A Dictionary of London. Originally published by H Jenkins LTD, London, 1918.
This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.
In Broad Street Ward, on the west side of Old Broad Street.
A priory of Augustinian Friars founded by Humfrey Bohun, earl of Hereford and Essex 1253, enlarged 1334, rebuilt 1354 (S. 178) (Cal. P.R. 8 Ed. III. 1334-8, p. 31).
The church consisted of a choir, with north and south aisles, chapels of St. John and St. Thomas, transepts, and nave of two aisles. It had a fine spired steeple, small, high and straight (S. 178). Destroyed 1362 and rebuilt.
At the dissolution of the monasteries the great mansion within the close, with hall, cloyster, etc., was given in 1539 by the King to Sir Richard Ryche (L. and P. H. VIII. XIV. (1), p. 588) and other parts, viz. the church, etc., were given to William Poulett, lord Seynt John, who built a large house called Powlet House, or Winchester House, within the precinct and walls of the Priory 1539 (ib. p. 421).
The west end of the church was enclosed from the steeple and choir and in 1550 granted to the Dutch nation in London (S. 177). It is 153 ft. long and 85 ft. wide.
The steeple and east end were pulled down between 1603 and 1618, in spite of the remonstrances of the Mayor and Aldermen, who described it as one of the beautifullest and rarest spectacles of the City (Strype, ed. 1720, I. ii. 114).
All but the outer walls and columns of the existing church dividing the nave and the aisles were destroyed by fire in 1862, and after this fire it was proposed to pull down the church and erect a chapel on its site. But the determined opposition of the trustees supported by Gilbert Scott to this act of vandalism prevented the destruction of these noble remains, one of the few relics of 14th or 15th century work left in the City.
Gilbert Scott described the building as a noble model of a preaching nave, for which purpose he considers that it was specially designed, being of great size and openness, upwards of 150 ft. by 80 ft. internally, supported by light and lofty pillars sustaining 18 arches. The style is Early Perpendicular.
The church was accordingly restored in 1863-5 under the direction of the architects l'Anson and Lightly.
There is a good account of the church in the Trans. L. and M. Arch. Soc. II. i.
There was a fraternity of the Holy Blood of Wilsnak in Saxony in the Church of the Friars in 1490, and the ordinances of the brotherhood are set out in Trans. L. and M. Arch. Soc. IV. p. 47.
A 14th-century archway and wall have been discovered in the wall of a house standing north side of the nave. Perhaps a portion of the Priory cloisters (M. and H. Notes and Q. VI. p. 69).
The site of the monastery is now occupied by Austin Friars, Great Winchester Street, Little Winchester Street, Austin Friars Passage, the Dutch Church, etc. (q.v.).
See Winchester Place.
Augustine (St.) ad Portam
See Augustine (St.) Watling Street.
Augustine (St.) by London Wall
See Augustine (St.) Papey.
Augustine (St.) in le Eldechaunge
See Augustine (St.) Watling Street.
Augustine (St.) next Old Fish Street
See Augustine (St.) Watling Street.
Augustine (St.) Papey, or in the Wall
Opposite the north end of St. Mary Axe at Bevis Marks adjoining the Wall of London. Shown in Agas (G). In a detached portion of the parish of All Hallows, London Wall, in the present Aldgate Ward, but originally this site was in Lime Street Ward, as appears from a grant 6 Ed. IV. in Cott. MS. Vitell. F. XVI.
Hugo, in his paper on the Hospital of Le Papey published in the Trans. Lond. and Midd. Arch. Soc. V. pp. 183, et seq., suggests that the church was on or adjoining to the site of a little graveyard in Camomile Street, once used as a burial place for the parish of St. Martin Outwich, and this is the site indicated on the O.S. ed. 1875. But this seems rather too far west from the description given of the site and dimensions of the church about 1440, and its situation at Bevis Marks (ib. p. 192), which in those days would mean the house of the Abbot of Bury, not the present street of that name.
In the document there set out the church is described as follows :
" The Chapel, late the Parish Church, called Papey Church, late in the Parish of All Saints aforesaid in Aldgate Ward, situate at Beausmarkes next London Wall."
The dimensions of the land included in the grant of the church, etc., are given, but as given in rods the dimensions would seem to be altogether too large. If yards are intended the measurements would be 180 ft. north, and 172 ft. south in length, and 24 ft. in breadth, which would be reasonable, and this site might be represented by a strip of land between Bevis Marks and the wall, as shown in the Guildhall Agas.
Kingsford says the church is called in 1170-87 St. Augustine " super murum," in the Guildhall MS. 122, f. 508. But in 1244 in Fulk Basset's register of London churches it is called " Sci augustini pappey " (MSS. D. and C. St. Paul's, Liber L. f. 50), and is usually so styled in records.
In the list of London benefices in the Lib. Cust. I. 228 and 234, 31 Ed. I. the advowson of St. Augustine Papey is given as belonging to the Priory of Holy Trinity, and it appears from the Lansdowne MS. 448, f. 8, that the church was in the soke which Queen Maud gave to the Priory.
In 1428 it is stated in Letter-Book K, p. 75, that there were not 10 inhabitant householders in the parish, and it was accordingly agreed by the Priory, with the consent of the Bishop of London, that the church should be annexed to the church and parish of All Hallows, London Wall, 20 H. VI. (Cal. P.R. H. VI. 1441-6, p. 3) and (L. and M. Arch. Soc. Trans. V.p. 192).
At the same time, namely in 1442, was founded the Fraternity of the Papey for the maintenance of poor priests, and the church of St. Augustine with some adjoining land was given to the brotherhood as part of their endowment (ib.).
After the dissolution of the Monasteries and other religious foundations, when the Papey was likewise dissolved, temp. Ed. VI., the Church was taken down and the site built over, the churchyard being reserved for a garden (Strype, ed. 1720, I. ii. 88).
Derivation of name : It is obvious from the foregoing notices relating to this church that it existed and was so designated long before the Fraternity and Hospital of Le Papey were founded, and that therefore Stow's derivation of the name from the poor priests called " Papes " (S. 148) is quite untenable.
It has been suggested that inasmuch as the church belonged to the Priory of Holy Trinity of Augustinian Canons and that the relics of St. Augustine were preserved in the church of San Pietro at Pavia (Papia), held by the Augustinian Canons of Mortara, the church may have received its designation of " Papey " from that town (Kingsford's Stow, II. p. 293), and in the register of Holy Trinity Priory, Lansdowne MS. 448, f. 9, it is referred to as " St. Augustine ' pauie ' juxta murum."
Dasent says that a common name for Anchorites among the Northmen was " Papar," and that they are designated by the name " Papey" in Orkney and Shetland, the Faroe Islands, and in Iceland. Is it possible that in early days there was an Anchorite so called having his abode near to this church?
See Papey (The) and Anchorites.
Augustine (St.) Parvus
See Augustine (St.) Watling Street.
Augustine (St.) Street
Street of St. Augustine at St. Paul's Gate, 1311 (Ct. H.W. I. 224) and 1334 (ib. 398).
Not identified. Would seem to be either a part of Watling Street or Old Change.
Augustine (St.) Watling
Street.-On the north side of Watling Street and east of Old Change, at No.32 in Farringdon Ward Within (P.O. Directory).
Earliest mention : " St. Augustine," 1148 (H. MSS. Corn. 9th Rep. p. 63).
" By this deed, the canons of St. Paul granted the Church of St. Augustine to Edward the priest for his life, for payment of 20 solidi in each of the first six years for building the church and afterwards for one mark of silver every year. The bounds of the parish are formed by the ' mansura ' of Alured de Windresores, Nicholas Parv and Hugo le Noreis."
Other forms of name : " St. Augustine's Church before the gate of St. Paul's " (temp. John, Anc. Deeds, A. 1966). " St. Augustine by St. Paul's Churchyard," 35 H. III. (ib. A. 1605). " Sci augustini ppe sanctum Paulum " (MSS. D. and C. St. Paul's, Lib. L. f. 93), 1285. " Sancti Augustini ad Portam " 31 Edward I. (Lib. Cust. I. 228). " St. Augustine at St. Paul's Gate," 1298 (Ct. H.W. I. 136). " St. Augustine near St. Paul's Gate," 1309 (Ct. H.W. I. 209). " St. Augustine by Distaflane," 20 Edward II. (Cal. P.R. Edward II. 1324-7, p. 321). " St. Augustine by side of St. Paul's Gate," 19 Edward III. L. Bk. F. p.132). " St. Augustine in le Eldechaunge," 1352-3 (Ct. H.W. I. 668). " St. Augustine next Oldfyssh stret," 41 Edward III. (Ch. I. p.m.). " St. Augustine near le Eldechaunge," 1373 (ib. II. 154). " Sancti Augustini pvi," 34 Edward III. (WestAbbey MSS. Parcel 44 (12) temp. Rich. II. " St. Augustine by the door of St. Paul's," 6 H. IV. (Anc. Deeds, C. 1722). " St. Augustin in Watlying Strete bi Poules Gate," 1500-21 (Arnold's Chronicle, p. 247). " St. Austin by St. Paul's," 2 Edward IV. (Anc. Deeds, C. 35).
In 31-32 H. III. Alexander le Cordewaner made a grant of land to the church on the north side for the enlargement of the church and for the erection of an altar in honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary (H. MSS. Com. 9th Rep. p. 3).
Lately well repaired (S. 325). Partly rebuilt and beautified 1630-1. Burnt in the Fire and rebuilt 1682-95 (Strype, ed. 1720, I. iii. 140). St. Faith's Parish united to it (ib. 197). Restored 1829.
A Rectory. Patrons : Canons of St. Paul's.
It seems probable that the dedication is to St. Augustine of Canterbury, and it is noteworthy that the church so dedicated stood near to the church dedicated to St. Gregory the Great, to whose inspiration and determination the Anglican Church is indebted for the mission of St. Augustine.
Augustine's (St.) Gate
Leading out of St. Paul's Churchyard at the south-east corner to Watling Street (Leake, 1666).
First mention : " Gate of St. Augustine," 1282 (Cal. P.R. Ed. I. 1281-2, p. 24). " St. Augustine's Gate," 1305 (Cal. L. Bk. C. p. 198). " St. Paul's Gate," 1369 (Ct. H.W. II. 131). " Seint Austyn's Gate," 16 Ed. IV. (Anc. Deeds, A. 10953). " Paule's Gate," 1544 (H. MSS. Com. 9th Rep. 3b). " Poule's Gate," 1500-21 (Arnold's Chr. p. 247).
Burnt down in the Fire and not rebuilt, although for many years after the entrance into the churchyard at this point was still known by this name (Strype, ed. 1720, I. iii. 197).
Named after the church of St. Augustine, Watling Street (q.v.).
The shortened form " Austin " which appears as early as Piers Plowman indicates that the name Augustine was pronounced with the accent on the first syllable, and not as now, on the second.
See Augustine (St.) in the Harben index.
North out of Old Broad Street, in Broad Street Ward, at No.70 (P.O. Directory).
Built on the site of the Priory of the Augustine Friars after the dissolution of the priory and the erection of Powlet House, etc. Hence the name.
Shown in O. and M. 1677.
" St. Austin Fryers." " St. Augustin Fryers " (Strype, ed. 1720, I. ii. 108).
Austin Friars Passage
North out of Austin Friars at No.12 (P.O. Directory) to Great Winchester Street. In Broad Street Ward.
First mention : Elmes, 1831.
Former name : " Bell Alley " (P.C. 1732-Boyle, 1799).
There was a messuage called " le Bell " in parish of St. Peter Paupertatis, 36 H. VIII. 1545 (L. and P. H. VIII. XX. Pt. I. p. 307), from which this alley probably derived its name.
The present name commemorates the Priory of the Augustine Friars, on a portion of the site of which this passage stands.
Austin Friars Square
Out of Old Broad Street. In Broad Street Ward (L.C.C. List, 1912).
West out of Noble Street to London Wall. In Farringdon Ward Within (O. and M. 1677).
Site seems occupied in the later maps by Brook Alley, or Goodwin Court (q.v.).
East out of St. Mary Hill, north of Cross Lane (Strype, ed. 1720, I. ii. 173). In Billingsgate Ward.
Not mentioned elsewhere.
Sir John Austin held property in the parish of St. Botolph Billingsgate, in 1659, and gave an annuity of £5 for the poor of the parish, which is received from the tenant of a house in Lower Thames Street (End. Ch. Rep. 1903, p. 2).
The Court was probably named after Sir John Austin.
South out of Barbican, at No.15 to the Crescent, in Cripplegate Ward Without.
First mention : O.S. 1894.
Fig-tree Court formerly stood on the site, also Trafalgar Place and Young's Buildings.
Ave Maria Lane
North out of Ludgate Hill at 16 and 18 to Paternoster Row and Amen Corner (P.O. Directory).
In Castle Baynard Ward and Farringdon Ward Within.
First mention : " Ave Mary Lane " (S. 340-1).
First called : " Ave Maria Lane," 1641 (L. and P. Charles I. xviii. 193). " Ave-maria aly," 1506, in " Cocke Lorelles Bote," printed by Wynkyn de Worde.
So called of text writers and bead makers dwelling there (S. 340).
But See suggested derivation under Amen Court.
The earliest mention of this lane is of comparatively late date, and it seems probable that in earlier times it may have formed part of Eldeneslane, Old Dean's Lane (now Warwick Lane) and may have been known by one of these names (q.v.).
West out of Mincing Lane into Great Tower Street. In Tower Ward. (Bacon, 1912).
First mention : O.S. 1875.
In the beginning of the 19th century it seems to have been merely a courtyard to No.14 Mincing Lane (Horwood, 1799).