A Dictionary of London. Originally published by H Jenkins LTD, London, 1918.
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West out of Old Jewry, north of St. Olave's Church. In Coleman Street Ward (O. and M. 1677).
In Strype's maps the site is occupied by Mr. Parole's house, and now by the City Police Office (q.v.).
West out of Shoe Lane at No.63, in Farringdon Ward Without (W. Stow, 1722-Elmes, 1832).
The site was formerly occupied by the town house of the Bishops of Bangor, and was sold in 1647 to Sir John Barkstead and permission given to him to build on the site. (Act for preventing multiplicity of buildings in London, 1657.)
Removed for the erection of warehouses and site now occupied by Nos. 66 and 67, known as Bangor House.
See Bangor House.
The town house of the Bishops of Bangor, in Shoe Lane.
It seems to be mentioned in 1349 as " Bancor Inn " (Ct. H.W. I. 581).
It adjoined the churchyard of St. Andrew, Holborn, and was leased in 1540, as parcel of the demesne lands of the bishopric of Bangor (L. and P. H. VIII. XV. 296).
It was purchased by Sir John Barkstead in 1647 with ground 168 ft. in length and 164 ft. in breadth, and permission was granted to him to build on the site. He does not, however, appear to have erected any buildings on the land. In 1660 at the Restoration it reverted to the Bishops of Bangor.
The last Bishop who resided there seems to have been Bishop Dolben. After his death the ground was leased out and inferior dwellings were erected on it, under the name of Bangor Court, although the remains of the mansion were still visible in 1805, as shown in Wilkinson's Londina Illustrata.
The Court was sold in 1826 under Act of Parliament, and after its removal about the middle of the 19th century, warehouses were erected on the site, now known as " Bangor House," being Nos. 66 and 67 Shoe Lane, the old name being by this means still commemorated.
Banister's Court, Blackfriars
North out of Banister's Lane, Blackfriars. In Farringdon Ward Within (O. and M. 1677).
The site is now occupied by Queen Victoria Street and St. Paul's Railway Station.
East out of Blackfriars to Charles Street.
See Earl Street.
On the west side of the Royal Exchange, at the junction of Cornhill, Poultry and Threadneedle Street, between Mansion House Street and Bank Street, opposite the Bank south. In Broad Street and Cornhill Wards (Horwood, 1799-Elmes, 1831).
The site has been cleared and is now occupied by a drinking fountain and the Duke of Wellington's statue.
In the 18th century a number of small alleys occupied the site, as shown in Rocque's map, 1746, and in 1799 the new buildings that had been erected were in the occupation of the Sun Fire Office.
At the junction of Princes Street and Lothbury (P.O. Directory).
First mention : L.C.C. list, 1912.
Pavement of red tesserae found here in 1895 at a depth of 17 feet.
Bank of England
On the south side of Threadneedle Street, extending north to Lothbury, and from Princes Street west to Bartholomew Lane east (P.O. Directory).
In Broad Street and Coleman Street Wards, occupying an area of nearly four acres.
Founded 1694 by Wm. Paterson and held in Grocer's Hall until 1734, when it was removed to a building erected for the purpose, occupying a portion of the present site. The east and west wings were added 1786 by Sir Robert Taylor. Rebuilt in its present form 1827.
Consists of various courts, etc., such as Front Court Yard, Garden Court, Bullion Court, Lothbury Court, Residence Court, Waiting Court, Well Yard.
Garden Court occupies the site of the church of St. Christopher Le Stocks.
In Strype's map 1720 part of the site is occupied by Sir John Houblan's House, who was the first Governor of the Bank.
Among the courts and buildings demolished for the erection of the Bank are the following : Church of St. Christopher Le Stocks, house and garden of Sir John Houblan, Catherine Court, Christopher's Alley, Crown Tavern-Faulcon Court, Bishops Court, Naggs Head Court, Ship Tavern, Three Nunnes Alley, Drapers Court, Princes Court.
Roman pavement found under the south-west angle of the Bank, about 20 ft. to the west of the gate opening into Lothbury, at a depth of 12 feet. Other pavements found between Princes Street, Lothbury, and Bartholomew Lane (Arch. XXVII. 141, XXXIX. 496, XXXVI. 206, and LX. 237).
Bank of Scotland
See Swiss Bankverein.
North out of Cornhill, leading to the Bank of England and east of Bank Buildings in Broad Street and Cornhill Wards (Horwood, 1799-Elmes, 1831).
Occupied the site of the former Castle Court (O and M. 1677-Boyle, 1799).
Site cleared before 1848 for widening the main thoroughfares.
Bankruptcy Affidavit Offices
On the west side of Basinghall Street. In Bassishaw Ward within the precincts of the Guildhall. In Guildhall Buildings (P.O. Directory).
First mention : " Bankrupt Office," Elmes, 1831.
Erected there in 1820. Archt. Mr. Forster. On site of part of Blackwell Hall.
The Bankruptcy Information Office was at 35 Aldermanbury previously (Lockie, 1810), " Bankruptcy Court " in O.S. 1880.
Bannister's Lane, Blackfriars
See Banister's Lane.
Baptist Head Coffee House
In Fountain Court, Aldermanbury (Lockie, 1810).
The former site of this house, at the corner of Aldermanbury, facing Milk Street, was laid into the street 1760 (Gent. Mag. Lib. XV. 228).
West out of St. Martin's le Grand, in Aldersgate Ward Within (O. and M. 1677).
See John's Court.
Baptist's Head Court
East out of Whitecross Street in Cripplegate Ward Without (O.S. 1880).
First mention : P.C. 1732.
Former names : " Annabaptist Court " (Strype, ed. 1720). " John Baptist Court " (O. and M. 1677).
The site has been rebuilt.
Named after a house with the sign of the Baptist's head here.
Bar of the New Temple
See Temple Bar.
Bar of the Old Temple
See Holborn Bars.
Barber Surgeons' Hall
On the west side of Monkwell Street at No.32 (P.O. Directory). In Farringdon Ward Within (detached portion).
First mention : Stow, ed. 1598.
Former names : " Barbers' Hall " (P.C. 1732-O.S. 1880). " Barber Chirurgions (Chyrurgeons) Hall " (O. and M. 1677-Strype, 1720).
A portion of the Hall rests on the basement of a tower of old London Wall.
Rebuilt 1678, and again 1752 and 1863-4. Old dining hall incorporated in warehouses erected on its site in 1864. Picture by Holbein in court-room.
Barbers and Surgeons incorporated as one Company 32 H. VIII. Dissolved 1745.
The Barbers were in old times the chief Surgeons of the country, and the position of the Company was similar to that now held by the Royal College of Surgeons (Trans. L. and M. Arch. Soc. I. 346).
See Barber Surgeons' Hall.
East from Aldersgate Street at No.77 to Redcross Street and Golden Lane (P.O. Directory).
In Aldersgate Ward Without and Cripplegate Ward Without.
The first definite mention of the street occurs : " Barbecanstret," 1348 (Ct. H. W. I. 525).
Other forms : " la Barbycanstret," 1378 (ib. II. 201). Street called " Barbican," 1385-6 (ib. 252). Street called " le Barbican," 1408 (ib. 379).
Stow suggests that the street was formerly called Houndsditch (pp.71 and 433), but gives no authority for the statement, which is not confirmed by any of the records.
The street seems to have derived its name from a tower which at one time stood on the north side of it, fronting Redcross Street.
First mention : " Barbekan," 1294-5 (Ct. H.W. I. 119).
Stow says this tower was pulled down by Henry III. in 1267, when he occupied the city after the war with the Barons (p.71). If so, it would appear to have been rebuilt. The site was given by Edward III. to Robert Earl of Suffolk in 1336 by the name of his manor of Base Court, commonly called Barbican (ib.). The Earl of Suffolk's hostel there is mentioned in 1378 (Ct. H.W. II. 201).
In 1375-6 a gate was to be made at " la Barbekane " without Aldersgate (Cal. L. Bk. H. p. 26). According to Strype the site was occupied by the Watch Tower, shown on Rocque's map, 1746, but in the O.S. 1875, the site is shown further to the north-west, on the north side of " Barbican" between Princes Street and Golden Lane.
The N.E.D. says the word is of uncertain origin, perhaps from Arabic or Persian words meaning the " House on the wall." It came into English through the O.F. " barbacane," Low Latin, " barbarcana," an outwork.
It is defined as (1) an outer fortification or defence to a city, a watch-tower. (2) a wooden tower or bulwark. (3) A loophole in the wall, out of which missiles could be hurled.
See Bas Court, Cripplegate.