the names of colonels and captains slain and taken at the battle.
The Emperor's army has taken the castle of Commercy, in the duchy of Bar, but not pertaining to the Duke. "In Engerrant Monstrelettes time there was both a town and a castle, but I hear now no mention of the town." The garrison mocked the Imperials, crying "A Landrecy, canaille, a Landrecy!"; but when the towers and houses began to fall on their shoulders they cried "Misericorde, misericorde." The army is going towards Lygny, where is a town and a strong castle, as Cruzerus, the duke of Cleves' ambassador, says. Describes the position of the town, which is in Barrois, but not in the duchy of Bar, for it has always pertained to the house of Luxemburgh and now is the count of Briane's of that family. The Emperor himself tarries here these five or six days for certain Spaniards and ordnance that comes by water, and will probably pass the time here and at Toulle till he perceive what will become of Ligny. An earl of Almain, called Count Pikelyn, who had charge to raise footmen for the French king, has been taken and brought hither and is like to lose his head. The duke of Lorayne died on the 14th inst., and the duke of Bar, now duke of Lorayne, is still sick. Metz, 19 June 1544. Signed.
Pp. 4. Add. Endd.
R. O. 2. Notes of the defeat of Strozzi's army in Italy, commencing "Il s Pietro Strozzi, generale di la gente, ferito d'una archibusata, fuggito. Monsr de San Celso, non se trova. Il Sr Ducha de Somma, pregione." And the names of Count George Martinengo and ten other noblemen, prisoners. There are 63 captains and 500 private gentlemen prisoners, and all but three of the 86 banners taken. The count of Pitigliano had been wounded before, in Lucera, and was gone into Piazensa for surgery; but his son and Ulisee Ursino, son-in-law of Sr Pirro Collona, and 3,000 soldiers were killed, without counting those slain by the country people. The rest of the army, which numbered 12,000 foot, are prisoners, together with about 200 "celade.'
Of ours not 300 are slain, and among them no person of note.
Italian, p. 1. Endd.: The names of the French Italyons taken by the Imperialles.
19 June. 740. Wotton to Paget.
R. O. The Italians gathered by Myrandula, which at your being at Spyres were reported dispersed for lack of money, grew to a great number and journeyed towards Carignano, which yet holds out, but by the way are overthrown by the Emperor's army, which Mons. Granvele says is now very great there. But for succour of victuals and boats from the bishop of Rome's men of Placenzia they could not have come so far as they as they did. This tidings came the day of the Emperor's arrival here, and thereat the town shot a good peal of guns. On the morrow came the count of Landrignano to declare this victory, in recompense for the ill news he brought of the overthrow of Carignano. The marquis of Guasto was so unhappy as to go almost as far as the enemies and then fall sick, so that he could not be at battle. "The Emperor's army here proceedeth fair and softly, and th'Emperor will follow them at his leisure as he shall see cause why." Metz, 19 June 1544. Signed.
P. 1. Add. Endd.
20 June. 741. The Privy Council to Norfolk.
Harl. MS.
6,989, f. 121.
B. M.
By sundry letters to them since his departure, Norfolk desires to know what way to take in marching forward and how to employ himself until the King's coming. Albeit his Majesty, thinking that this was fully resolved before Norfolk left, has hitherto forborne to command any answer; yet, ensuing the former resolution, he now signifies that Norfolk should march to besiege Mounstrell, or if, for lack of the horsemen's coming, that is not convenient, then (as his letters show that upon conference with the master gunner of Calais he seems to like the device with mortars better) he may use the time in assaying it upon Arde. To his letters concerning the price of victuals the lords charged therewith either have or will shortly answer. St. James's, 20 June 1544. Signed by Wriothesley and Suffolk.
P.S. in Mason's hand.—The King has received your letter, dated at the first removing of your camp, containing that we have not answered you concerning the price of victuals and insufficiency of the Flemish wagons to carry 30 [cwt.], and has noted negligence in us, albeit we are faultless, for, as to the wagons, we wrote more than five days ago enlarging the number and, as for the price of victuals, the rating was here thought convenient both by you and others. We pray you to call those who have the charge of the victuals and set such prices as the soldiers may bear upon their wages, wherein we, the bp. of Winchester and lord Chamberlain, (fn. n18) have lately written to the said officers (and we marvel that they have not communicated with you) and now eftsoons write. As to money for the satisfaction of the army against next month beginning, after your account on the 8th of next month, order is taken (as already advertised) that Stephen Vaughan shall send you 15 000l. within these four or five days; which you shall add to the remainder in your hands and then advertise hither what is wanted. As Landenburg has agreed (so Fane and Winibanke write) to serve according to their instructions; "and thereupon be marched, the army towards Ayre and Fame and Landenberg to Callais," the King will entertain them, to join with you until his coming. Touching my lord Warden's entertainment the King considers the charges he is at and will have respect to his diets, which, like those of the earl of Essex, the master of the Horses and "others of that sort," are not yet certainly appointed. Signed by Wriothesley, Suffolk, Winchester, Westminster and St. John.
Pp. 3. Add. Endd.: A regio concilio, rec. in campo voc. Beaw Liew.
20 June. 742. The Duke of Suffolk.
His will, made 20 June 1544.
Printed in "Wills from Doctors Commons," p. 28. (Camden Soc, 1863.)
20 June. 743. Thomas Croxton.
Harl. MS.
2,067. f. 63b.
B. M.
Will of Thos. Croxton of Rainscroft, Cheshire, being commanded to serve in the war with France. Dated 20 June 36 Hen. VIII.
Copy, pp. 2.
20 June. 744. Sir George Douglas to Henry VIII.
Add. MS.
32,655, f. 43.
B. M.
ii., No. 268.
For his great goodness prays God to recompense him and, as one of his servants, will be always ready to the uttermost; as bearer, the lord of Brownsten, will declare. Norchtberuike, 20 June. Signed.
P. 1. Add. Endd.: 1544.
20 June. 745. Sir George Douglas to Hertford.
Add. MS.
32,655, f. 45.
B. M.
ii., No. 269.
At Edinburgh, 17 June, received his writing answering only the points of the writer's, as though desiring not to be troubled with any more writings. Will nevertheless be ready to serve the King and do Hertford's commands; as bearer, the lord of Brownsten, will declare. Norchtberrvike, 20 June.
Hol. p. 1. Add. Endd.: 1544.
20 June. 746. Russell to the Council.
R. O. Perceives by their letters that the King calls Mr. Poynes to service elsewhere. Would gladly have had his company still. Will see his men placed tomorrow. Has been wonderfully troubled with the lack of such things as he always doubted to find lack of here. For the ordnance he lacks half the carriage; and likewise half the carriage for munition and bridges, so that he must leave these things behind. Here is no kind of carriage for the things that Jeronymo brings. Although Norfolk wrote to the Regent for these things "there cometh nothing forthwards but fair words." Was promised to find everything and finds nothing. Will encamp tomorrow at Fyence within French ground, 8 miles hence, so as not to waste this country. Encloses a brief showing the lack which Pakington and Warde, victuallers to his ward, have in their carriage. Norfolk (as the writer would himself have done) and those that went before took everything. Trusts their Lordships will see him furnished. Calleis, 20 June, 11 p.m. Signed.
Pp. 2. Add. Endd.. 1544.
ii. "Wagons to be appointed for the carriage of victual for ten days' expense in staple, after xxc weight (20 cwt.) to the carriage, the vantguard and rearguard, as followeth," viz., for 900 qr. of meal barrelled 180 carriages, for "malte and bere corn with hooppis to the same" 8, for "seckes and malmeseys" 300, for necessaries 12. Whereof received of Mr. Rous 206; and so to be received 294.
P. 1.
20 June. 747. The Queen of Hungary to Norfolk.
R. O. Was glad to learn by his of the 18th, the lord Privy Seal's arrival, and their determination soon to enter the enemies' country. As to the wagons and lymoners mentioned in a certain schedule of which he writes, has not received the schedule, and the bearer of the letters knows nothing of it. Pending the arrival of the schedule, she will prepare the rest of the wagons and lymoners, which she previously reported that she could send. It will save delay if money is sent to furnish them. Has ordered all sorts of victuallers to follow Norfolk's camp and charged the count du Roeulx to lend every assistance. What with wars, waste by enemies and subjects, passage of men of war, and with the East sea being closed and not navigable, the dearness of victuals is such that one must not be surprised if prices go higher, and besides, through dearness of forage and distance, the cartage is very costly. If victuals are dear with Norfolk, they are still more so with the Emperor. Bruxelles, 20 June 1544. Signed: V're cousine, Marie. Countersigned: Despleghem.
French, pp. 2. Add.: ["A]mon cousin le [du]c de Nortfocq." Endd.
20 June. 748. French Spies.
Add. Ch., 164.
B. M.
Certificate by Jaspare de Lauzeray, contrerolleur extraordinaire de la guerre, that Pierre Sanson, the King's treasurer of the extraordinary of his wars, has by order of the duke of Vendosme, governor and lieutenant general of Picardy, paid 100cr. to Estienne de Voldeterre, Flemish gentleman, in recompense for several journeys made to the Duke from Malignes, Brucelles, Gand and elsewhere in Flanders with news of the enterprises of the Emperor and the King of England, and also in repayment of 40cr. delivered during March, April and May last to two spies who kept him daily informed from London and Calais of the King of England, his army and his invasion. 20 June 1544. Signed.
French p. 1.


  • n1. The name reads either "Beme" or "Bome." Perhaps "Breme," for Bremen, may have been intended.
  • n2. Written "le x jour," leaving space for two or three more letters after the "x."
  • n3. Paget.
  • n4. In 1536.
  • n5. Sir Anthony Knyvet, undoubtedly.
  • n6. Fitzwilliam, Earl of Southampton.
  • n7. Meaning Robert Crichton. See Vol. XVIII., Pt. i., No. 801.
  • n8. That is the ships of war, or army upon the sea.
  • n9. See note on p. 438.
  • n10. June 16th. The P.S. was written on Tuesday the 17th.
  • n11. See No. 689.
  • n12. The transcript here is unintelligible, viz.:—"Et quoy quil die de passer plus avant de Calaix je tiens pour trescertain quil ne passera dillec si ce nestoit paravanture, sil se resolvoit fere assieger Montreul, en quoy semble quil enclinoit voluntiers, et desia devant que partir led. Secretaire pour aller a v're Mate il mavoit assez clerement donne a entendre que led. Sr Roy a la tres instante requeste de ceulx de son Conseil et aultres bons personnaiges du royaulme dexcuser son allee personnelle en lad. Emprinse, et est a craindre que mal voluntiers envoyra," etc.
  • n13. Robert Stewart, bishop of Caithness.
  • n14. Jedburgh. See Nos. 684, 692, 762.
  • n15. Only the King's letter is given in Burnet. See also No. 737.
  • n16. The day of the month was perhaps added later. The day of the Emperor's arrival at Metz was the 16th according to Wotton (see No. 739); and this agrees with Vandenesse's Diary.
  • n17. The 14th. See No. 700.
  • n18. William Paulet. lord St. John.