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Edward III: April 1376

Parliament Rolls of Medieval England. Originally published by Boydell, Woodbridge, 2005.

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1376 April

Introduction 1376

Westminster

28 April - 10 July (The 'Good Parliament')

(C 65/30. RP , II.321-360)

The record of the 'Good Parliament' of 1376 is found in C 65/30, a single roll of 32 membranes. Membranes 1 to 7 are each approximately 285 mm. in width and membranes 8 to 32 are each approximately 305 mm. in width. The membranes have been sewn together in the chancery style. In addition, a separate schedule, containing a list of guarantors for Lord Latimer, measuring 275 mm. by 145 mm., has been sewn to the left of membrane 4 at the bottom of item 27. The condition of the roll is good, apart from occasional gallic acid stains on membranes 28 and 31, although almost all of membrane 32 is stained, rendering certain sections of text illegible. The text, written in a small, clear chancery script, occupies the recto of the membranes only. The bottom half of membrane 7 is blank, as are the bottom third of membrane 9, almost all of membrane 16 (apart from 2 lines of text at the top and 7 lines at the bottom), and the bottom half of membrane 30. The dorses are blank, apart from the heading, 'Parliamentum anno 50 E 3 pars unica', at the top of membrane 1, and the later notes, 'Parl. E 3 apud Westm' pars unica' or 'Parl. E 3 pars unica', where the membranes are joined. Marginal headings are contemporary. Arabic numerals throughout the roll are later, although Roman numerals are contemporary. The roll does not appear to be incomplete. It contains no reference to the clerk of parliament presumably responsible for its compilation. The difference in width between membranes 1-7 on the one hand and membranes 8-32 on the other helps to demonstrate that the list of common petitions which begins at the top of membrane 8 was added to the roll proper, rather than being transcribed in fair copy onto it; this was the practice observed by the clerks of parliament between 1371 and 1376. (fn. f1376int-1)

The parliament of 1376 was the first to meet since that of November-December 1373. It was highly unusual for two calendar years to pass without a meeting of parliament (indeed, counting the prorogation, this was the longest gap since the period 1302-5), (fn. f1376int-2) and the delay in this case is usually, and naturally, attributed to the disturbed and divisive state of domestic politics: the crown, sensing the mood of the political community, held off as long as possible before having to confront its representatives in parliament. The original summonses went out on 28 December 1375 for an assembly to meet at Westminster on 12 February 1376. However, on 28 January it was prorogued to meet on 28 April: payments were made on 5 February to messengers for delivering the writs of prorogation, and the schedule compiled to record their activities provides some interesting evidence on the whereabouts of the lords at this particular moment (Appendix no. 1). There were minor differences between the first and second lists of those receiving personal summonses: the earl of Arundel, for example, died on 24 January and was therefore omitted from the prorogation, to be replaced by his son; (fn. f1376int-3) and Robert Willoughby and John Wells were added to the list of lords temporal in the second set of writs. In addition, nine royal clerks and lawyers were instructed to attend. (fn. f1376int-4) The original sheriffs' returns of the knights of the shires and the citizens and burgesses do not survive. The enrolled writs de expensis provide the names of 73 of the 74 knights of the shires, but only 46 of the citizens and burgesses. (fn. f1376int-5) A number of further urban representatives may be identified from local records and from the chronicle accounts of the assembly, (fn. f1376int-6) which stand alongside the official roll as an essential source of information for the proceedings of the Good Parliament. The names of two of the proctors of the lower clergy returned to this assembly are also recoverable. (fn. f1376int-7)

The parliament of 1376 - the 'Good Parliament' as it came rapidly to be called (fn. f1376int-8) - has been the subject of intensive historical analysis, and it is not the purpose of this Introduction to provide a comprehensive account of its session. (fn. f1376int-9) Rather, the intention is two-fold: to provide a brief summary of the chronology of the assembly that highlights the relationship between the 'official' record on the parliament roll and the other sources for the parliament; and to discuss in rather more detail the contents and composition of the parliament roll itself. The principal sources available to supplement the official account are found in two chronicles. (fn. f1376int-10) First, there is the Chronicon Angliae , the first recension of Thomas Walsingham's projected Chronica maiora , written at St Albans around 1388. (fn. f1376int-11) Walsingham may have taken his account of events in 1376 from a eyewitness account by Sir Thomas Hoo, knight of the shire for Bedfordshire in the Good Parliament; (fn. f1376int-12) but his principal purpose was to use the story of the assembly as an attack on its president, John of Gaunt, and the account he provides is of less historical significance than the second source, the Anonimalle Chronicle. (fn. f1376int-13) This is a French prose continuation of the Brut , probably written at St Mary's Abbey, York; in the version that has survived, the section relating to 1376 was apparently written after 1385, and there are indications that the whole of the chronicle for 1369-81 was composed as a single campaign. It has been suggested that the author, or his source, may have been a member of the royal chancery who had been an eyewitness to the events of 1376. (fn. f1376int-14) It is upon the Anonimalle Chronicle and the parliament roll that the following reconstruction of the events of the Good Parliament chiefly relies.

Parliament assembled on Monday 28 April in the king's presence, but because it was found that a number of the lords and commons had not yet arrived (indeed, the roll states that some of the sheriffs had not yet returned the writs of election), the session was adjourned to the following day (item 1). On the Tuesday in the Painted Chamber, and again in the king's presence, the chancellor, Sir John Knyvet, declared the reasons for the summons of the assembly as a three-fold litany: to provide for the good government of the kingdom; to deal with the issue of defence; and to consider further support for the king's wars in France and elsewhere (item 2). The record of the speech on the parliament roll includes no specific request for supplies. However, the Anonimalle Chronicle (which dates the speech on the Monday), says categorically that Knyvet requested a tenth of the clergy and a fifteenth from the laity, together with the wool subsidy for one or two years. The Anonimalle Chronicle also says that the commons were specifically charged to 'ordain a remedy' on any issue in which they felt the kingdom to be badly governed; (fn. f1376int-15) if it is true that Knyvet had requested aid, this latter charge is probably to be interpreted as the grant of formal permission to the knights and burgesses to submit common petitions for consideration by king and council. The lords and commons having been instructed to hold their sessions separately, the receivers and triers of private petitions were announced, and it was declared that private petitions should be lodged by Sunday 4 May (items 3-7).

On 30 April the lords assembled in the White Chamber and the commons in the chapter house of Westminster Abbey. The parliament roll compresses the events that followed, making it seem that the deputation of named lords sent to intercommune with the commons was appointed almost immediately - and, indeed, at the instigation of the crown (item 8). The Anonimalle Chronicle, by contrast, indicates that considerable discussion took place among the commons alone, and that it was only on Friday 9 May that, pressured by the king's messenger, Sir Alan Buxhull, into responding to the request for aid, they decided to go and put their case against the king's government to the lords. Only a deputation of the commons was permitted into the presence of John of Gaunt, who, in the absence of the both the king and the Black Prince, was presiding over the sessions of the lords; but the commons' spokesperson, Sir Peter de la Mare, was permitted (after the matter had been referred to the king) to have the twelve named prelates, lords and bannerets sent to the commons to discuss the grievances that the commons had already exposed in their preliminary sessions. (fn. f1376int-16)

On Monday 12 May, according to the Anonimalle Chronicle, the lords' committee went to the commons in the chapter house, and the commons determined to appear again before Gaunt, represented again by de la Mare. De la Mare claimed that the king had asked for a fifteenth and tenth, the wool subsidy, and the subsidy of tunnage and poundage, but argued that no taxation would have been necessary were it not for the irresponsible and corrupt behaviour of 'certain councillors and servants' about the king. Asked to specify the commons' allegations, de la Mare made four points: that the staple had been removed from Calais without the assent of parliament; that Lord Latimer and Richard Lyons had offered loans to the crown at injuriously high rates of interest; that the same men had bought up royal debts at heavily discounted prices; and that the king's resources were being squandered by his generosity to his mistress, Alice Perrers. (fn. f1376int-17) The similarities between the account of this meeting in the Anonimalle Chronicle and the official record of the commons' complaints on the parliament roll (items 15-16) suggests that the latter record represents a summary of events on 12 May (though it also moves directly on to the formal accusations against the courtiers, which cannot have occurred before 26 May: see below). Stalemate evidently ensued: the chronicle records no further business on this day, and apart from mentioning the king's confirmation of the intercommuning committee on 13 May, provides no further details until Monday 19 May. Meanwhile, on Sunday 18 May, Bishop Brinton of Rochester preached a sermon advocating the punishment of those revealed as offenders against the crown. (fn. f1376int-18)

On 19 May the commons declared their intention before the intercommuning committee not to proceed with charges until they had heard from the two former treasurers, Thomas Brantingham and Richard Scrope, as to the details of the crown's credit transactions; de la Mare and his fellows went before John of Gaunt again, and Richard Scrope was asked to speak to the matter before the lords. When he revealed that the crown might have secured more reasonable loans from William Walworth (one of the representatives for London in this parliament) and others, the commons felt themselves vindicated, and called aloud for the arrest of Lyons. (fn. f1376int-19) From 20 to 23 May the lords and commons deliberated apart. Then, on Saturday 24 May, de la Mare appeared on behalf of the commons before the lords, announcing that the commons would not proceed further until evil counsellors had been removed, the chancellor and treasurer dismissed, and Alice Perrers banished from court; he further requested that the king appoint three bishops, three earls and three barons, 'such as will not hesitate to speak the truth and improve matters', as his council. On 26 May Gaunt and the lords sent the king news of the commons demands and requested that he appoint the council requested; he replied that he would give them the discretion to choose its membership, and they selected the archbishop of Canterbury, the bishops of London and Winchester, the earls of Arundel, March and Stafford, together with Henry Percy, Guy Brian and Roger Beauchamp. The chronology of the Anonimalle Chronicle breaks down at this point, and it is uncertain precisely when these new councillors, together with the king's sons, the duke of Lancaster and the earl of Cambridge, attended upon Edward III to be sworn in; nor is it clear exactly on which day the king removed from his council Lord Latimer and Sir John Nevill and banished Alice Perrers from his presence. (fn. f1376int-20)

Some time between Monday 26 May and Wednesday 28 May, after the king had confirmed the nine prelates and lords as members of his council, de la Mare appeared again before the lords in parliament, repeated the allegations against Latimer and Lyons, and added the new accusation that Latimer had been responsible for the loss of the English strongholds at Bécherel and Saint-Sauveur to the French. He asked that Latimer be arrested and Lyons brought to judgment. Latimer pleaded for time to prepare his case, but Bishop Wykeham of Winchester, one of the new councillors, said that a trial should follow promptly. At this point the record of proceedings in the Anonimalle Chronicle breaks off with a laconic note that Latimer was duly placed in the custody of the earl of March while Lyons was sent to the Tower. (fn. f1376int-21) As a result, there is much that remains unclear about the chronology of the parliament between 26 May and its final meeting on 10 July. (fn. f1376int-22) The parliament roll moves directly from the appointment of the intercommuning committee (item 8) via the record of the grant of the wool subsidy for three years from Michaelmas 1376 (item 9) (an event which is undatable) to the request for the appointment of the councillors and the specification of its powers and responsibilities (items 10-13). (fn. f1376int-23) Since the Anonimalle Chronicle indicates that the intercommuning committee was appointed on 9 May and that the councillors were appointed and confirmed between 24 and 28 May, it may be that the commons actually presented a grant of the wool subsidy at the meeting with the lords on 24 May and used it as a bargaining position to secure their demand for the removal of Latimer, Lyons and Perrers. On the other hand, it is quite possible that the clerk of parliament, regarding the subsidy as an important part of the business of the assembly, recorded it out of chronological sequence, and that it was not in fact offered by the commons until later in the course of the parliament: certainly, the fact that the record of the preliminary accusations against the courtiers (items 15-16), which (as indicated above) seems to represent the allegations laid by de la Mare on 12 May, occurs after the record of the appointment of the council in the parliament roll indicates that the sequence of events in the official record is complicated, not to say sometimes probably confused.

A chronology of the assembly from 26 May to its dissolution on 10 July therefore relies very largely on the parliament roll supplemented by various other official sources recording actions taken upon the cases heard as a result of the commons' accusations against the king's courtiers and financiers. It may be suggested that the first two cases recorded on the roll can safely be considered to be the first two formally brought before the lords, if only because they concern the two men who had been at the forefront of the commons' earlier grievances, Lyons and Latimer. Lyons' case (items 17-19) seems already to have been settled by 28 May: it was decided to commit him to prison and seize his property (item 19), and a writ for the arrest of his goods was issued on that day. (fn. f1376int-24) The proceedings against Latimer seem also to have been instigated on 26 May, which is given as the date of his arrest in the schedule of his bail attached to the parliament roll (item 30). The case against him was complicated and multi-layered, and may well have proceeded for some weeks: it is uncertain whether Latimer had already been replaced as the king's chamberlain before the Good Parliament, (fn. f1376int-25) but it is known that he was replaced as constable of Dover Castle on 12 June. (fn. f1376int-26) John Nevill, the steward of the royal household, who was also now accused of various malpractices by the commons (item 34), seems to have been tried and judged by 2 July, the day on which he was replaced as steward by Sir John Ypres. (fn. f1376int-27) There is no precise indication as to the scheduling either of the declaration against Alice Perrers (item 45) or of the trials of William Ellis (items 31-2) and John Pecche (item 33), two associates of Richard Lyons, though it is tempting to suppose that the commons did not bring forward these latter cases until Lyons' case itself had been judged. In similar vein, the accusation against Henry Medbourne, Lord Latimer's clerk, may not have been brought until Latimer himself was formally judged guilty (see Appendix no. 2). The suggestion that the lesser allegations were brought only gradually, as the commons' success began to become measurable and their confidence correspondingly increased, is also indicated by the example of Adam Bury (item 47); the case against him seems not to have been laid formally until the commons submitted 'a great bill ... on the last day of this parliament ...' (item 47), when the parliament roll records the issue of an order for the confiscation of Bury's goods (item 47): although the record of the resulting writ on the fine roll is dated 28 May, this may be considered a fiction of chancery practice, since the writ was enrolled with that relating to Richard Lyons. (fn. f1376int-28) One further victim of the commons' campaign against corruption in the court, not mentioned in the roll but referred to in the Chronicon Angliae , was Richard Stury, a knight of the king's chamber, who, according to Walsingham, had been set by Edward III to report back on the proceedings of the commons but who had delivered false information, alleging that the commons were plotting to depose the king, and was now banished from court. It is this episode to which the Anonimalle Chronicle probably alludes in an apparently erroneous record of the removal of Richard Stafford from the new group of royal councillors appointed in parliament. (fn. f1376int-29) Finally, it ought to be noted that the imperfection of the official account is highlighted by the fact that three further cases brought by the commons in the Good Parliament - against Hugh Fastolf, John Leicester and Walter Sporier - leave no record in the roll and are know only because the three men concerned petitioned for pardon in the following parliament (parliament of January-February 1377, items 90, 92, 96). The connections of Fastolf with William Ellis and Leicester with Adam Bury, and of both men with Richard Lyons, indicate the very elaborate web of financial and political dealings exposed by the commons during the proceedings of the Good Parliament. (fn. f1376int-30)

The proceedings against the courtiers and financiers that thus proceeded from late May to early July may well have been interrupted by the death of the Black Prince on 8 June. Although the prince's funeral was not organised until after the parliament had ended, (fn. f1376int-31) his death on Trinity Sunday was presumably marked by some token of respect; moreover, if Walsingham is to be believed in his statement that the heir to the throne was sympathetic to the commons, it may be that de la Mare and his associates needed at least a short time to re-assess the political mood. On 25 June, at the commons' request, the prince's son, Richard of Bordeaux, was brought into parliament 'so that the lords and commons of the realm could see and honour the said Richard as the true heir apparent of the realm' (item 50). After the young prince had been presented by the archbishop of Canterbury, the commons asked that he might be styled prince of Wales, but were reminded that it was at the king's gift, not parliament's, that such titles were bestowed. At what point the common petitions were entered for deliberation by king and council is not known; the commons may have delivered them along with their grant of the wool subsidy, but the date on which the tax was formally authorised is itself uncertain (see above). All that the roll tells us is that at some point the king, who had removed to his residence of Eltham and was unable to travel as a result of illness, asked the lords and commons to attend upon him to hear the answers to the common petitions 'and to bring an end to this present parliament' (item 51). It would seem likely that this meeting at Eltham occurred on Thursday 10 July, the date of issue of the writs de expensis ; (fn. f1376int-32) the roll itself says that the parliament ended on Thursday 6 July (item 212), but the Thursday of the relevant week was 10 July and it is this latter date that has generally been preferred as denoting the end of the assembly. (fn. f1376int-33)

The composition and contents of the common petitions presented in the course of the Good Parliament are of some considerable interest. It has been conventional in mainstream political history to treat the common petitions of 1376 as a great outpouring of communal grievances against the crown: after three years without the opportunity to complain, and with so much evidence of corruption in high places, the commons were supposedly eager to use the opportunity of this assembly not only to take vengeance against the courtiers and financiers but also to register a comprehensive indictment of the operations of English royal government. The unprecedented length of the commons' litany of complaint is itself taken as an index of the seriousness of the political crisis. (fn. f1376int-34) However, due attention is also needed to the complicated process by which the common petitions came into being. It has already been noted that the common petitions, which begin on membrane 8 of the roll, are not a fair copy transcribed onto the parliament roll, but exist in effect as a separate schedule, written on membranes of a different width from the main roll, and stitched to the roll with a connecting heading being provided at the foot of membrane 7: the fact that there is a long space without text on membrane 7 accentuates the hiatus at this point in the record. (fn. f1376int-35) Furthermore, the remainder of the roll is itself something of a hybrid. Items 52-198, nos. I-CXL, may for the moment be taken to comprise the common petitions 'proper'. Items 199-208, no. CXLI, represent a separate set of clerical gravamina drawn up in the meeting of the convocation of Canterbury held in parallel session with the Good Parliament: this was the first time since 1352 that separate petitions from the clergy were recorded on the official roll of proceedings of parliament. (fn. f1376int-36) Item 209, no. CXLII, is a series of petitions from the burgesses of Calais: although there is evidence of earlier such petitions from the town of Calais, notably in 1372 (see parliament of 1372, Appendix no. 4), they had not previously been transcribed onto the parliament roll and it is unlikely that they were treated as 'common' petitions. (fn. f1376int-37) The contemporary numbering system for petitions (the Roman numeral numbers, rather than the post-medieval 'item' numbers) emphasise the distinction between the common petitions, each more or less individually numbered, and the clerical and Calaisien petitions, which have but one number each for multiple petitions. A further complication arises, however, from the note found at the end of the roll: 'And thereon the same commons put forward in parliament a great roll or a great schedule, and another bill annexed to the same roll, containing around forty-one articles' (item 209). If this is indeed a reference to the common petitions, it is difficult to reconcile the 41 articles specified with the 140 items listed earlier on the parliament roll. A number of possibilities arise: that the two series were substantively the same, but that the clerks operated a different numbering system when they transcribed the commons' schedule; that the 41 articles contained in the commons' schedule were used as the basis of the list of common petitions provided on the parliament roll, but were added to by the clerks of parliament and/or the commons themselves; or that the 41 articles in fact represented an alternative or additional statement of grievances which has either been lost or was integrated into an earlier set of common petitions and is now submerged into the 140 items recorded on the parliament roll. Some evidence in support of the second and third of these contentions is found in the statement on the parliament roll that the schedule of 41 articles contained a request that 'all the articles contained in the said roll, schedule and bill, which are on file with other bills of this parliament' should be enacted, and that this request was struck off the schedule (item 209). This demonstrates that the commons expected the crown to refer to petitions 'on file' as well as those enrolled in their schedule, and thus to extend its attention to a wider variety of matters than was contained in the 41 articles. Finally, the parliament roll ends with a statement that when parliament had closed, the commons submitted two further 'great bills' on behalf of the town of Yarmouth. This demonstrates not only that petitions were being devised and submitted right up to, and even beyond, the dismissal of the assembly on 10 July, but also that the commons were espousing 'private' petitions and forwarding them under their own name. The evidence of this latter process makes it possible to argue that the schedule of 41 articles contained the essence of a truly 'common' agenda, but that the commons and/or the clerk of parliament responsible for drawing up the schedule of common petitions now preserved on the parliament roll added to that central agenda a whole series of private petitions adopted because they were deemed to be of more general import or of considerable relevance to the political issues of 1376.

The parliament roll of 1376 provides important early evidence of this process of 'avowal', whereby petitions made by private individuals or interest groups were not submitted to the triers of private petitions but were passed to the commons to be adjudged worthy of inclusion in the common petitions and thus forwarded directly to the king and council for judgment and - where relevant - statutory resolution. This 'by-passing' of the normal route for trial of private petitions could be effected in two ways: the receivers of private petitions might pass on to the commons selected private petitions deemed to be of general significance; or the petitioner could approach the commons directly. The former route seems to have been used throughout the fourteenth century, but the latter may only have begun to develop towards the end of the century. (fn. f1376int-38) The 'draft' nature of the common petitions on the parliament roll of 1376 makes it easier to identify private petitions within the text: a fair copy of the common petitions would be more inclined to remove the original address clauses and to massage the substance into a more general form. Furthermore, there survive sufficient of the originals of the 'private' petitions transcribed onto the parliament roll to provide some indication of the adjustments that were sometimes made to the text of private bills when they went forward as common petitions (Appendix nos. 5-11, 13). The best evidence of the 'avowal' process and its particular application in 1376, however, survives in item 62, no. XI, a petition of the people of Lincolnshire, Leicestershire, Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire for the closure of the staple at Boston and its return to Lincoln: the crown's reply was that, 'because this bill was not acknowledged [ advouez ] in parliament', the matter should no be allowed. This exposure of what was perceived as improper procedure opens up a number of possibilities about the processes by which private petitions were added to the commons' agenda in the Good Parliament. It could be thought to reveal some form of sharp practice on the part of the chancery clerks responsible for drafting the schedule of common petitions as it appears on the parliament roll, and to suggest that they were prepared under the appropriate influence to include petitions to which the commons had not give their approval. But it could also be used to argue the case that the common petitions of 1376 developed in an organic manner, to include a range of business revealed by private bills and general discussion throughout the assembly, and that, lacking anything more complete than the schedule of 41 articles from which to work, the clerks responsible for the longer schedule now attached to the parliament roll adopted a flexible and generous approach to what might be defined as a common petition. (For apparent attempts to rationalise and order the private petitions in the same assembly, see Appendix no. 24.) The matter is of some significance, since it may suggest that the desire to turn the common petitions into a particularly lengthy and contentious document gathered momentum as the assembly progressed and the various scandals concerning the courtiers and financiers were revealed.

This discussion of the records of the Good Parliament has deliberately restricted itself to the more technical aspects of the chronology of the assembly and the composition of the parliament roll. However, by way of conclusion, it is important to make explicit the wider significance of the assembly within English parliamentary history. It is widely acknowledged that the assembly marked the first occurrence of the office of Speaker, the spokesperson (and president) of the commons, in the person of Peter de la Mare. (fn. f1376int-39) It is to be noted, however, that the roll itself never refers to de la Mare; indeed, although the commons appear to have picked up the practice quickly and to have elected speakers regularly after 1377, the parliament rolls remain uncertain guides as to their identity and functions for some years - a reminder of the selective and laconic nature of the rolls as a record of parliamentary business. (fn. f1376int-40) The particular significance of de la Mare's role in the events of the Good Parliament lies, furthermore, in another important procedural novelty: namely, the process of impeachment, whereby the commons, acting in a corporate capacity, made (through the speaker) a set of formal allegations that were taken up and tried by the lords in their role as a high court. Although impeachment was very rarely used in parliament over the following centuries, the events of 1376 set a precedent for action to be taken against those believed to be acting against the interests of the state, its particular political significance obviously lying in the fact that the crown was largely helpless to prevent such trials from proceeding (though not, significantly, to block judgment, to assist victims in making their escapes, or subsequently to pardon and restore those actually brought to punishment - as would be the case in 1376-7). (fn. f1376int-41) Less discussed, but of considerable significance, is the refusal of the Good Parliament to concede to what the Anonimalle Chronicle indicates was a specific request for the grant of direct taxation. This was the first time since 1325 that parliament had refused to sanction a direct subsidy; between the two dates, furthermore, Edward III's government had considerably - and successfully - extended the range of situations in which the country might be regarded as having an obligation to support the crown with grants of taxes, thus seemingly making it more difficult for the commons to develop a constitutionally valid counter-argument in justification of their refusal of supplies. (fn. f1376int-42) One possibility is that the commons formally dismissed the notion that the crown could oblige them to providing direct taxes since a state of truce was current with France: it had frequently been argued during the Anglo-French wars that direct subsidies granted by parliament ought to cease upon the making of truce or peace. (fn. f1376int-43) In defence of this argument one might also cite the fact that the Good Parliament did grant an extension of the wool subsidy: as the intermission in the Anglo-French hostilities during the 1360s had demonstrated, there was now a clear distinction between direct levies, which were payable only during active warfare, and indirect taxes, which might continue to be authorised in periods of truce and peace. (fn. f1376int-44) This is also borne out by the commons' own statement on the parliament roll in which they cited economic rather than constitutional reasons for their inability to grant supplies but ended with a statement that 'they promise that if in future it happens that if their said liege lord has need of their greater aid for any important business that might arise, and they are warned of this, they will be ready and prepared to aid and comfort him with whatever they properly can, as actively as they or any other commons of the world ever have made to their liege lord in times past' (item 9). It needs also to be stressed, however, that the sense of co-operation and amity provided by this rhetoric was probably an illusion, and that the practical consequence of the commons' actions in refusing direct subsidies was that the crown was evasive in its responses to their petitions, and refused to concede any formal statutory remedies for the ills they exposed. (fn. f1376int-45) The real lesson of the Good Parliament was that neither crown nor polity stood to gain from political faction and constitutional crisis.

Text and translation

[p. ii-321]
[col. a]
[memb. 1]
ROTULUS PARLIAMENTI TENTI APUD WESTM' DIE LUNE PROXIMA POST FESTUM SANCTI GEORGII, ANNO REGNI REGIS EDWARDI TERCII POST CONQUESTUM ANGLIE VIDELICET QUINQUAGESIMO, ET FRANCIE TRICESIMO SEPTIMO. THE ROLL OF THE PARLIAMENT HELD AT WESTMINSTER ON THE MONDAY IMMEDIATELY FOLLOWING THE FEAST OF SAINT GEORGE, IN THE FIFTIETH YEAR OF THE REIGN OF KING EDWARD THE THIRD SINCE THE CONQUEST OF ENGLAND, AND THE THIRTY-SEVENTH OF FRANCE.
Reyspit de pronunciacion de parlement. Adjournment of the pronouncement of parliament.
Le lundy proschein apres la feste Saint George, l'an du regne nostre seignur le roy Edward tierz apres le conquest d'Engleterre cynquantisme, qe fust le primer jour de ce present parlement, la greindre < partie des > prelatz et seignurs et aucuns de communes furent assemblez a Westm' devant le roy meismes, en sa chambre. Mais pur ce qe ascuns des viscontz n'avoient mye alors retournez lour briefs du parlement, et auxint purce qe ascuns des prelatz, contes, barons, chivalers de countees, citezeins des citees et burgeys de burghs n'y feurent mye adonqes venuz, si estoit advis au roi nostre seignur d'attendre tanqe al lendemain proschein ensuant de faire pronunciacion de cest parlement; et issint fuist fait. Et sur ce estoit proclamacion fait en la grande sale de Westm' qe touz ceux qi avoient sommons du parlement y fussent le dit lendemain matin al .viij. e heure del clok, et qe touz visconts y retournassent lour ditz briefs du parlement, sur greve payne. On the Monday immediately following the feast of St George in the fiftieth year of the reign of our lord King Edward the third since the conquest of England, which was the first day of this present parliament, the greatest part of the prelates and lords and some of the commons were assembled at Westminster before the king himself, in his chamber. But because some of the sheriffs had not yet returned their writs of parliament, and also because some of the prelates, earls, barons, knights of the shires, citizens of the cities and burgesses of the boroughs had not yet arrived, our lord the king was advised to wait until the following morrow to make the pronouncement of this parliament; and thus it was done. And a proclamation was made thereon in the Great Hall of Westminster that all those who had summons of parliament should be there on the said morrow at eight o'clock in the morning, and that all the sheriffs should return their said writs of parliament there, on grave penalty.
Pronunciacion de parlement. The pronouncement of parliament.
2. A quel lendemain s'assemblerent les prelatz, duc, conts, barons et les autres grantz et communes, justices, sergeantz de ley et autres en la chambre Depeintee; et illoeqes, devant le roy meismes et touz les autres, Monsir Johan Knyvet, chivaler, chanceller d'Engleterre, par commandement du roy, fist pronunciacion des causes de la sommonce de ce present parlement, lour disant en especial qe pur trois causes fust ce parlement tenuz: la primere et la principale cause estoit pur faire ordenance par lour bons advis pur le bon gouvernement de la paix de son roialme d'Engleterre; la secounde estoit d'ordener pur le defens et salvacion de meisme le roialme par dehors, sibien par terre come par meer, contre les enemys, dont il y avoit grante plentee, come assez conuz closez lour estoit; et la tierce estoit d'ordener pur la maintenance de la guerre, qe le roi fait et encores covient defaire entour la prosecucion de sa querele de France, et aillours, et coment et par quele manere ce purra estre fait au meillour profit, pluis hastive esploit et greindre honeur du roi et del roialme, affermant expressement qe nostre seignur le roy ent ad toutdys fait par lour bons conseilx, confortz et aides, paront il ad bien esploitez, < loiez y soit > Dieux, tanqe encea, et toutdys bye de faire. Et de les bones aides, conseilx et confortz qe les prelatz, seignurs et communes avoient fait au roi [...] enariere le roi lour merciast entierement, et y se loiast grandement de eux, lour requerant de bone continuance decy enavant. 2. On the morrow the prelates, duke, earls, barons and the other great men and commons, justices, serjeants-at-law and others assembled in the Painted Chamber; and there, before the king himself and all the others, Sir John Knyvet, knight, chancellor of England, by order of the king, made the pronouncement of the reasons for the summons of this present parliament, saying to them especially that this parliament was held for three reasons: the first and principal reason was to make an ordinance by their good advice for the good governing of the country of his realm of England; the second was to ordain for the defence and salvation on the frontiers of the same realm, by land as well as by sea, against the enemies, of whom he has a great plenty, as they know well; and the third was to ordain for the maintenance of the war, which the king wages and still needs to wage for the furtherance of his quarrel of France, and elsewhere, and how and in what manner this could be done for the most profit, the quickest accomplishment and the greatest honour of the king and of the realm, stating expressly that our lord the king has always acted in this matter according to their good counsel, comforts and aids, by which he has indeed succeeded, God be praised, until now, and always strives to do. And for the good aids, counsels and comforts which the prelates, lords and commons have made to the king . . . previously, the king thanked them earnestly, and was greatly pleased with them, requesting their good continuance henceforth.
3. Et partant lour priast meisme le chanceller depar le roi q'ils se ent aviserent diligeaument, c'estassavoir, les prelatz et seignurs par eux meismes, et les communes par eux meismes, et ent durroient lour bone responce a pluis tost q'ils purroient bonement, pur pluis hastive esploit de parlement. Et surce y feurent assignez certains prelatz et seignurs d'estre triours, et [col. b] certains clercs d'estre resceivours, de billes de parlement, des queux les nouns ensuent, et y feurent luez devaunt le roi mesmes par la forme qe s'ensuit: 3. And therefore the same chancellor, on behalf of the king, asked them to advise him diligently in this matter, that is to say, the prelates and lords by themselves, and the commons by themselves, and they should give their good answer as soon as they can properly do so, for the swiftest conclusion of parliament. And thereon certain prelates and lords were assigned to be triers, and [col. b] certain clerks to be receivers, of the bills of parliament, the names of whom follow; and these were read before the king himself in the form that follows:
4. Receivours des peticions d'Engleterre, Irland, Gales et Escoce:

  • Sire William de Burstall
  • Sire Richard de Ravenser
  • Sire Thomas de Newenham
  • Sire Johan de Freton'
  • Sire Richard de Tissyngton'.
[Receivers and triers of private petitions.]
4. Receivers of the petitions from England, Ireland, Wales and Scotland:

  • Sir William Burstall
  • Sir Richard Ravenser
  • Sir Thomas Newenham
  • Sir John Freton
  • Sir Richard Tissington.
5. Receivours pur les peticions de Gascoigne et autres terres et paiis de la la meer, et de les Isles:

  • Sire Michell de Ravendale
  • Sire Piers de Barton'
  • Sire Johan de Bouland
  • Sire Thomas de Thelwall.
5. Receivers for the petitions from Gascony and other lands and countries overseas, and from the Channel Islands:

  • Sir Michael Ravendale
  • Sir Piers Barton
  • Sir John Bouland
  • Sir Thomas Thelwall.
Et ces qi veullent liverer billes les liverent entre cy et dymenge proschein venant, mesme le dymenge accomptee. And those who would deliver bills should deliver them between now and next Sunday, the day appointed.
6. Et sont assignez triours des peticions d'Engleterre, Irland, Gales et Escoce:

  • Le roy de Castille et de Leon, duc de Lancastre
  • L'ercevesqe de Canterbirs
  • L'evesqe de Londres
  • L'evesqe de Wyncestre
  • L'evesqe de Nicole
  • L'evesqe de Ely
  • L'evesqe de Seint Davy
  • L'evesqe de Saresbirs
  • L'evesqe de Excestre
  • L'evesqe de Wircestre
  • L'abbe de Westm'
  • L'abbe de Bury
  • Le cont de Cantebrugg
  • Le cont de Marche
  • Le count d'Arundell
  • Le count de Warr'
  • Le count de Suff'
  • Le seignur de Percy
  • Le seignur de Roos
  • Le seignur de la Zouche de Haryngworth
  • Monsir Guy de Bryan
  • Monsir Johan de Cavendissh
  • Monsir Robert de Bealknap'
  • Monsir William de Wichyngham
  • Monsir Thomas de Ingelby
6. And the following are assigned triers of petitions from England, Ireland, Wales and Scotland:

  • The king of Castile and Léon, duke of Lancaster
  • The archbishop of Canterbury
  • The bishop of London
  • The bishop of Winchester
  • The bishop of Lincoln
  • The bishop of Ely
  • The bishop of St Davids
  • The bishop of Salisbury
  • The bishop of Exeter
  • The bishop of Worcester
  • The abbot of Westminster
  • The abbot of Bury St Edmunds
  • The earl of Cambridge
  • The earl of March
  • The earl of Arundel
  • The earl of Warwick
  • The earl of Suffolk
  • Lord Percy
  • Lord Roos
  • Lord Zouche of Harringworth
  • Sir Guy Brian
  • Sir John Cavendish
  • Sir Robert Belknap
  • Sir William Wichingham
  • Sir Thomas Ingelby
- appellez a eux chanceller, tresorer, seneschal et chamberlain quant y bosoignera; et auxint les sergeantz quant y bosoignera. Et tendront lour places en la chambre du chamberlein pres la chambre Depeintee. - consulting with the chancellor, treasurer, steward and chamberlain when necessary; and also the serjeants when necessary. And they will hold their sessions in the chamberlain's chamber next to the Painted Chamber.
[p. ii-322]
[col. a]
7. Et sont assignez triours des peticions de Gascoigne et autres terres et pays dela la meer et les Isles:

  • L'ercevesqe d'Everwyk
  • L'ercevesqe de Develyn
  • L'evesqe de Duresme
  • L'evesqe de Baa et Welles
  • L'evesqe de Hereford
  • L'evesqe de Cicestre
  • L'evesqe de Norwiz
  • L'evesqe de Cardoile
  • L'evesqe de Roucestre
  • L'abbe de Abyndon'
  • Le conte de Stafford
  • Le cont d'Angos
  • Le seignur de Basset de Drayton'
  • Le seignur de Bardolf
  • Le seignur de Clifford
  • Monsir Guy de Bryene
  • Monsir Amory de Seint Amande
  • Monsir Henry Lescrop'
  • Monsir Richard de Stafford
  • Monsir William de Wichyngham
  • Monsir Roger de Kirketon'
  • Monsir Roger de Fulthorp'
7. And the following are assigned triers of the petitions from Gascony and other lands and countries overseas and the Channel Islands:

  • The archbishop of York
  • The archbishop of Dublin
  • The bishop of Durham
  • The bishop of Bath and Wells
  • The bishop of Hereford
  • The bishop of Chichester
  • The bishop of Norwich
  • The bishop of Carlisle
  • The bishop of Rochester
  • The abbot of Abingdon
  • The earl of Stafford
  • The earl of Angus
  • Lord Basset of Drayton
  • Lord Bardolf
  • Lord Clifford
  • Sir Guy Brian
  • Sir Amory St Amand
  • Sir Henry Scrope
  • Sir Richard Stafford
  • Sir William Wichingham
  • Sir Roger Kirkton
  • Sir Roger Fulthorp
- appellez a eux chaunceller, tresorer, seneschal et chamberlain quant y bosoignera; et auxint les sergeantz le roi quant y bosoignera. Et tendront lour places en la chambre Marcolf. - consulting with the chancellor, treasurer, steward and chamberlain when necessary; and also the king's serjeants when necessary. And they will hold their sessions in the Marcolf Chamber.
Seignurs assignez de communer avec les communes. Lords assigned to commune with the commons.
8. Item, puis apres les ditz prelatz, seignurs et communes assemblez en parlement, fust dit a les ditz communes depar le roy q'ils se retraiassent par soi a lour aunciene place en la maison du chapitre del abbe de Westm', et y tretassent et conseillassent entre eux meismes, principalment de les dites matiers dont declarracion ad este fait en parlement depar le roy, come dessus est dit, et les prelatz et seignurs y ferroient semblable tretee de lour part; et lour y fust dit, qe report serroit fait de l'une partie a l'autre de tout lour fait et purpos en celle partie. Et issint se departirent les communes a lour dit place. Et sur ce furent assignez en parlement les prelatz et seignurs souzescritz, c'estassavoir, l'evesqe de Londres, l'evesqe de Norwiz, l'evesqe de Karlell, l'evesqe de Seint Davy, le counte de Marche, le counte de Warr', le counte de Stafford, le counte de Suff', le seignur de Percy, Sire Guy de Brian, Sire Henri Lescrop' et Sire Richard de Stafford, d'aler a mesmes les communes d'estre en lour aide, pur treter et communer avec eulx des dites choses a eulx declarrez, come dessus est dit. 8. Also, after the said prelates, lords and commons were assembled in parliament, the said commons were told, on behalf of the king, that they should withdraw by themselves to their customary place in the chapter house of Westminster Abbey, and discuss and take counsel among themselves there, principally concerning the said matters which have been explained in parliament on behalf of the king, as is aforesaid, and that the prelates and lords should hold a similar discussion on their part; and they were told that a report should be made from one party to the other of all their doings and intention in this matter. And thus the commons departed for their said place. And the prelates and lords written below, that is to say, the bishop of London, the bishop of Norwich, the bishop of Carlisle, the bishop of St Davids, the earl of March, the earl of Warwick, the earl of Stafford, the earl of Suffolk, Lord Percy, Sir Guy Brian, Sir Henry Scrope and Sir Richard Stafford, were appointed in parliament to go to the same commons to assist them, and to discuss and commune with them concerning the said things explained to them, as is aforesaid.
[memb. 2]
Le grant del subside des leynes, etc. The grant of the subsidy of wool, etc.
9. Les seignurs et communes assemblez en cest present parlement eantz consideracion a les tresgrandes charges et despenses queux nostre seignur le roi fait, et encores coviendra de faire de jour en autre, sibien entour la maintenance de ses guerres et de son noble estat come autrement, ont de lour bone gree et liberale volentee, en maintenance des dites guerres, grantez a nostre dit seignur le roy autielles subsides des leinz, quirs et peaux lanutz, come les seignurs et communes luy ent granterent au parlement tenuz a Westm', l'an de son regne .xlvij. me ; a avoir et prendre meismes les subsides par tout le roialme d'Engleterre de la feste de Saint Michel proschein avenir, a quel feste les ditz subsides darrein grantez doivent failler et cesser, tanqe al fyn de trois ans de lors proscheinement ensuantz et pleinerement accompliz. Et les communes prierent humblement au roy qe plust a luy lour avoir excusez a cest foiz, de ce q'ils ne luy grantent autre subside en aide de ses dites guerres, qar ils ont este tant annientiz et destruitz cea enariere, quoy par pestilence des gentz et servantz quoy par moryne des bestes, et lour bledz et autres fruitz de la terre communement failliz q'ils ne poaient autrement faire a present. Mais y promystrent qe si en temps avenir le cas avenoit qe pur aucunes chargeantes bosoignes entrevenantz leur dit seignur lige y eust mestier de lour greignour aide, et sur ce fussent [col. b] garniz, ils serront prestz et apparaillez de luy aider et conforter de quanqe ils purront bonement, et auxi avant come ils ou nulles autres communes du mounde unqes firent a leur seignur lige en temps passee. 9. The lords and commons assembled in this present parliament, having consideration for the very great burdens and expenditures which our lord the king makes, and still needs to make from day to day, concerning the maintenance of his wars and of his noble estate as well as otherwise, have of their good will and free volition, in maintenance of the said wars, granted to our said lord the king similar subsidies of wool, leather and woolfells to those which the lords and commons granted him at the parliament held at Westminster in the forty-seventh year of his reign [1373]; to have and take the same subsidies throughout the realm of England from the feast of Michaelmas next, on which feast the said subsidies last granted should end and cease, until the end of three full years immediately then following. And the commons humbly pray to the king that it might please him to consider them excused at this time from granting him any other subsidy in aid of his said wars, since they have been so ruined and destroyed previously, both by the pestilence affecting people and servants and by the murrain of beasts, and since their corn and other fruits of the land have commonly failed so that they cannot do otherwise at present. But they promise that if in future it happens that if their said liege lord has need of their greater aid for any important business that might arise, and they are warned of this, [col. b] they will be ready and prepared to aid and comfort him with whatever they properly can, as actively as they or any other commons of the world ever have made to their liege lord in times past.
Ordinance des continuels conseillers. The ordinance of continual councillors.
10. Item, les communes, considerantz les meschiefs de la terre, monstrent au roi et as seignurs du parlement qe serroit honur al roy et profit a toute la terre q'est maintenant grevez en diverse manere par pluseurs adversitees, sibien par les guerres de France, d'Espaigne, d'Irland, de Guyenn' et Bretaigne et aillours, come autrement, et les officers q'ont este acustumez d'estre en couste le roy ne suffisont mye sanz autre aide a si grande governaille. Par quoi ils prient qe le conseil nostre seignur le roy soit enforcez de seignurs de la terre, prelatz et autres, ademurrer continuelment tanq'al nombre de dys ou .xij. selonc la volunte du roi, par manere tielle qe nulle groos bosoigne y passe ou soit delivers sanz l'assent et advis de touz, et autres meyndres bosoignes par l'advis et assent de sys ou quatre au meyns, selonc ce qe le cas requert; issint au meins, qe six ou quatre des tielx conseillers soient continuelment residentz du conseil le roi. Et nostre seignur le roy entendant la dite requeste estre honurables et bien profitables a luy et a tout son roialme, l'ad ottroie; purveuz toutes voies qe chanceller, tresorer et gardein de prive seal, et touz autres officers du roi, purront faire et esploiter les busoignes qe touchent lour offices, sanz la presence des ditz conseilles, les queux le roi ad assignez et assignera de temps en temps < de > tieux come luy plerra. Et est ordenez et assentuz qe meismes les consellers q'ore sont assignez, ou qi pur le temps serront, soient sermentz de garder ceste ordenance, et de faire droit a chescuny selonc lour poairs. Et ensement est ordene q'ils ne prendront rienz de nully par promesse n'autrement, s'il ne soit mangier et boire a petite value, ou autre chose qe ne purra resonablement estre dit louer, pur nul bosoigne qe serra tretee ou mesnee devaunt eux, sur peyne de rendre a la partie le double de ce q'ils prendront, ovesqe les despences et damages partant suffertz, et a nostre seignur le roy sis foitz a tant come ils y averont pris. La conissance et jurisdiccion de quelle chose serra au roy, et ses filz, pris a eux sys prelatz et seignurs, a la suite de partie donante, et nemye devant autres persones, ne en autre manere. Et si nul homme se y pleygne de nully, et ne puisse prover sa entente, encourge la peyne ordeigne par estatut, l'an .xxxviij. e , des accusours de ceux qi font pleint al roi meismes. (fn. ii-321-36-1) 10. Also, the commons, considering the misfortunes of the land, declared to the king and the lords of the parliament what would be to the king's honour and the profit of all the land, which is now aggrieved in various ways by many adversities, by the wars of France, Spain, Ireland, Aquitaine, Brittany and elsewhere as well as otherwise, and that the officers who have been accustomed to be close to the king are not adequate without other assistance for such great governance. Wherefore they pray that our lord the king's council should be afforced with lords of the land, prelates and others, to remain continually up to the number of ten or twelve according to the king's will, in such manner that no important business should pass or be enacted without the assent and advice of all, and other lesser business by the advice and assent of six or four at least, as the case requires, so that at least six or four of such councillors should be continually resident on the king's council. And our lord the king, understanding the said request to be honourable and quite profitable to him and to all his realm, has granted it; provided always that the chancellor, treasurer and keeper of the privy seal, and all of the king's other officers (whom the king has appointed and will appoint from time to time from such men as please him) can perform and accomplish the business which touches their offices without the presence of the said councils. And it was ordained and agreed that the same councillors who are now appointed, or who will be for the time, should be sworn to keep this ordinance and to do justice to everyone according to their power. And it was further ordained that they should take nothing from anyone by promise or otherwise, or other thing which reasonably could be said to be a bribe, except food and drink of little value, for any business which will be discussed or brought before them, on penalty of rendering to the party double what they will take, with the expenditures and damages suffered for that reason, and to our lord the king six times as much as they have taken. The cognisance and jurisdiction of which thing belongs to the king and his sons, having taken to them six prelates and lords, at the suit of the party, and not before other people or in other manner. And if any man complains about anyone, and cannot prove his intention, he should incur the penalty ordained by the statute of the thirty-eighth year [1365] concerning accusers who make a complaint to the king himself. (fn. ii-321-36-1)
Des officers le roi. Concerning the king's officers.
11. Item, par meisme le manere est ordeigne qe touz les officers et ministres du roi soient restreintz des douns prendre, et sur meisme la peine; sauvez qe les ditz conseillers, officers et touz autres ministres du roi purront prendre fees et robes de lours seignurs et maistres, et prendre pur lour labour qe ne touche mye lour offices; et salvez auxint qe si nul des ditz officers ou ministres travaillent en aucun especial fait, q'ils y purront prendre pur lour travail. Et y soient les ditz officers et ministres juggiez par le roy et les autres dessusditz, par forme et manere qe les ditz conseillers serront, come dessus est dit, et nemye autrement par aucune voie. 11. Also, in the same manner it was ordained that all the king's officers and officials should be prevented from taking gifts, on the same penalty; with the exception that the said councillors, officers and all other officials of the king can take fees and clothing from their lords and masters, and can be paid for their labour which does not touch their offices; and also with the exception that if any of the said officers or officials undertake any special task, they can be paid for their work. And the said officers and officials should be judged by the king and the aforesaid others, in the form and manner that the said councillors will be, as is aforesaid, and not otherwise in any way.
Des reportours du conseil. Concerning reports from the council.
12. Item, est ordene qe tout qe y serra conseille ou ordene, dont report covient estre fait a nostre seignur le roy pur ent avoir son avys ou assent, qe le dit report serra fait par les ditz conseillers, ou deux de eulx eslieux de lour commune assent, et nemye par autres par nulle voie. 12. Also, it was ordained concerning everything that will be counselled or ordained, for which a report needs to be made to our lord the king in order to have his advice or assent thereon, that the said report will be made by the said councillors, or by two of them chosen of their common accord, and not by others in any way.
De execucion des ordinances. Concerning the execution of ordinances.
13. Item, est ordene qe chescune ordenance qe serra ordene par le conseil et l'advis de nostre seignur le roy et des conseillers suisditz, qe le chanceller, tresorer, gardein [p. ii-323][col. a] du prive seal, seneschal et chamberleyn nostre seignur le roy, admiralles, justices, barons de l'escheqer, visconts, eschetours, sergeantz d'armes et toutz autres officers et ministres de qiconqe estat ou condicion q'ils soient, a qi ou as queux l'execucion des ditz ordenances appartiendra, et serra commande q'ils facent ent due, hastyve et bone execucion, par toutes les bones et hastives voies et maneres q'ils se faire purront, sanz tarier ou delay par nulle voie. Et si defaute en aucun de eux soit trove, encourgent la peyne qe serra par le roy et les suisditz continuels conseillers ajuggee, selonc la quantitee du damage sur ce apendant. 13. Also, it was ordained concerning every ordinance which will be ordained by the counsel and advice of our lord the king and his aforesaid councillors, that the chancellor, treasurer, keeper [p. ii-323][col. a] of the privy seal, steward and chamberlain of our lord the king, admirals, justices, barons of the exchequer, sheriffs, escheators, serjeants-at-arms and all other officers and officials, of whatever estate or condition they may be, to whom the execution of the said ordinances belongs, will be ordered to make due, swift and good execution, in all the good and swift ways and manners that they can, without tarrying or delaying in any way. And if fault is found in any of them, they should incur the penalty adjudged by the king and the aforesaid continual councillors, according to the amount of the damage belonging thereto.
Ordinance des vins douces. The ordinance of sweet wines.
14. Item, est accordez et assentuz qe l'ordinance nadgaires fait des vins douces, 'de ce qe nul homme < les > vendroit a retaille en la citee de Londres, n'aillours parmy le roialme', (fn. ii-321-48-1) soit repelle, et qe chescun frank homme de la dite citee les purra desore vendre en meisme la citee a retaille ou en groos, pur resonable pris, sanz empeschement de nully; salvez, qe le mair eit la dispocion [sic: read 'disposicion'] del pris de ce qe serra venduz a retaille en la dit citee, come il ad d'autres vitailles. Et semblablement purront touz autres faire parmy le roialme. 14. Also, it was agreed and assented that the ordinance formerly made concerning sweet wines, 'that no man should sell them at retail in the city of London or elsewhere throughout the realm', (fn. ii-321-48-1) should be repealed, and that each free man of the said city henceforth might sell them in the same city at retail or wholesale for a reasonable price, without anyone being prevented; with the exception that the mayor should have the disposition of the price of what will be sold at retail in the said city, as he has of other victuals. And all others can do likewise throughout the realm.
Requeste des communes. The request of the commons.
15. Et puis apres les ditz communes vindrent en parlement, y faisantz protestacion overtement q'ils furent de auxi bone volente et ferme purpos d'aider a lour noble seignur lige ove corps et biens, et quanqe q'ils aveient, come unqes y furent nulles autres en aucun temps passe, et toutdys serroient a tout lour poair. Mais ils y distrent qe leur semblait pur chose veritable qe si lour dit seignur lige eust euz toutdys entour luy des loialx conseillers, et bons officers, meisme nostre seignur roy eust este bien rychez de tresor, et partant n'eust mye grantment bosoigne de charger sa commune par voie de subside ou de talliage n'autrement; aiant consideracion as grandes sommes d'or q'ont este apportez deinz le roialme des ranceons des roys de France et d'Escoce et d'autres prisoners et paiis, q'amonte a une tresgrande somme. Et pluis distrent q'i lour semblait auxint qe pur singuler profit et avantage d'aucuns privez entour le roi, et d'autres de lour covyne, si est le roy et le roialme d'Engleterre grandement empovriz, et plusours de ses merchantz apoy destruitz et annyntiz. Dont lour semble qe profitable chose y fust a nostre dit seignur le roy, et a tout son dit roialme, d'y mettre due amendement, a tout le haste < qe > < leur > purroit. Et mesmes les communes y promistrent a nostre dit seignur le roi qe si il verroit faire justice et hastive execucion de ceux qi ent serroient trovez coupables, et ent prendroit de ceux ce qe loy et reson luy durroit, ovesqe ce q'ils luy < ont > donez en cest parlement, ils vorroient emprendre q'il serroit assez riche pur maintenir ses guerres et ses autres affaires pur une longe terme, sanz grantement charger sa dite commune pur le temps avenir en aucune manere. Et pluis y distrent qe, parmy ce faisant, nostre seignur le roy y ferroit chose bien meritorie, et grande plesance a Dieu, et a toute sa commune d'Engleterre grant profit et aise, paront ils serroient de le pluis grande corage et bone volentee d'aider a lour seignur lige avantdit a tout lour poair, si le cas avenoit q'il eust bosoigne de lour greignour aide. Et surce mesmes les communes y firent declaracion en especial de trois pointz. 15. And then the said commons came into parliament, publicly making protestation that they were of as good will and firm purpose to aid their noble liege lord with men and goods, and whatever they have, as ever were any others in any time past, and always would be with all their power. But they said that it seemed to them a true thing that if their said liege lord had always had loyal counsellors around him, and good officers, our same lord king would have been well enriched with treasure, and therefore would not have much need to charge his commonalty by means of a subsidy or tallage or otherwise, considering the great amounts of gold which have been brought into the realm from the ransoms of the kings of France and of Scotland and from other prisoners and lands, which amount to a very great sum. And they further said that it also seemed to them that it would be to the singular profit and advantage of certain intimates of the king, and others of their faction, if the king and the realm of England were greatly impoverished, and many of his merchants nearly destroyed and ruined. Wherefore they believe it would be profitable for our said lord the king, and all his said realm, to make due amends, with all possible haste. And the same commons promised our said lord the king that if he would do justice and make swift execution on those who will be found guilty of this, and take from them what law and reason require, they would ensure, in addition to what they have given him in this parliament, that he would be rich enough to maintain his wars and his other affairs for a long time, without greatly charging his said commonalty for the time to come in any manner. And they further said that, in return, our lord the king should do a thing which was very worthy, and a great pleasure to God, and to the great profit and ease of all his commonalty of England, by which they would be of greater mind and good will to aid their aforesaid liege lord with all their power, if it should happen that he had need of their greater aid. And thereon the same commons made a declaration of three points in particular.
16. Primerement de ce, c'estassavoir, qe par la ou l'estaple des leyns et d'autres merchandises de l'estaple et le bullyon furent nadgairs ordene en parlement d'estre a Caleys et nul part aillours de outre la meer, (fn. ii-321-53-1) pur grande profit du roi et del roialme et efforceement et amendement de la dite ville de Caleys par la venue et continuele demoeire des merchants illoeqes; meismes l'estaple et bullyon ont este depuis, [col. b] et encores sont, en grande partie sustretz et apoy de tout annyntiz, au procurement et conseil des ditz privez entour le roi et d'autres de lour convyne pur lour singuler profit, en grande prejudice et damage du roi et de son roialme et destruccion de la ville de Caleys avauntdit. 16. First, that is to say, whereas the staple of wool and of other merchandises of the staple and bullion were formerly ordained in parliament to be at Calais and nowhere else overseas, (fn. ii-321-53-1) for the great profit of the king and the realm and for the strengthening and improving of the said town of Calais through the coming and continual residence of merchants there; the same staple and bullion since have been, [col. b] and still are, in great part withdrawn and almost completely ruined, at the procurement and counsel of the king's said intimates and of others of their faction for their singular profit, to the great prejudice and damage of the king and his realm and in destruction of the aforesaid town of Calais.
Item, qe par la ou le roi nostre seignur ad euz bosoigne de diverses sommes de deniers, pur ses guerres et autrement; aucunes gentz, par assent et convyne des ditz privez le roy, y ont fait chevysances al oeps du roy de diverses sommes par voie de userye, repreignantz greynours sommes du roi q'ils ne luy appresterent. A quelles chevysances, et al profit ent sourdant, les ditz privez le roy ont este parceners, en < grant > desceite du roi et grevous damage. Also, whereas our lord the king has had need of various sums of money, for his wars and otherwise; some people, by the assent and agreement of the king's said intimates, have made loans to the king's use of various sums by means of usury, taking back greater sums from the king than they lent him. To these loans, and to the profit arising from them, the king's said intimates have been accomplices, in great deceit and to the grievous damage of the king.
Item, par la ou le roy nostre seignur ad este dettour de record a diverses gentz des plusours grandes sommes, si ont aucunes persones, del assent et convyne des ditz privez, fait bargainer plusours tieux dettes, aucuns pur le disme denier, aucuns pur le vyntisme ou centisme denier, et fait procurer le roi de lour paier le dette entier; ou de verite sibien nostre seignur le roi come les ditz dettes y furent malement descuz, pur gayn et singuler profit d'yceux privez le roi et les autres de lour covyne dessusditz. De quelles trois articles, et leur dependences, meismes les communes distrent q'ils verroient faire greindre declaracion en especial a quelle heure qe pleust a nostre seignur le roi de lour faire oier. Et puis apres, meismes les communes se firent pleindre en parlement par especial des persones desouzescritz, affermantz plusours desceites et autres malx estre faitz al roy et a son roialme par la manere qe s'ensuit: Also, whereas our lord the king has recorded debts owed to various people in many great sums; some people, of the assent and agreement of the said intimates, have caused many such debts to be agreed, some for the tenth penny, others for the twentieth or hundredth penny, and have caused the king to incur the whole debt; where in truth both our lord the king and the said lenders were wickedly deceived, for the gain and singular profit of the king's same intimates and the others of their aforesaid faction. The same commons said that they would make a greater declaration in detail of these three articles, and their dependencies, whenever it would please our lord the king to hear them do so. And then, the same commons complained in particular about the people written below, affirming that many deceits and other evils were done to the king and his realm in the manner that follows:
[memb. 3]
Richard Lyons. Richard Lyons.
17. Primerement, Richard Lyons, marchant de Londres, estoit empeschez et accusez par les dites communes de plusours disceites, extorsions et autres malx faitz par luy au roy nostre seignur et a son poeple, sibien du temps q'il ad este repeirant a la maison et al conseil du roy come autrement du temps q'il estoit fermer des subsides et custumes le roi. Et par especial de ce qe le dit Richard, par convyne fait parentre luy et aucuns du prive conseil nostre seignur le roy, pur lour singuler profit et avauntage < ent avoir, ont > procurez plusours patentes et briefs de licence estre faitz, de carier grande fuyson des leynes, pealx lanutz et autres merchandises aillours depar dela qe a l'estaple de Caleys, encontre les ordenances et defenses ent faitz devant ceste heure en parlement, en destruccion de meisme l'estaple de Caleys et del monyage illoeqes, a grant damage du roi et del roialme d'Engleterre et annientissement de la ville de Caleys avantdite. Et auxint, de ce q'il ad mys et procurez d'estre mys sur les leynes, pealx lanutz et les autres merchandises certeins novelles imposicions, sanz assent de parlement, et celles imposicions levez et coillez grant piece a son oeps propre et al oeps de ceux qi y sont de sa dite covyne entour le roy, sanz la veue ou tesmoignance d'aucun contrerollour, et sanz ce q'il y est chargez par record ou autrement forsqe a sa volentee, mais ent est tresorier et resceivour tantsoulement, et le haut tresorier del roialme ne se ent medle de rienz. Et dit est communement q'il prent en certein .x. s. en une parcel, et .xij. d. en une autre parcell, de chescun saak etc. q'amonte une tresgrande somme par tout le temps q'il ent ad este resceivour ou tresorier, come dessus est dit. Et ensement, d'une autre novelle imposicion de quatre deniers par lui faite et myse sur chescune livre de monoie a envoier depar dela, par Lumbardz et autres merchantz, par voie d'eschange, par sa propre < auctoritee, et sanz garrant ou assent du > parlement, ou autrement. Et mesme celle imposicion de quatre deniers del livre grant piece coillast et gardast al oeps du roi, nostre seignur le roi ent de [p. ii-324][col. a] rienz paiez. Et auxint de diverses chevances faitz al oeps le roi sanz cause necessarie, et par especial, d'une chevance qe se fist ja novellement en Londres de .xx. .m. marz, pur queux .xx. .m. marz nostre seignur le roy s'estoit obligez de repaier .xxx. .m. marz, et ce par le conseil le dit Richard, et d'autres privez entour le roi, q'avoient covenancez avec les creanceours d'avoir part du gain, et d'estre parceners covertement al dite chevance; a la quelle chevance le dit Richard apprestast sa propre moneie, et apres gainast par voie de usurye du roi son seignur, de qi conseil il estoit demurrez devant, grant quantitee de moneie, en grant damage et deceite du roi. Et auxint de plusours autres extorsions, fauxines, deceites, oppressions, champarties et maintenances faitz a nostre seignur le roi et a son poeple, chescune part del roialme, sibien du temps qe le dit Richard estoit fermer des subsides et custumes le roy parmy le roialme, et demurrez issint devers luy et son conseil, et tresorier ou resceivour des dites novelles imposicions, come autrement, par preignant sur luy notoirement en toutes les dites choses poair roial; qe ce fuist horrible chose tout rehercer. Et auxint par la ou le roi nostre seignur ad este dettour de record as diverses gentz de plusours grandes sommes de deniers, si ad le dit Richard, par l'assent d'autres privez entour le roy de sa dite covyne, fait bargainer plusours tieux dettes, aucuns a la foitz pur le disme denier, et a la foitz pur le vyntisme ou centisme denier, et fait procurer le roy de paier le dette entier. Et issint par ses tielles subtiletes, et pur son singuler profit, sont sibien le roi nostre seignur come les dites detters malement descuz; et par especial le priour de Saint Johan Jerusalem in Engleterre, a qi le roi estoit dettour d'une certaine somme, et le dit Richard ent avoit .iiij. .xx. marz pur brocage, pur faire le dit priour avoir paiement del remenant; et une autre foitz del seignur le Despenser, a qi le roi estoit semblablement dettour; et le dit Richard avoit de luy par mesme celle manere une autre grande somme de deniers; et issint de plusours < autres, > en grant deceite, esclandre et vilenie du roi et de sa courte. 17. First, Richard Lyons, merchant of London, was impeached and accused by the said commons of many deceits, extortions and other evil deeds done by him to our lord the king and his people, while he had been in the household and the council of the king as well as while he was a farmer of the king's subsidies and customs. And especially because the said Richard, by agreement made between him and some of our lord the king's privy council, in order to have their singular profit and advantage thereon, has procured many letters patent and writs of licence to be made, to carry a great quantity of wool, woolfells and other merchandises elsewhere overseas than to the staple of Calais, contrary to the ordinances and prohibitions made thereon in parliament before this time, to the detriment of the same staple of Calais and of the mint there, to the great damage of the king and the realm of England and to the destruction of the aforesaid town of Calais. And also, because he has set and procured to be set certain new impositions on wool, woolfells and other merchandises, without the assent of parliament, and levied and collected a great part of these impositions to his own use and to the use of those who are of his said faction close to the king, without the examination or testimony of any controller, and without him being charged by record or otherwise except at his will, so that he is the sole treasurer and receiver, and the high treasurer of the realm has no authority over any of this. And it is commonly said that he takes in particular 10s. in one parcel and 12d. in another parcel from each sack etc., which amounts to a very great sum for the whole time that he had been the receiver or treasurer, as is aforesaid. And furthermore, one other new imposition of 4d. was made and set by him on each pound of money to be sent overseas, by Lombards and other merchants, by way of exchange, by his own authority, and without the authority or assent of parliament, or otherwise. And he collected and kept a great part of this same imposition of 4d. on the pound to the king's use, and our lord the king was paid nothing from the same. [p. ii-324][col. a] And also, various loans were made to the king's use without necessary cause, and in particular, a loan of 20,000 marks which was recently made in London, for which our lord the king was bound to repay 30,000 marks, by the counsel of the said Richard and of the other intimates close to the king, who had agreed with the creditors to have part of the profit, and to be accomplices to the said loan secretly; to which loan the said Richard lent his own money, and then by way of usury acquired a great quantity of money from the king his lord, on whose council he was for a long time before, to the great damage and deceit of the king. And also, many other extortions, frauds, deceits, oppressions, champerties and maintenances were done to our lord the king and to his people, in every part of the realm, while the said Richard was a farmer of the king's subsidies and customs throughout the realm and was close to him and his council for a long time, and while he was treasurer or receiver of the said new impositions as well as otherwise, by notoriously accroaching royal power to himself in all the said matters; which was a completely horrible thing to report. And also whereas our lord the king has recorded debts owed to various people in many great sums of money, the said Richard, by the assent of other intimates of his said faction close to the king, has caused many such debts to be agreed, sometimes for the tenth penny, and sometimes for the twentieth or hundredth penny, and has caused the king to incur the whole debt. And by such cunning, and for his singular profit, our lord the king as well as the said lenders are wickedly deceived; especially the prior of St John of Jerusalem in England, to whom the king was a debtor in a certain sum, and the said Richard had 80 marks for brokerage of the same, to allow the said prior to have payment of the remainder; and also in the case of Lord Despenser, to whom the king was likewise in debt, and the said Richard had another great sum of money from him in this same manner; and also many others, in great deceit, slander and villainy of the king and of his court.
18. A qoi le dit Richard, present en parlement, dit qe quant al dit chevance fait al roi de les .xx. .m. marz avantditz, il y est outrement sanz aucune coulpe. Et pluis dit il q'il n'ent avoit unqes profit ne gain, ne apprestast unqes riens a la chevance avantdite, en monoie ne en autre chose; et ce fust il prest de prover par toutes les voies resonables qeome voleit demander. < Et > quant a les ditz imposicions de .x. s. et .xij. d. al saak de leyne etc. et quatre deniers al livre de moneie, il ne se poait clerement excuser < q'il > ne les avoit issint levez et coillez, et ent pris devers luy partie, cestassavoir, .xij. d. de chescun saak de leyne etc. Mais ce fist il, il dist, de comandement nostre seignur le roy expres, et a la priere < et assent > des marchantz qi tielles licences demanderent. Et quant al remenant d'ycelles imposicions, il les avoit entierment fait deliverer al resceivour de la chambre le roi, et ent plainement accomptez en dit chambre. Et fust dit al < dit Richard > q'il y baillast avaunt son garrant, par qi auctoritee il fist les dites choses. Mais nul garrant ne auctoritee mist avant en parlement souz le seal du roy n'autrement, forsqe soulement q'il dit q'il ent avoit comandement du roi meismes < et de son conseil > del faire. Et sur ce fuist tesmoignez overtement en parlement qe nostre seignur le roy ent avoit < dit par expres > le jour devant a ascuns seignurs cy presentz en parlement q'il ne savoit coment ou en quelle manere il fust devenuz en tiell office devers luy; et qe pluis est, il nel conust mye pur soen officer. Et quant as autres articles, le dit Richard n'y fist nulle responce, einz dist qe s'il y eust de rienz trespassez ou mesfait, il se mist en la grace du < roi nostre seignur. > 18. To which the said Richard, present in parliament, said that as regards the said loan made to the king of the aforesaid 20,000 marks, he is completely without guilt. And he further said that he never had profit or gain, and never lent anything to the aforesaid loan, in money or in anything else; and he was prepared to prove this in all reasonable ways required. And as regards the said impositions of 10s. and 12d. on the sack of wool etc. and 4d. on the pound of money, he could not clearly excuse himself that he had not thus levied and collected them, and taken part for himself, that is to say, 12d. on each sack of wool etc. But he did this, he said, at our lord the king's express command, and at the request and assent of the merchants who requested such licences. And as regards the remainder of the same impositions, he had caused them all to be delivered to the receiver of the king's chamber, and they were fully accounted for in the said chamber. And the said Richard was told that he should hand over his warrant, by which authority he did the said things. However, he put forward no warrant or authority in parliament under the king's seal or otherwise, but said only that he had the command of the king himself and of his council to do this. And thereon it was witnessed publicly in parliament that our lord the king on the previous day had expressly said to some of the lords here present in parliament that he did not know how or in what manner the said Richard had come to have such office; and what is more, he did not recognise him for his officer. And as regards the other articles, the said Richard made no answer, but said that if he had trespassed or acted wrongly in anything, he would submit to the mercy of our lord the king.
[col. b]
19. < Par quoy > le dit Richard est agardez a la prisone a la volente du roy, et [...] d'estre mys au fyn et ranceon, selonc la quantitee et horribletee du trespas; et < q'il > perde sa franchise de la citee de Londres, et jammais ne soit en office du roy, ne n'aproche au conseil ne a l'ostel le roy. Et sur ce autre foitz le dit Richard estoit mandez devaunt les seignurs du parlement, et y fust dit a luy qe sembloit as seignurs qe ses malfaitz estoient si grandes et horribles q'il n'estoit pas suffisantz d'ent faire satisfaccion. Et tantost le dit Richard se submist en la grace du roy son corps, ses terres, tenementz, biens et chateux, et y voloit et grantast qe son corps, terres, biens et chateux fuissent a la volentee du roy d'ent ordener et faire ce qe luy plerroit; requerrant al roy de luy granter son vivre si luy plerroit, et si ne luy plust mie, q'il feist de luy et de quanqe il ad pleinement sa volentee. Par quoy il est auxint agarde qe touz ses terres, tenementz, biens et chateux soient seisiz es mains du roy, et le corps demoerge en prisone a la volentee du roi. Et quant a les extorsions faitz par le dit Richard ou ses deputez du temps q'il estoit fermer des dites subsides ou custumes, come dessus est dit, ordenez est en parlement qe bone enquerre se face par suffisantz gentz en toutes les portz d'Engleterre. 19. Wherefore the said Richard was sentenced to prison at the king's will, and was to be put to fine and ransom, according to the seriousness and horrible nature of the trespass; and he should lose his franchise of the city of London, and never hold an office of the king or approach the council or household of the king. And thereon the said Richard was again sent before the lords of parliament, and was told that it seemed to the lords that his crimes were so great and horrible that this did not suffice to make satisfaction. And the said Richard immediately submitted his body, his lands, tenements, goods and chattels to the king's mercy, and willed and granted that his body, lands, goods and chattels be at the king's will to ordain and do with the same what would please him; asking the king to grant him his life if it would please him, and if not, that he would do his will fully concerning himself and whatever he had. Wherefore it was also decided that all his lands, tenements, goods and chattels should be seized into the king's hands, and his body would remain in prison at the king's will. And as regards the extortions done by the said Richard or his deputies while he was a farmer of the said subsidies or customs, as is aforesaid, it was ordained in parliament that a good inquiry would be made by sufficient people in all the ports of England.
Le seignur Latymer. Lord Latimer.
20. Item, William sire de Latymer estoit empeschez et accusez par clamour des ditz communes de diverses disceites, extorsions, grevances et autres malx faitz par luy et autres des soens et de sa covyne, du temps q'il ad demurrez devers le roy nostre seignur, sibien en Bretaigne quant il y estoit en office ovesqe le roi, come autrement en Engleterre, du temps q'il ad este chamberleyn, et du prive conseil meisme nostre seignur le roi. 20. Also, William Lord Latimer was impeached and accused by the charge of the said commons of various deceits, extortions, grievances and other evil deeds done by him and others of his people and faction while he was close to our lord the king, in Brittany when he was in office for the king as well as otherwise in England while he had been chamberlain and a member of the privy council of our same lord the king.
21. Primerement, de ce qe quant le dit seignur de Latymer avoit este longement capetain de Becherell, et officer par aillours en Bretaigne, si avint qe au drain la paix ou trieves se firent; et surce criez fuist et publiez depar le roy parmy Bretaigne, qe nully Engloys, n'autre, des lors prendroit aucuns vivres, vitailles n'autre rienz des persones des villes, chasteaulx ne d'autres, sinoun q'ils paiassent prestement pur ycelles, nene ferroient prendre ou ranceoner nulle persone, ville, forteresce n'autre lieu sur peyne de quanqe ils purroient forfaire. Et nientcontreesteant tout ce, le dit seignur de Latymer et ses lieutenantz ou officers firent prendre torcenousement et par force des diverses gentz < du paiis > plusours vivres et vitailles a grant value, sanz rienz paier. Et auxint firent ranceoner plusours paroches, et ent pristerent et resceurent ranceons tanqe a la somme de quatrevyntz et trois .m. livres, dont le roi nostre seignur n'avoit unqes rienz, a grant damage et vilenie du roi et oppression du poeple es dites parties, et encontre les cry et defens avauntditz, sicome en une lettre faite et sealees des sealx des plusours seignurs de Bretaigne, appellee ragman, et envoie en Engleterre a nostre seignur le roy dessusdit, pluis plainement appiert. De quelle rageman les communes prierent d'avoir la veue en parlement, et celle requeste fust grante, mais le dit rageman nene poait estre trovee en aucune manere, ne homme ne savoit dire pur veritee ou il estoit devenue. Et encores autre foitz il estoit accusez, de ce qe ses deputez ou lieutenantz < en dit temps > a Becherell et Plymmeison' < avoient > pris nonduement illoeqes cent et .l. mille escutz < d'or, > dont le roi n'avoit unqes rienz, ne restitucion aucune ent fust faite as partie de queux celles sommes furent prises. De quelle fait une bille estoit baillez avaunt en parlement, en la forme qe s'ensuit: 21. First, the said Lord Latimer had been captain of Bécherel for a long time, and an officer elsewhere in Brittany, when the peace or truces were finally made; and it was announced and published thereon throughout Brittany, on behalf of the king, that no English person or other should take any food, victuals or other things from the people of the towns, castles or others, unless they paid readily for the same, and that they should not cause any person, town, fortress or other place to be taken or ransomed on penalty of whatever they could forfeit. Notwithstanding all this, the said Lord Latimer and his lieutenants or officers caused much food and victuals of great value to be taken wrongly and by force from various people of the region, without paying anything. And they also caused many parishes to be ransomed, and took and received ransoms for the same up to the sum of £83,000, of which our lord the king never had any, to the great damage and harm of the king and to the oppression of the people of the said region, and contrary to the aforesaid announcement and defence, as more fully appears in a letter, called a ragman, made and sealed with the seals of several lords of Brittany and sent to England to our aforesaid lord the king. The commons requested that they be able to examine this ragman in parliament, and this request was granted, but the said ragman could not be found in any way nor could anyone say for certain what had become of it. And he was yet again accused, because his deputies or lieutenants during the said time had unduly taken 150,000 gold écus at Bécherel and Plumoisan, of which the king never had any, and no restitution was made to the party from whom these sums were taken. A bill was put forward in parliament concerning this deed, in the form that follows:
22. Fait a remembrer qe les paroesses qi soleient estre raunsonez a Becherell et Plummeison par temps des [p. ii-325][col. a] trieves ont paiez a tant a Monsir Johan Pert, conestable de Becherell dessouz le seignur de Latymer, et a William son fitz et Huchoun de Middelton', resceivour de la dite ville dessouz le seignur de Latymer, durant le temps de quatre ans depuis qe le seignur de Latymere departi hors de Bretaigne, 22. Be it remembered that the parishes which were accustomed to be ransomed at Bécherel and Plumoisan during the [p. ii-325][col. a] truces have paid the same to Sir John Pert, constable of Bécherel under Lord Latimer, and to William, his son, and to Hugh Middleton, receiver of the said town under Lord Latimer, during the four years since Lord Latimer departed from Brittany,
La somme de an en an: .xl. mille fraunks. The total from year to year: 40,000 francs.
Et auxi le dit conestable, William et Huchoun ont resceuz de raunsonez qi soleient estre raunsonez par le guerre a Plurirmell et a Chasteu Blank tant qe eust bien paie touz les sowdiours de la dite ville, And also the said constable, William and Hugh have received from the ransoms accustomed to be ransomed by the war at Ploermel and at Chateau-Blanc as much as all the soldiers of the said town had properly paid,
La somme: .l. mille fraunks. The total: 50,000 francs.
Et auxi le paiis de Bretaigne ont paie au dit conestable, William et Hugh pur le mort des diverses gentz nostre seignur lige qi furent tuez sur le paiis de Bretaigne, And also the regions of Brittany have paid the said constable, William and Hugh for the death of various people of our liege lord who were killed in the region of Brittany,
La somme: .xxx. mille fraunks. The total: 30,000 francs.
Et auxi le dit conestable et William son fitz avoient levez sur la paiis de Bretaigne pur le or Monsir Jakes de la Plaunch pardatz vers Engleterre, And also the said constable and William, his son, have levied in the region of Brittany for the gold that Sir Jacques de la Plaunche lost near England,
La somme: .xij. .m. fraunks. The total: 12,000 francs.
[memb. 4]
Et auxi le dit William, pur il pardatz .xx. marz en la Isle de Jernesey en un nief, et pur ce il leva sur les raunsonez de le dit Becherell, And also the said William, because he lost 20 marks in the Isle of Jersey in a ship, as a result levied on those ransomed from the said Bécherel,
La somme: .m. fraunks. The total: 1,000 francs.
Et auxi Robert de Raveneston' son garson, embla une seintour de argent, et pur ce le paiis du Bretaigne feurent raunsonez, And also Robert Ravenston, his groom, stole a silver belt, and as a result the region of Brittany was ransomed,
La somme: .ij. .m. fraunks. The total: 2,000 francs.
23. Et auxi le < dit > conestable, William et Hugh, resceivour de la dite ville, ont resceuz par diverses foitz pur vitailles venduz, come floure, vyn et charz et autres vivres, la somme .x. mille fraunks et plus, le quele vent fust perdicion de voz povrez leges a la ville de Becherell; qar par les extorsions qe ils font ferez et susteinent, l'orrible occicion de le povre poeple auxibien come des gentils hommes, fist la dite ville perdre. Sur qoy ils suppliont a nostre seignur le roi et a son conseil de faire le dit conestable, William et Hugh venir et respounder de les resceites susditz, issint qe nostre seignur le roi puisse estre servi de ce qe lui apent, et voz povres leges qi furent en le garnisture du dite ville puissent estre paiez de lour gages pur le temps qe ils furent en la dite ville, si pleser vous soit. 23. And also the said constable, William and Hugh, the receiver of the said town, have received at various times for selling victuals, such as flour, wine, meat and other foods, the total of 10,000 francs and more; which sale was to the loss of your poor liege people of the town of Bécherel; since by the extortions which they make and sustain, the horrible murder of the poor people as well as of gentlemen causes the said town to be lost. Wherefore they petition our lord the king and his council to cause the said constable, William and Hugh to come and answer for the aforesaid receipts, so that our lord the king might be provided with what belongs to him, and your poor lieges who took part in the provisioning of the said town might be paid their wages for the time that they were in the said town, if it should please you.
24. Et auxint le dit seignur de Latymer y estoit empeschez par le dit commune de diverses chevances faitz al oeps du roi sanz cause necessarie, a grande perde et grevouse damage du roi. Et par especial d'une chevance qe se fist ore tard al oeps du roy par le conseil du dit seignur de Latymer, Richard Lyons et autres de sa covyne de vynt mille marz, pur quelles vynt mille marz nostre seignur le roy s'estoit obligez a ses creanceours en dit cas de lour repaier trent mille marz. Et ce fuist fait par covyne des ditz seignur de Latymere et autres, faite privement avec mesmes les creanceours d'avoir part del dit gain, et d'y estre parceners au dit fait, souz coverture de meismes les creanceours; qar y li fust surmys en especial qe la monoie du roi meismes, en sa chambre dont le dit seignur estoit < alors gardein ou tresorier, et auxint > [...] la moneie propre des ditz seignur de Latymer et Richard, si fust appreste a la dite chevance faire. Et auxint, de ce qe par semblable covyne parentre luy et le dit Richard, pur lour singuler profit et gayn, il ad procurez et conseillez nostre seignur le roy de granter plusours licences [col. b] par patentes et briefs de faire carier grant quantitee des leynes et pealx lanutz as autres parties d'oultre meer qe a Caleys, encontre les ordenances et defens ent faitz avant ces heures, en destruccion de l'estaple de Caleys et del monyage illoeqes, a grant damage du roy et del roialme d'Engleterre, et annientissement de la ville de Caleys. Et ensement, de ce qe par semblable covyne faite parentre luy et le dit Richard, pur lour singuler profit, il ad fait mettre sur les leynes, pealx lanutz et autres marchandises de l'estaple, diverses novelles imposicions, c'estassavoir, sur chescun saak de leyne etc. passantz aillours depar dela qe a Caleys parmy tielle licence .xi. s. et pluis, encontre les estatutz et ordenances ent faites. 24. And also the said Lord Latimer was impeached by the said commons of various loans made to the king's use without necessary cause, to the great loss and grievous damage of the king. And especially of one loan of 20,000 marks which was recently made to the king's use by the counsel of the said Lord Latimer, Richard Lyons and others of his faction; for which 20,000 marks our lord the king was bound to repay his creditors in the said case 30,000 marks. And this was done by the agreement of the said Lord Latimer and others, made secretly with the same creditors in order to have part of the said profit, and to be accomplices to the said deed, under the protection of the same creditors; since it was claimed in particular that the king's money in his own chamber (of which the said lord was then keeper or treasurer) and also the said Lord Latimer and Richard's own money, was lent for making the said loan. And also, because by a similar agreement between him and the said Richard, for their singular profit and gain, he has procured and counselled our lord the king to grant several licences [col. b] by letters patent and writs to cause a great quantity of wool and woolfells to be carried elsewhere overseas than to Calais, contrary to the ordinances and prohibitions previously made thereon, to the detriment of the staple of Calais and of the mint there, to the great damage of the king and the realm of England and the destruction of the town of Calais. And also, because by a similar agreement made between him and the said Richard, for their singular profit, he has caused various new impositions to be set on the wool, woolfells and other merchandises of the staple, that is to say, on each sack of wool etc. going elsewhere overseas than to Calais by such licence 11s. and more, contrary to the statutes and ordinances made thereon.
25. Et auxint, de ce qe par son singuler profit et mal governail entour le roi nostre seignur le roi et son < roialme > ont euz < et > suffertz plusours autres grevouses perdes, damages et vilanies sanz nombre, come del perde du ville et fort de Saint Salveour en Normandie, et del dit lieu de Becherell, et d'autres forteresces ja perduz, quelles eussent este bien salvez et gardez si le roi ent eust este bien conseillez. Et auxint des certeins espyes et autres felons prises et emprisonez par le roi, et puis apres deliverez par le dit seignur de Latymere de sa propre auctoritee, sanz la science et volentee du roi, preignant sur luy et encrocheant notoirement en faisant les dites choses poair roial. 25. And also, by his singular profit and evil influence towards our lord the king and his realm, they have had and suffered many other grievous losses, damages and hardships without number, such as the loss of the town and fort of St Sauveur in Normandy, the said place of Bécherel and other fortresses now lost, which would have been properly protected and guarded if the king had been better counselled thereon. And also, certain spies and other felons were taken and imprisoned by the king, and then freed by the said Lord Latimer on his own authority, without the knowledge and will of the king, notoriously taking and accroaching royal power to himself in doing the said things.
26. A quoy le dit seignur de Latymer, lors present en parlement, dist qe salve a luy quanqe doit estre salvez a luy come a un des pierres del roialme, tant en juggement doner come autrement en temps avenir, si plest a nostre seignur le roi et as seignurs ycy assemblez, volenters ent durra sa responce a celluy qi < en > especial luy vorra surmettre aucune des choses avantdites. Et puis apres, partant qe nulle especiale persone vorroit apartement accuser le dit seignur de mesmes les choses en parlement, einz qe les communes vorroient maintenir les ditz accusementz en commune, le dit seignur de Latymere, en excusacion de sa persone et declaracion de sa fame, dist: 26. To which the said Lord Latimer, then present in parliament, said that saving to him what should be saved to him as one of the peers of the realm, both for judgments given and for those to come, if it pleased our lord the king and his lords assembled there, he willingly would give his answer thereon to anyone who would accuse him individually of any of the aforesaid things. And then, because no individual person would publicly accuse the said lord of the same things in parliament, but the commons would maintain the said accusations in common, the said Lord Latimer, in exoneration of his person and declaration of his reputation, said:
27. Qe voirs estoit q'il estoit capitain de Becherell, et qe une tielle paix et cry furent faitz en Bretaigne depar le roi, et qe une enqueste y fuist fait et mys en escript, et ensealees des plusours sealx des seignurs de Bretaigne, et envoiez a nostre seignur le roy en Engleterre, quelle enqueste est issint appelle rageman. Mais il dist qe celle enqueste fust faite et procuree mains vraiement par Bretons et Franceoys, qi unqes n'amerent le roy nostre seignur ne nul autre Engloys, par hayne et envie pur avoir destruit le dit seignur fauxement. Et < il > dit ore come autre foitz avoit dit a nostre seignur le roy quant il ent estoit semblablement empeschez devant le roi meismes, qe toutz les profitz queux il unqes resceust par luy mesmes, ou autrement, en Bretaigne, ne passent en toutes choses la somme de dys mille livres; accomptez en meisme la somme de dys .m.li. toutz les profitz q'il y resceust pur les raunceons del viscont del Roan et des autres prisoners queux il prist a la bataille de Orroye. Et ce est il prest, et toutdys ad este, de prover par toutes les voies resonables qeome de son degree et estat doit faire. Et doit resembler a toutes gentz, il dist, pur voir qe depuis qe celle rageman fust issint fait par les enemys du roy et del roialme, come < dessus est > < dit, > et auxint dehors le roialme, qe toutes gentz la doivent tenir de la meindre credence et reputacion. Et encores il dit qe [...] celle somme de dys mille livres dont il s'avoit devant submys, et toutdys se vorra submettre en la grace de son seignur lige, ne purroit il ja paier si noun q'il vendist sa terre et vesselmentz < et eust aide de ses lieutenantz et resceivours en dit lieu de Becherell, les queux y ont > resceuz et eues tielles ranceons encontre le dit cry, si nulles y furent resceuz. 27. It was true that he was the captain of Bécherel, and that one such order and announcement was made in Brittany on the king's behalf, and that one inquest was made and put in writing, sealed with several seals of the lords of Brittany, and sent to our lord the king in England, which inquest is thus called a ragman. But he said that this inquest was made and procured falsely through hatred and envy by the Bretons and French, who never loved our lord the king or any other of the English, in order to destroy the said lord by deception. And he said now, as he previously said to our lord the king when he was similarly impeached thereon before the king himself, that all the profits which he ever received by himself, or otherwise, in Brittany, did not surpass in all things the sum of £10,000, including in the same sum of £10,000 all the profits which he received there for the ransoms of the vicomte of Rouen and other prisoners whom he took at the battle of Auray. And he is, and always has been, prepared to prove this in all reasonable ways which he should considering his degree and estate. And it should seem to all people, he said, to be true that since this ragman was thus made by the enemies of the king and the realm, as is aforesaid, and also outside the realm, all people should hold it of the least credence and reputation. And he further said that this sum of £10,000 to which he previously has submitted, and always will submit in the mercy of his liege lord, he could not now pay unless he sold his land and plate and had aid from his lieutenants and receivers in the said place of Bécherel, who have received and kept such ransoms contrary to the said announcement, if any were received there.
[p. ii-326]
[col. a]
Et tost apres ce, les communes oiez ceste responce de submission, prierent as seignurs du parlement pur le roi qe des ditz dys mille livres execucion fust fait tantost envers le dit seignur de Latymer, come de chose passe permy la dite submission, desicome il conust qe autre foitz il ent estoit empeschez, et la dite submission estre fait par luy, come dit est; et ne monstre mye gree estre fait al roi, ne nulle pardon n'autre chose, par la quelle il y doit estre deschargez. Et les seignurs respondirent qe sa responce serroit reportez au roi nostre seignur, et sur ce droit ent serroit fait pur le roi. Et quant a la dit bille baille avaunt en parlement de les faitz ses ditz deputez ou lieutenantz a Becherell et Plymmeyson, le dit seignur de Latymer dit q'il y est outreement innocent et sanz coulpe; qar il dist qe del < temps > qe celle rageman fust issint fait et envoiee a nostre seignur le roi, il ad demurrez continuelment en Engleterre par comandement du roy meismes, et rienz ne resceust unqes des ditz lieux ne aillours en dite terre de Bretaigne puis son departir d'illoeqes, n'en monoie n'en autre chose qelconqe, par les mains ses ditz lieutenantz ou deputez illoeqes ne par nulle autre. Et les communes, repliantz a ce, distrent qe si fist il ou autrement, y resceurent ses lieutenantz en noun de luy; et prierent q'il fust chargez de respondre a nostre seignur le roi pur ses ditz lieutenantz et resceivours illoeqes, en cas q'ils meismes ne soient assez suffisantz. Et les seignurs respondirent a ce qe ent prendroient avisement de sages de loy, et sur ce ferroient droit chescune part. Et quant as dites chevances faitz al oeps du roi nostre seignur sanz cause necessaire, il respondist et dist q'il n'assentist unqes a ce sanz cause trop necessaire et grantement busoignable. Et quant a ce qe luy ent est surmis desceite, faux covyne ou autre disloialtee, pur profit ou part avoir, il dist q'il ent est oultrement innocent et sanz coulpe, ne unqes apprestast ne delivrast aucune moneie n'autre chose del roy ne del soen ne d'autry al dite chevance faire; et ce fust il prest de prover auxint par toutes les voies qeome doit faire. Et quant a les patentes et briefs faites et grantez de passer leynes et pealx lanutz etc. aillours qe a l'estaple de Caleys, il dist qe celles licences furent comencez devant son temps avec le roy, sibien a Jenewe et Venyce come aillours. Et pluis il dist qe si rienz ent estoit fait en son temps, ce ne fust my fait par le soen conseil soulement, einz par luy avec autres; et ce encores pur un tresgrant profit al roi, dont il estoit loialment responduz en sa chambre. Et quant as novelles imposicions, il dist qe nulle novelle imposicion unqes estoit mys sur les leynes, quirs ou pealx lanutz par luy de novel, ne rienz ent paiez pluis al soen escient nulle part, forsqe soulement les subsides ent grantez en parlement, sinoun a l'ynstance et especiale requeste et priere de ceulx qi tielles licences demanderent; les queux paierent voluntrifment et sanz nulle manere compulsion .xi. s. al saak etc., les .x. s. c'estassavoir, al oeps du roy et les .xij. d. al oeps des clercs escrivantz et pursuantz les ditz licences, de < qi nouns il n'est > mye appris en certain. Et pluis il y dist q'il n'ent prist unqes rienz al soen profit demesne, par luy ne par nul autre; et ce fust [...] il prest de prover par toutes voies resonables. Et sur ce fust tesmoignez en parlement par Monsir Richard Lescrop', chivaler, nadgaires tresorer nostre dit seignur le roi, et par William Walworth de Londres, qe au temps quant la dite chevance se fist au roy de les ditz .xx. .m. marcz, le dit William Walworth profrist, en noun de luy meismes et de ses compaignons marchantz del dit estaple de Caleys, al dit seignur de Latymer, de faire chevance a nostre dit seignur le roi de dys mille livres, sanz rienz < ent > reprendre de encrees par userye ou autrement; par covenant tielle q'ils y purroient estre repaiez de les ditz dys .m. livres en lour propre mains des subsides dues al roi de lours leynes etc. lors proscheinement appassers vers Caleys; et auxint par covenant qe le roi lour grantast [col. b] qe nulle tielles licences serroient grante deslors de carier leynes etc. aillours qe a l'estaple de Caleys. And immediately after the commons had heard this answer of submission, they prayed to the lords of parliament for the king that execution of the said £10,000 should be made immediately against the said Lord Latimer, as of a thing permissible by the said submission, because he knew that he would again be impeached of the same, and the said submission to be made by him, as is said; and not to show the king's favour, or any pardon or other thing, by which he should be discharged. And the lords answered that his answer would be reported to our lord king, and justice would be done thereon for the king. And as regards the said bill put forward in parliament concerning the deeds of his said deputies or lieutenants at Bécherel and Plumoisan, the said Lord Latimer said that he is completely innocent and without guilt; because he said that from the time this ragman was thus made and sent to our lord the king, he has remained continually in England by the command of the king himself, and never received anything from the said places or elsewhere in the said land of Brittany since his departure from there, either in money or in any other thing whatsoever, by the hands of his said lieutenants or deputies there or by any other. And the commons, replying to this, said that whether or not he did this, they would receive his lieutenants in his name; and they prayed that he would be charged to answer to our lord the king for his said lieutenants and receivers there, if they were not sufficient enough themselves. And the lords answered that in this matter they would take the advice of the wise men of the law, and thereon would do justice to each party. And as regards the said loans made to our lord the king's use without necessary cause, he answered and said that he never agreed to this without very necessary and greatly needed cause. And as regards the deceit, false agreement or other disloyalty of which he is accused, for having profit or share, he said that he is completely innocent and without guilt, and never took or delivered any money or other thing from the king or his people or from any other to make the said loan; and he also was prepared to prove this in all the ways that he should. And as regards the letters patent and writs made and granted to export wool and woolfells etc. elsewhere than to the staple of Calais, he said that these licences were initiated before his time with the king, at Genoa and Venice as well as elsewhere. And he further said that if anything was done in his time, it was not done by his own counsel only, but by him with others; and this again for a very great profit to the king, for which he lawfully answered in the king's chamber. And as regards new impositions, he said that no new imposition was ever set on wool, leather or woolfells by him recently, or anything further paid for the same to his knowledge in any place, except only the subsidies granted thereon in parliament, unless at the instance and special request and prayer of those who required such licences; which men willingly and without any kind of force paid 11s. for the sack etc., that is to say, 10s. to the king's use and 12d. to the use of the clerks writing and pursuing the said licences, the names of whom he does not know for certain. And he further said that he never took anything to his own profit, by him or by any other, and he was prepared to prove this in all reasonable ways. And Sir Richard Scrope, knight, formerly our lord the king's treasurer, and William Walworth of London witnessed in parliament that at the time when the said loan of the said 20,000 marks was made to the king, the said William Walworth, in the name of himself and of his companion merchants of the said staple of Calais, offered the said Lord Latimer to make a loan of £10,000 to our said lord the king, without taking any interest by usury or otherwise; by such agreement that they could be repaid the said £10,000 into their own hands from the subsidies due to the king from their wool etc. then next to cross to Calais; and also by agreement that the king would grant them [col. b] that no such licences would be granted thereafter to carry wool etc. elsewhere than to the staple of Calais.
A quoy le dit seignur de Latymer respondist et dist q'il ne oiast unqes de eux nul tiel profre. Et les autres affermantz la contraire jurrerent qe le dit William Walworth y fist a luy tiel profre. Et quant a la perde des dites villes et fortz et de la deliverance d'aucunes espyes ou felons issint emprisonez, le dit < seignur > dit auxint q'il y est de rienz coulpable; et ce voet il prover et averrer par toutes les voies resonables q'il doit faire. Et sur ce plusours autres paroles et resons monstreez et parlez, sibien en plein parlement come autrement devaunt les prelatz et seignurs soulement, sibien pur nostre seignur le roy come pur la partie du dit seignur de Latymer, et plusours examinacions ent faites sibien en prive come en appert, apres longe deliberacion ent eue, fust juggement renduz en parlement vers le dit seignur de Latymer en les parole qe s'ensuent: To which the said Lord Latimer answered and said that he never heard any such offer from them. And the others affirming the contrary swore that the said William Walworth did make such offer to him. And as regards the loss of the said towns and forts and of the deliverance of certain spies or felons thus imprisoned, the said lord also said that he was guilty of nothing; and he would prove and aver this in all the reasonable ways that he should. And thereon after many other words and explanations had been declared and discussed, in full parliament as well as otherwise before the prelates and lords only, for our lord the king as well as for the party of the said Lord Latimer, and after many examinations were made thereon in private and in public and long deliberation was had, a judgment was returned in parliament to the said Lord Latimer in the words that follow:
28. Pur ce qe le seignur de Latymer est trovez en plein parlement en defaute par son singuler conseil et governement, encontre le profit le roy et du roialme; c'estassavoir, de diverses chevances faitz au perde du roy sanz cause necessaire, et auxint de patentes faites en destruccion de l'estaple de leynes et del monyage de Caleys, a grant damage du roy et del roialme d'Engleterre, et annyentissement de la ville de Caleys, et ensement des diverses grevouses imposicions mises sur les leynes encontre l'estatut du parlement ent nagaires fait, (fn. ii-321-101-1) il est agardez par les prelatz et seignurs en plein parlement, a prisone d'estre en garde du mareschal, et faire fyn et ranceoun a la volentee le roy. Sur quoy la dite commune ad suppliez al roy qe pur ce q'il est trovez en tieux defautes par ses singulertes susditz, < il > soit oustez de toutz offices le roy, et especialx et privez < conseilx > entour le roy, par tout temps; quelle requeste le roi ad ottroiez, et le voet et grante. 28. Because Lord Latimer was found in full parliament to be in fault by his singular counsel and governance, contrary to the profit of the king and the realm; that is to say, of various loans made without necessary cause to the loss of the king, and also of letters patent made to the detriment of the staple of wool and of the mint of Calais, to the great damage of the king and of the realm of England and in destruction of the town of Calais, and further of various grievous impositions set on wool contrary to the statute of parliament formerly made thereon, (fn. ii-321-101-1) the prelates and lords in full parliament sentence him to be imprisoned in the custody of the marshal, and to make fine and ransom at the king's will. Wherefore the said commons have petitioned the king that because he was found to be in such fault by his aforesaid personal ambition, he should be removed from all the king's offices and special and privy councils close to the king, for all time; which request the king has granted, and wills and grants it.
29. Et sur ce le dit seignur de Latymer trovast en parlement certains prelatz, seignurs et autres, ses mainpernours durant le parlement, de avoir son corps devant le roy et les seignurs a respondre pluis avant a les articles dont il estoit issint arettez, souz certaine paine et forme comprises en une cedule annexe a ycestes. Et par celle mainprise le mareschal d'Engleterre luy lessast aler a large etc. 29. And thereon the said Lord Latimer found in parliament certain prelates, lords and others, his mainpernors during the parliament, to have his person before the king and the lords to answer henceforth to the articles for which he was thus arrested, under certain penalty and terms contained in a schedule annexed to this. And by this mainprise the marshal of England let him go free etc.
[editorial note: The following from 'L'ercevesqe d'Everwyk' to 'ils soient deschargez' is contained on a separate piece of parchment sewn to membrane 4.] [editorial note: The following from 'The archbishop of York' to 'they should be discharged' is contained on a separate piece of parchment sewn to membrane 4.]

  • 30. The archbishop of York
  • The bishop of Durham
  • The bishop of Worcester
  • The bishop of Exeter
  • The prior of the hospital of St John of Jerusalem.
  • The earl of Arundel
  • The earl of Salisbury
- s'il plest au roi. - if it pleases the king.
- s'il plest au roi. - if it pleases the king.
Les prelatz, seignurs et chivalers dessusnomez ont empris pur le corps du sire de Latymer durant cest present parlement de venir devant le roi et les seignurs du parlement pur les causes dont il ad este rettez en dit parlement a Westm', le .xxvi. e jour de May, l'an du regne nostre seignur le roi cynquantisme; issint toutesfoitz qe, quant ils averont amesnez le dit corps en parlement, ils soient deschargez. The prelates, lords and knights named above have undertaken to bring the person of Lord Latimer before the king and the lords of parliament during this present parliament for the causes for which he was arrested in the said parliament at Westminster on 26 May in the fiftieth year of the reign of our lord the king; on condition that, when they have brought the said person into parliament, they should be discharged.
[memb. 5]
William Elys. William Ellis.
31. Item, William Elys de Grant Jernemuth est empeschez et accusez en ceste presente parlement en diverses maneres. Primerement, c'estassavoir, par la surmise des communes a luy faite qe le dit William tant come il y ad este fermer nostre seignur le roy de sa petite custume en port de Grant Jernemuth, et deputee de Richard Lyons, fermer del subsidie de .vi. d. al livre, grantez a nostre dit seignur le roy parmy le roialme de toutes merchandises passantz hors du roialme et entrantz en ycell, pur la salve garde de meer, et des merchantz passantz par meer < et > de lour merchandises, ad pris par luy et ses servantz sibien des Engleys come des estraunges, en dit port et les membres d'ycell, par extorsion, par colour de ses ditz offices, plusours grandes sommes de deniers, et autrement q'il ne dust avoir fait, en grande prejudice et esclaundre du roi, et damage de son dit roialme, et oppression et arrierissement de les merchantz avauntditz. Et par especial est surmys al dit William q'il avoit pris de merchantz d'Escoce chacez par tempest en une < nief > chargee de diverses merchandises d'Escoce a Kirkelerode, deinz mesmes le port, .xxxiij.li. par extorsion; par la ou le dit merchant d'Escoce ne deschargeast nene veulloit descharger rienz de ses ditz merchandises, neny veulloit avoir venuz la sinoun q'il y fust chacez par tempest, come dist est. Et ce luy leust bien del faire parmy les < trieves > d'Escoce, qe veullent qe toutz merchantz d'Escoce issint chacez par tempest deinz le roialme soient honestement tretez, sanz mal faire a eux ou a lour biens en ascune manere. Et le dit William Elys, present en parlement, dist qe voirs estoit q'il estoit un des fermers del dite petite custume, et aussint depute a dit Richard del subside avauntdit, et q'il avoit bien et loialment pris les ditz custumes et subsides des merchantz passant et venantz, selonc < le > purport des commissions ent faitz, sanz ce q'il y prist ou fist prendre unqes rienz par extorsion, plus qe ent fust due clerement al roy; et ce fust il prest de prover par quelconqe voie q'il deust faire. Et les dites communes repliantz a ce disterent qe le dit William avoit meismes conuz a eux en lour commune assemble en la maison de chapitre deinz l'abbeye de Westm' < le jour devant, > q'il avoit resceuz les ditz .xxxiij.li. Et prierent qe encontre sa conisance demesne faite si overtement, et devant tantz des persones, ne fust autre foitz resceuz a dire le contraire. Et sur ce les ditz communes amesnerent en parlement Johan Botild et William Coupere de Leystoft et deux autres, les queux avoient paiez a dit William Elys pur le dit merchant d'Escoce les ditz .xxxiij.li. pur pluis plenere enformacion avoir de la matire avantdite. Les queux Johan et William Coupere, ent examinez en parlement, disterent et conustrent q'ils furent obligez a nostre seignur le roy et al dit William Ely, par lour lettres obligatoirs en les ditz .xxxiij.li. pur le dit Escot, qi fust lour host, [col. b] apaiers a certain jour pur le dit subside de .vi. d. al livre duez de touz les merchandises en le dit nef, tout fust il ensi qe le dit Escot n'y deschargeast unqes rienz, come dessus est dit. Et au dit jour del paiement ils paierent al dit William Elys les ditz .xxxiij. li. Et sur ce les ditz communes prierent juggement de dit William Elys. Et le dit William Elys dit qe comment q'il avoit resceuz les ditz .xxxiij.li. de Johan Botild, et des autres avantditz, nientmains il ne les resceut unqes forsqe supposant qe celles furent duez; et encores ce fist il souz condicion tielle qe si tost q'il ent eust brief, ou autre < mandement > du roi nostre seignur de faire la deliverance, q'il le fist a eux tresvoluntiers, et sanz delay. Et outre ce il dist qe brief lui vient de ent faire restitucion al dit merchant; et par vertue de mesme le brief il ent ad fait plenere restitucion a un Johan Fauxhide d'Escoce, attourne general pur les merchantz d'Escoce, come piert par un general relesse fait au dit William Elys par le dit attourne, quele relees il mist avaunt en le parlement, comparnant qe le dit Johan Fauxhide, attorne general des merchantz d'Escoce, relessast plainement al dit William Elys, toutes maneres d'accions reales et personels, < qe > le dit marchant d'Escoce, ou nul autre merchant d'Escoce avoit, ou aucunement purroit avoir vers luy pur aucune cause de mounde tanqe a la fesance de mesme le relees. Et ce veue et entendue, fust dit par les seignurs qe le seal de relees ne fust mye < autentiqe, > ne les parties d'Escoce n'y furent < mye > presentez, paront homme ne poat savoir si tiel attorne fust fait ou ne mye, ne si cele relees fust un loial relees ou un relees forgez; et outre ce fust dit al dit William Elys qe coment < qe > un tiel attorne general fust fait en veritee, nientmains la loy ne voet mye qe attorne face relees general. Et surce mesme le relees fust baillez en la main du seignur de Percy, pur ent enquere la plaine veritee al proschein jour de Marche vers Escoce; et s'il y fust trovez < relees forgez, qe le dit > < William Elys > fust bien puniz. Et les communes prierent qe bone enquerre fust fait del dit William Elys, et de toutz autres deputez del dit Richard < Lyons > parmy le roialme generalment; et ce y estoit ottroiez par les seignurs. 31. Also, William Ellis of Great Yarmouth was impeached and accused in this present parliament in various ways. First, that is to say, by the allegation of the commons made to him that the said William, as much as he had been our lord the king's farmer of his petty custom in the port of Great Yarmouth and the deputy of Richard Lyons, farmer of the subsidy of 6d. on the pound granted to our said lord the king throughout the realm from all merchandises exported out of the realm and entering into the same, for the safekeeping of the sea, and from merchants crossing by sea and from their merchandises, has taken by him and his servants from English people as well as from foreigners, in the said port and the parts of the same, by extortion and by colour of his said offices, many great sums of money and otherwise which he ought not to have done, in great prejudice and slander of the king and to the damage of his said realm and the oppression and destruction of the aforesaid merchants. And the said William is accused especially of having taken in the same port by extortion £33 from a Scottish merchant driven by storm from Scotland to Kirkley Roads in a ship laden with various merchandises; when the said Scottish merchant did not unload or wish to unload any of his said merchandises, or would even have come there had he not been driven by the storm, as is said. And it pleased him well to do this during the truce with Scotland, when all Scottish merchants thus driven into the realm by storm ought to be treated honestly, without evil being done to them or to their goods in any manner. And the said William Ellis, present in parliament, said that it was true that he was one of the farmers of the said petty custom, and also deputy to the said Richard of the aforesaid subsidy, and that he had properly and lawfully taken the said customs and subsidies from merchants crossing and entering, according to the purport of the commissions made thereon, without taking or causing anything more to be taken by extortion than was clearly due to the king; and he was prepared to prove this in whatever way he should. And the said commons, replying to this, said that the said William had made known to them in their common assembly in the chapter house in Westminster Abbey on the previous day that he had received the said £33. And they prayed that, contrary to his own admission stated so openly and before so many people, he could not now be allowed to state the opposite. And thereon the said commons brought into parliament John Botild and William Cooper of Lowestoft and two others, who had paid the said £33 to the said William Ellis for the said Scottish merchant, in order to have fuller information of the aforesaid matter. Which John and William Cooper, examined thereon in parliament, said and knew that they were bound to our lord the king and to the said William Ellis by their bills obligatory in the said £33 for the said Scot, who was their host, [col. b] to be paid on a certain day for the said subsidy of 6d. on the pound due from all the merchandises in the said ship, although the said Scot never unloaded anything, as is aforesaid. And on the said day of the payment they paid the said William Ellis the said £33. And thereon the said commons prayed judgment concerning the said William Ellis. And the said William Ellis said that, although he had received the said £33 from John Botild and from the aforesaid others, nevertheless he only received it supposing that it was due; and it was still under such condition that as soon as he had a writ thereon, or other command from our lord the king to make the deliverance, he willingly would make it to them, without delay. And he further said that a writ came to him to make restitution thereon to the said merchant; and by virtue of the same writ he had made full restitution thereon to one John Fauxhide of Scotland, attorney general for the Scottish merchants, as appears by a general release made to the said William Ellis by the said attorney, which release he put forward in parliament, containing that the said John Fauxhide, attorney general of the Scottish merchants, released fully to the said William Ellis all manner of actions real and personal which the said Scottish merchant or any other Scottish merchant had or could have against him for any reason at all until the making of the same release. And when this had been examined and understood, the lords said that the seal of release was not authentic, and the Scottish parties were not presented, whereby one could not know whether such attorney was appointed or not, or whether this release was lawful or forged; and the said William Ellis was further told that although one such attorney general was appointed in truth, nevertheless the law does not will that the attorney should make a general release. And the same release was delivered into the hands of Lord Percy, to inquire into the full truth concerning Scotland on the next day of the march; and if the release was found to be forged, the said William Ellis should be properly punished. And the commons prayed that a good enquiry would be made into the said William Ellis, and into all other deputies of the said Richard Lyons throughout the realm generally; and this was granted by the lords.
Item, puis apres les ditz Johan Botild et William Coupere misterent avaunt deux lour billes en la forme qe s'ensuit: Also, the said John Botild and William Cooper then put forward their two bills in the form that follows:
'A lour tresredoute seignur le roy et a son sage conseil; monstre Johan Botild de Lewystoft qe le lundy proschein apres l'Assencion nostre seigneur, l'an du regne nostre seignur le roi q'orest quarant et noefisme, si fust chacez par tempest en Kirkelerode un cog de Gotelond en Pruse, dont le mestre avoit a noun Henry Luse, chargee de diverses merchandises de Pruse, c'estassavoir, de cyre, feer et autres merchandises; et mesme le jour, William Savage, clerc et servant de dit William Elys, par commandement de William Elys, prist del dit cog pur les ditz merchandises, qe riens deschargea illoeqes, .xvij. nobles, et un last de osmond, pris de last .x.li. .xvi. s. a Lewestoft, < devant q'il sengla hors de Kirkelerode, a grant damage as ditz > merchantz. Et pur cause qe William Elys savoit qe le dit Johan Botild de Lewestoft devoit venir a ceste parlement et monstrer cestes grevances et autres, en aide des merchantz, et ensement pur monstrer coment la grante chiertee de harange purroit estre amende en eide de tout le roialme, le dit William Elys par son fauxe suggescion fist arester le dit Johan et mettre en prison en le Tour par trois semaignes. Pleise a nostre tresredoute seignur le roy et a son sage conseil de ent faire remedie, pur Dieu et en oevere de charitee.' 'To their most dread lord the king and his wise council; John Botild of Lowestoft declares that on the Monday immediately following the Ascension of Our Lord in the forty-ninth year of the reign of our present lord the king [4 June 1375], a cog from Gotland in Prussia, whose master was named Henry Luse, was driven by storm to Kirkley Roads, laden with various Prussian merchandises, that is to say, with wax, iron and other merchandises; and on the same day, William Savage, clerk and servant of the said William Ellis, by command of William Ellis, took from the said cog at Lowestoft 17 nobles for the said merchandises, none of which was unloaded there, and one last of osmund worth £10 16s. per last, before he sailed out of Kirkley Roads, to the great damage of the said merchants. And because William Ellis knew that the said John Botild of Lowestoft should come to this parliament and declare these grievances and others, in aid of the merchants, and further declare how the great scarcity of herring could be improved in aid of all the realm, the said William Ellis by his false accusation caused the said John to be arrested and put in prison in the Tower for three weeks. May it please our most dread lord the king and his wise council to provide remedy thereon, for God and in way of charity.'
'A lour tresredoute seignur le roi et a son sage conseil; monstre William Couper de Lewestoft qe le lundy proschein apres l'Assencion, l'an du regne nostre seignur le roy q'orest quarant et noefisme, si fuist chace par tempest a Kirkelerode un cog de Gotelond en Pruse, dont le mestre avoit a noun Henry Luse, chargee de diverses merchandises des merchantz de Pruse, c'estassavoir, de cire, werk et feer et autres [p. ii-328][col. a] merchandises; et mesme le jour William Savage, clerc et servant de William Elys, par comandement de William Elys, prist del dit cog pur les merchandises, et rienz ne deschargea illoeqes, .xvij. nobles, et un last de osmond pris le last .x.li. .xvi. s. a Lewestoft, devant q'il sengla hors de Kirkelerode, a grant damage des ditz merchantz. Et par cause qe William Elys savoit qe William Couper devoit venir a ceste parlement et monstrer cestes grevances et autres, en eide des merchantz, et ensement pur monstrer comment la grande chirtee de harange purroit estre amende en eide de tout le roialme, le dit William par son fauxe suggescion fist arester le dit William Coupere et mettre en prison en le Tour par trois semaignes. Plese a nostre tresredoute seignur le roi et a son sage conseil de faire ent remedie en oevere de charitee.' 'To their most dread lord the king and his wise council; William Cooper of Lowestoft declares that on the Monday immediately following the Ascension in the forty-ninth year of the reign of our present lord the king [4 June 1375], a cog from Gotland in Prussia, whose master was named Henry Luse, was driven by storm to Kirkley Roads, laden with various merchandises of Prussian merchants, that is to say, with wax, handiwork, iron and other [p. ii-328][col. a] merchandises; and on the same day William Savage, clerk and servant of William Ellis, by command of William Ellis, took from the said cog at Lowestoft 17 nobles for the merchandises, none of which was unloaded there, and one last of osmund worth £10 16s. per last, before he sailed out of Kirkley Roads, to the great damage of the said merchants. And because William Ellis knew that William Cooper should come to this parliament and declare these grievances and others, in aid of the merchants, and further declare how the great scarcity of herring could be improved in aid of all the realm, the said William by his false accusation caused the said William Cooper to be arrested and put in prison in the Tower for three weeks. May it please our most dread lord the king and his wise council to provide remedy thereon, in way of charity.'
Les quelles billes lues en parlement en presence de dit William Elys, meisme cestuy William Elys dist qe quant a les ditz .xvij. nobles et feer appelle osmond, il ne les prist mye, ne par luy ne par autre, des ditz merchantz de Pruce, ne d'autre quelconqe. Et les ditz Johan Botild et William Coupere affermantz la contraire, al drain fust dit par les seignurs en parlement qe celles billes touchantz la < matire de > feer et or fussent mandez el bank le roy pur trier. Et quant al < dit > emprisonement, le dit William Elys dist qe pur ce qe encheminant vers Londres il fust garniz par plusours suffisantz persones, qe les ditz Johan et William Coupere, avec .xxxvi. autres persones de Leystoft giserent en agait de la persone de dit William Elys, a Wikham Market en Suff', et aillours la entour le haute chemyn de Jernemuth a Londres, al temps quant le dit William venoit vers Londres, portant ovesqe luy grande somme de deniers le roi des custumes et subsides avauntditz, si returnast le dit William a Jernemuth pur doute de sa mort, et ne osast venir a Londres tanqe il fust mieltz garniz de force de gentz pur luy conduire surement et salvement. Et dist q'il envoiast un la sue lettre de Jernemuth a Londres a George Felbrigg', esquier le roy et son compaignon en la dite ferme de petitz custumes, comparnante le dit agait issint estre faite a luy par les gentz avantditz; et pluis n'ent fist il unqes paront les ditz Johan et William y deussent estre emprisonez et empeschez. Et sur ce y fist tesmoigner en parlement qe celle meisme lettre fust monstre al roi nostre seignur, et par la monstrance d'ycelle lettre furent les dit Johan et William Coupere arestuz et emprisonez par comandement du roi mesmes, et pur nulle autre cause. Et d'autre part, les ditz Johan et William Coupere affermantz le contraire par lour serementz, c'estassavoir, q'ils ne firent unqes nul tiel agait vers luy par le dit chemyn n'autrement; et y fust tesmoignez expressement par diverses suffisantz gentz en mesme le parlement qe les ditz Johan et William Coupere furent venuz a Londres, et illoeqes demurrantz sur la pursuite de lour busoignes en ce parlement, quant le dit agaite fust par le dit William Elys supposee estre fait par eux et autres al dit lieu de Wikham Market. When these bills had been read in parliament in the presence of the said William Ellis, this same William Ellis said that as regards the said 17 nobles and iron called osmund, he did not take them, by himself or by another, from the said Prussian merchants or from anyone else whatsoever. And with the said John Botild and William Cooper affirming the contrary, the lords in parliament finally said that these bills touching the matter of iron and gold would be sent to the king's bench to be tried. (fn. ii-321-126-1) And as regards the said imprisonment, the said William Ellis said that because when heading towards London he was warned by several sufficient people that the said John and William Cooper, with thirty-six other people from Lowestoft, would lay in ambush for the person of the said William Ellis at Wickham Market in Suffolk, and elsewhere around the high road from Yarmouth to London, when the said William would come to London, bearing with him a great sum of the king's money from the aforesaid customs and subsidies, the said William returned to Yarmouth for fear of his death, and dared not come to London until he was better equipped with a force of men to conduct him surely and safely. And he said that he sent one of his letters from Yarmouth to London to George Felbrigge, the king's esquire and his companion in the said farm of the petty customs, containing the said ambush thus to be done to him by the aforesaid people; and he never did more by which the said John and William should be imprisoned and impeached. And it was witnessed thereon in parliament that this same letter was shown to our lord the king, and by the evidence of the same letter the said John and William Cooper were arrested and imprisoned by order of the king himself, and for no other reason. And on the other hand, the said John and William Cooper affirmed the contrary by their oaths: that is to say, that there was never any such ambush against him by the said road or otherwise; and various sufficient men in the same parliament especially witnessed that the said John and William Cooper had come to London, and were staying there on the pursuit of their business in this parliament, when the said William Ellis alleged that the said ambush was to be made by them and others at the said place of Wickham Market.
32. Et sur ce, pur ce qe sembloit as seignurs du parlement qe le dit William Elys < fist > la dite suggescion par sa dite lettre meins verraiement, y fust adjuggiez qe le dit William Elys fust en le cas d'estatut fait de ceux qi font pleinte au roi meismes, (fn. ii-321-128-1) auxi avant come s'il l'eust dit au roi de son propre bouche. Et par tant le dit William Elys y est agarde a la prisone, a faire fyn et ranceon a meisme nostre seignur le roy, et < est agardez > a chescun des ditz Johan et William Coupere, .xx.li. pur lour damages et despenses parmy lour dit emprisonement faitz et soeffertz. Et auxint est agardez qe les ditz commissions soient faitz as suffisantz gentz d'enquere del William Elys, et de toutz autres deputez le dit Richard Lyons parmy le roialme. 32. And thereon, because it seemed to the lords of the parliament that the said William Ellis made the said accusation by his said letter falsely, it was adjudged that the said William Ellis fell under the statute made concerning those who complain to the king himself, (fn. ii-321-128-1) as completely as if he had said it to the king through his own mouth. And therefore the said William Ellis was sentenced to prison to make fine and ransom to our same lord the king, and £20 was awarded to each of the said John and William Cooper for their damages and expenses incurred and suffered by their said imprisonment. And it was also decided that the said commissions should be made to sufficient people to inquire into William Ellis, and all other deputies of the said Richard Lyons throughout the realm. (fn. ii-321-128-2)
Johan Pecche. John Pecche.
33. Item, Johan Pecchee de Londres estoit accusee et empeschez en cest parlement par les ditz communes [col. b] q'il, par assent et aide de Richard Lyons et d'autres < privez entour le roi > de sa covyne, pur lour singuler profit et avantage, avoit purchace une patente souz le grant seal nostre seignur le roy, contenante qe nully vendroit vins douces deinz la franchise de la citee de Londres forsqe soulement le dit Johan et ses deputez, en grant damage et oppression du poeple et destruccion de la franchise de meisme la citee. Et auxint, de ce q'il deust avoir pris, < del soen propre auctorite > par extorsion et sanz garrant, de chescun pype ou vessel de tiel vyn douce venduz par le dit Johan et ses ditz deputez .iij. s. .iiij. d. sanz autres extorsions queux il y ent prist des achatours d'ycelles vins douces, q'amonte a grant somme de deniers, durant le temps q'il usast la dite patente. Et prierent meismes les communes q'il ent fust aresonez en parlement, et justice sur ce fait, sibien pur le roy come pur < les parties > issint endamagez, et q'il fust constreint de rendre accompte au roi de .x. s. de chescun vessel de vin douce, selonc la forme de sa patente avauntdite. Luy quel Johan, present en parlement, conust bien q'il avoit un tielle patente, qe nul homme vendroit de vin douce forsqe le dit Johan et ses deputez en meisme la citee, et pur chescun tiel vessell de vin douce vendue puis la date de mesme la patente fust tenuz de rendre au roi .x. s. par forme de mesme la patente, dont il avoit fait gree, ou fust prest de faire, par la tesmoignance de son contreroullour a ce ordene. Et auxi il conust q'il avoit bien resceuz a son oeps propre les ditz .iij. s. .iiij. d. de chescun tiel vessell par la manere souzescrite. Mais il dit qe coment qe de la volente < des marchantz > achatours il poait avoir resceuz de chescun tiel vessell venduz par luy et ses deputez .xiij. s. .iiij. d. ou .x. s. au meins a son propre oeps, outre les autres .x. s. ent duez au roy a cause de sa dite privilege a luy grantee parmy la dite patente, come dit est; nientmayns il dit q'il ne veulloit unqes user son privilege si largement, einz tantost apres sa patente a luy grantee et devant q'il rienz fist par vertu d'ycell, se conseillast avec le meir et aldermans de Londres de la somme quelle y prendroit del pipe a son propre oeps, et lour priast qe celle somme fuist issint mys en certein de lour volentee. Et issint les ditz meir et aldermans de lour commune assent accorderent q'il prendroit de chescun tiel pipe ou vessel les ditz .iij. s. .iiij. d. Et issint dist il q'il resceust celles .iij. s. .iiij. d. de chescun pipe, sibien de la volentee des marchantz < et d'autres achatours > come del consentement de gouvernours de la dite citee, et nemye de sa auctoritee propre. Et qe ceste sa responce est veritable il vouchast a record, et se surmyst de tout al tesmoignance des meir et aldermans avauntditz. Et sur ce le meir, recordour et la greindre partie des aldermans de Londres, les queux ceste cause furent envoiez en cest parlement, examinez sur meisme la matire estroitment, affermerent illoeqes en parlement qe al dit Johan Pecchee les ditz .iij. s. .iiij. d. del pipe ne furent unqes par nully merchant n'autre paiez, < ne a ses deputez, > < de > bone gree, einz distrent expressement q'il les prist a grande somme de sa auctoritee demesne, sanz garant < et > < sanz > l'assent de eux, ou de nulle autre gouvernour de meisme la citee. Par quoi le dit Johan est agardee a prisone, et face fyn et ranceon a nostre seignur le roy; et auxint face gree a les parties compleignantz de luy pur les extorsions issint prises. 33. Also, John Pecche of London was accused and impeached in this parliament by the said commons [col. b] that he, by the assent and aid of Richard Lyons and other intimates of his faction close to the king, for their singular profit and advantage, had purchased a patent under the great seal of our lord the king, containing that no-one should sell sweet wines inside the franchise of the city of London except only the said John and his deputies, in great damage and oppression of the people and to the detriment of the franchise of the same city. And also, because he should have taken 3s. 4d. from each pipe or vessel of such sweet wine sold by the said John and his said deputies, during the time he used the said patent he took other extortions, by his own authority and without warrant, from the buyers of the same sweet wine, which amount to a great sum of money. And the same commons prayed that he would be arraigned in parliament, and justice done thereon, for the king as well as for the parties thus damaged, and that he would be forced to render account to the king of 10s. from each vessel of sweet wine, according to the form of his aforesaid patent. The same John, present in parliament, knew well that he had such a patent that no man should sell sweet wine except the said John and his deputies in the same city, and that for each such vessel of sweet wine sold since the date of the same patent he was held to render to the king 10s. by the form the same patent, for which he has made satisfaction, or would be prepared to make it, by the testimony of his controller appointed to this. And he also knew that he had properly received to his own use the said 3s. 4d. from each such vessel in the aforesaid manner. But he said that although, of the will of the merchant buyers, he could have received 13s. 4d. or at least 10s. from each such vessel sold by him and his deputies to his own use, in addition to the other 10s. due thereon to the king by reason of his said privilege granted to him by the said patent, as is said, nevertheless he would never use his privilege so generally, but immediately after his patent granted to him, and before he did anything by virtue of the same, he took counsel with the mayor and aldermen of London concerning the sum which he should take from each pipe for his own use, and prayed them that this sum would thus be fixed for certain at their will. And thus the said mayor and aldermen, of their common assent, agreed that he should take from each such pipe or vessel the said 3s. 4d. And thus he said that he received this 3s. 4d. from each pipe by the will of the merchants and other buyers as well as of the consent of the governors of the said city, and not of his own authority. And he vouches on record that his answer is true, and submits completely to the testimony of the aforesaid mayor and aldermen. And thereon the mayor, recorder and the greater part of the aldermen of London, who were sent for in this parliament for this reason, strictly examined on the same matter, affirmed there in parliament that the said 3s. 4d. per pipe was never paid to the said John Pecche by any merchant or other, or to his deputies, willingly, but they said expressly that he took a great sum of his own authority, without warrant and without their assent, or that of any other governor of the same city. Wherefore the said John was sentenced to prison, and should make fine and ransom to our lord the king; and he should also make satisfaction to the parties complaining about him for the extortions thus taken.
[memb. 6]
Johan seignur de Nevill. John Lord Nevill.
34. Item, Johan seignur de Nevill estoit semblablement empeschez, de ce qe tant come il estoit officer nostre seignur le roy et de son prive conseil, il avoit achatez diverses tailles d'assignementz faitz par nostre seignur le roy a diverses gentz de son roialme, as queux il estoit dettour, et ent avoit le dit seignur entier paiement et due allouance en l'escheqer, les parties de rienz ou poy ent serviz; et par especial fust dit par les communes qe mesme le seigneur de Nevill si avoit achatez tielles tailles de la dame de Ravenesholm', qe ore est a Dieu comandez, et de Reynald [p. ii-329][col. a] Love, merchant de Londres, dont il estoit perpaiez, et ent avoit plain allouance, < et poy estoit as ditz dame et Reynald > ent paiez, affermantz qe le dit seigneur ent avoit gaignez de eux bien entour .ccc.li., en grant desceite le roy et esclandre de sa courte et damages des dites parties. Et auxint il estoit empeschez de sa voiage nadgaires fait vers les parties de Bretaigne as gages du roy, de ce q'il faillast < de > grante quantite de la nombre des gentz d'armes et archers accordee par luy avec nostre seignur le roy d'y amesner, et encores ceux q'il y amesnast furent meinz suffisantz gentz, come garcions et autres tieux de nulle value, et nientmeins resceust plein paiement pur sa nombre entier des suffisantz gentz, paront nostre seignur le roi y fust malement descuz. Qar y fust dit qe en defaute del dit seignur de Nevill adonqes furent plusours forteresces perduz en Bretaigne. Et auxint de ceo q'il destruit avec ses gentz en la contee de Suht', tantcome il y fust a Hampton' sur son passage, grante partie du paiis, et y firent ses ditz gentz tant de mal et destruxion des biens en paiis, et vilenie as femmes mariez et autres, come y deussent avoir fait atantz des appertz enemys le roi, horspris tantsoulement arsure et prise des persones, a grant damage del dit paiis. 34. Also, John Lord Nevill was similarly impeached because inasmuch as he was our lord the king's officer and a member of his privy council, he had bought various tallies of assignments made by our lord the king to various people of his realm, to whom he was a debtor, and the said lord had the whole payment and due allowance thereon in the exchequer, and the parties were served with nothing or little; and the commons particularly said that the same Lord Nevill had bought such tallies from Lady Ravensholme, who now is sent to God, and from Reginald [p. ii-329][col. a] Love, merchant of London, by whom he was paid in full and had full allowance, and paid little to the said lady and Reginald, who affirmed that the said lord had taken from them well near £300, in great deceit of the king and slander of his court and to the damage of the said parties. And he was also impeached concerning his voyage formerly made to parts of Brittany at the king's wages, because he failed to produce a great number of men-at-arms and archers whom he agreed with our lord the king to bring there, and yet those who he did bring were less sufficient men, such as boys and other such of no value, and nevertheless he received full payment for the whole number of sufficient men, by which our lord the king was wickedly deceived. Wherefore it was said that by the default of the said Lord Nevill many fortresses were then lost in Brittany. And also because, while he was at Hampton for his embarkation, he and his men destroyed a great part of the region in the county of Hampshire, and his said men did as much evil and destruction to goods in the region, and villainy to married women and others, as they might have done to the king's public enemies, short only of burning things and capturing people, to the great damage of the said region.
A quoy le dit seignur de Nevill, present en parlement, respoignant y dist qe voirs estoit qe la dame de Ravenesholm luy devoit nadgaires une certaine somme de deniers, les quelles il avoit paiez a elle devant sur un certain bargain fait parentre la dite dame et le dit seignur; et cel bargain faillez entre eux en defaute la dite < dame, il demandast de elle > sa moneie a luy due par elle. Mais pur ce qe elle n'avoit moneie de luy paier, einz avoit tielles tailles de nostre seignur le roi de .cc.li., il resceust de la dite dame, il dist, les ditz tailles dont il estoit depuis paiez par aide de ses amys entour le roy. Mes qe ce fust a grant peine, paront elle luy ent donast, il dist, bien entour .iiij. .xx. .xv.li. de son bon gree, sanz ce qe aucun covenant ent fust fait entre eux; par quoy il n'entende mye q'il y doit estre empeschez de chose a luy issint donee. Et quant a Reynald Love, il soi excusast, qe rienz n'y gaignast unqes de luy. Et les communes y prierent qe le dit Reynald illoeqes present ent fust examinez. Luy quel Reynald chargez sur sa ligeance de conter devant eux en appert la plaine verite, dist qe il achatast nadgairs certeins leynes du dit seignur de Nevill pur la somme de .dc.li. ou la entour, et ent avoit de luy jour de paiement; et apres praist al dit seignur pur autre plus long jour. Et au drain ent furent accordez qe le dit seignur de Nevill prendroit de luy tielles tailles d'assignement contenantes .ccccl.li. en partie de paiement de les ditz .dc.li., et ensi les prist il. Et le dit Reynald y dist auxint qe toutes choses accomptez entre eux sibien, c'estassavoir, la somme des dites tailles entier come toutes autres paiementz ent a luy faites, il ent estoit encores dettour al dit seignur clerement de .lx.li., dont il pensast qe le dit seignur ne luy vorroit faire sibien noun. Et dist qe le dit seignur n'achatast autrement unqes nulle taille de luy. Et sur ce Monsir Michel de la Pole et William de Wyngefeld, chivalers, y presentz, recorderent expressement qe le dit Reynald avoit dit et conuz expressement devant eux et plusours autres, le jour devant, qe le dit seignur de Nevill avoit pris les ditz tailles del dit Reynald par voie d'achat, et pur un tiel gain come dessus est dit; et qe le Reynald avoit dit a eux q'il achatast par tant chescune saak de leyne del dit seignur de Nevill par deux marz pluis chier q'il ne poait avoir fait aillours. Et le dit Reynald, repliant a leur dit en ce cas, dist q'il ne dist unqes a eux ne a nul autre tiel parole. Et tantost apres les ditz chivalers et communes affermantz la contraire, c'estassavoir, q'il les avoit issint dit et q'il lour avoit priez del monstrer avaunt en parlement, le dit Reynald nel poait pluis outre denyer, einz grantast q'il les avoit dit par manere come luy estoit illoeqes surmys par les [col. b] ditz chevaliers. Par quoi le dit Reynald est agardez qe < il > soit chastisez par emprisonement de son corps selonc la discrecion de nostre seignur le roy. Et y fust dit expressement par les seignurs qe lour semblast q'il ne fust mye en cas de l'estatut des accusours, (fn. ii-321-136-1) a cause q'il n'y fist mesmes pleinte en parlement ne a nostre seignur le roy meismes, einz tantsoulement a les ditz deux chevaliers. Et quant al fait de la retenue le dit seignur de Nevill vers Bretaigne, le dit seignur y dist q'il feust retenuez d'aler en Bretaigne avec .c. hommes d'armes, et prist pur eux gages pur un quarter devant la main. Mais, pur defaute de navye, il geust a Hampton' et aillours la entour tant et si longement qe le dit quarter estoit passez et trois semaignes oultre. Et outre y dist le dit seignur q'il y fist sa monstre devant Sire Johan de Thorp, clerc, et autres a ce assignez sur son alee, les queux n'y troverent defaute ne en la nombre n'autrement; et nientmeins par cas aucuns de ses bones gentz furent passez de luy a cause de lour longe demoere decea la meer. Et puis apres il dit qe quant il vint en Bretaigne, il y demurrast avec ses gentz par trois quarters del an a ses grandes coustages, sanz rienz prendre de nully; ou il estoit auxint en grand peril de luy mesmes, qar le duc de Bretaigne estoit venuz en Engleterre, et en le meene temps y fust entrez en Bretaigne le duc d'Anjou et plusours autres seignurs de France a quatre mille lances. Et quant a pilerye en dit contee, il n'y fist unqes damages a nully, mais si rienz y fust < issint > fait, respoignent les malfaisours de leurs faitz. Et y fust recordez par certains gentz de Hampteshire illoeqes presentz qe plusours gentz du pays s'armerent a grant nombre pur contreesteer a la malice de ses ditz gentz, qar autrement y eussent estre outrement destruitz. Et a ce fust dit par les seignurs du parlement qe reson fust qe depuis qe nostre seignur le roi paie toutdys as tieux gentz ses soldeours lour gages, qe tieux soldeours respoignent pur lours mesfaitz en tieu cas, ou lours chiefteins respoignent pur eux. Et sur ce les communes prierent juggement envers le dit seignur de Nevill, et q'il fust oustez de tout office entour le roy. Par quoy puis apres, quant a l'article la dame de Ravenesholm, estoit agarde en parlement qe le dit seignur de Nevill face restitucion a les executours la dite dame, et oultre ce soit puniz selonc la quantite de mesfait come autres. To which the said Lord Nevill, present in parliament, answered that it was true that Lady Ravensholme formerly owed him a certain sum of money, which he had paid to her previously on a certain agreement made between the said lady and the said lord; and when this agreement between them failed by the fault of the said lady, he demanded from her the money which she owed to him. But because she did not have the money to pay him, but had such tallies for £200 from our lord the king, he received from the said lady, he said, the said tallies for which he was then paid by the aid of his friends close to the king. But this was with great difficulty, because she gave him, he said, well near £95 willingly, without any agreement being made between them, wherefore he does not believe that he should be impeached for a thing thus given to him. And as regards Reginald Love, he denied that he ever took anything from him. And the commons prayed that the said Reginald, present there, should be examined thereon. Which Reginald, charged on his allegiance publicly to plead before them the full truth, said that he formerly bought certain wool from the said Lord Nevill for the sum of £600 or thereabouts, and had a date of payment from him; and afterwards prayed the said lord for a much later date. And finally there were agreed that the said Lord Nevill would take from him such tallies of assignment containing £450 in part payment of the said £600, and so he took them. And the said Reginald also said that after everything was accounted between them, that is to say, the sum of the said whole tallies as well as all other payments made to him, he clearly was still in debt to the said lord for £60, which he thought the said lord would not make him pay. And he said that the said lord never bought any tally from him otherwise. And thereon Sir Michael de la Pole and William Wingfield, knights, present there, recorded expressly that the said Reginald had said and known expressly before them and many others, the day before, that the said Lord Nevill had taken the said tallies from the said Reginald by way of purchase, and for such profit as is aforesaid; and that the said Reginald had said to them that he bought in that way each sack of wool from the said Lord Nevill for 2 marks dearer than he could have done elsewhere. And the said Reginald, replying to their statement in this case, said that he never said such words to them or to any other. And immediately after, with the said knights and commons affirming the contrary, that is to say, that he had said this to them and had prayed them to put it forward in parliament, the said Reginald was unable to deny it further, but granted that he had said it in the manner there claimed by the [col. b] said knights. Wherefore the said Reginald was sentenced to be punished by imprisonment of his body according to the discretion of our lord the king. And the lords expressly said that it seemed to them that he did not fall under the statute of accusers (fn. ii-321-136-1) because he did not make the same complaint in parliament or before our lord the king himself, but only to the said two knights. And in respect of the retaining of the said Lord Nevill for Brittany, the said lord said that he was retained to go to Brittany with 100 men-at-arms, and took wages for them in advance for a quarter of a year. But, for lack of transport, he remained at Hampton and elsewhere thereabouts for so long that the said quarter of a year passed, and a further three weeks. And the said lord further said that he made his muster before Sir John Thorp, clerk, and others assigned to this on his mission, who found no fault in the number or otherwise; and nevertheless by chance some of his good men left him as a consequence of their long stay on this side of the sea. And then he said that when he arrived in Brittany, he remained there with his men for three quarters of a year at his great expense, without taking anything from anyone; where he was also in great peril himself, because the duke of Brittany had arrived in England, and in the meantime the duke of Anjou and many other French lords had entered Brittany with 4,000 lancers. And as regards pillage in the said county, he never did damage to anyone, but if anything was thus done, the malefactors should answer for their deeds. And certain people from Hampshire there present recorded that many people of the region had taken up arms in great numbers to oppose the evil deeds of the said people, because otherwise they would have been completely destroyed. And the lords of parliament said to this that it was reasonable that, since our lord the king always pays wages to such men who are his soldiers, such soldiers should answer for their crimes in this case, or their captains should answer for them. And thereon the commons prayed judgment against the said Lord Nevill, and that he should be removed from all offices close to the king. Whereupon, as regards the article of Lady Ravensholme, it was later decided in parliament that the said Lord Nevill should make restitution to the executors of the said lady, and in addition should be punished according to the seriousness of the crime like the others.
Alice Perriers. Alice Perrers.
[editorial note: The numbers jump from 34 to 45.] 45. Item, fust fait en ce present parlement une certaine ordenance des femmes pursuantz busoignes es courtznostre seignur le roi, en la forme qe s'ensuit: [editorial note: The numbers jump from 34 to 45.] 45. Also, a certain ordinance was made in this present parliament concerning women pursuing business in our lord the king's courts, in the form that follows:
Por ce qe pleinte est faite au roy qe aucuns femmes ont pursuys en les courtz du roi diverses busoignes et quereles par voie de maintenance, et pur lower et part avoir, quele chose desplest au roi; et le roi defende qe desormes nulle femme le face, et par especial Alice Perers, sur peine de quanqe la dite Alice purra forfaire, et d'estre bannitz hors du roialme. Because a complaint was made to the king that some women have pursued various business and disputes in the king's courts by way of maintenance, bribing and influencing the parties, which thing displeases the king; the king should forbid any woman to do it, and especially Alice Perrers, on penalty of whatever the said Alice can forfeit and of being banished from the realm.
Priour de Ecclesfeld. The prior of Ecclesfield.
46. Item, monstrent en parlement les communes d'Engleterre pur profit nostre seignur le roy coment le priour de Ecclesfeld, q'est alyen, estoit ja novellement oustez mains vraiement par un Sire Henry de Medbourne, clerc du seignur de Latymer, de la possession de l'eglise de Ecclesfeld, de la quelle esglise mesme le priorie estoit founduz bien .ccc. ans passez et pluis, et de meisme l'esglise ad este mesme la priorie continuelment en pesible possession, tanqe ore qe le dit Sir Henry leur ent ad oustez par proces sui sur un brief de quare impedit envers le dit priour, en noun de nostre seignur le roy dessus dit; et, par maintenance d'aucuns prives entour le roi, et par grandes manaces et emprisonement des diverses persones en Flete et aillours, fist les jurrours en dit plee passer pur le roy, le roi nient appris de .xl. marz par an quelles le dit priour ent soloit rendre au roi durant la guerre; des quelles .xl. marz la patente nostre seignur le roi y fust monstre. Et par tant les [p. ii-330][col. a] ditz communes y affermerent qe le dit priour ent estoit torcenousement oustez de sa jouste possession, et nostre seignur le roi malement descuz de sa ferme de .xl. marz avauntdites, en grant damage de nostre seignur le roy et del priour avauntdit. Dont les ditz communes prierent pur profit nostre seignur le roy qe due amendement ent fust fait; et sur ce fust ordenez qe la partie fust appellee, et qe le dit priour meist avant en parlement sa matire par bille, et sur ceo ent oiez la responce du dite partie, droit y fust fait sibien pur le roi come pur les partiesavauntdites. (fn. ii-321-143-1) 46. Also, the commons of England declare in parliament for the profit of our lord the king how the prior of Ecclesfield, who is an alien, was recently removed falsely by one Sir Henry Medbourne, clerk of Lord Latimer, from the possession of the church of Ecclesfield, the priory of which church was founded more than 300 years ago, and the same priory of the same church has been continually in peaceful possession, until the said Sir Henry removed him by process sued on a writ of quare impedit against the said prior, in the name of our aforesaid lord the king; and, by maintenance of some intimates close to the king, and by great threats and imprisonment of various people in the Fleet and elsewhere, the jurors in the said pleas caused it to be passed for the king, the king being unaware of the 40 marks a year which the said prior was accustomed to render to the king during the war. The letter patent of our lord the king for the said 40 marks having been exhibited, the [p. ii-330][col. a] said commons affirmed that the said prior was wrongly removed from his just possession, and our lord the king wickedly deceived of his farm of the aforesaid 40 marks, in great damage of our lord the king and the aforesaid prior. Wherefore the said commons prayed, for the profit of our lord the king, that due amendment should be made thereon; and it was ordained thereon that the matter be appealed, and that the said prior should put forward his matter in parliament by bill, and when the answer of the said party was heard, justice would be done for the king as well as for the aforesaid parties. (fn. ii-321-143-1)
Adam de Bury. Adam Bury.
47. Item, Adam de Bury, citezein de Londres, estoit empeschez par le clamour des communes en ce parlement de plusours desceites et autres malx faitz au roi et a son poeple, du temps q'il ad este mair de Caleys et capitain de Balyngeham et autrement, come pluis au plain appiert en une grant bille baille en parlement de darrain jour de cest parlement a Eltham. Et sur ce le dit Adam estoit envoiez pur venir a respondre en parlement, et ne vint mye, nene poait mye estre trovez; paront y estoit agardez qe touz ses biens et chateux fuissent mys en arest. Et issint fust fait par briefs envoiez a les viscontz de Londres et de Kent; et la dite bille est < en le filace avec especiales > peticions de parlement. 47. Also, Adam Bury, citizen of London, was impeached by the complaint of the commons in this parliament of many deceits and other evils done to the king and to his people during the time he was mayor of Calais and captain of Balinghem and otherwise, as more fully appears in a great bill delivered in parliament on the last day of this parliament at Eltham. And thereon the said Adam was sent to come and answer in parliament, and he did not come, nor could he be found; whereby it was decided that all his goods and chattels should be taken in arrest. And thus it was done by writs sent to the sheriffs of London and of Kent; and the said bill is in the file with the private petitions of parliament.
L'evesqe de Norwiz. The bishop of Norwich.
48. Item, Henry evesqe de Norwiz fist sa plainte en cest parlement, de ce q'il estoit nadgairs, mains vraiement et sanz due proces par grant meintenance d'aucuns < privez entour le > < roi, > oustez de sa possession del advoueson del archedeakne de Norff', appertenante a luy come en droit de sa esglise de la Sainte Trinite de Norwiz; et sur ce un Robert Prees son clerk et presentez a mesme l'ercedeakne, q'estoit par mesme l'evesqe institut et induct en ycelle, de tout oustez. Et partant q'il y ad appert errour en les record et proces faitz en le commune bank sur mesme le fait, et auxint en le juggement sur ce y renduz, < come pluis plainement appiert > < en ycelles, > le dit evesqe priast qe celles record et proces feussent faitz venir en parlement, pur y faire corriger et amender le errour avauntdit. A quoy luy estoit responduz finalment par commune assent de touz les justices qe si errour y feust aucune a fyn force par la loy d'Engleterre tielle errour fait en commune bank doit estre amende en bank du roy, et ne doivent nuls tielx record et proces faitz en dit commune bank estre fait venuz en parlement inmediat par voie d'errour, einz en le bank du roy et nul part aillours. Mais si le cas avenoit qe errour feust fait en bank le roy, adonqes ce serroit amendez en parlement, et nemye devant. 48. Also, Henry, bishop of Norwich, made his complaint in this parliament, because formerly, falsely and without due process, by the great maintenance of some intimates close to the king, he was removed from his possession of the advowson of the archdeaconry of Norwich, belonging to him as in right of his church of the Holy Trinity of Norwich; and thereon one Robert Prees, his clerk and presentee to the same archdeaconry, who was instituted and inducted into the same by the same bishop, was completely removed. And because there clearly has been an error in the record and process made in the common bench on the same deed, and also in the judgment returned thereon, as more fully appears in the same, the said bishop prayed that this record and process should be exhibited in parliament, to cause the aforesaid error to be corrected and amended. To which it was finally answered by the common assent of all the justices that if there was some error, by sheer necessity by the law of England such error made in the common bench should be amended in the king's bench, and no such record and process made in the said common bench should be exhibited in parliament without intermediary by way of error, but in the king's bench and not elsewhere. But if it should happen that an error is made in the king's bench, then it should be amended in parliament, and not before.
[memb. 7]
Reppel du chartre de Jernemuth'. Repeal of the charter of Yarmouth.
49. Item, fait a remembrer qe sibien a la plainte des communes d'Engleterre come a la pursuite de certeines gentz de la ville de Loystoft en contee de Suff' faitz en cest parlement, la chartre nostre seignur le roy, par la quelle il grantast nadgaires a ses burgeys de la ville de Grant Jernemuth qe une place en la meer appellee Kirkelerode feust unyez et annexe al port du dite ville de Grant Jernemuth pur touz jours, estoit de tout repellez [col. b] et revoquez quant a celle novelle grant, come chose fait encontre commune profit del roialme; (fn. ii-321-152-1) toutes voies salvez entierment as ditz burgeys et a lours successours toutes lours autres privileges, franchises et custumes grantez et confermez a eux par mesme nostre seignur le roi ou nul autre de ses progenitours, avec la clause de licet < a eux > grantee par mesme nostre seignur le roy. 49. Also, let it be remembered that, at the complaint of the commons of England as well as at the suit of certain people from the town of Lowestoft in the county of Suffolk made in this parliament, our lord the king's charter, by which he formerly granted to his burgesses of the town of Great Yarmouth that a place on the sea called Kirkley Roads was united and annexed to the port of the said town of Great Yarmouth forever, was completely repealed [col. b] and revoked as regards this new grant, as a thing done contrary to the common profit of the realm; (fn. ii-321-152-1) always saving entirely to the said burgesses and their successors all their other privileges, franchises and customs granted and confirmed to them by our same lord the king or any other of his progenitors, with the clause licet granted to them by our same lord the king.
La venue del heir apparant del roialme en parlement. The coming of the heir apparent of the realm into parliament.
50. Item, les dites communes prierent humblement a nostre seignur le roy en dit parlement qe pleust a lour dit seignur le roi en grande confort de tout le roialme faire venir avant en parlement luy nobles enfantz Richard de Burdeux, filz et heir Monsir Edward nadgairs eisnez filz du dit nostre seignur le < roi > et prince de Gales, qi Dieux assoille, issint qe les seignurs et communes du roialme y purreient veer et honurer le dit Richard come verrai heir apparant du roialme. Quelle requeste fust ottroiez, et issint y vynt le dit Richard devant touz les prelatz, seignurs et communes en parlement le mesquardy lendeman Saint Johan, l'an dessusdit, par comandement et volentee mesme nostre seignur le roi. Et l'arcevesqe de Canterbirs y avoit les paroles de la volente le roi nostre seignur a luy monstree; et dist qe coment qe luy tresnobles < et > puissant prince Monsir Edward, nadgairs prince < de Gales, > fust departiz, et a Dieu commandez, come dessus est dit, toutes voies mesme le prince y fust come present et nemye absent, par lessant deriere luy un tiel si noble et beuaux filz q'est son droit ymage ou verroie figure; qar a ce, dist il, s'accorde bien luy sage Salamon; et par tant y dist mesme l'arcevesqe a < touz > illoeqes presentz qe le dit Richard, luy quel estoit verroi heir apparant del roialme par manere come son dit noble pere le prince estoit, deust estre tenuz entre eux et de touz autres liges le roi a grant honour et reverence. Et sur ce les communes y prierent touz a un voice qe pleust a lour noble seignur lige granter al dit Richard le noun et honour de prince de Gales, par mesme la manere come le dit Monsir Edward son pere les eust tantcome il vesquist. A quoy lour fust responduz qe ce n'appartenoit mye as prelatz ne as seignurs del faire en parlement n'autrement, einz appartenoit clerement au roi mesmes del faire a grant solempnetee et feste. Mais y promistrent les prelatz et seignurs d'y faire diligeaument lour mediacions envers mesme nostre seignur le roi en celle partie. 50. Also, the said commons humbly prayed our lord the king in the said parliament that it would please their said lord the king, in great comfort of all the realm, to cause the noble child Richard of Bordeaux, son and heir of Sir Edward, eldest son of our said lord the king and prince of Wales, whom God absolve, to come into parliament, so that the lords and commons of the realm could see and honour the said Richard as the true heir apparent of the realm. This request was granted, and thus the said Richard came before all the prelates, lords and commons in parliament on Wednesday, the morrow of St John in the aforesaid year, by the order and will of our same lord the king. And the archbishop of Canterbury, having heard the king's will, said that although the most noble and powerful prince Sir Edward, former prince of Wales, was dead and commanded to God, as is aforesaid, it was as if the same prince was still present and not absent, having left behind him such a noble and fine son who is his true image and very figure; and with this, he said, the wise Solomon well agrees; and therefore the same archbishop said to all there present that the said Richard, who was the true heir apparent of the realm in the same way as was his said noble father the prince, should be held among them and all other lieges of the king with great honour and reverence. And thereon the commons all prayed with one voice that it might please their noble liege lord to grant the said Richard the name and honour of prince of Wales, in the same way as the said Sir Edward, his father, had them while he lived. To which it was answered that it did not belong to the prelates or lords to do this in parliament or otherwise, but clearly belonged to the king himself to do this with great solemnity and celebration. But the prelates and lords promised diligently to make their mediations towards our same lord the king in this matter.
La venue des prelatz, seignurs et communes a nostre seignur le roy a Eltham The coming of the prelates, lords and commons to our lord the king at Eltham.
51. Item, fait a remembrer qe nostre seignur le roy esteant a son manoir de Eltham en partie a desaise de son corps, paront il ne poait en sa propre persone bonement travailler, envoiast pur les prelatz, seignurs et communes qi furent sommonez a ce parlement de venir a luy a dit lieu de Eltham pur y oier les responces des communes peticions et faire fyn < de > ce present parlement. Et issint y vindrent mesmes les prelatz, seignurs et communes, et y avoient oie pur la greindre partie de les responces de lour communes peticions par manere qe s'ensuit: et auxint y avoient oie des juggementz des persones et ordeignances faitz, sibien des conseillers come autres, par manere qe dessus est dit; dont ils se loierent grantement trestouz de mesme nostre seignur le roy. 51. Also, let it be remembered that our lord the king, being at his manor of Eltham due in part to the sickness of his body, whereby he could not easily travel in his own person, sent for the prelates, lords and commons who were summoned to this parliament to come to him at the said place of Eltham to hear the answers to the common petitions there and to bring an end to this present parliament. And so the same prelates, lords and commons came there, and heard the greater part of the answers to their common petitions in the manner that follows; and they also heard the judgments made concerning people and ordinances, concerning councillors as well as others, in the aforesaid manner; whereby they all greatly praised our same lord the king.
[p. ii-331]
CY APRES S'ENSUONT LES PETICIONS BAILLEES AVANT EN ESCRIT AU PARLEMENT PAR LES COMMUNES, AVEC LES RESPONCES FAITES A YCELLES PETICIONS EN MESME LE PARLEMENT. HEREAFTER FOLLOW THE PETITIONS PUT FORWARD IN WRITING AT PARLIAMENT BY THE COMMONS, WITH THE ANSWERS GIVEN TO THE SAME PETITIONS IN THE SAME PARLIAMENT.
COMMUNES PETICIONS. COMMON PETITIONS.
[col. a]
[memb. 8]
De les grant chartre et chartre de la forest. Concerning the Great Charter and the Charter of the Forest.
52. I. A nostre tresredoute et trespuissant seignur le roi; supplient toutes le comunes de sa terre: qe come en la greindre partie des estatutz faitz graunt piece, ces sont establitz devant touz autres qe la grande chartre et la chartre de la foreste fuissent gardez et duement executz en touz lour articles; nientmeins par plusours queux ount eins ces ewes tout lour regard a lour singulers profitz, et auxint par sinistrers interpretacions d'ascuns gentz de loi, qi ount pris meindre garde as meschiefs du roialme et perill de lour almes q'ils ne deussent, tut plein de people de le roialme, sibien singulers persones come comunes, ont sovent este empeschez, et graunte partie des fraunchises des citees, burghs et viles restreins overtement, encountre la tenure de mesmes les chartres et de lour especials chartres auxint. Par qi plusours de eux sont sy enpoveritz, et bien pres de tout anientez, q'ils sont auxint come en despoir d'ascun recoverir s'ils ne soient ore par vostre trespitivouse benignite, en vostre tresgraciouse jubilee, socourres sur icell. 52. I. To our most dread and most powerful lord the king; all the commons of his land petition: that whereas in the greater part of the statutes made, it has been established for a long time and above everything else that the Great Charter and the Charter of the Forest should be observed and duly executed in all their articles; nevertheless by many men who have formerly had all their regard for their singular profit, and also by the sinister interpretations of some men of law, who have paid less heed to the misfortunes of the realm and the peril of their souls than they should, all of the people of the realm, individuals as well as the commonalty, have often been impeached, and a great part of the franchises of cities, boroughs and towns openly confounded, contrary to the tenor of the same charters and also of their special charters. Whereby many of them are so impoverished, and almost completely ruined, that they are practically in despair of recovering anything, unless now, by your most compassionate kindness, in your most gracious jubilee, they should be rescued from the same.
Qe plese primerement, al honour de Dieu et de vostre roial majeste, et salvacion de tout la roialme, et pur eschuire les grosses sentences qe chaient sur touz ceux qi fount au contraire, de graunter as voz poveres lieges et establier en cest present parlement qe la graunde chartre et cele de forest avauntditz, ove touz lour articles, estoisent en lour plenere force, nient contreesteant auscun estatut, ordinance ou chartre despuis faitz ou grauntez a l'encountre. May it please you, first, to the honour of God and of your royal majesty, in salvation of all the realm and to avoid the weighty sentences which fall on all those who do the contrary, to grant your poor lieges and to establish in this present parliament that the aforesaid Great Charter and Charter of the Forest, with all their articles, should remain in their full force, notwithstanding any statute, ordinance or charter since made or granted to the contrary.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Quant a la grant chartre et la chartre de la forest, le roi voet q'eles soient tenuz et fermement gardez en touz lours pointz; et si aucune matire y soit en especial de quoy l'en y doit pleindre, soit ce declarree, et droit enserra fait. As regards the Great Charter and the Charter of the Forest, the king wills that they should be upheld and firmly observed in all their points; and if there is any matter in particular about which anyone should complain, it should be declared and justice will be done thereon.
Empanellement des jurrours. Empanelling of jurors.
53. II. Item, prie la commune: qe come plusours du roialme sount sovent subduitz, par ce qe baillifs, sergeantz et autres petitz ministres, en plees de terre et autres, enpanelent gentz suspectz et procurez, et simples gentz noun sachantz, queux sont legierement atret a qele part homme les vorra enformer, et gentz qe demuroent loigns, et nemie les proscheins. 53. II. Also, the commons pray: whereas many people of the realm are often made to suffer, because bailiffs, serjeants and other minor officers, in pleas of land and others, empanel suspected and procured people and simple, ignorant people who are easily taken in by whatever anyone will tell them, and people who live far away rather than the neighbours.
Qe plese ordeigner et establir qe desore enavant soit ajouste la serement de chescun viscounte q'il mesmes en chescun chargeant matire survoie les panels avaunt q'il les returne, issint q'ils soient gentz sachantz, dignez de foi, et plus procheins veisins a les terres ou autres choses en les plees chalangeez, et nemye les longteins queux n'ount de ycell conissaunce. May it please you to ordain and establish that henceforth it should be added to the oath of each sheriff that in each important matter he himself should oversee the panels before he returns them, so that they are knowledgeable people, worthy of faith, and the nearest neighbours to the lands or other things challenged in the pleas, and not those from far away who have no cognisance of the same.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soient l'estatutz ent faitz mises en due execucion, (fn. ii-321-173-1) et sur ce soit desore adjoustez en le serement de chescun viscont q'il mesmes en sa persone en tielles chargeantes busoignes surveie les panelles devant q'il les face retournir a la courte. The statutes made thereon should be duly executed, (fn. ii-321-173-1) and henceforth it should be added to the oath of each sheriff that in such important business he himself should oversee the panels in person before he returns them to the court.
Repel de singulers franchises des artificers. Repeal of individual franchises of artisans.
54. III. Item, prie la commune: qe come plusours meirs et baillifs des citees, bourghs, sont restreintz de faire ce q'appent a lour offices par especials chartres queux sount grauntez as certeins mestiers et autres, par qi tout plein de grevaunces qeux sont faitz al commune demurrent nemye corrigietz. 54. III. Also, the commons pray: that whereas many mayors and bailiffs of cities and boroughs are restricted from doing what belongs to their offices by special charters which are granted to certain masters and others, by which fully all of the grievances which are done to the commons remain uncorrected.
Qe plese en ceste parlement present establir qe tielx chartres soient repeletz, et nuls tiels chartres desore enavant graunteez, ou autrement [col. b] qe les meires et baillifs ne soient par icelles desore restreintz de faire les dwes corrigementz q'apartient a lours offices. May it please you in this present parliament to establish that such charters should be repealed and no such charters granted henceforth, or otherwise [col. b] that the mayors and bailiffs henceforth should not be restricted by the same from making the due corrections which belong to their offices.
De commissions des approvours le roi etc. Concerning commissions of the king's approvers etc.
55. IIII. Item, supplient les communes: qe come ore tard, par assent d'ascuns q'ont este privez du roi, pur lour singuler profit, plusours commissions ount este grauntez bien pres parmy tout le roialme au gentz de male fame, queux soi font nomer approwours le roi, d'enquere sur diverses articles, dont les inquisicions ont toutes foitz eins ces appartenuz al office d'escheterie, et font lours cessions sy sovent, et en quele lieu qe leur plest; et par colour de lours commissions et d'autres briefs queux ils ont decoste, ils parnent enquestes de lour eleccion propre; et quant ils ont par douns, promesses ou manasses, menez ascune enqueste de doner colour au roi d'ascuns terres, tenementz ou autres possessions; meintenaunt ils retournent celes fauxes enquestes en la chauncelerie, et ne cessent outre tanqe ils eiont taunt fait qe l'eschetour soit entree en ycelle saunz brief de scire facias direct al incumbent, quelle est apartement encountre la ley. Et tost apres, ils certifient ceulx colours as tielx qi sont de lour covynes pres du roi, et tauntost par brocages et subtils suggesciouns le roi les doune a ceux qi les demaundent; par qi plusours del poeple sont a grant tort desheritez, nostre bon roi nient sachant de la maniere. 55. IIII. Also, the commons petition: that whereas lately, by the assent of some who have been the king's intimates, for their singular profit, many commissions have been granted throughout almost all the realm to people of evil reputation, who cause themselves to be named the king's approvers, to inquire into various articles, the inquisitions of which have always previously belonged to the office of the escheatorship, and they hold their sessions as often and in whatever place they please; and by colour of their commissions and other writs which they have as well, they select their only juries to take inquests by juries; and when they have, by gifts, promises or threats, brought any inquest to give a verdict for the king of certain lands, tenements or other possessions, then they return these false inquests in the chancery, and do not cease until they have done so much that the escheator makes entry into the same without a writ of scire facias directed to the incumbent, which is obviously against the law. And immediately after, they certify such verdicts to such men who are of their faction close to the king, and then by brokerages and subtle suggestions the king gives them to those who request them; by which many of the people are very wrongly disinherited, our good king being unaware of the manner.
Qe plese, pur Dieu, establir qe touz tielx commissiouns soient repeletz; et establir qe nuls tiels novelries soient desore enavaunt useez en countees, citees ne bourghs, et qe commissions soient faitz as plus suffisauntz seignurs et le viscounte des comptees, d'enquere des extorsiouns faitz par tiele ribaudaille. May it please him, for God, to establish that all such commissions should be repealed; and to establish that no such new commissions should be observed henceforth in counties, cities or boroughs, and that commissions should be made to the most sufficient lords and the sheriffs of the counties to inquire into the extortions done by such scoundrels.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soient toutes tielles commissions repellees, et desore ne soient tielles faites forsqe as justices ou sergeantz ou autres sachantz de la loy, et suffisantz gentz, et de bone same. All such commissions should be repealed, and henceforth such commissions should only be made to justices or serjeants or others learned in the law, and substantial people of sound judgement.
Des trunks et engyns en Thamise. Concerning nets and traps in the Thames.
56. V. Item, supplie la commune: qe come les salmons et autres pessouns de Tamise sont bien pres destrutz par certeins engyns mises en la rivere, qeux destroient tout le fry des pessouns, come mesnuz q'il soit, sicome nostre seignur le roi passaunt par la dite rivere ad trove luy mesmes, quele mesnu fry ceux qi le parnent donent lours porcs au manger. 56. V. Also, the commons petition: that whereas the salmon and other fish of the Thames are very nearly destroyed by certain traps set in the river, which destroy even the smallest of fry, as our lord the king passing by the said river has found himself; and those who take them give such small fry to their pigs to eat.
Qe plese establir qe touz les trymks parentre Loundres et la miere soient oustez et deffendeuz pur touz jours. Et qe null salmon soit pris en Tamise entre Graveshend et le pount de Henlee sur Tamise en temps q'il soit kiper; c'estassavoir, entre les festes del invencion del crois et le Epiphanie. Et auxint, qe le gardeyn del rivere et touz ses deputez soient chargez sur peine de perdre lours offices q'ils ne soeffrount nuls reitz en la rivere, s'ils ne soient de large maske d'assise. Entendant, tresredoute seignur, qe si plese a vostre hautesce d'assaier ceste manere les trois ans proschiens ensuantz, qe tout vostre poeple repairauntz en Londres ou aillours pres la dite rivere, achaterount un auxint bon salmoun pur .ij. s. come ils font ore pur .x. s. May it please you to establish that all the nets between London and the sea should be removed and forbidden forever. And no salmon should be taken in the Thames between Gravesend and the bridge of Henley on Thames during spawning season; that is to say, between the feasts of the Invention of the Cross and Epiphany. And also, the warden of the river and all his deputies should be charged, on penalty of losing their offices, not to allow any nets in the river, unless they are of large mesh of the assize. Understanding, most dread lord, that if it pleases your highness to test this manner for the three years immediately following, all your people residing in London or elsewhere near the said river will also buy as good a salmon for 2s. as they now do for 10s.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soient < les estatuz ent > faitz tenuz et gardez; (fn. ii-321-188-1) et sur ce soient faites commissions d'enquere et duement punir les defautes y trovez. The statutes made thereon should be upheld and observed; (fn. ii-321-188-1) and commissions should be made thereon to inquire into and duly punish the faults found.
[p. ii-332]
[col. a]
Des weres en Breynte. Concerning weirs in the Brent.
57. VI. Item, supplient les communes, sibien de Midd' come autres: qe come ils soleient peschier en temps passe en la rivere appelle Breynte en le countee de Midd', q'est un bras de Tamise, a grant commune profit; et ore tard plusours gentz q'ont terre sur le dite rivere ont fait diverses weres pur lour singuler profit, a grant destruccion sibien de la dite rivere et pescherie come de la rivere en Tamise, a commune damage. 57. VI. Also, the commons of Middlesex as well as others petition: that whereas in times past they used to fish in the river called the Brent, which is a branch of the Thames in the county of Middlesex, to great common profit; recently many people who have land on the said river have made various weirs for their singular profit, to the great detriment of the said river and fishing as well as of the Thames, to the common damage.
Sur qi ils prient d'ordeigner en cest present parlement qe le ditz weres soient oustez, pur la commune profit, et la dite pescherie usee come il ad este usee en auncien temps. Et qe nuls ne pesche en la dite rivere s'il ne soit de reitz d'assise, come ils soleient faire. Et qe le viscompte et les chiefs conestables de Midd', et chescun de eux par soi, face sur icell dreiturell justice quant ascun qi soi sente ent grevez se vorra pleindre. May it please you to establish that all the nets between London and the sea should be removed and forbidden forever. And no salmon should be taken in the Thames between Gravesend and the bridge of Henley on Thames during spawning season; that is to say, between the feasts of the Invention of the Cross and Epiphany. And also, the warden of the river and all his deputies should be charged, on penalty of losing their offices, not to allow any nets in the river, unless they are of large mesh of the assize. Understanding, most dread lord, that if it pleases your highness to test this manner for the three years immediately following, all your people residing in London or elsewhere near the said river will also buy as good a salmon for 2s. as they now do for 10s.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soient les estatutz ent faitz fermement gardez et mys en execucion. (fn. ii-321-194-1) The statutes made thereon should be firmly observed and executed. (fn. ii-321-194-1)
Des brocours Lumbardz. Concerning Lombard brokers.
58. VII. Item, supplie la commune: qe touz les Lombardz queux ne usent autre mestier fors cele de brokours, q'ils soient deinz brief faitz voider la terre, issint come male usure, et touz les subtils ymaginacions d'icell sount par eux compassez et meyntenuz. Entendantz, tresnobles seignurs, q'il i ad deins la terre moult greindre multitude de Lombardz brokours qe marchantz, ne ne servent de rien fors de malfaire; issint come plusours de eux qi sont tenuz Lombardz sont Juys et Sarazins et privees espies; et ont ore tard menez deins la terre un trope horrible vice qe ne fait pas a nomer. Par quei le roialme ne poet failler d'estre en brief destruyte, si redde corrigement ne soit sur icell hastivement ordeignez. 58. VII. Also, the commons petition: that all the Lombards who do not practise any other trade than that of brokers should be required by writ to leave the land, as they plan and maintain evil usury and all the subtle scheming of the same. Understanding, most noble lords, that there is in the land a greater multitude of Lombard brokers than merchants, who help with nothing except doing wrong; that just as many of those who are held as Lombards are Jews and Saracens and secret spies; and that recently they have brought into the land a most horrible vice which should not be named. Whereupon the realm cannot fail to be destroyed in a short time, if ready correction is not swiftly ordained thereon.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
< Quant a les brokours > d'estraunge paiis, est en partie responduz en la bille touche la fraunchise de Londres. (fn. ii-321-200-1) As regards the brokers from foreign lands, this is answered in part in the bill which concerns the franchise of London. (fn. ii-321-200-1)
De la franchise des citees et burghs. Concerning the franchise of cities and boroughs.
59. VIII. Item, supplie toute la commune: qe come en chescune terre les citees et borghs sont noblement enfraunchez, et en ycell fraunchises fermement enheritez et meyntenuz (come seignurs et autres sount, come raisoun est, enheritez de lours fraunchises) pur sustenance de loial marchaundise, dont sourt pur la greindre partie la richesce et le comun profit de toutes roialmes. Et come les bones gentz des touz citees et borghs parmy ceste terre si pleignent durement, qe grant partie des fraunchises, par nostre seignur le roi et par ses nobles progenitours as eux graunteez et confermez, lour sont restreintz et tolues; et nomeement en ce qe toute manere de gent aliens, et autres qi ne sont pas frauncs en les dites citees et borghs, poent venir illeoqes et demourrer auxi longement come lour plest, et tenir overtz hostiels, et recepter qeconqes persones qe lour plerra; et s'ils eiount ascunes marchandises ils les vendent as autres estraungers, pur revendre sibien par retail come autre qeconqe manere qe lour mieltz semble pur lours profitz demeisne. Par qi les marchauntz denzeins sount trope anientiz, la terre voide de moneie, les closures des citees et borghs desapparaillez, la navye de la terre bien pres destruite, le conseil de la terre par tout descovert, toute manere d'estraunge marchaundise graundement encherie; et qe pys est, par tieles privees receites les enemys auxint priveez ou plus qe les loialx liges; de qi n'ad mestier de autres tesmoignes forsqe sentir et vewe qe molt appartement en touz degreez la provent. Et coment qe les bones gentz des citees et borghs ont par longe temps en diverses parlementz, sibien pur toute la terre come pur eux meismes, monstrez cestes grevances, ils ne ont unqore trovez qe lour vorreit sur icell ordeigner ascune remedie. Mes par feblesce de conseil et governail nul ad volu eins ces avoir regard as ceux mescchiefs, auxint come rien ne lour eust chalu si touz les citees et borghs fuissent a un coup destruitez et periez. 59. VIII. Also, all the commons petition: that whereas in each land the cities and boroughs are nobly enfranchised, and the franchises in the same firmly inherited and maintained (as lords and others are entitled to their franchises, as is reasonable) for sustenance of lawful merchandise, from which for the most part the wealth and common profit of all realms issue. And as the good people of all the cities and boroughs throughout this land strongly complain, a great part of the franchises, granted and confirmed to them by our lord the king and by his noble progenitors, are withdrawn and removed from them; namely in that all manner of alien people, and others who are not free in the said cities and boroughs, can come there and remain as long as they please, and hold open house, and receive any people they please; and if they have any merchandise, they sell it to other foreigners, to be resold by retail as well as in any other manner that seems best to them for their own profit. By which the denizen merchants are greatly ruined, the land void of money, the defences of cities and boroughs in disrepair, the fleet of the land very nearly destroyed, the council of the land completely exposed, all manner of foreign merchandises greatly enriched, and, what is worse, by such secret receipts the enemies are as well informed, or better, than the loyal lieges; of which thing there is no need of other testimonies since in all respects it can be seen readily and openly. And although the good people of the cities and boroughs have for a long time in various parliaments, for all the land as well as for themselves, declared these grievances, they have not yet found that any remedy will be ordained on the same. But, through the feebleness of the council and government, nothing has been willed except to have regard for these misfortunes, as if nothing would happen to them if all the cities and boroughs were destroyed and wiped out at once.
[col. b]
Qe plese, pur Dieu et pur la sustenance de tout la roialme, avoir regard as meschiefs avauntditz et a les grosses charges queux ils ont toutz temps porteez, et touz jours selonc lour power sont prestez de porter, et ordeigner et establir en cest present parlement qe les citees et borghs puissent desore enavaunt rejoier lour fraunchises et frauncs usages, et qe touz ceux qi ne sont pas francs en iceles soient restreintz et resonablement demenetiz chescun en son degre, come ils soleient en temps devant qe ascun estatut, ordeignaunce ou chartre fuirent faitz ou granteez a l'encountre; issint toute foith qe les pieres du roialme ne soient par icell restreintz en ascune manere. Et qe totes les chartres des fraunchises et libertees as citees, borghs et viles graunteez par nostre seignur le roi et ses progenitours puissent estre confermeez et renoveles a touz iceux qi le voudrent demander, faisauntz resonables fynes pur icell. May it please you, for God and the preservation of all the realm, to have regard for the aforesaid misfortunes and for the great charges which they have always borne, and always are ready to bear according to their power; and to ordain and establish in this present parliament that the cities and boroughs henceforth might again enjoy their franchises and free customs, and that all those who are not free in the same should be restricted and treated reasonably, each in his degree, as they used to be before any statute, ordinance or charter was made or granted to the contrary; so always that the peers of the realm should not be restricted by the same in any manner. And all the charters of franchises and liberties granted to cities, boroughs and towns by our lord the king and his progenitors should be confirmed and renewed to all the same who will request it, making reasonable fines for the same.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Ceux qi ont chartres ou libertees les monstrent en la chancellerie, et par l'advis du grant conseil droit lour ent serra fait. Those who have charters or liberties should declare them in the chancery, and justice will be done to them by the advice of the great council.
[memb. 9]
De repeller proteccions ove clause volumus. To repeal protections with a volumus clause.
60. IX. Auxint monstrent les communes: un trop grant meschief q'est avenu a tote la terre, par proteccions cum clausula volumus graunteez as plusours, par aide des priveez du counsail, queux sont endettez as marchauntz et autres liges du roi en diverses summes, ascuns en deux ou trois mille livres d'esterlings, et vont fraunchement par vertu de lours proteccions quele part qe lour plest, et les pleintifs en mesme temps sanz recoverir, come appiert par Jacob Jakemyn, Lumbard, et plusours autres. 60. IX. The commons also declare: that a very great misfortune which has come to all the land, by protections with a volumus clause granted to many people, by means of the intimates of the council who are indebted to merchants and other lieges of the king in various sums, some in £2,000 or £3,000 sterling, and freely go wherever they please by virtue of their protections, and the plaintiffs at the same time are without recovery, as appears by Giacomo Giacomini, Lombard, and many others.
Dont ils supplient qe touz tieles proteccions soient ore repellez, et null tieles desore enavaunt granteez, si ne soit par resonable et bien approvee cause. Wherefore they petition that all such protections now should be repealed, and no such granted henceforth, except for reasonable and appropriate cause.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Les proteccions quelles sont issint faites serront serchez et monstrez as seignurs du grant conseil, et si par la forme d'ycelles lour semble qe elles doivent estre repelleez, par lour advis serront repellez. The protections which are thus made will be examined and shown to the lords of the great council, and if by the form of the same they should be repealed, they will be repealed by their advice.
Des fortz begers. Concerning able-bodied beggars.
61. X. Item, supplient les communes: qe come en touz counteez parmy la terre et [sic: read 'est'] grant suffreite de servantz, par cause qe plusours fortz ribauds mendivent et ne vuillent labourer, mes par faiterie tapissent en citees et borghs pur eaise de lours corps, quele ils trovent plus legerement illeoqes qe aillours. 61. X. Also, the commons petition: that whereas in all counties throughout the land there is a great lack of servants, because many able-bodied scoundrels beg and will not labour, but on account of their laziness hide in cities and boroughs for the ease of their bodies, which they find more easily there than elsewhere.
Pur qi ils supplient qe touz les meires et baillifs des citees et borghs soient chargez de diligentement enquere sur ceste matiere, et ceux qe serront trovez faux faitours soient exillez de lours villes, et s'ils soient autrefoith trovez de deinz ycell, q'ils soient reddement punytz par prisoun, ou autre voie. Wherefore they petition that all the mayors and bailiffs of cities and boroughs should be charged to inquire diligently into this matter, and that those who are found to be criminals should be exiled from their towns; and if they are again found in the same, they should be readily punished by imprisonment, or in another way.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Endroit des fortz rybaudes < qi vont wakerantz > par le paiis, soit l'estatut de Wyncestre, et la declaracion d'ycelle, et les autres estatutz de roberdesmen etc. sur ce faitz tenuz et gardez, et myses en due execucion. (fn. ii-321-219-1) Et quant as autres qi se font par lour dit gentils, < et > hommes d'armes ou archers et sont devenuz a meschief par les guerres et autrement, s'ils ne purront prover lour dit, einz soit provez q'ils furent gentz de mestier, et ne soient en nully service, soient artez de servir, ou de repairer a lours mestiers quielles ils userent devant. As regards able-bodied scoundrels who go vagrant in the regions, the statute of Winchester and the elucidation of the same and the other statutes of robbers etc. made thereon should be upheld, observed and duly executed. (fn. ii-321-219-1) And as regards others who pretend by their word to be gentles, men-at-arms or archers who have come to misfortune by the wars and otherwise, if they cannot prove their word, but it is proved that they were people of craft and are not in any service, they should be forced to serve or to return to their crafts which they previously practised.
L'estaple de Saint Bothulph. The staple of Boston.
62. XI. Item, supplient les communes des countees de Nichole, Leicestre, Notyngham et Derby: qe come au comencement del ordenaunce del estaple en Engleterre fuist un estaple ordeigne a la citee de Nichole et demourra illeoqes graunt temps, tanqe a ore tard par brocage et pur singuler profit l'estaple est remuee de la dite citee tanq'a la ville de Seint Botolf, a grant damage des ditz comuns et excessives despenses pluis qe ne covient et desavauntage de nostre seignur le roi, come serra desclarre si mestier soit. 62. XI. Also, the commonalties of the counties of Lincolnshire, Leicestershire, Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire petition: that whereas at the beginning of the ordinance of the staple in England a staple was ordained at the city of Lincoln and remained there for a long time, recently by corrupt means and for singular profit the staple was removed from the said city to the town of Boston, to the great damage of the said commons and with more excessive expenditure than is necessary, to the disadvantage of our lord the king, as will be elucidated if necessary.
[p. ii-333]
[col. a]
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Pur ce qe ceste bille ne fust mye advouez en parlement, einz y fust dit qe l'estaple fust bien assiz pur aise du poeple et profit du roialme al dit ville de Sant Bothulf, y soit tenuz tant come plest au roi. Because this bill was not acknowledged in parliament, but it was said that the staple was properly established for the ease of the people and profit of the realm at the said town of Boston, it should be maintained there as long as it pleases the king.
Bille de bygamye. Bill of bigamy.
63. XII. Item, prie la commune: qe come par cause de diverses pestilences plusours gentz du roialme sibien des pieres de la terre, bachillers et esquiers come de touz autres maneres de gentz, sont mariez as vedues, et ascuns ont ew deux femmes et par tant bigames, et ascuns des qeux lour femmes sont mortz lessent de soy marier autrefoith par cause d'eschewer d'estre bigames, et par tant vivont en leccherie tout lour vies. 63. XII. Also, the commons pray: that whereas because of various pestilences many people of the realm, peers of the land, noblemen and esquires as well as all other manner of people, married widows, some have had two wives and therefore are bigamists, and some whose wives are dead refrain from marrying again to avoid being bigamists, and therefore live in lechery all their lives.
Qe plese a nostre seignur le roi, en honour de Dieu et de seinte esglise, graunter, pur lui et ses heirs, qe si ascun soit desormes aresne de felonye devaunt qeconqe juge, et il se mette a sa clergie, et soit par ascun except q'il soit bigames par ascune cause suisdite, soit cele excepcion de nule value apres ces heures, mes q'il eit les privileges du clers; c'estassavoir, d'aler a le prisoun l'evesche, come autres fount. May it please our lord the king, in honour of God and of holy Church, to grant, for him and his heirs, that if anyone henceforth is arraigned of felony before any judge, and he submits to his clergy, and it is excepted by some that he is a bigamist for any aforesaid reason, this exception should be of no value after this time, but he should have the privileges of clerks; that is to say, to go to the bishop's prison, as others do.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi se ent advisera. The king will consider this further.
De vert et venison. Concerning vert and venison.
64. XIII. A counseil nostre seignur le roi; suppliont ses communes: qe par la qe plusours gentz sont enditez de vert et de venysoun, auxibien baillifs de fees come autres, devaunt les justices des forestes, sur qoi lour baillies sont seisiz come forfaitz, et eux oustez d'ycelles sanz jugement et responce, la ou ils devereient avoir brief en la chauncellerie sur l'estatut d'estre a meynprise tanqe en eire, (fn. ii-321-234-1) come use ad este en la chauncellarie. 64. XIII. To our lord the king's council; his commons petition: that whereas many people are indicted of vert and venison, bailiffs of fees as well as others, before the justices of forests, whereupon their bailiwicks are seized as forfeited and they are removed from the same without judgment and answer, and are allowed to have a writ in the chancery on the statute of being at mainprise until the eyre, (fn. ii-321-234-1) as has been practised in the chancery.
Qe plese a vostre tresgraciouse seignurie graunter q'ils puissent avoir les ditz briefs d'estre a maynprise, et faire fyn, et restitutz a lour baillies, issint q'ils ne soient mye disheritez sanz jugement et respounce. May it please your most gracious lordship to grant that they might have the said writs of being at mainprise, and making fine, and be restored to their bailiwicks, so that they should not be disinherited without judgment and answer.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Celluy qi se sente grevez declare son cas en especial, et remede covenable luy serra purveuz. He who feels himself aggrieved should explain his case in detail, and suitable remedy will be provided for him.
[memb. 10]
Remuement des officers. Removal of officers.
65. XIIII. Item, prie la commune: qe si nul officer, ou aucun du counsail du roi, y soit ou ad estee trove en defaut, et convict de defaut ou de deceite faite au roi et a son roialme, q'il soit remue hors d'office et de counsail le roi, saunz estre restitut a nul temps a ycelles; qar si nul tiel y fuisse restitut, il greveroit et destruieroit a son poair ceux qe l'avoient issint empeschez; et qe ceste priere soit affermee et tenuz pur estatut par tout temps avenir. 65. XIIII. Also, the commons pray: that if any officer, or any of the king's council, should be or has been found in fault, and convicted of the fault or deceit done to the king and his realm, he should be removed from office and from the king's council, without ever being restored to the same; since if any such man was restored, he would aggrieve and destroy at his power those who thus impeached him; and this request should be affirmed and upheld as a statute for all times to come.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soient desore les defautes monstrez au roi et as seignurs de son grant conseil, et si lour semble les defautes tielles q'eles demandent tiel juggement, le roi, par l'advis de son dit conseil, y ferra tiel juggement come mieltz luy semblera affaire en tieu cas. Henceforth the faults should be declared to the king and lords of his great council, and if they think the faults such that they require such judgment, the king, by the advice of his said council, will make such judgment as seems best to him in such cases.
Des impensions de religious aliens. Concerning pensions of alien religious.
66. XV. Item, prie la commune: qe come diverses porcions et empensions soient dues des diverses mesons religiouses en Engleterre as autres abbeies et priories aliens del poair de Fraunce, et prises en la mayne du roi a cause de la guerre, et duement paiez a son escheqer pur le temps; et nientmeyns courgent en demande par grevouses processes et censures a la pursuyte des ditz aliens en la court de Rome, ou il n'y ad recoverir ne defens en cest cas par cours de droit en ycelle, ne allowance del dit paiement faite au roi. 66. XV. Also, the commons pray: that whereas various portions and pensions are due from various religious houses in England to other abbeys and alien priories of the power of France, and were taken into the king's hands as a result of the war and duly paid to his exchequer at the time; nevertheless they are still charged by grievous processes and censures at the suit of the said aliens in the court of Rome, where there is neither recovery or defence in this case by course of justice in the same, or allowance of the said payment made to the king.
Qe pleise a sa tresgraciouse mageste grauntir et ordeigner contre tielx aliens et leur dite pursuyte, tant prejudiciale a sa coroune, remedie covenable en cest cas. May it please his most gracious majesty to grant and ordain suitable remedy in this case against such aliens and their said suit, as prejudicial to his crown.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Celluy qi se pleigne en especial viegne < et declare sa > matire devant le grant conseil, et de remede covenable luy enserra purveuz. He who complains in detail should come and explain his matter before the great council, and suitable remedy will be provided thereon.
De justices de la paix. Concerning justices of the peace.
67. XVI. Item, prie la commune: qe come les justices de la pees sont souvent assignez par brocage des meyntenours [col. b] du paiis qi font grande outrage par leur mayntenance as povres gentz du paiis, et sont communement mayntenours de les mesfesours; supplie la commune qe les ditz justicz soient nomez en chescun countee par les seignurs, chivalers des countees en parlement, et q'ils soient sermentez devant le conseil le roi en mesme la manere come autres gentz sont, et q'ils ne soient remuez saunz assent du parlement, quele chose tournera a grande profit du roi; et qe gages y soient assignez as ditz justicz pur leur sessions faire covenables, qar saunz gage ils n'ont cure de faire leur sessions, q'est grande perde au roi. 67. XVI. Also, the commons pray: that whereas the justices of the peace are often assigned at the nomination of the maintainers [col. b] of the region, who do great outrage to poor people of the region by their maintenance, and are commonly maintainers of criminals; the commons petition that the said justices should be named in each county by the lords and knights of the shires in parliament, and sworn before the king's council in the same manner as other people are, and they should not be removed without the assent of parliament, which thing turns to the great profit of the king; and that suitable wages should be assigned to the said justices for holding their sessions, since without wages they do not care to hold their sessions, which is a great loss to the king.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Ils serront nomez par le roi et son continuel conseil; et quant as gaiges, le roi s'advisera. They will be named by the king and his continual council; and as regards wages, the king will consider this further.
De tenementz apropriez alienez. Concerning appropriated alienated tenements.
68. XVII. Item, prie la commune: qe come entre autres chapitres comprises en l'estatut de Westm' second, fait en le temps le roi Edward vostre aiel, pur commune profit du roialme un chapitre dont le tenure s'ensuyt en ces paroles soit contenuz: 68. XVII. Also, the commons pray: that whereas among other articles contained in the second statute of Westminster, made in the time of King Edward, your grandfather, for the common profit of the realm, one article is included, the tenor of which follows in these words:
'Statuit dominus rex quod si abbates, priores, custodes hospitalium aut aliarum domorum religiosarum fundatarum ab ipso vel a progenitoribus suis alienaverint decetero tenementa domibus ipsis ab ipso vel a progenitoribus suis collata, tenementa illa in manum domini regis capiantur et ad voluntatem suam teneantur, et emptor amittat suum recuperare tam de tenemente quam de pecunia quam pacavit. Si autem domus illa a comite vel barone vel ab aliis fundata fuerit, de tenementum sic alienato habeat ille a quo vel a cujus antecessore tenementum sic alienatum collatum fuerit breve ad recuperandum tenementum in dominico, quod tale est: precipe tali abbati, quod juste etc. reddat B. tale tenementi quod eidem domui collatum fuerit in liberam elemosinam per predictum B. vel antecessores suos; et quod ad predictum B. reverti debet per alienacionem quam predictus abbas fecit de tenemento predicto, contra formam collacionis predicte, ut dicit. Eodem modo, pro cantaria sustinenda, de tenemento dato pro luminari in aliqua ecclesia vel capella vel alia elemosina sustinenda, si tenementum sic datum alienetur.' (fn. ii-321-260-1) 'The lord king established that if abbots, priors, keepers of hospitals or other religious houses founded by him or by his progenitors henceforth alienated tenements granted to those houses by him or by his progenitors, those tenements should be seized into the lord king's hands and held at his will, and the purchaser should surrender himself to recover as much of the tenement as he paid money for. If, however, that house from which the tenement was thus alienated was founded by an earl or baron or others, he by whom or by whose ancestor the tenement thus alienated was granted should have a writ to recover the tenement in demesne, in this form: "Command such and such abbot that justly, etc. he render to B. such and such a tenement, which was given to the said house by the said B. or his ancestors and which ought to revert to the said B. by the alienation which the aforesaid abbot made of the aforesaid tenement, contrary to the form of the aforesaid grant, as is said." And likewise, for lands given for maintaining a chantry or for maintaining a light in any church or chapel or other alms, if the tenement thus given is alienated.' (fn. ii-321-260-1)
Qe pleise a vostre tresgraciouse seignurie, par l'advys de vostre conseil, et pur la commune profit du roialme, confermer, ratifier et approver l'estatut avantdit; et qe juggement sur ceo soit rendu et executoire vers les terre tenantz come la leye demande en autre cas. May it please your most gracious lordship, by the advice of your council, and for the common profit of the realm, to confirm, ratify and approve the aforesaid statute; and judgment thereon should be returned and an executor for the landowners as the law requires in other cases.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi voet qe mesme l'estatut soit tenuz et gardez en touz ses pointz. The king wills that the same statute should be upheld and observed in all its points.
Endroit < auxint > des alienacions faites devant ce present parlement, soient briefs grantez encontre le terre tenant. Et quant as alienacions qe sont affaire, le roi s'advisera. And as regards alienations made before this present parliament, writs should be granted against the landowner. And as regards alienations which are to be made, the king will consider this further.
De hundredz lessez a ferme par seignurs. Concerning hundreds leased at farm by lords.
69. XVIII. Item, prient les communes: qe come leur sont faitz grandes extorsions, damages et grevances, par cause qe les hundredes en diverses lieux sont lessez au ferme; qe lui pleise ordeigner qe nules hundredes soient lessez au ferme, mais soient en maynes des seignurs as queux ils appartienent, sur grevouse peyne, en eovre de charite. Et qe come en autres estatutz est contenuz qe nul baillie de hundred n'autre y soit lesse a ferme, ore les seignurs des hundredes et autres q'ont baillies les lessent a grosses fermes; qe cela soit defendu, et grande peyne myse sur celui qe vient a l'encontre; qar par cause des grosses fermes ils font grandes extorsions au poeple. 69. XVIII. Also, the commons pray: that whereas great extortions, damages and grievances are done to them, because the hundreds in various places are leased at farm; may it please him to ordain that no hundreds should be leased at farm, but should be in the hands of the lords to whom they belong, on grievous penalty, in way of charity. And whereas in other statutes it is contained that no bailiwick or hundred or other should be leased at farm, now the lords of hundreds and others who have bailiwicks lease them at large farms; this should be forbidden, and a great penalty set on anyone who does the contrary, since these large farms cause great extortions to the people.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Les estatutz ent faites se tiegnent fermement. (fn. ii-321-272-1) The statutes made thereon should be firmly upheld. (fn. ii-321-272-1)
Des portz des villes enblemiz par estaches et gortz. Concerning town ports impaired by weirs and gorces.
70. XIX. Item, prient les communes: qe come en diverses portz de vostre roialme, en le cours del eawe des ditz portz sont assiz et fichez estakes de pessons, et gorses leves de novel; par queux diverses damages [p. ii-334][col. a] come de sablouns sont sourdiz, a grande destruccion des ditz portz, et grande peril des niefs illeoqes repairantz et arrivantz chargez ovesqe marchandises. 70. XIX. Also, the commons pray: that whereas in various ports of your realm, fish-weirs are set up and fixed in the watercourses of the said ports, and gorces are newly built, various impediments [p. ii-334][col. a] have developed, such as silt, to the great destruction of the said ports and great peril of ships repairing there and arriving laden with merchandises.
Qe pleise au dit tresnoble seignur grantir et ordeigner qe les ditz estakes et toutz autres choses nusantz et destruyantz les ditz portz soient ousteez; et qe meir et baillifs et gardeyns des ditz portz eient poair de les avantditz ouster, en eovere de charite. May it please our said most noble lord the grant and ordain that the said weirs and all other things harmful and destructive to the said ports should be removed; and the mayor, bailiffs and wardens of the said ports should have power to remove the aforesaid items, in way of charity.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soient les estatutz ent faites tenuz et gardez en touz lours pointz. (fn. ii-321-278-1) The statutes made thereon should be upheld and observed in all their points. (fn. ii-321-278-1)
Des chateuz des futyfs et de felons. Concerning the chattels of fugitives and felons.
71. XX. Item, prie la commune: q'ascuns gentz du dit roialme y sont enditez de felonie des mortz des hommes devant corouners des diverses countees, et fauxement et par malice des ditz coroners et des autres, les ditz gentz y sont enditez q'ils les ont retret et fait fute par cause de les felonies suisdites, a cause de les faire fauxement forsfaire leur biens et chateux. 71. XX. Also, the commons pray: that whereas some people of the said realm are indicted of the felony of homicide before coroners of various counties, the said people are indicted falsely, and by the malice of the said coroners and others, so that they have run away and taken flight because of the aforesaid felonies, since they are made to forfeit their goods and chattels.
Qe pleise a son tresgraciouse seignurie et a son bone conseil ordeigner qe desore enavant y purra estre enquis par bon paiis, devant justicz assignez a leur deliverance, ou auterement selonc la leye, si les ditz gentz enditez les ont retret et fuy ou nemye, pur Dieu et en eovre de charite. May it please their most gracious lord and his good council to ordain that henceforth it could be inquired into before good witnesses, before the justices of gaol delivery, or otherwise according to the law, whether or not the said indicted men have run away and fled, for God and in way of charity.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Celluy qi s'enpleigne en especial sue a la grace du roi. He who will complain in detail should sue for the king's mercy.
Touche l'accompte d'assartz. Concerning the account of assarts.
72. XXI. Item, prie la commune: qe la ou ils sont acomptant en l'escheqer nostre dit seignur le roi, sont chargez des diverses sommes, auxibien d'assartes come des autres charges, les queux sommes ne poent estre levez, ne nulle destresse pur ycelles estre trove en les countees pur les queux les ditz acomptz sont renduz. En descharge des quelles sommes issint nient levables ils soleient estre de tout temps passe a leur averrement, tanq'ore tard en le temps Sire William Tauk nadgairs chief baron del dit escheqer. 72. XXI. Also, the commons pray: that when they render account in the exchequer of our said lord the king, they are charged with various sums, for assarts as well as other charges, which sums cannot be levied, nor can any distress for the same be made in the counties for which the said accounts are returned. They used to have averment for the discharge of such unleviable sums in all times past, until recently in the time of Sir William Tauk, former chief baron of the exchequer.
Qe pleise a nostre dit seignur le roi et a son dit conseil grauntir qe les ditz accomptantz puissent estre en tiel cas a leur averrement, come ils soleient estre avant ces hures, et come la leye le demande, et en toutz autres caas la ou averrement est receyvable. May it please our said lord the king and his said council to grant that the said persons brought to account might have their averment in such cases, as they used to be before this time, and as the law requires, and in all other cases where the averment is permitted.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Cil qi se sente grevez ent face declaracion, et droit luy enserra fait. He who feels himself aggrieved should declare thereon, and justice will be done to him.
Pur la salvacion des costeres du meer. For the protection of the seacoasts.
73. XXII. Item, prie la commune: qe lui pleise ordeigner pur la sauve garde des coustes du mier parmye Engleterre, en defense et salvacion de tout son roialme, et ceo des seignurs et autres q'ont terres pres de la mier et sont ore demurrantz loinz de la mier; qe ceux seignurs et autres y soient comandez sur grande peyne de faire leur demoere en leur possessions pres des la mier, par la cause suisdite. 73. XXII. Also, the commons pray: that it might please him to ordain, for the safekeeping of the seacoasts throughout England, in defence and salvation of all his realm, that the lords and others who have lands near to the sea and are now living far from the sea should be ordered on great penalty to make their residence in their possessions near the sea, for the aforesaid reason.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi y ordeignera par l'advis de son grant conseil ce qe mieltz semblera affaire. The king, by the advice of his great council, will ordain what seems best.
Qe viscontz ne soient a terme de vie. That sheriffs should not hold for a term of life.
74. XXIII. Item, supplient les ditz communes a leur seignur le roi: q'il pleise grauntir a nully desormes les offices des viscontz a terme de vie ou en fee, mais par commission de an en an. Et qe les deputez de ceux qi sont ore viscontz a terme de vie ou en fee soient remuez chescun an, sibien come viscontz faitz par commission le roi. 74. XXIII. Also, the said commons petition their lord the king: that it might please him to grant to no-one henceforth the office of sheriff for a term of life or in fee, but by commission from year to year. And the deputies of those who are now sheriffs for a term of life or in fee should be removed each year, as well as sheriffs made by the king's commission.
[editorial note: Responsio] [editorial note: Answer]
Les estatutz ent faitz soient tenuz et gardez en touz lours pointz. (fn. ii-321-302-1) The statutes made thereon should be upheld and observed in all their points. (fn. ii-321-302-1)
[memb. 11]
De justices d'assises. Concerning justices of assizes.
75. XXIIII. Item, prie la commune: qe come diverses justices sont assignez d'estre justices d'assises en la paiis la ils sont demurantz, et ont lour seignurs, mestres, cosins et aliez, issint qe null des povres ne peussent avoir lour recoverir, par cause de favour q'est fait as susditz. Par quoi plese le dit consail de ordeigner qe nulle ne soit justice d'assises en la paiis la ou il est [col. b] demurant et retenuz ove les gents du paiis, en oevre de charite, sanz autres foreins justices a eux associez. Mes qe plese ordeigner justices de foreins lieux, queux voillent faire droit auxi bien as petiz come as grantz, et as povres come as riches. 75. XXIIII. Also, the commons pray: that whereas various justices are assigned to be justices of assizes in the regions where they live and where they have their lords, masters, kinsmen and allies, none of the poor can have recovery because of the favour which is shown to the aforesaid. Wherefore may it please the said council, in way of charity, to ordain that no-one should be a justice of assizes in the region where he is [col. b] resident and might side with the people of the region without other justices from outside the region being associated with them. But may it please him to ordain justices from distant places, who will do justice to the small as well as the great, and to the poor as well as the rich.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Il plest au roi; et cil qi se sente grevez se pleigne, et droit luy serra fait. It pleases the king; and he who feels himself aggrieved should complain, and justice will be done to him.
Bille pur harang de Jernemuth'. Bill for the herring of Yarmouth.
76. XXV. Item, prient les communes des countes de Suff', Essex, Cantebr', Hunt', Nichol, Norht', Bedeford, Buk', Leycestre et autres de la commune: qe come plus grant chiertee et meschief de harang ad estee en les ditz countes et aillours par tout le roialme, puis qe vostre chartre estoit grantee a les burgeys de Jernemuth' qe nulle harang n'autre merchandise queconques serroit vendu deinz septz lieux de la dite ville de Jernemuth' durant la feire de mesme la ville en temps de pescherie, qe unqes n'estoit pardevant. 76. XXV. Also, the commons of the counties of Suffolk, Essex, Cambridgeshire, Huntingdonshire, Lincolnshire, Northamptonshire, Bedfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Leicestershire and others of the commons pray: that whereas there has been a very great scarcity and lack of herring in the said counties and elsewhere throughout the realm, since your charter was granted to the burgesses of Yarmouth that no herring or other merchandise whatsoever should be sold within seven leagues of the said town of Yarmouth during the fair of the same town in the fishing season, which was never the case previously.
XXVI. Et ceo par cause qe nulle harang ne poet estre oneree ne vendu aillours forsqe a la dite ville, a quele charette ne chival ne purra approcher sanz passage deux foitz par eawe, en grande destourbance de cariage; et la plus grant partie de harang est pris par estranges peschours en temps de pescherie, qe ne voillont a la dite ville, a cause q'ils ne purront vendre lour merchandises si noun a la volunte des ditz burgeys, et ceo de pris et de quantite. XXVI. And this because no herring could be transported or sold elsewhere except to the said town, to which neither cart nor horse can approach without passage twice by water, in great disturbance of the carriage; and in the fishing season the greater part of the herring is taken by foreign fishermen, who will not come to the said town because they cannot sell their merchandises except at the price and quantity permitted by the said burgesses.
Qe plese a vostre haute seignurie comander qe la dite chartre soit repelle, et qe harang poet estre achatee, oneree et vendu es places ou il soleit pardevant la grant de dite chartre, pur meillour pris ent avoir en temps avenir, et pur le commune profit de tout le roialme. May it please your high lordship to order that the said charter should be repealed, and that herring can be bought, transported and sold in the places where they were before the grant of the said charter, in order to have better prices thereon in times to come and for the common profit of all the realm.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Il plest au roi qe mesme la chartre soit repellee endroit del novel grant compris en ycelle tantsoulement; salvant as ditz burgeys toutes lours ancienes franchises, libertes et usages devant usez resonablement, avec la < novelle > confirmacion d'ycelles ove la clause de licet. It pleases the king that the same charter should be repealed as regards the new grant contained in the same only; saving to the said burgesses all their ancient franchises, liberties and customs reasonably observed before that time, with a new confirmation of the same with the clause licet.
De auncestre collaterall. Concerning collateral ancestors.
77. XXVII. Item, prie la commune: qe come bone foi et reson soit use et pur lei tenuz, qe en cas q'ascun soit disseisi de son franc tenement, et ascun auncestre collateral de celui q'est disseisi relest en la possession le disseisour ove clause de garantie, celui q'est disseisi serra barre a touz jours de son droit, en cas qe la garantie soit descendu sur lui. Et issint en plusours nient nomez en ceste bille la garantie de auncestre collateral serra bare d'accion mesqe rien soit descendu par mesme l'auncestre; a grant damage et desheritesoun de plusours gents de la terre. 77. XXVII. Also, the commons pray: that whereas good faith and reason are observed and upheld as law, so that if anyone is disseised of his free tenement, and a certain collateral ancestor of the disseised person releases it into the possession of the disseisor with a clause of warranty, he who is disseised will be barred forever from his right, if the warranty comes to him. And so in many cases not named in this bill the warranty of the collateral ancestor will be barred from action even if nothing descends by the same ancestor, to the great damage and disinheritance of many men of the land.
Par quoi suppliont les ditz communes a lour dit treshonure seignur qe lui plese par son dit tressage consail ordeigner qe tiel manere de garantie fait apres ces heures ne soit desormes bare d'accion tanqe tenemenz a la value soient descenduz al demandant par mesme l'auncestre, come est contenuz en semblable cas en l'estatut de Gloucestre, la ou tenant par la lei d'Engleterre aliene terre ou tenement q'il tient par la lei d'Engleterre. (fn. ii-321-319a-1) Wherefore the said commons petition their said most honoured lord that it might please him to ordain by his said wisest council that such manner of warranty made after this time henceforth should not be barred from action until tenements to the same value have descended to the demandant by the same ancestor, as is contained in a similar case in the statute of Gloucester where, by the law of England, a tenant of alien land or tenements holds it by the law of England. (fn. ii-321-319a-1)
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi s'advisera tanqe al proschein parlement. The king will consider this further pending the next parliament.
De delivrance des gaioles. Concerning the delivery of gaols.
78. XXVIII. Item, prie la commune: qe touz les justices d'assises facent lour sessions en villes ou les gaoles sont, et q'ils facent deliverance des ditz gaoles devant lour departir au meins un foitz par an. Et qe as justices de chescun session d'assises patent soit fait auxi bien pur les assises prendre come pur les gaoles deliverer, deinz fraunchise et dehors, et tout en une mesme patente. 78. XXVIII. Also, the commons pray: that all the justices of assizes should hold their sessions in towns where there are gaols, and before their departure should make delivery of the said gaols at least once a year. And letters patent should be made to the justices of each session of assizes, for taking the assizes as well as for delivering the gaols, inside as well as outside franchises, all in the same letters patent.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Les justices y averont lours commissions par manere q'ad este usee devant; et serront chargez qe lours sessions aillent avant sibien as assises prendre come a la delivrance faire des prisones. The justices will have their commissions in the manner that has been observed previously; and they will be charged that their sessions should proceed both to take assizes and to make delivery of prisons.
[p. ii-335]
[col. a]
Remuement des viscontz. Removal of sheriffs.
79. XXIX. Item, prie la commune: qe come devant ces heures estoit ordeigne qe touz les viscontes d'Engleterre feussent remuez chescun an al Seint Michel, et autres viscontes faitz; (fn. ii-321-331-1) et nient contreesteant celle ordinance y soleit estre bien pres Nowel devant qe les viscontes furent esluz. Devant quele temps touz les letes furent passez, et partant valerent les hundredes le meins as novels viscontes, a grant de eux. Et aussint estoit ordeigne qe les douns et dyners qe les viscontes et autres foreins ministres soleient faire en l'escheker feussent oustez et nient usez apres celle ordinance; qe n'est pas tenuz, mes les douns et les dyners sont usez come ils soleient estre. 79. XXIX. Also, the commons pray: that whereas before this time it was ordained that all the sheriffs of England should be removed each year at Michaelmas, and others made sheriffs; (fn. ii-321-331-1) notwithstanding this ordinance, it is usually almost Christmas before the sheriffs were chosen. Before this time all the leets are passed, and therefore the hundreds are worth less to the new sheriffs, to their great concern. And it was also ordained that the gifts and payments which the sheriffs and other foreign officers used to make in the exchequer should be abolished and not observed after this ordinance, which is not upheld, but the gifts and payments are used as before.
Qe lui plese ordeigner de novel qe la dite ordinance soit tenuz, et qe touz les justices facent deliverer touz lour extretes en l'escheker chescun an a les oeptaves de Seint Michel; et qe les officers de l'escheker facent deliverer les ditz extretes as viscontes a la .xv. ne de Seint Martin, ou a lendemeyn de Seint Hiller a plus tard, qe les ditz viscontes ne soient chargez d'acompter de nulle extrete qe lour serra livere a autre temps. Et qe les eschetours soient remuez annuelement, come desus est dit des viscontes, pur grant profit le roi. Et qe grande peine isoit mys sur celui q'est officer en l'escheker s'il rien preigne pur son office faire etc. May it please him to ordain again that the said ordinance should be upheld, and that all the justices should cause all their estreats to be delivered in the exchequer each year at the octave of Michaelmas; and the officers of the exchequer should cause the said estreats to be delivered to the sheriffs on the quinzaine of Martinmas or on the morrow of St Hilary at the latest, so that the said sheriffs are not charged to account for any estreat which is delivered at another time. And the escheators should be removed annually, as is aforesaid concerning sheriffs, for the king's great profit. And great penalty should be set on anyone who is an officer in the exchequer if he takes anything for doing his office etc.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Touchant les viscontz et eschetours, soient esluz et nomez chescun an a la Saint Michel, et aient lours commissions al lendemain des almes. Et touchant les douns et dyners, sibien en la resceite come en l'escheqier, soient de tout oustez. Et ceulx qi y ont trespassez encontre les ordinances ent faites soient puniz solonc la quantite de lour mesfait, par l'advis du continuel conseil. Concerning the sheriffs and escheators, they should be chosen and named each year at Michaelmas, and have their commissions on the morrow of All Souls. And concerning the gifts and payments, in the receipt as well as in the exchequer, they should be completely removed. And those who have trespassed against the ordinances made thereon should be punished according to the seriousness of their crime, by the advice of the continual council.
De puralee des forestes. Concerning the limits of the forests.
80. XXX. Item, prie la commune: qe come la purale estoit chivache, partie en temps le roi Edward aiel nostre dit seignur le roi q'ore est et partie en temps nostre dit seignur le roi q'ore est, et sur ceo chartres estoient faitez comparnantz les boundes des forestes; nientmeins les ministres de ditz forestes, encontre les ditz chartres et l'entente nostre dit seignur le roi declaree en touz ses parlementz, pur lour singuler coveitise, volontriment empeschont les ditz communes de jour en autre, sibien de veert come de venison hors des ditz boundes, et levont de eux grantz sommes d'argent par extorsions, a lour oeps demesne, a damage des ditz communes sanz noumbre et encontre la grant chartre de forest et les estatuz faitz puis encea. 80. XXX. Also, the commons pray: that whereas the limits of the forests were fixed, part in the time of King Edward, grandfather of our present lord the king and part in the time of our said present lord the king, and charters were made thereon containing the boundaries of the forests; nevertheless the officials of the said forests, contrary to the said charters and the intent of our said lord the king declared in all his parliaments, for their singular covetousness, illegally impeach the said commons from day to day, of vert as well as of venison outside the said boundaries, and levy from them great sums of money by extortion, to their own use, to the damage of the said commons without number and contrary to the great Charter of the Forest and the statutes made subsequently.
Qe plese a nostre dit seignur le roi et as grantz et communes du parlement d'ordeigner qe briefs soient envoiez en touz les contes d'Engleterre de publier les boundes contenuz en les ditz chartres, et de les faire chivacher de novel, et d'ordeigner certeine peine sur les ditz ministres contrevenantz les ditz chartres et estatuz, a lever al oeps le roi. Et qe ceux qe soient grevez peussent recoverir damages a double ou a treble solonc l'avis du dit parlement. Et qe les ditz ministres perdent lour offices a touz jours, soient ils officers ou ministres de fee, ou noun. De quele supplicacion contenuz en ceste bille l'effect ad estee grantee en plusours parlements avant ces heures par generals paroles, le quele ne fust jammes mys en execucion. Sur quoi toute la commune de la terre derichief supplie qe la matiere de la supplicacion contenuz en ceste bille soit mys < en > execucion sanz outre delai; pur ceo qe les parties entour les ditz forestes ne peussont plus outre suffrer ne endurer les grevances q'ils sentent par les extorcions qe les ministres de ditz forestes fount pur defaute d'execucion et de remedie. Et en mesme la manere plese au roi qe ceste ordinance se tiegne parmy le roialme devers touz autres seignurs q'ount forestes ou chaces en semblable cas. May it please our said lord the king and the great men and commons of the parliament to ordain that writs should be sent to all the counties of England to publish the boundaries contained in the said charters, and to cause them to be newly bounded, and to ordain a certain penalty on the said officials who contravene the said charters and statutes, to be levied to the king's use. And those who are aggrieved should recover double or treble their damages according to the advice of the said parliament. And the said officials should lose their offices forever, be they officers or officials of fee or not. The purport of this request contained in this bill has been granted in many parliaments before this time by general words which were never executed. Wherefore all the commons of the land again petition that the subject of the request contained in this bill should be effected without further delay, so that those near the forests might no longer suffer or endure the grievances caused by the extortions which the officials of the said forests make for default of execution and remedy. And in the same manner may it please the king that this ordinance should be upheld in similar cases throughout the realm against all other lords who have forests or chases.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi quide qe la perambulacion y soit faite et chivachiee duement, et par tout. Et il voet < qe la chartre [col. b] de la foreste y soit > [...] fermement gardez et tenuz en touz < ses > pointz. The king thinks that the limits of the forests should be duly fixed and bounded everywhere. And he wills that the Charter [col. b] of the Forest should be firmly observed and upheld in all its points.
Bille des niefs et caryts. Bill concerning ships and carracks.
81. XXXI. Item, prie la commune: qe come el temps de guerre plusours neefs et cariks od diverses merchandises et biens des enemys nostre dit seignur le roi mesnez par force sur le meer, et par l'eide de Dieux, grant travaille et power des foialx et liges nostre seignur le roi avantdit, ount estee prisez, les queux biens et merchandises de droit deussent avoir estee forfaitz et mys al oeps et profit nostre dit seignur le roi, savant une partie d'icelles pur la lower et guerdoun de ceux qe les gayneront; si ount les Lumbardz, par collusion et covyn fait parentre eux et les governours du roi nostre tresgraciouse seignur susdit pursuez a les avantditz governours, par billes fesantz mencion et suggescion d'approver mesmes icelles biens et merchandises issint prisez estre lour propres, et de la compaignie de Lumbardz. Sur quoi deliverance ad estee fait d'icelles a les avantditz Lumbardz, come en manere colorable. Mes en fait les governours susditz eiantz devers eux mesmes les biens et merchandises, retenantz a lour oeps et singuler profit demesne, ount accordez ove les ditz Lumbardz, endonantz a eux de lour gree faire, et pur lour travaille, au damage nostre dit seignur le roi de vint mille livres d'esterlings et grant anientissement de les soens liges et simples gents qe travailleront sur l'apprise d'icelles, et auxi pur la defence del roialme. 81. XXXI. Also, the commons pray: that whereas in times of war many ships and carracks loaded with various merchandises and goods of our said lord the king's enemies have been taken by force on the sea, by the help of God and the great labour and power of the faithful subjects and lieges of our aforesaid lord the king, which goods and merchandises rightly should have been forfeited and put to the use and profit of our said lord the king, saving one part of the same for the payment and reward of those who obtained them; the Lombards, by collusion and co-operation between them and the governors of our aforesaid most gracious lord the king, have sued to the aforesaid governors by bills mentioning and claiming to prove the same goods and merchandises thus taken to be their own, and of the company of Lombards. Whereupon delivery has been made of the same to the aforesaid Lombards, in a deceitful manner. But, in fact, the aforesaid governors, having the same good and merchandises and retaining them to their own use and singular profit, have made an agreement with the said Lombards, giving them £20,000 sterling for making their satisfaction and for their labour, to the damage of our said lord the king and the great detriment of his own lieges and common people who laboured to take the same, and also for the defence of the realm.
Par quoi priont les communes susditz qe plese a l'avantdit consail ent avoir consideracion, enordinantz la remedie qe lour semblera plus honour et profit et au roi, et salvacion de son roialme et comunaltee. Wherefore the aforesaid commons pray that it might please the aforesaid council to have consideration thereon, ordaining the remedy which seems most to the honour and profit of the king and the salvation of his realm and commonalty.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Ceux qi se y sentent grevez facent lour pursuite devant le grant conseil, et droit lour y serra fait. Those who feel themselves aggrieved should make their suit before the great council, and justice will be done to them.
Qe tenementz ne soient seisiz etc. That tenements should not be seized etc.
82. XXXII. Item, prient les communers de tote le roialme: qe nulles terres, tenementz, rentes ne services de nully ne soient seisez par nul officer en mains du roi ne de null autre, ne tenuz pur forfaitz par nul juge, par fait de nulle persone mort nient ataynt en sa vie de nulle felonie ne traitrie. 82. XXXII. Also, the commons of all the realm pray: that no lands, tenements, rents or services of anyone should be seized by any officer into the hands of the king or of any other, or held as forfeited by any judge, for an act of any dead person not attainted during his life of any felony or treason.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soit pluis clerement declarree. This should be explained more clearly.
Qe viscontz ne soient justices de la paix n'autre commissioners. That sheriffs should not be justices of the peace or other commissioners.
83. XXXIII. A nostre tresexcellent et tresredoute seignur nostre seignur le roi et son bon consail; monstront les povres communes de la terre: qe pur ceo qe les viscontes et suthviscontes, gardeins des gaoles, sont ore et longement ount estee justices de la pees, et soventfoith a tort facent loialx gents du paiis estre enditez devant eux par malice et envye, pur lour gayn prendre; come pur faire fin pur l'entre en la gaole, puis pur suete de prison, et apres pur mainprise, puis pur avoir enqueste procuree pur savoir lour vies, et qant ils sont acquitez de faire fin a les gaolers pur lour ferres, et puis pur lour issue de la porte; dont ils priont remedie. 83. XXXIII. To our most excellent and most dread lord the king and his good council; the poor commons of the land declare: that because the sheriffs, under-sheriffs and keepers of gaols are now, and for a long time have been, justices of the peace, and often wrongly cause loyal people of the region to be indicted before them by malice and envy, in order to take their profit, for example for making a fine for the entry into the gaol, then for suit of prison, then for bail and then to have an inquest procured to save their lives, and when they are acquitted to make fine to the gaolers for their release from their fetters and then for their departure through the door; for which they pray remedy.
Par quoi plese a vostre tresexcellente seignurie, pur Dieu et en oevre de charite, ordeigner qe de ceste jour enavant nul viscont, ne suthviscont, gardein des gaoles, ne soit fait justice de la pees, ne nulle commission a eux direct deins lour countee forsqe en lour office propre. Wherefore may it please your most excellent lordship, for God and in way of charity, to ordain that from this day forward no sheriff, under-sheriff or keeper of gaols should be made a justice of the peace, or have any commission directed to them in their county except in their own office.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Il plest bien au roi. It properly pleases the king.
[memb. 12]
De proeve de testamentz. Concerning the proving of wills.
84. XXXIIII. Item, prie la commune: de parler as evesqes et lour officers de mettre en certein qe serra pris pur prove des testament et pur acquitancez faire quant testament sont parfournez, et mettre tiele peine qe nul ose de prendre pluis qe ne soit limite a ore; qar la commune ad soeffert grande meschief et damage par cause de la noun certeintee de paiement pur prove de testament. Et qe les dites evesqes, ercedekenes et autres ordiners de seint esglise mettent peines corporels et nemye peines peccuniers, [p. ii-336][col. a] come ils fount sur les trespassours encontre lour leis. 84. XXXIIII. Also, the commons pray: that he should speak to bishops and their officials to clarify what will be taken for proving wills and for making acquittances when wills are executed, and set such penalty that no-one dares to take more than shall now be specified; since the commonalty has suffered great misfortune and damage because of the uncertainty of payment for proving wills. And the said bishops, archdeacons and other ordinaries of holy Church should set corporal penalties and not money penalties, [p. ii-336][col. a] as they do on those who trespass against their laws.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soient l'estatutz ent faitz tenuz et gardez en touz pointz. (fn. ii-321-364-1) The statutes made thereon should be upheld and observed in all points. (fn. ii-321-364-1)
De chateux des felons. Concerning the chattels of felons.
85. XXXV. Item, prie la commune: purceo qe diverses gentz ont este chargez des diverses biens et chateux qe furent as felons atteintes par enquestes d'office, la ou les ditz biens et chateux unqes ne deviendront en lour mayns, a grande damage et empoverissement de le poeple; qe chescun homme purra estre resceu de traverser le dit office, et sur le reverse de l'office trove estre descharge. 85. XXXV. Also, the commons pray: because various people have been charged of various goods and chattels which belonged to felons attainted by inquests of office, when the said goods and chattels never came into their hands, to the great damage and impoverishment of the people; that each man should be received to deny the verdict of the said office, and on the reversal of the office should be found discharged.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Se tiegne la loy devant usee. The law previously observed should be upheld.
De la monoye d'Escoce. Concerning the money of Scotland.
86. XXXVI. Item, prie la commune: qe come par vertue des briefs de defense envoiez hors de la chancellerie ils sont chargez chescun an de respondre et acomptre en l'escheqer des forfaitures du monoie d'Escoce, vines dulces mys a vende, des bledez, plumbe, esteyn, worsted, formage, bure et des touz autres choses contenuz en les ditz briefs, a lour grandes travailes, costages et deseise, et null avantage ne profit de lour dit seignur; qe lui pleise granter et ordeigner, en eise des ditz communes, qe la dite charge soit ouste, ou qe autre remedie ent soit ordeigne, en descharge des ditz communes. Et qe nules vyns dulces soient venduz par especial licence nient pluis qe autres vyns sont. Et qe les vynes doulses < y soient > venduz par tout le roialme, en citees, villes et burghs, par ceux qe sont en fraunchises. 86. XXXVI. Also, the commons pray: whereas by virtue of writs of prohibition sent from the chancery they are charged each year to answer and render account in the exchequer of forfeitures of Scottish money, sweet wines put for sale, corn, lead, tin, worsted, cheese, butter and all other things contained in the said writs, to their great distress, expense and damage, and with no advantage or profit to their said lord; that it might please him to grant and ordain, in ease of the said commons, that the said charge should be removed, or that another remedy should be ordained thereon, in discharge of the said commons. And no sweet wine should be sold by special licence more than other wine. And the sweet wine should be sold throughout the realm, in cities, towns and boroughs, by those who are enfranchised.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Endroit de la monoie d'Escoce, remede estoit ordeignee au parlement l'an .xlvij. me . (fn. ii-321-375-1) Et endroit des vins douces, remede est ordeigne en ce parlement. (fn. ii-321-375-2) Et quant al remenant de la bille, serra remede covenable ordeignee par le continuel < conseil > du roi, a mieltz qe semblera affaire. As regards Scottish money, remedy was ordained at the parliament of the forty-seventh year [1373]. (fn. ii-321-375-1) And as regards sweet wine, remedy is ordained in this parliament. (fn. ii-321-375-2) And as regards the rest of the bill, suitable remedy will be ordained by the king's continual council, to do what will seem best.
Del clerc du marchee del hostel le roy. Concerning the clerk of the market of the king's household.
87. XXXVII. Item, prie la commune: qe come l'office de clerk del marche soleit estre d'assurrer lez mesurez et pois deinz la verge, et de pursuire ceux q'il trove en defaute; par la ount ceux q'ount ocupie le dit office, par plusours ount pris et leve d'an en ane dez vilez, merchetz et autrez deinz la verge, et alafoith dehors, tresgrauntz fyns, par extorcioun, saunz faire lour dit office come apent. 87. XXXVII. Also, the commons pray: that whereas the function of the clerk of the market used to be to guarantee measures and weights inside the verge, and to pursue those whom he found at fault; many of those who have occupied the said office have taken and levied very great fines from year to year from towns, markets and others inside the verge, and sometimes outside it, by extortion, without doing what belonged to their said office.
Dont la dit communie prie qe le dit clerk face desormez les mesures et pois d'estre acordantz al estandard de toute part ou l'ostiel le roi passera, et de pursuir touz les singulers personez q'il trove en defaute, saunz prendre tiels fynes come devaunt est dit; et qe sur ceo soit peyne ordeigne par le dit conseil. Auxint prie le dit commune q'une mesure soit par toute Engleterre, et qe l'estatut ent fait, l'an nostre dit seignur le roy trentisme quarte, soit tenuz en touz pointz. (fn. ii-321-378a-1) Et ajouste soit sur ycel, sur un certaigne peyne, qe null rien soit vendu apres un certeigne temps par mesure ne par pois nient acordant a l'estandard suisdit. Et cestes choses priount la communie pur Dieu et en oever du charite. Wherefore the said commons pray that henceforth the said clerk should ensure that the measures and weights are in accordance with the standard in all places through which the king's household passes, and pursue all the individuals whom he finds at fault, without taking such fines as are aforesaid; and a penalty should be ordained thereon by the said council. The said commons also pray that there should be one measure throughout England, and that the statute made thereon in the thirty-fourth year of our said lord the king [1361] should be upheld in all points. (fn. ii-321-378a-1) And it should be added to the same, on a certain penalty, that after a certain time no-one should sell anything by measure or weight not in accordance with the aforesaid standard. And the commons pray these things for God and in way of charity.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Face l'assai, et due punissement de ceux q'il trovera en defaute, solonc la quantite du mesfait, sanz prendre fyns des villees en groos la ou il ne fait mye son office. Et endroit des mesures, soient accordant a l'estandard, et l'estatutz ent faitz fermement gardez. He should make the assay, and due punishment upon those whom he finds at fault, according to the gravity of the crime, without taking fines in gross from towns where he does not have authority. And as regards measures, they should be in accordance with the standard, and the statutes made thereon firmly observed.
De traverser l'office d'eschetour. To traverse the office of escheator.
88. XXXVIII. Item, prie la commune: qe la ou plusours diverses enquestes d'office ount este prises en favorable manere devaunt eschetours par lour covyne et par autres de lour assent, par queles offices ad este trove qe le roi avoit title d'avoire diverses terres et tenementz, la ou le roi n'avoit nul droit, ne lez enquestez ne furent mye en due manere prises come le ley demande; sur qei maintenaunt nostre seignur le roy par [col. b] malveys conseil ad done et graunte par sa patent les ditz terres et tenementz a plusours diverses gentz; et issint sount ceux qe droit en ount oustez de lour possessions dreitrell, et mys a suyre devers eux a qi le roy ad graunte par scire facias, a graunt damage de ceux qe sont issint a tort oustes et destruccioun de lour possessions. 88. XXXVIII. Also, the commons pray: that whereas many various inquests of office have been taken in a favourable manner before escheators by members of their faction and others amenable to them, by which offices it was found that the king had title to have various lands and tenements, where the king had no right, and the inquests were not taken in due manner as the law requires; whereupon through evil counsel by his letters patent our lord the king [col. b] has given and granted the said lands and tenements to various people, so that those who have them by right are removed from their rightful possessions, and compelled to sue those to whom the king has granted the possessions by scire facias, to the great damage of those who are thus wrongly removed and to the destruction of their possessions.
Sur qi supplie la commune qe apres enquestes d'officez prises, et par eux trovez qe le roi ad title d'avoir ascuns terres ou < et tenementz, qe null > grant ne patent soit a nulluy des tielx terres ou tenementz par celle manere seisez, tanqe le title soit discus parentre nostre seignur le roy et la partie qe par cell office serroit greve; issint qe celui q'ad la possession trove suffisante sourtee en la chancellerie nostre seignur le roy, qe si trove soit qe nostre seignur le roi ad droit, q'il respondra a roi de touz les issues en le mesne temps. Et si nulles patentes soient faitz et grandez au contrare, soient celles patentes repellez et les parties restituz a lour possessions, solonc la forme suisdite. Wherefore the commons petition that after inquests of offices are taken, and it is found by them that the king has title to have certain lands or tenements, no patent of such lands or tenements seized in this manner should be granted to anyone until the title is discussed by our lord the king and the party who is aggrieved by this office; on condition that he who has the possession finds sufficient security in our lord the king's chancery that, if it is found that our lord the king has the right, he will answer to the king concerning all the issues in the meantime. And if any patents are made and granted to the contrary, these patents should be repealed and the parties restored to their possessions, according to the aforesaid form.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
< Le roi ent prendra avisement. > The king will take advice thereon.
De champertours. Concerning champertors.
89. XXXIX. Item, prie la commune: qe parla ou par diverses estatutz nadegaires faitz, ad este defenduz qe nul homme preignee plees, querels, terres ne tenementz en accion a champart; (fn. ii-321-390-1) soit cest estatut meuthe declare et afforce, et le chanceller commande de granter briefs sur ycelx a sute de partie, et q'il puisse recoverer sez damages en la dite sute. 89. XXXIX. Also, the commons pray: that whereas by various statutes formerly made it has been prohibited that any man should take pleas, quarrels, lands or tenements in an action by champerty; (fn. ii-321-390-1) this statute should be better explained and confirmed, and the chancellor should order writs to be granted on the same at the suit of the party, so that he might recover his damages in the said suit.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi se vorra adviser tanqe al proschein parlement. The king will consider this further pending the next parliament.
Qe alyens n'eyent benefices deinz le roialme. That aliens should not have benefices in the realm.
90. XL. Item, prie la commune: coment les progenitours nostre seignur le roi fonderent prebendes en esglises cathedraxl [sic: read 'cathedralx'] et autres benefices qe appartiegnent a presentacion et collacioun de prelatz de seint esglise de son roialme, en tiel entencion qe hommes de seint esglise, c'estassavoir, chanons, prebenders et persones des prebendes et benefices avauntditz deveront tenir residence et hospitalite en prebendes et benefices avauntditz; mes ore le seint piere le pape ad done les ditz prebendes et benefices, par voie de reservacion et auxi encontre le trete darrein fait as aliens, queux nul hospitalite ne residence font, mes les maisons des ditz benefices destruent et degastont, et les deniers qe vendront des ditz benefices hors de vostre roialme par lour procuratours emportent, a grande poverte et destruccion de vostre roialme avauntdit. Sur quex ils priont remedie. 90. XL. Also, the commons pray: that whereas the progenitors of our lord the king founded prebends in cathedral churches and other benefices which belong to the presentation and collation of the prelates of holy Church of his realm, with the intention that men of holy Church, that is to say, canons, prebendaries and parish clergy of the aforesaid prebends and benefices, should hold residence and hospitality in the aforesaid prebends and benefices; now the holy father the pope has given the said prebends and benefices, by way of reservation and also contrary to the treaty last made, to aliens who make no hospitality or residence, but destroy and waste the houses of the said benefices, and the money which should come from the said benefices is carried out of your realm by their proctors, to the great poverty and destruction of your aforesaid realm. Wherefore they pray remedy.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Ceste bille est aillours responduz. (fn. ii-321-399-1) This bill is answered elsewhere. (fn. ii-321-399-1)
De seneschal et mareschal del hostel le roi. Concerning the steward and marshal of the king's household.
91. XLI. Item, prie la dite commune: qe come ils sont grevousement et sovent travaillez et tariez par diverses plees devaunt les seneschal et mareschall del hostel nostre seignur le roi; pleise a sa tresexcellent seignurie ordeigner qe le dit seneschal ou mareschalle ne tiegne ne se melle de nul autre plee mes tiel come est ordeigne en l'estatut appelle articuli super cartas. (fn. ii-321-402-1) Et qe touz ceux qe voillent autrement suir eient lour suites a la commune ley. Et qe l'espace combien des leukes la verge s'extendra soit limite en certein; et ou il s'extendra, ou de la presence nostre seignur le roi ou del lieu de son hostell, et nonpas del un et del autre a unfoith, s'ils ne soient ensemble. Item, qe les seneschall face sa cessioun deinz la bounde des trois leukes enviroun de la presence nostre dit seignur le roy, ou de son hostell, sicome soleit estre en auncien temps; et hors de cell bounde nul ne soit tenuz a respondre en la dite court, issint qe le poeple ne soit travaillez outrageousement. Et qe les ditz seneschal et mareschall ne se medlent d'enquere des articles quex deyvent estre enquis devaunt justices en eyre et justices del bank le roi. Et qe certeigne peine soit ordeignie s'ils ailent ou empreignent encontre ascuns des articles avauntditz, la quele peine soit levable a la suite le ou a la suite de ceux qe soi sentont grevez. 91. XLI. Also, the said commons pray: whereas they are grievously and frequently troubled and bothered by various pleas before the steward and marshal of our lord the king's household; that it might please his most excellent lordship to ordain that the said steward or marshal should not hold or concern himself with any pleas other than those ordained in the statute called Articuli Super Cartas. (fn. ii-321-402-1) And all those who will otherwise sue should have their suits at the common law. And the number of leagues to which the verge will extend should be definitely specified; and where it will extend, either from the presence of our lord the king or from the place of his household, and not from both at the same time, if they are not together. Also, the steward should hold his session within three leagues around the presence of our said lord the king or of his household, as used to happen in former times; and outside these bounds no-one should be held to answer in the said court, so that the people are not outrageously troubled. And the said steward and marshal should not concern themselves with inquiring into matters which should be inquired into before justices in eyre and justices of the king's bench. And a certain penalty should be ordained if they act or undertake anything contrary to any of the aforesaid articles, which penalty should be leviable at his suit or at the suit of those who feel themselves aggrieved.
[p. ii-337]
[col. a]
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Eient lour jurisdiccion de la place ou le roi mesmes est, ou [...] del lieu ou le tynell se tient, par .xij. lieux entour chescune part tantsoulement, et nemye de l'une et de l'autre a une foitz. Et enoultre les estatuz ent faites se tiegnent. (fn. ii-321-405-1) They should have their jurisdiction from the place where the king himself is, or from the place where the household is held, only within a range twelve leagues, and not from both at the same time. And further, the statutes made thereon should be upheld. (fn. ii-321-405-1)
Qe homme puisse faire sa loy en l'escheqier. That any man might wage his law in the exchequer.
92. XLII. Item, prie la commune: qe come par come [sic: read 'commune'] leye et usage de la terre chescun homme q'est emplede en le court le roi ou ailours de dete saunz especialte a suite de partie poet faire sa ley devers le pleyntif, et estre quietes; et si les barons del escheker ou autres officers de mesmes la place, lour clerkes ou lour servantz empledount gentz de dete, contractes ou covenantz en le dit place devant les ditz barons, coment qe le deffendant gage sa ley devers le pleyntif ils ne volount my receyver la ley, mes chasount la partie, et prendre travers, et soi metter en enquest, et faire processe devers jurrours, a grant damage de poeple et enpoverissement de jourrours et de commune poeple et long delay de la partie. Dount la poeple pri remedie. 92. XLII. Also, the commons pray: that whereas by the common law and usage of the land each man who is impleaded in the king's court or elsewhere of debt without special clause at the suit of the party can wage his law against the plaintiff and be quit; the barons of the exchequer or other officers of the same court, their clerks or their servants, implead people of debt, contracts or covenants in the said court before the said barons, and although the defendant wages his own law against the plaintiff, they will not accept the law, but pursue the party and accept challenges to the verdict, and put the thing to inquest, and make process against the jurors, to the great damage of the people, the impoverishment of the jurors and the common people and the long delay of the party. Wherefore the people pray remedy.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soient gentz rescuz de faire lour loy en l'escheqier come ils sont en autres places ou le roi n'est partie. People should be allowed to wage their law in the exchequer as they are in other courts when the king is not a party.
Bille del cirografer. Bill concerning the chirographer.
93. XLIII. Item, prie la commune: qe come l'estatut de Westm' secounde est contenuz qe le cerograffer prendra pur l'engroser de chescun fyn leve en la court le roi .iiij. s. tantsoulement (fn. ii-321-414-1) ore tard, les cirograffers q'ount estee pur le temps ne voillent mye engrosser les fyns issint leves saunz grandes douns, issint q'ils ont pris et parnount de jour en autre pluis qe les .iiij. s., pur ascun fyn engrosser demi marc, et pur ascuns .xl. d., et autres summes a lour volente. 93. XLIII. Also, the commons pray: that whereas the second statute of Westminster contains that the chirographer will take only 4s. for engrossing each fine levied in the king's court; (fn. ii-321-414-1) recently, the current chirographers have been unwilling to engross the fines thus levied without great bribes, so that they have taken, and take from day to day, in addition to the 4s., for engrossing any fine a ½ mark for some and 40d. for others, and other sums at their will.
Pleise a nostre seignur le roi et a son conseil ordeigner qe le dit cirograffer qe serra pur le temps soit jurre q'il ne prendra plus qe l'estatut ne voet, ne ses clers desouthe lui; et peyne sur ceo soit mys. May it please our lord the king and his council to ordain that the said current chirographer should swear that he will not take more than the statute allows, nor will his clerks under him; and a penalty thereon should be set.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soient les estatuz ent faites duement gardez et tenuz. The statutes made thereon should be duly observed and upheld.
[memb. 13]
Bille encontre le pape et les cardynaux. Bill against the pope and the cardinals.
94. XLIIII. A nostre seignur le roi et son consail; priont chivalers des countees, citezeins des citees et burgeys des burghs qe sont venuz a ceste parlement, pur la communaltee de roialme, et supplient depart la dite communaltee: qe luy plese avoir bone consideracioun as choses desouthescriptz, et a les defautes qe s'ensuent, et ordeigner covenable remedie d'ycelx, qe serra la plus pleisance chose a Dieu et a seinte esglise plus graciouse et plus profitable pur luy et pur soun roialme qe unqes fuit fait. Et si est ceo nostre seinte foi et nostre ferme esperance qe ceux qe font pleisance chose a Dieu et seinte esglise averont grace de bone esploit en quanqe ils averont affaire. 94. XLIIII. To our lord the king and his council; the knights of the shires, citizens of the cities and burgesses of the boroughs who have come to this parliament for the commonalty of the realm, on behalf of the said commonalty, pray and petition: that it might please him to have proper consideration for the things written below, and for the defaults which follow, and to ordain suitable remedy on the same which will be the most pleasing to God, the most gracious to holy Church and the most profitable for him and for his realm that ever was done. And it is our holy faith and our firm hope that those who do a thing that is pleasing to God and holy Church will have the pleasure of success in whatever they do.
Primes, qe lui pleise penser et repenser coment ses progenitours nobles roys d'Engleterre et autres grandes de mesme la terre, ove l'aide et la devocioun de poeple Cristien, en auncien temps fesoient les esglises en Engleterre, puis par grande devocioun par diversez foitz et proces de temps donerent as ditz esglises riches rentes, terres et grandes possessions, ove diverses franchises, et toutz les temparaltez qe eles ont. Queles choses, ovesqe ceo qe nostre seignur le roi mesmes ad done et grante a eux, si amontent a pluis qe la tierce partie de soun roialme. Et penser coment toutes cestes choses sont donez par tiele devocioun et tiele entente qe les profitz ent sourdauntz deussent estre despenduz sur mesmes les lieux as queux ils sont donez, al honure de Dieu, come en meyntenance des esglises et places appurtenantz, en hospitalitez, en almoignez et diverses overes de charite, et del service Dieu et de seint esglise, come en chapellayns, clerks et poveres qe prierent nuyt et jour pur nostre seint pier le pape et pur l'estat de seint esglise, pur nostre seignur le roi et pur [col. b] l'estat de soun roialme, et pur la pees, pur lours foundours, patrons et pur touz ceux qe ont donez les biens as ditz lieux especialment, et pur lour almes qe la sont enterres, et touz Cristiens. Et penser coment les roys et autres grandes, pur lour grande devocioun et les grandes dounes q'ils avoient issint donez a seinte esglise, feurent en peisible possessioun de doner les esglises et les benefices de seint esglise; come fist le roi Seint Edward, qe dona l'evesche de Wircestre a Seint Wolstone. Et puis, par devocioun de roys fuit grante, et par la court de Rome conferme, qe les cathedralx esglises averoient frank eleccioun de lour prelates, solonc la ley Dieu et de seint eglise ent ordeigne, perpetuelement a durer. Et si soloient les evesches et verreye eleccioun, et les autres benefices de seint esglise, par seint consideracioun et pure charite, sanz scruple de covetyse ou de symonie, estre done as gentz plus dignez de clergie, de nette vie et de seinte conversacioun qe pont estre trovez, qe voloient demurer sur lour benefices, precher, visiter et confesser lour parochiens, et despendre les biens de seinte esglise al honure de Dieu, en tielx overez de charite come desus est dit, et solonc la devocion et la entente des donours. Et si longement come celes bones custumes furent usez, le roialme fuit pleine des toutez prosperites, come des bonez gentz, et bone loialte des clerks et de clergie, des chivalers et des chivalrie qe sont deux choses qe touz jours regnent ensemble, de pees et de quiete, de tresour, bledz et de bestail et d'autre richesse assetz. Et puis qe les bones custumez feurent pervertiez empesche de covetyse et de symonye, le roialme ad este plein des diversez adversitez, come des guerres et pestilences, feym, moreyns des bestes et de autres grevances. Par qoi le roialme est si empovery et destruyt q'il n'y ad mye la tierce partie des gentz ne des autres choses susditz come soloit estre, par la cause susdite, et par enchesons desouzescriptz. First, may it please him to consider and reconsider how his noble progenitors, the kings of England, and other great men of the same land, with the aid and the devotion of Christian people, built the churches in England in ancient times, and then, by great devotion in various ways and in the course of time, gave the said churches rich rents, lands and great possessions, with various franchises, and all the temporalities which they have. These things, together with what our lord the king himself has given and granted them, amount to more than one third of his realm. And may it please him to consider how all these things were given by such devotion and with such intent that the profits arising from the same should be spent on the same places to which they were given, to the honour of God, in maintenance of the appurtenant churches and places, in hospitalities, alms and various works of charity, and in the service of God and of holy Church, as well as for chaplains, clerks and the poor who pray night and day for our holy father the pope and for the estate of holy Church, for our lord the king, [col. b] the estate of his realm and peace, for their founders, patrons and all those who have given goods specially to the said places, and for the souls of those who were interred there, and all Christians. And may it please him to consider how the kings and other great men, for their great devotion and the great gifts which they had thus given to holy Church, gave the churches and the benefices of holy Church in peaceful possession; just as the king St Edward did when he gave the bishopric of Worcester to St Wulfstan. And then, it was granted by the devotion of kings, and confirmed by the court of Rome, that the cathedral churches should have free election of their prelates, according to the law of God and of holy Church ordained thereon, to last forever. And so the bishoprics and true election, and the other benefices of holy Church, by holy consideration and pure charity, without a trace of covetousness or simony, were accustomed to be given to the worthiest men of the clergy, of the cleanest living and holiest behaviour that could be found, who would reside in their benefices, preach, visit and hear the confessions of their parishioners, and spend the goods of holy Church to the honour of God in such works of charity as is aforesaid, according to the devotion and the intent of the donors. And for as long as these good customs were followed the realm was full of all prosperity, such as good people, and good lawful conduct of clerks and clergy, of knights and knighthood (which are two things which always rule together), of peace and quiet, of treasure, corn, cattle and other rich assets. And since the good customs were corrupted and obstructed by covetousness and simony, the realm has been full of various adversities, such as wars and pestilences, hunger, cattle murrains and other grievances. Wherefore the realm is so impoverished and destroyed that there is not one third the people or other aforesaid things there used to be, for the aforesaid reason and for the reasons written below.
95. Item, fait a penser q'il n'y ad null homme de mounde qe eyme Dieu et seint esglise, le roi et le roialme d'Engleterre, qe n'ad grante matiere de penser, de tritesse et de lermer, de ceo qe la court de Rome, qe deust estre fontaigne, racyne et source de seintitee et destruccioun de covetise, de symonie et des autres pecches, ad si sotilement, de poi en poi et de plus en plus, par proces du temps, par soeffrance et par abbet des malveys, ore altrement a demesure qe unqes fuit devant, attret a lui les collacions des eveschiez, dignitez, provendrez et des autres benefices de seint esglise en Engleterre, des queux le taxe amonte a plus qe cinkfoitz le tax dez touz les profitz qe appartenent au roi par an de tout son roialme. Et de chescun evesche et des touz autres benefices qe le pape doune, il voet avoir la taxe. Et si l'evesqe devie devant ceo q'il ad paye le taxe, le pape le fait lever ensemblement ove une novel tax de soun successour. Et pur plusours taxes aver, le pape fait d'une voidance deux ou trois par voie des translacions, et tantz des taxes il voet aver. Et qant un evesqe ad ses bulles, il serra tant endette vers la court de Rome pur le tax et autres paiementz et costagez, qe lui covient vendre les boys de soun evesche, a prompter de ses amys avoir eide de sez poverez tenantz, subsidie de sa clergie. Et tout va en destruccioun de seint esglise et de roialme d'Engleterre. Et tout ensi voet le pape avoir le tax de chescun dignite et benefice q'il doune. 95. Also, let it be considered that there is no man in the world who loves God and holy Church, the king and the realm of England who does not have a serious thing to consider, with sadness and weeping, because the court of Rome, which should be the fount, root and source of sanctity and the destruction of covetousness, simony and other sins, so subtly, little by little and more and more, in the course of time, by patience and by instigation of evil, now even more unrestrainedly than ever before, has gathered to itself the collations of bishoprics, dignities, prebends and other benefices of holy Church in England, the tax of which amounts to more than five times the tax of all the profits which belong to the king yearly from all his realm. And from each bishopric and all other benefices which the pope gives, he will have the tax. And if the bishop dies before he has paid the tax, the pope causes it to be levied from his successor together with a new tax. And in order to have many taxes, the pope makes two or three vacancies from one by way of translations, and he will have as much from taxes. And when a bishop has his bulls, he is so indebted to the court of Rome for the tax and other payments and expenses that it is necessary for him to sell the woodland of his bishopric, to borrow from his friends and to have aid from his poor tenants and subsidy from his clergy. And all this goes to the detriment of holy Church and of the realm of England. And all so that the pope will have the tax from every dignity and benefice which he gives.
96. Item, fait a penser q'il y sont plusours qe qant ils averont purchace un benefice de la court de Rome, et paie le tax, et as brocours des benefices demorantz en la peccherouse cite d'Avenon', lour sont ils mettent lour benefices a ferme, quele ferme serra mande as ditz brocours pur ent purchaser plusours benefices et greindres et greindreis. Et tout ensy, par voye de symonie et de brocage un cheitif, qe null bien [p. ii-338][col. a] sciet et riens ne vaut, serra avance as esglises et provandres a la value de mille marcz; par la un doctour de decre et un meistre de divinite serra lee d'aver un petit benefice de .xx. marcz. Et issint pardent clerks esperance d'estre avance par lour clergie, et talent d'apprendre. Et par mesme la cause, gentz lessent de mettre lour enfantz a l'escole; et ensi va clergie, q'est la substance de seint esglise et de nostre seint foi, et declyn et anient. 96. Also, let it be considered that there are many who, when they have purchased a benefice from the court of Rome, and paid the tax to brokers of the benefices staying in the sinful city of Avignon, put their benefices at farm, which farm will be sent to the said brokers for further purchases of greater and greater benefices. And all so that, by way of simony and brokerage, a wretch, who knows no good [p. ii-338][col. a] and is worth nothing, will be advanced to churches and prebends to the value of 1,000 marks, when a doctor of decrees and a master of divinity would be happy to have a small benefice of 20 marks. And thus clerks lose hope of being advanced by their clergy, and of achieving their goal. And people avoid sending their children to school for the same reason, and so the clergy, which is the substance of holy Church and of our holy faith, is in decline and ruin.
97. Item, fait a penser coment aliens, enemyes a ceste terre, et autres demurrantz outre meer ont benefices et riches rentes de seint esglise en Engleterre, qe unqes virent ne jammes ne verront lour parochiens, qe ne font autre chose de lour benefice forqe southtreient le service de Dieu et de seint esglise, et toutes oeveres de charite qe soleient estre faitz illeoqes; et les places descheier, parochiens perier en corps et alme, et attreent a eux hors de < roialme > touz les profitz de ceux benefices en la bone de ceste terre, q'est grande empoverissement et destruccioun a seinte esglise et a ceste terre. Et si est seint esglise plus destruyt par tielx malveis Cristiens qe par touz les Jewes et Saracyns de monde. 97. Also, let it be considered how aliens, enemies to this land, and others living overseas have benefices and rich rents of holy Church in England, who have never seen and will never see their parishioners, and who do nothing else concerning their benefice except withdrawing the service of God and of holy Church, and all works of charity which used to be done there; and the places decline, and parishioners die in body and soul, and they gather to themselves outside the realm all the profits from those benefices in goods of this land, to the great impoverishment and destruction of holy Church and of this land. And so holy Church is destroyed by such evil Christians more than by all the Jews and Saracens in the world.
98. Item, fait a penser qe la leye de seint esglise est tiele qe benefice de seinte esglise deit estre done graciousement, par pure charite, sanz pris et sanz prier, et null homme doit doner or, n'argent ne null autre chose de monde pur benefice de seint esglise. 98. Also, let it be considered that the law of holy Church is such that a benefice of holy Church should be given graciously, by pure charity, without cost and without request, and no man should give gold, silver or any other worldly thing for a benefice of holy Church.
Item, fait a penser coment ley et resoun et bone foy volent qe ceo q'est done a seinte esglise par devocioun soit despendu al honour de Dieu, solonc la devocioun et l'entent de donour, et nonpas hors de roialme sur noz enemyes. Also, let it be considered how law, reason and good faith will that what is given to holy Church by devotion should be spent to the honour of God, according to the devotion and the intent of the donor, and not spent outside the realm on our enemies.
Item, fait a penser qe Dieux ad commys ses ouweles a nostre seint pier le pape, a pasturer et nonpas a tounder. Also, let it be considered that God has committed his flock to our holy father the pope to be pastured and not to be sheared.
99. Item, fait a penser coment les lais patrons de seinte esglise veiantz tant de coveitise et symonie regner vers gentz de seint esglise parnent ensample d'eaux, et vendent les esglises dont ils sont patrones as gentz qe la destruent, come une beste, et come Dieu fuit vendu a les Jewes qe lui mistrent a la mort. 99. Also, let it be considered how the lay patrons of holy Church, seeing so much covetousness and simony rule the people of holy Church, take example from them, and sell the churches of which they are patrons to people who destroy them, in the manner of a beast, and as God was sold to the Jews who put him to death.
Item, fait a penser q'il n'y ad null si riche roi en toute la Cristientee q'ad la quarte partie tant de tresore, come ad ale hors de la roialme d'Engleterre pur benefices de seint esglise peccherousement, par le manere susdite, en empoverissement et destruccioun de roialme et de seinte esglise, par soeffrance et defaute du conseil. Also, let it be considered that there is no king in all of Christendom so rich that he has one quarter as much treasure as has wrongfully gone outside the realm of England for benefices of holy Church in the aforesaid manner, in impoverishment and destruction of the realm and of holy Church, by the sufferance and default of counsel.
100. Item, fait a penser et grandement a douter qe depuis qe seinte esglise, nostre seinte miere en Dieu, de qi nous parnons nostre baptisme q'est la porte de ciel, espouse Jhesu Crist, par la quele nous espeirons estre sauvez, est cy peccherousement demesne, et touz lez malx de monde venent de pecche, qe si null pecche y fuist null male avenist, et tout temps ad este, et touz jours serra, qe la ou regne grande iniquite grande y avera adversite; qe Dieu veant tante iniquite regner entre nous, nous envoit tant d'adversite come nous avons, dez guerres, pestilences, feym, mortalitez dez gentz, grandes et petitz, morine de bestail et autres grevances par meer et par terre, acordant a nostre desert pur noz pecchez, et noement pur lez pecchez susditz. 100. Also, let it be considered and greatly feared that since holy Church, our holy mother in God, from whom we take our baptism which is the door to heaven, the spouse of Jesus Christ, by whom we hope to be saved, is so sinfully ruled, and since all the evil of the world comes from sin, so that without sin no evil would occur, and since it has always been, and always will be, that when great iniquity reigns great adversity will occur; God, seeing such iniquity reign among us, has sent us as much adversity as we have, of wars, pestilences, hunger, deaths of men, great and small, cattle murrains and other grievances by sea and by land, according to our desserts for our sins, and especially for the aforesaid sins.
101. Par qoi pleise a nostre seignur le roi penser coment il est ore l'an cynqantisme de soun realme, q'est appelle [col. b] l'an jubile, c'estassavoir, l'an du grace et de joie, et qe serra la greindre grace et joie qe unqes avient a soun roialme, et la plus pleisance chose a Dieu et seint esglise, et as touz ceux qe eiment Dieu et seint esglise qe unqes fuit fait, d'ordeigner covenable remedie des choses susditz, qe cy destruent le roialme et < seint esglise, et d'aver > le bosoigne a coer: 101. Wherefore may it please our lord the king to consider how he is now in the fiftieth year of his reign, which is called [col. b] the jubilee year, that is to say, the year of grace and joy, and that it would be the greatest grace and joy which ever came to his realm, and the most pleasing thing to God and holy Church and to all those who love God and holy Church that ever was done, to ordain suitable remedy concerning the aforesaid things, which so destroy the realm and holy Church, and to have this matter at heart.
102. Et par une lettre desouth soun seal en latyn, et par une autre desouth les sealx des grandes de roialme en Fraunceys, come autrefoitz fuit ordeigne en parlement (fn. ii-321-432-1) comparnant ceste matiere, prier a nostre seint pier le pape, qe pleise a sa seintitee aver bone consideracioun as choses susditz, et nomement a ceo qe la ley de seinte esglise, par la quele toute la Cristiente doit estre reule, est tiel come desus est dit, qe benefice de seinte esglise doint estre done graciousement, par pure charite, sanz rienz doner pur yceo. Et auxi aver regard a ceo, qe ley, resoun et bone foi volont qe ceo q'est done a seinte esglise soit despendu al honure Dieu et de mesme l'esglise, solonc la devocioun et l'entent del donour. Et qe pleise a sa seintitee soeffrer les cathedralx esglises avoir frank eleccioun de lour prelatz, solonc la dite ley de seint esglise, et solonc la grante et confermement de la court de Rome susdite. Et des autres chosez qe sont cy nusantz et desplesantz, faire tiele ordinance q'il soit al honour Dieu et de seint esglise et al encres de la devocioun del poeple Cristien. Et par issint qe le poeple puisse avoir devocioun de meyntener ceo q'est done a seint esglise par voie d'encres, et nonpas de toler ceo q'est done, qe Dieu defent, par les causes suisditz, et pur defaute de coreccioun d'icelx. Et qe seint esglise poet estre reulee et governee come ele fuit en temps Seint Gregory, et des autres corsseintz qe donerent bones ensamples de bien faire. 102. And by a letter in Latin under his seal, and by another under the seals of the great men of the realm in France, as previously was ordained in parliament, (fn. ii-321-432-1) containing this subject, he prayed our holy father the pope that it might please his holiness to have proper consideration for the aforesaid things, and especially that the law of holy Church, by which all Christianity should be ruled, is such as is aforesaid, and that benefices of holy Church should be given graciously, by pure charity, without giving anything for the same. And also to consider that law, reason and good faith will that what is given to holy Church should be spent to the honour of God and of the same Church, according to the devotion and intent of the donor. And that it might please his holiness to allow the cathedral churches to have free election of their prelates, according to the said law of holy Church and according to the grant and confirmation of the aforesaid court of Rome. And concerning other things which are so harmful and displeasing, to make such ordinance as will be to the honour of God and of holy Church and to the increase of the devotion of Christian people. And therefore the people might have devotion to maintain what is given to holy Church for its increase, and not to take away what was given, which God forbid, for the aforesaid reasons, and for default of correction of the same. And holy Church could be ruled and governed as it was in the time of St Gregory, and of other saints who provided proper examples of good deeds.
103. Et pleise a nostre seignur le roi ordeigner et comander, sur peyne de forfaiture et d'emprisonement, qe null homme soit cy hardye defaire aport ne d'envoier outre meer rienz de la bone monoye de ceste terre, privement n'appartement, par lettre de Lumbard n'en null autre manere. Et qe null Lumbard n'autre face tielx lettres, sur mesme la peyne. Et sur ceo soit bone enquerre par justices de la pees et d'assises en chescun cessioun. Et qe null homme, sur peyne de forfaiture de quanqe il ad, procure ne face destourbance a ceste bosoigne. 103. And may it please our lord the king to ordain and order, on penalty of forfeiture and imprisonment, that no man should be so presumptuous as to make payment or send overseas any of the good money of this land, secretly or openly, by the letter of a Lombard or in any other manner. And no Lombard or other should make such letters, on the same penalty. And there should be a good inquiry thereon by justices of the peace and of assizes in each session. And no man, on penalty of forfeiture of whatever he has, should procure or cause a disturbance to this business.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi y ad fait ordeigner de remede suffisant devant ceste heure, par estatutz et autrement; et est en pursuant devers le saint pere le pape pur mesmes les busoignes; et est en parfit volente de faire de temps en temps tanqe al final esploit d'ycelles, sibien c'estassavoir de celles busoignes comprises en ceste groos bille proschein precedente, come de celles qe sont comprises en le roulle proschein ensuant, come de celles quelles comparnont tout < a poy > une mesme matire. The king has caused sufficient remedy to be ordained before this time, by statutes and otherwise; and he is pursuing the same business with the holy father the pope; and he is perfectly willing to do so from time to time until the final accomplishment of the same: that is to say, of the business contained in the important bill immediately preceding this as well as in those contained in the roll immediately following, as of those which contain almost entirely the same subject.
[memb. 14]
Billes et articles encontre le pape et le clergie. Bills and articles against the pope and the clergy.
104. XLV. Fait a remembrer pur commune profit qe le collectour du pape, q'est aliene et del obeisance de France, et auxint plusours autres appertez enemys et espies de privetes du roialme d'Engleterre demurent continuelement en la cite de Loundres, et ont lours procuratours et exploratours Engleys et Lumbardz, et autres parmy le roialme, pur espier la vacacioun des grandes benefices et dignites de seint esglise, et envoient continuelement par lettres et credences a la courte de Rome, as cardinalx et autres gentz la demurrantz, des queux la greindre partie sont enemys, pur purchacer du pape mesmes les benefices et dignites; et auxint envoient la la certeigniete des secres du roialme, en grant prejudice du roialme. 104. XLV. Let it be remembered for the common profit that the pope's collector, who is alien and of the obedience of France, and also many others who are openly enemies and spies of the secrets of the realm of England, remain continually in the city of London, and have their English and Lombard proctors and observers, and others throughout the realm, to spy out vacancies in the great benefices and dignities of holy Church, and they continually send letters and messages to the court of Rome, to cardinals and other people residing there, the greater part of whom are enemies, to purchase the same benefices and dignities from the pope; and they also send there news of the secrets of the realm, in great prejudice of the realm.
[p. ii-339]
[col. a]
Collectour du pape. The pope's collector.
105. XLVI. Item, le dit collectour est receivour des deniers du pape et tient un grant hostel en Loundres, et clerks et officers come ceo fuit droitement la receite d'un prince ou d'un duk, et y receit, et fait envoier outre meere a la courte de Rome chescun an, al oeps du pape, de ses revenuz quels il prent en Engleterre al oeps du pape, sibien des procuracies quels le pape prent des abbeyes et priories et des primers fruytz des evescheez et des autres benefices come des subsides grantes au pape ala foitz par le clergie .xx. .m. marcz annuelement, un an plus un autre meyns, a grante destruccioun du roialme et de la monoye d'ycell. 105. XLVI. Also, the said collector is the receiver of the pope's money and keeps a great household in London, and clerks and officers as if this was rightly the dwelling of a prince or a duke, and he receives 20,000 marks annually, one year more, one year less, and sends it overseas to the court of Rome each year, to the use of the pope, from his revenues which he takes in England to the use of the pope, from procuracies which the pope takes from abbeys and priories and from the first fruits of bishoprics and other benefices as well as from subsidies previously granted to the pope by the clergy, to the great destruction of the realm and the money of the same.
Des cardinaux. Concerning cardinals.
106. XLVII. Item, les cardinalx et les autres clerks aliens et denszeins demurrance en la dite courte de Rome, des queux un cardinal est dean d'Everwyk, un autre dean de Saresbirs, un autre dean de Nicole, un autre archidekne de Canterbirs, un autre archedekne de Duresme, un autre archedekne de Suff', un autre archidekne d'Everwyk, un autre provender de les provendes de Tame et de Nassyngton', un autre provender de Bukyngham en l'esglise de Nichole et plusours autres clercz aliens demurrantz en dite courte sont archidiaknes des autres archideakenies, et provenders des autres provendres, et persones des melliours esglises, et des autres benefices deinz le roialme d'Engleterre, come des esglises de Wermuth, Abberbury et d'autres esglises, et ont lour procuratours et exploratours demurantz le roialme d'Engleterre, et envoient annuelement a lours mestres au dite courte lour rentes provenantz de lours ditz benefices, q'amounte chescun an plus qe .xx. .m. marcz, sanz ceo q'est envoie a mesme la courte as clercz Engleys illeoqes demurantz pur y pleder lours voysyns d'Engleterre, et pur purchacer benefices et evesches, et sanz les summes qe sont envoiez au dite courte par clercs Engleis pur estre prestez a expender entour la purchaas des eveschees et d'autres benefices, q'amonte a une autre grante summe par an, en destruccioun de roialme. 106. XLVII. Also, the cardinals and the other alien and denizen clerks remaining in the said court of Rome, of which one cardinal is the dean of York, another the dean of Salisbury, another the dean of Lincoln, another the archdeacon of Canterbury, another the archdeacon of Durham, another the archdeacon of Suffolk, another the archdeacon of York, another the prebendary of the prebends of Thame and Nassington, another the prebendary of Buckingham in the church of Lincoln, and many other alien clerks remaining in the said court who are archdeacons of other archdeaconries, prebendaries of other prebends and parish clergy of better churches and of other benefices within the realm of England, such as of the churches of Bishop Wearmouth, Adderbury and other churches, have their proctors and observers remaining in the realm of England, and they annually send to their masters at the said court their rents issuing from their said benefices, which amount to more than 20,000 marks each year, in addition to what is sent to the same court to the English clerks staying there to implead their neighbours of England and to purchase benefices and bishoprics, and also the sums which are sent to the said court by English clerks to be given to spend towards the purchase of bishoprics and other benefices, which amounts to another great sum yearly, in destruction of the realm.
Le pape. The pope.
107. XLVIII. Item, si tost come le pape voet avoir monoie pur meintenir ses guerres de Lumbardie ou aillours, pur despendre ou pur raunsoun ascuns de ses amys prisoners Fraunceys pryses par Engleys, il voet avoir subside de clergie d'Engleterre. Et tantost ce luy est grantez par les prelatz, a cause qe les evesqes n'osent luy contrestere, et est leve del clergie sanz lour assent ent avoir devant. Et le seculers seignurs n'y preignent garde, nene font force coment le clergie est destruit, et la monoye de roialme malement emporte. 107. XLVIII. Also, as soon as the pope will have money to maintain his wars in Lombardy or elsewhere, to spend or for the ransom of some of his friends who are French prisoners taken by the English, he will have a subsidy from the clergy of England. And as soon as this is granted by the prelates, because the bishops dare not oppose him, it is levied from the clergy without first having their assent. And the secular lords take no heed, and do not worry how the clergy is destroyed and the money of the realm wickedly carried away.
Le pape. The pope.
108. XLIX. Item, fait a remembrer d'ordeigner remedie encontre les dites choses, et auxint encontre ceo qe le pape fait ore de novel pur attrere a luy la greindre partie de la monoie du roialme; c'estassavoir, qe qant un eveschee se voide par mort de persone ou autrement, si fait le pape quatre ou cynk translaciouns des evescheez, pur avoir le primers fruitz de chescune eveschee. Et issint fat alafoitz d'autres dignites et benefices parmy le roialme. 108. XLIX. Also, let it be remembered to ordain remedy against these said things, and also against what the pope recently did in gathering to himself the greatest part of the money of the realm; that is to say, that when a bishopric is vacant by the death of a person or otherwise, the pope makes four or five translations of bishoprics in order to have the first fruits of each bishopric. And he previously has done likewise concerning other dignities and benefices throughout the realm.
Le collectour. The collector.
109. L. Item, le dit collectour prent ore de novel cest an, et nel prist unqes devant, al oeps du pape, des primers fruytz de chescun benefice dont il fait provisioun ou collacioun, except des graces grantez as povres, ou il ne soleit prendre fruyz nulles forsqe soulement des benefices vacantz en la courte de Rome. 109. L. Also, the said collector now takes each year, and never took before, to the use of the pope, the first fruits of each benefice of which he makes a provision or collation, except favours granted to the poor, where he used to take no fruits except only from benefices vacated in the court of Rome.
Renoveller les estatuz de provisours. To renew the Statutes of Provisors.
110. LI. Item, fait a remembrer de faire renoveler les estatutz et ordeignancz faitz encountre les provisours de la courte de Rome, (fn. ii-321-465-1) et meement encontre les reservacions [col. b] qe le pape fait, qar il ad generalement reservez a sa propre collacioun touz les benefices du monde, pur doner ou luy plest, et pur ent prendre les primers fruytz, come dit est. Et auxint il ad ore de novel et creez entour .xij. novelx cardinalx, issint qe il y a ore bien .xxx. cardinalx ou il ne soleit estre qe .xij., et issint ne suffiront a eux touz les benefices d'Engleterre. Et sont mesmes le cardinalx trestoutz, forqe deux ou trois, enemyes du roi et de roialme. 110. LI. Also, let it be remembered to cause the statutes and ordinances made against the provisors of the court of Rome to be renewed, (fn. ii-321-465-1) and especially those made against those reservations [col. b] which the pope makes, since he has generally reserved all the benefices of the world to his own collation, to give where he pleases, and to take the first fruits from the same, as is said. And also he has recently created about twelve new cardinals, so that there are now thirty cardinals where there used to be twelve, and thus all the benefices of England are insufficient for them. And all the same cardinals, except two or three, are enemies of the king and of the realm.
Bille encontre le pape. Bill against the pope.
111. LII. Item, semble qe desicome le pape medle de fair collacioun des esglises et d'autres benefices de seint esglise apartenantz as evesqes, abbes et autres persons religious, come parcel de lour temparaltez a eux donez d'auncien temps par les roys d'Engleterre et autres seignurs pur certeins almoignes et autres charges ent sustenir, maintenir et trover perpetuelment en lour abbeys, priories et autres lieux; par mesme la raisoun est purra le pape, qant il vorra et lui plerra, disposer et faire purveiance ou provisioun as cardinalx et les autres enemys dessusditz des manoirs as quels mesmes les benefices sont appurtenantz, come parcel de mesmes les manoirs en temparalites. Et issint par processe de temps si cels meschiefs, et autres nient rehercez en ceste present bille, soient suffertz, le pape ferra prescripcioun encontre le roialme, paront seint esglise en Engleterre serra destruyt et le roialme annientz ou mys en subjeccioun la il soleit estre frank, qar le pape fat chescun an, et chescun jour, et de temps en temps, par diverses maners usurpacioun sur le roialme et les regalies d'ycell, et ceo par male soeffrance. Et ceo piert assez bien, par ce qe les rois d'Engleterre soloient doner evesches et autres grantz dignitees trestouz come il fait a jour de huy esglises parochiels, et le pape ne se medlast de doner null benefice deinz le roialme tanqe deinz brief temps passe. 111. LII. Also, it seems that whereas the pope concerns himself with making the collation of churches and other benefices of holy Church belonging to bishops, abbots and other religious people as parcel of their temporalities given them in ancient times by the kings of England and other lords to sustain, maintain and found forever certain alms and other charges in their abbeys, priories and other places; for the same reason the pope can, when he will and it pleases him, dispose and make transfer or provision to cardinals and other aforesaid enemies of the manors to which the same benefices are appurtenant, as parcel of the same manors in temporalities. And thus in the course of time, if these misfortunes and others not recited in this present bill are suffered, the pope will make an injunction against the realm, by which holy Church in England will be destroyed and the realm ruined or put in subjection where it used to be free, since each year, each day, and from time to time, the pope usurps the realm and the regalia of the same in various ways, which is a wicked thing to tolerate. And this is evident enough, because the kings of England used to give bishoprics and all other great dignities as he does parochial churches today, and the pope did not concern himself with giving any benefice within the realm until a short time ago.
De franks eleccions. Concerning free elections.
112. LIII. Item, par la ou en temps dont memorie ne court, et tanqe ore tard en temps de ceste roi q'ore est, soloient les esglises cathedralx, collegialx, abbeys et priories, avoir frank eleccioun des lours pastours et svrains sibien par usage come autrement, par confirmacioun de Roi Johan (fn. ii-321-470-1) et des papes qe ont este pur le temps. Et coment qe diverses traicties et parlances ent ont este plusours foitz parentre le roi et le pape, issint qe cel bosoigne ad este en point diversez foitz d'avoir este mesnez a bon fyn pur le roialme et le profit d'ycell; nientmeins, par especials lettres contrairs as ditz traicties, et grantz summes d'or envoiez privement a la courte de Rome par diverses seignurs et autres, pur avancer lour propres clercz, si ne ont mye mesmes les traicties peu prendre bon esploit en effecte au profit du roialme, eins encontour les dites franks elecciouns sont singulers personez pur tielx priers et douns esploitez, et les personez issint elitz par due processe s'envont sanz rienz profiter ou esploiter, as grandes damagez. 112. LIII. Also, whereas in time immemorial, and until recently in the time of this present king, the cathedral churches, collegiate churches, abbeys and priories used to have free election of their pastors and masters in practice as well as otherwise, by confirmation of King John (fn. ii-321-470-1) and of those who were popes at the time. And although various talks and discussions have often taken place thereon between the king and the pope, so that at various times this business has been on the point of being brought to a good conclusion for the realm and the profit of the same; nevertheless, by special letters against the said talks, and great amounts of gold sent secretly to the court of Rome by various lords and others for advancing their own clerks, the same talks do not meet with success with respect to the profit of the realm; and contrary to the said free election, individual people are promoted for such prayers and gifts, and the people thus elected by due process depart without gaining or accomplishing anything, to their great damage.
Les messages du pape. The pope's messengers.
113. LIIII. Item, touz les tretees qe sont ou ont este tenuz parentre les roialmes d'Engleterre et de France, ou parentre le pape mesmes et ceste roialme, ou parentre le roialme d'Engleterre et autres pays ou les messages ou legatez du pape sont envoiez, toutdis le clergie d'Engleterre fait paiement pur lour costagez. Et ceo est pur l'amour q'ils ont a roialme et al beau monoye d'ycell, ou le clergie d'Engleterre ne soleit avant ses heurs paier pur tielx costagez des legatz, sinoun qe mesmes les legatz veinssent al request du clergie ou del roialme. 113. LIIII. Also, in all the talks which are or have been held between the realms of England and of France, or between the pope himself and this realm, or between the realm of England and other lands, where the pope's messengers or legates were sent, the clergy of England always pay for their expenditures. And this is for the love which they have for the realm and the fine money of the same, where before this time the clergy of England did not pay for such expenditures of legates, except when the same legates came at the request of the clergy or of the realm.
De la monoye destruit par le pape. Concerning the money destroyed by the pope.
114. LV. Et par cestes maners purra clerement apparir, qe si la monoie de roialme fuit auxi plentinouse deinz le roialme come unqes fust devant ceste heure, les ditz collectour et procuratours des cardinalx et d'autres le [p. ii-340][col. a] ferroient deinz brief terme estre destruit et apporte, sanz profit reporter pur ycell. 114. LV. And in these ways it clearly appears that, if the money of the realm was as plentiful within the realm as it ever was before this time, the said collector and proctors of cardinals and others [p. ii-340][col. a] would cause it to be destroyed and carried away within a short time, without bringing back profit for the same.
De remede. Concerning remedy.
115. LVI. Et pur remedie avoir les dites meschiefs, et pur exiter le pape et les cardinalx de travailer et medeler fortment de faire bone paix entre roialmes, soit ordinez en parlement et criez parmy le roialme qe toutz tieux procuratours alienz demurrantz deinz le roialme, et le dit collectour ovesqe eux, sure peyne de vie et membre, et qe sure mesme la peyne null Engleys soit desore tiel procuratour du pape, de cardinalx ou d'autres demurrantz en dite courte de Rome. Adjoustant cause resonable en dite ordinance, qe la monoie doi roialme y duyt estre salvez tancome les guerres duront, pur meintenance d'ycell guerres et l'estat nostre seignur le roi. 115. LVI. And in order to have remedy for the said misfortunes, and to urge the pope and the cardinals to labour and strongly strive to make a good peace between the realms, it should be ordained in parliament and announced throughout the realm that all such alien proctors, and the said collector with them, should remain in the realm on penalty of life and limb, and that on the same penalty no Englishman henceforth should be such a proctor of the pope, cardinals or others dwelling at the said court of Rome. Adding reasonable cause in the said ordinance, that the money of the realm should be preserved while the wars last, for the maintenance of the same wars and the estate of our lord the king.
116. LVII. Item, pur plus grant informacioun avoir des faitz le dit collectour du pape, qi est grande seignur et assez richez, a cause qe le evesqes et toute le clergie sont obeisantz a luy et en soun daunger, et n'osent parler encontre luy, soit envoiez devant les seignurs ou communes du parlement Mestre Johan Strensale, persone de l'esglise Seint Bothulf, demurrant en Holbourne en mesme l'ostiel ou Sire William Mirfeld soleit demurer, pur informacioun plenere ent avoir, qar il estoit clerc demurrant ove le dite collectour bien entour .v. ans en Loundres, et par tant il sciet assez de lour affairs, s'il soit sermentz et estroitement chargez a ceo faire. 116. LVII. Also, in order to have greater information concerning the acts of the pope's said collector, who is a great lord and quite powerful, because the bishops and all the clergy are obedient to him and in his power, and dare not speak against him, Master John Strensall, parson of the church of Boston, staying in Holborn in the same household where Sir William Mirfield used to stay, should be sent before the lords or commons of parliament in order to have fuller information thereon, since he was a clerk who remained with the said collector for well around five years in London, and therefore knows enough of their affairs that he should be sworn and strictly charged to do this.
[memb. 15]
Bille des laboriers. Bill of labourers.
117. LVIII. A nostre seignur le roy et a son sage < parlement; > monstre et prie la commune: qe come diverses ordinances et estatutz ont este faitez en diverses parlementz pur commune profit du roialme, de justicer les laborers et artificers et altres servantz les queux sont sotilez par grande malice purpense d'eschure la penance des dites ordinances et estatutz; qe si tost come lours mestres les chalengent de mal service ou les voillent paier pur lour dite service solome la forme des ditz estatutz, ils fuont et descurront sodeynement hors de lours services, et hors de lours pays propre, de countee en counte, de hundred en hundred, de ville en ville, en estranges lieux desconuz a lours dites mestres. < Par qoi lours dites mestres > ne savont ou les trover pur avoir remedie ne sute devers eux par vertue de les avauntditz estatutz. Et si les ditz servantz corores soient utlagez a la sute de partie, il n'est profit al sutour, ne damage ne chastiement al servant futyf, par cause q'ils ne poont estre trovez, ne ja ne pensent repeirir en pays la ou ils ont ensi servi. Et qe greyndre meschief est de tretout la receptement des ditz laboreres et servantz corores: quant ils sont ensynt fuys lours mestres services, ils sont si cherement receues en estranges lieux en service sodeynement, qe celle receptement donne essample et confort as touz servantz, si tost come ils sont de riens desplu, de coure en estranges lieux, de mestre en mestre, come dit est devant. Et pur doute de tiel fute et descurrer la commune n'osent lours servantz chalanger ne desplere en present, eyns lours doner ce q'ils voillent demander, nient contre esteantz les estatutz et ordinances faites en contrarie, et ce principalment pur doute de lour recettement, come avant est dit. Qe si les ditz servantz futyfs furent universelement parmy le roialme a lours venues offrantz lours services prys et mys en cepes, ou mandez al proschein gaole, illoeqes ademurer tanq'ils usent conuz dont ils estoient venu, et de qe service, et fait bon surtee de repeirir a lour service, et ce fuse conu en totes pays, qe tiels corores dusent ensynt estre atthachez, et mys en prison par toutes parties, et nemye receues en altri service, come ils sont, les ditz servantz n'averoient talent a fuer, ne descurrer hors de lour pays come ils font, a grande depauperacion, adnientisement et destruccion de la dite commune, si remedie ne soit ordeigne [col. b] en ce cas le plus en haste. Et fait assaver a nostre dit seignur le roi et a son dit parlement qe plusours de les avaunditz laboreres corores devenont mendivantz beggeres, pur mesner ocious vie, et soi trient hors de lours pays communement as citees, burghwes et as autres bones villes pur begger; et les quels sont fort de corps, et bien purroient eser la commune pur vivre sour lour labour et service, si ils voudroient servir. Et plusours de eux devenent stafstrikers, et mesnent auxint ocious vie, et communement desrobent la pitaille en symple villages, par deux, troys ou quatre emsemble, et malement sont soeffert en lour malice. Et la greyndre partie des ditz servantz corores devenent communement fortes larounes, et encrecent de eux roberies et felonies de jour en altre, par touz partz, en destruccion du roialme avantdit. 117. LVIII. To our lord the king and his wise parliament; the commons declare and pray: that whereas various ordinances and statutes have been made in various parliaments for the common profit of the realm, to control the labourers and artisans and other servants, these have continued in their ingenuity by great malice, thinking to avoid the penalty of the said ordinances and statutes; who, as soon as their masters accuse them of bad service or pay them for their said service according to the form of the said statutes, flee and suddenly run away from their employment, and from their own region, going from county to county, from hundred to hundred, from vill to vill, into foreign places unknown to their said masters. Wherefore their said masters do not know where to find them in order to have remedy or suit against them by virtue of the aforesaid statutes. And if the said fleeing servants are outlawed at the suit of the party, it is not to the profit of the suitor or to the damage or punishment of the fugitive servant, because they cannot be found, never thinking to return to the region where they have previously served. And there is a greater misfortune concerning the reception of the said labourers and fleeing servants: when they have thus fled their masters' services, they are so warmly and quickly received into service in foreign places that this reception gives example and encouragement to all servants, as soon as they are displeased with anything, to run to foreign places, from master to master, as is aforesaid. And for fear of such flight and running away the commonalty does not dare accuse or displease their servants at present, but gives them what they demand, notwithstanding the statutes and ordinances made to the contrary, and this principally for fear of their reception elsewhere, as is aforesaid. If, upon their arrival offering their services, the said fugitive servants were arrested everywhere throughout the realm and put in stocks, or sent to the nearest gaol, to remain there until they admitted whence they had come, and from what service, and made good surety to return to their service (and it was known in all regions by all parties that such fugitives should thus be arrested and put in prison, and not accepted into the service of another, as they now are), the said servants would not want to flee or to run away from their regions as they now do, in a manner which, if remedy is not ordained, will run to the great impoverishment, ruin and destruction of the said commonalty. [col. b] And let it be noted by our said lord the king and his said parliament that many of the aforesaid fleeing labourers become indigent beggars, leading an idle life, and commonly move from their regions to cities, boroughs and other good towns in order to beg; and those who are strong of body could ease the commonalty by living on their labour and service, if they were willing to serve. And many of them become vagrants, also leading idle lives, and two, three or four together commonly rob the lower orders in simple villages, and are perforce tolerated in their wickedness. And the greatest part of the said fleeing servants commonly become strong robbers, and enrich themselves with robberies and felonies from day to day, in all parts, in destruction of the aforesaid realm.
Q'il pleise a nostre dit seignur le roi et son dit parlement, primerement, pur commune profit de la dite commune et bone salvacion de la pees, et destruccion de les felounes et felonies avanditz, defendre sur certein peyne les sustenances et aumoynes estre donez as tiels fautores mendivantz et beggeres, deyns franchise et dehors, queux purront servir et laborer a grant profit et eise de la dite commune, et doner lour aumoynes as tieles qe ne purront lour mesmes eider ne purchacer; et establier par estatut qe toutes tieles beggeres fautoures soient prys universelment parmy le roialme, deyns franchise et dehors, et les avantditz stafstrikeres, en quel lieu q'ils soient trovez, et qe lours corps soient mys en cepes, ou mesnez al pchein [sic: read 'prochein'] gaole, tanq'ils soi voillent justifer de repeirir en lour pays propre, et servir lours veisynes selome la forme de les ordinaces [sic: read 'ordinances'] et estatutz avanditz. Et pur sovereyn remedie et chastiement de la malice et riote des servantz et laboreres corores, qe le recettement des tieles soit chastie par toutes partes universelment parmy le roialme, et qe nul desoreme de quel condicion q'il soit, pure ne riche, pur nul meschief ne receyve, retigne ne maytigne nul tiele servant corour d'estrange lieu en son service, sur peyne de paier au roi .x.li. Eyns lui face, par luy ou par le conestable du ville ou tiel ou tiels corores soient trovez, freschement sanz nul delay arrester par lours corps ove force de la dite ville, sur mesme la peyne, soit il en ville, burgh ou citee, sibien par resonable suspension come par appossailles, ou par lour service offrer, et les mettre et garder en cepes, ou mander al proschein gaole, illoeqes a demurer ovesqe payn et ewe tanqe ils eient conuz la verite par serement ou par autre compulcion lour noun propre, de quele countee d'Engleterre ils sont, de quel hundred ou wapentak, de quel ville, et le noun de son mestre de qi il est departi; ou si ils sont neifs a ascun seignur petyt ou grande q'ils sont fuez la seignurie, si qe la verite poet certeynement conue par quels certeines causes tieles sont fuez et retretez hors de lour pays propre. Et qe les bailifs des franchises, gaioleres, meires et baillifs des cites et burghes et altres gardeyns des chasteux ou prisounes en qi garde tiels corores sont mys en arrest, par tout le roialme, facent mettre en escript la reconisance des tiels corores, dont ils sont, de quele countee, de quel hundred ou wapentak, de quele ville, et del noun son mestre, et mesme celle reconisance facent certifier al visconte de mesme le counte souz lour sealx de lour office, de temps en temps, sanz delay, sur la peyne avandit. Et qe celle viscont ensynt certifie certifie as autres viscontes, des quels countes lez ditz servantz corores sont par lour dite reconisance, de temps en temps; et qe celles viscontes ensynt certifiez facent garner freschement a les gentz de lours countes, en quel lieu lours servantz sont enprisonez, pur avoir lour sute et remedie de lour damage sustenu en celle partie par lour dite fute et corir, sur mesme la peyne a roi, et si serra le partie greve. Et si les mestres des tiels servantz corores ensynt garnys par lours viscontes, et ne facent lour sute par un quarter apres lour dit garnisement, adoncqes le justices des laboreres assignez illoeqes les facent charger par [p. ii-341][col. a] sermentz et altres surtes de repeirer en lour pays propre, et de illoeqes servir solome la forme de les ordinances et estatutz avaunditz; mes totes voies qe nul tiel emprisone ne soit par nulle voie delivres tanqe le viscont de son pays eit enquys par le visne ou il estoit departi, si il fit roberie ou altre felonie a son departir ou noun, ou si il soit endite devant les justices de la pees de celle countee; et qe celle viscont certifie souz le sealx de soun office a les justices de la pees del counte ou il est emprisone devant sa deliverance s'il soit rette ou endite de felonie ou nemie, sur mesme la peyne. Et qe toutes viscontes, meires, baillifs des citees et burghwes et altres baillifs de franchises quecunqes, chief conestables des hundredes et southconestables des villes et toutz altres gentz et ministres le roi soient prestes par totes partes universelment, deyns franchise et dehors, a la sute de chescuny et sanz sute, de prendre les corps des totes tiels servantz corores desconuz, et de les beggers et stafstrikeres auxint, et de les mesner receivre et garder en prison, ou en cepes, en la fourme avantdit, sur mesme la peyne; et qe cepes soient faites et prest en chescun ville et village, pur chastier les ditz rebeales, < sur la peyne de .x.li. avandite. Et > qe nul soit si hardy a destorber conestable ne a nulle autre baillif ne ministre le roi de faire execucion des laboreres rebeales en la fourme avauntdite, ne de faire rescous as ditz conestable ou baillif ou ministre de nul servant ne mayntenance, eide, force ne procurement, encontre la dite execucion faire des ditz servantz rebeales en la fourme desusdite, sur la peyne avantdite, et d'avoir prison par un an sanz maynprise si de ce soit atteynt. Et qe les chiefconestables de hundredes eient pouer d'enquere, et enquergent de jour en altre quant lour semble pur commune profit, et au meyns chescun moys un foith parmy lour hundred, sur la dite peyne de .x.li. sibien come les justices de la pees, et les meires et baillifs des citees, burghwes et franchises deyns lours franchises, en mesme la fourme, et sur mesme la peyne, de touz ceux qe receiverent retignent ascun tiel servant corour desconu, et les mayntenent en lour service encontre la fourme devantdit, et des toutes autres articles avant escriptes en lours inquisiounes loialment retournet devant les ditz justices de lour pays a chescun cession tenu par les ditz justices, ovesqe lour processe et admerciementz, si qe les ditz justices ovesqe lours inquisicions et lour diligence demesne des touz le meschiefs avanditz, et lours circumstance, ensemblement ovesqe les ditz inquisicions des meirs, baillifs et chiefconestables, des touz les articles desusescriptes, le plus en hast puissent chastier et redresser les ditz meschiefs, riotours et malices des servantz et laboreres avantditz, en eide du roialme et commune profit du poeple. May it please our said lord the king and his said parliament, first, for the common profit of the said commonalty, the good preservation of the peace and the destruction of the aforesaid felons and felonies, to prohibit on a certain penalty that food and alms be given to such indigent wrongdoers and beggars, inside and outside franchises, who could serve and labour to the great profit and ease of the said commonalty, and to give their alms only to such as cannot assist themselves or work; and to establish by statute that everywhere throughout the realm, inside and outside franchises, all such beggars and wrongdoers and aforesaid vagrants should be arrested, wherever they may be found, and their bodies put in stocks or taken to the nearest gaol, until they will swear to return to their own region and serve their neighbours according to the form of the aforesaid ordinances and statutes. And for supreme remedy and chastisement of the malice and riot of fleeing servants and labourers, the reception of such people should be punished in all parts everywhere throughout the realm, and henceforth no-one, of whatever condition he may be, poor or rich, should on any pretext receive, retain or maintain in his service any such servant fleeing from a foreign place, on penalty of paying £10 to the king. Rather, promptly without any delay, he or the constable of the vill where such fugitives are found should arrest them by their bodies with the force of the said vill, on the same penalty, be he in vill, borough or city, by reasonable suspicion as well as by questioning, or by offering their service, and they should be put and kept in stocks or sent to the nearest gaol, to remain there with bread and water until, by oath or by other compulsion in their own name, they admit the truth concerning what county of England they are from, what hundred or wapentake, what vill, and the name of their masters from whom they have fled; or if they are bondsmen to any lord, small or great, and have fled the lordship, until the truth can be definitely known as to why such people have fled and left their own region. And, throughout the realm, the bailiffs of franchises, gaolers, mayors and bailiffs of cities and boroughs and other keepers of castles or prisons in whose keeping such fugitives are put in arrest should put in writing the cognisance of such fugitives, where they are from, what county, what hundred or wapentake, what vill, and the name of their masters, and they should certify this same cognisance to the sheriff of the same county under their seals of their office, from time to time, without delay, on the aforesaid penalty. And this sheriff being thus certified should certify to other sheriffs what counties the said fleeing servants are from by their said cognisance, from time to time; and these sheriffs being thus certified should promptly warn the people of their counties in what place their servants are imprisoned, so that they may have their suit and remedy of their damages upheld in this matter by their said flight and fleeing, on the same penalty to the king, if the party is aggrieved. And if the masters of such fleeing servants thus warned by their sheriffs do not make their suit within a quarter of a year after their said warning, then the justices of labourers appointed there should charge them by [p. ii-341][col. a] oaths and other securities to return to their own region, and to serve there according to the form of the aforesaid ordinances and statute; provided always that no such imprisoned person should be delivered in any way until the sheriff of his region has inquired of his neighbours whether or not he committed robbery or other felony at his departure, or if he was indicted before the justices of the peace of this county; and this sheriff should certify under the seals of his office to the justices of the peace of the county where he was imprisoned before his delivery whether or not he should be accused or indicted of felony, on the same penalty. And all sheriffs, mayors, bailiffs of cities and boroughs and all other bailiffs of franchises whatsoever, chief constables of hundreds, vice-constables of vills and all other people and officers of the king everywhere universally, inside and outside franchises, should be ready, at the suit of anyone and without suit, to take the bodies of all such unknown fleeing servants, beggars and vagrants, and to bring them to be received and kept in prison, or in stocks, in the aforesaid form, on the same penalty; and stocks should be built and prepared in each town and village for punishing the said rebels, on the aforesaid penalty of £10. And no-one should be so presumptuous as to disturb a constable or any other bailiff or king's officer from making execution on rebellious labourers in the aforesaid form, or from making recovery to the said constable, bailiff or officer of any servant, or maintenance, aid, force or procurement, contrary to the said execution to be made concerning the said rebellious servants in the aforesaid form, on the aforesaid penalty, and to be imprisoned for one year without bail if he is attainted. And the chief constables of hundreds should have power to inquire, and should inquire from day to day when necessary for common profit, and at least once each month throughout their hundred, on the said penalty of £10, as well as the justices of the peace, and the mayors and bailiffs of cities, boroughs and franchises, within their franchises, in the same form and on the same penalty, into all those who received or retained any such unknown fleeing servant, and maintained them in their service contrary to the aforesaid form, and into all other articles written above in their inquisitions returned before the said justices of their region to each session held by the said justices, with their process and amercements, so that the said justices through their inquisitions and their diligence should pursue all the aforesaid misfortunes, and their circumstances, together with the said inquisitions of mayors, bailiffs and chief constables, of all the articles written above, as quickly as they might punish and redress the said misfortunes, riotous people and evils of the aforesaid servants and labourers, in aid of the realm and in common profit of the people.
[memb. 15]
Item, prie le dit commune: qe des dites servantz, laboreres et artifeceres, quels sount troi foith devant les ditz justices faux et atteyntis provez encontre lour sermentz sermentez, soit il a la sute du roi ou de partie, en ascun article encontre les ditz ordinaces [sic: read 'ordinances'] et estatutz avant ses heures faites et establez, eiount la prison d'un an sanz maynprise pur lour faussete, et apres facent fyn et trovent suffisance maynprise et sourtee de servir solome la forme des ditz estatutz et ordinances en ce cas devant sa deliverance, pur commune profit, et chastiement del faussyne des servantz q'est en present. Et qe pleise a nostre dit seignur le roi establer et faire estatutz en cest present parlement de touz les articles et pointes desus escriptz, a la requeste de dite commune, et pur commune profit de vostre roialme, et pur afforcer les autres estatutz et ordinaces [sic: read 'ordinances'] des dites servantz, laboreres et artificers. Et qe nul artificer deyns franchise ne dehors ne receivere, retigne ne mayntigne ovesqe lui nul laborer ou servant de nulle ville, en apprentys ne en son service [col. b] de son arte, si longement, qe nulle de la dite ville ad mestre de laborer de mayntenir la coultoure de la terre, sour la peyne de paier au roi .x.li. et a la partie .c. s. Et qe les justicez des laboreres aient lours gages resonables pur lour journees en chescun pays de les issues forezfaitez devaunt eux, come ils soleient avoir, ov le charge q'ils mettent diligence, peyne et power de chaster les rebeals et la riote des laboreres, et principalment la receptement de eux en la fourme avauntdite. Et qe briefs soient faitez desouz le grant sealx et directes as touz le viscontes de roialme, de feir proclamacion, garnissement et defense des touz les articles desus escriptz en lours countes, fairres et marcheis, et en hundredes deyns franchise et dehors, la ou la poeple est pluis assemble, sour les peynes et de les peynes desus escriptz. Et qe commissions soient faitz as justices de la pees en chescun counte, solome la fourme des articles avauntditz. Also, the said commons pray: that if the said servants, labourers and artisans have been proved false and attainted against their sworn oaths three times before the said justices, whether at the suit of the king or of the party, in any article contrary to the said ordinances and statutes made and established before his time, they should be imprisoned for one year without bail for their falsehood, and then make fine and find sufficient mainprise and security to serve according to the form of the said statutes and ordinances in this case before their deliverance, for the common profit and the punishment of the deceit of servants which exists at present. And may it please our said lord the king to establish and make statutes in this present parliament of all the articles and points written above, at the request of the said commons and for the common profit of your realm, and to reinforce the other statutes and ordinances concerning the said servants, labourers and workers. And no craftsman inside or outside franchises should receive, retain or maintain any labourer or servant from any vill as an apprentice or in his service [col. b] of his craft, unless for a long time no-one from the said vill has had need of the labourer to maintain the cultivated land, on the penalty of paying £10 to the king and 100s. to the party. And the justices of labourers should have reasonable wages for each day's work in each region from the issues forfeited before them, as they are accustomed to have them, with the charge that they should use diligence, penalty and power to punish the rebels and the riot of labourers, and above all the reception of them in the aforesaid form. And writs should be made under the great seal and directed to all the sheriffs of the realm, to make proclamation, warning and prohibition on all the articles written above in their counties, fairs and markets, and in hundreds inside and outside franchises, wherever a lot of people gather, on and concerning the penalties written above. And commissions should be made to the justices of the peace in each county, according to the form of the aforesaid articles.
[memb. 16]
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Endroit de ceste grant bille precedent touche labouriers, soient les estatutz et ordinances ent faites tenuz et gardez en touz lours pointz et duement mis en execucion. (fn. ii-321-490-1) As regards this preceding great bill concerning labourers, the statutes and ordinances made thereon should be upheld and observed in all their points and duly executed. (fn. ii-321-490-1)
Des gardes as proschien amys, etc. Concerning wardships to nearest kinsmen etc.
118. LIX. A nostre seignur le roi et a son consail; supplie la commune de la terre: qe come ordeigne soit par statut fait l'an nostre seignur le roi q'ore est quaturzisme qe les gardes qe sont en mayn le roi par reson de nounage des heires en sa garde esteantz, serroit baillez et commys as proscheins amys des ditz heires as queux l'eritage ne poet descendre, rendant ent tant come autres voillent; (fn. ii-321-493-1) qe plese a nostre dit seignur le roi et son consail, en paremplisement del statut et en salvacion del enheritaunce dez tieux heires esteantz en sa garde par resoun de nounage, de graunter la garde des terres des tieux heires a nully, sinoun as proscheyns amys des heires a qi l'eritage ne poet descendre, rendant ent par an la verroi value en manere come l'estatut voelt. 118. LIX. To our lord the king and his council; the commons of the land petition: that whereas it was ordained by statute made in the fourteenth year of our present lord the king [1340] that the wardships which are in the king's hands, due to the non-age of the heirs in his keeping, should be granted and committed to the nearest kinsmen of the said heirs to whom the inheritance cannot descend, rendering for the same as much as others will; (fn. ii-321-493-1) that it might please our said lord the king and his council, in fulfilment of the statute and in protection of the inheritance of such heirs who are in his keeping due to non-age, to grant the wardship of the lands of such heirs to no-one except the nearest kinsmen of the heirs to whom the inheritance cannot descend, rendering for the same yearly the true value in the manner the statute wills.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi voet bien qe l'estatut se tiegne, salvant a luy entierment sa regalie. The king indeed wills that the statute should be upheld, saving entirely to him his regality.
[memb. 17]
De lymitacion de temps es briefs. Concerning the limitation of time in writs.
119. LX. Plese a nostre seignur le roi, en salvacioun des sermentz de sez lieges hommes qe sont a jurrer en enquestes entre parties en temps avener, ordeiner en ceste present parlement, purce qe le temps est moult passe qe les briefs furont atrefoitz limeteez, qe en brief de droit nul homme soit oie a demander de la seysine son ancestre forsqe puis le corounement le Roy Edward, aiel nostre seignur le roi q'ore. Et qe les briefs de mort d'ancestre, nuper obiit, cosinage, < aiel, > besaiel, brief de niefte, d'entre ad terminum qui preteriit, entre sur disseisine et toutes autres briefs myxtiez en le droit, aient le terme de coronement nostre seignur le roi q'ore est, ou qe nul homme soit oie a demander la seisyne soun ancestre forsqe deins la terme deins centz aunz. Et cele limitacioun comprent auxi long temps come le lymytacioun fait en temps le roi l'aiel nostre seignur le roi q'ore est, et de plus long temps ne peot memore de homme sovener, eiant regard a temps qe gentz vivont a present. 119. LX. May it please our lord the king, in protection of the oaths of his liege men who are to swear in inquests between parties in times to come, to ordain in this present parliament, because it is so long since writs were previously limited, that in a writ of right no man should dare to demand the seisin of his ancestor except since the coronation of King Edward, grandfather of our present lord the king. And the writs of mort d'ancestor, nuper obiit, cosinage, ael, besael, writ of neifty, of entry ad terminum qui preteriit and entry on disseisin, and all other writs concerned with the law, should be limited from the coronation of our present lord the king, so that no man should dare to demand the seisin of his ancestor except within the term of one hundred years. And this limitation should contain as long a time as the limitation made in the time of the king, the grandfather of our present lord the king, and longer than that the memory of man cannot remember, considering the length of time for which people live at present.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi se vorra adviser d'y chaunger la loy devant usee. The king will give further consideration to changing the law previously observed.
Qe aliens ne ayent dignetees deinz le roialme. That aliens should not have dignities within the realm.
120. LXI. Plese a nostre tresredoute seignur le roi et son sage conseil, pur salvacioun de seint esglise et encresce de divine service, d'ordeigner qe nul cardinal ne aliene hors de roialme demorant avera benefice curee deinz lez esglises cathedralx ou dignitez ou offices lez queux requirent residence jurrez solonc lez custumes des ditz esglises. Et qe nul de voz lieges gentz soient lour procuratours pur prendre lour possessions en lez ditz benefices de cy en avaunt, sur la peril de fourfaiture. 120. LXI. May it please our most dread lord the king and his wise council, for the salvation of holy Church and the increase of divine service, to ordain that no cardinal or alien living outside the realm should have the care of a benefice in the cathedral churches, dignities or offices which require residence sworn according to the customs of the said churches. And henceforth none of your liege people should be their proctors for taking their possessions in the said benefices, on pain of forfeiture.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Ceste bille est aillours responduz, c'estassavoir, en les deux autres grosses billes de ceste matire. (fn. ii-321-508-1) This bill is answered elsewhere, that is to say, in the two other large bills on this matter. (fn. ii-321-508-1)
[p. ii-342]
[col. a]
Qe le chief justice ne soit en assises. That the chief justice should not be on assizes.
121. LXII. Item, prie la dite commune: qe come toux maners dez erros [sic: read 'errors'] faitz par les justices des assises parmy le roialme soient reversables devaunt les justices del bank le roi; pleise a present parlement d'ordeigner qe le chief justice del dit bank le roi devaunt qai tiels erros [sic: read 'errors'] soit issint reversables ne soit desoremes assignes justice des assises ne en null autre commissioun entre partie et partie dont le juggement, s'il soit erroignoun, serroit reversables devant lui mesmes. 121. LXII. Also, the said commons pray: that whereas all manner of errors made by the justices of assizes throughout the realm should be reversible before the justices of the king's bench; may it please him at the present parliament to ordain that the chief justice of the said king's bench, before whom such errors should thus be reversible, henceforth should not be assigned as a justice of assizes or in any other commission between party and party for which the judgment, if it is erroneous, will be reversible before him.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Il plest al roi quant il y a < assez > d'autres suffisantz. It pleases the king when there are enough other suitable men.
De pardoun de trespas. Concerning pardon of trespass.
122. LXIII. Item, prie le commune: qe come avaunt ces heures, et nomement ore tarde, par vertue des ascuns novelx enquestes d'office prises par voz eschetours et autres ministres, purportantz ascuns terres estre tenuz de vous en chief, paront mesmes les terrez et plusours autres ovesqe ont este seisez en vostre main, lez terrez tenantz et purchaceours, lour heirs et executours, de degre en degre, grevousment empechez en vostre court del occupacioun et profit de mesmes les terrez de treslong temps devaunt, a cause des gardes et mariages ou autres eschetes queux par voie de la dit tenure vous deveroient appartener come l'em dit; la ou nulx des ditz empesches, lour procheins ancestres, feffours ne testatours avoient ascun manere conseit ne conisance de tiel cleyme, ou autre title roialtee. 122. LXIII. Also, the commons pray: that whereas before this time, and especially lately, by virtue of certain new inquests of office taken by your escheators and other officers purporting certain lands to be held of you in chief, whereby the same lands together with many others have been seized into your hands, the landowners and purchasers, their heirs and executors, degree by degree, were grievously impeached in your court of the occupation and profit of the same lands for a very long time before, by reason of wardships and marriages or other escheats which by process of the said tenure should belong to you as is said; yet none of the said impeached, their nearest ancestors, feoffors or testators had any manner of understanding or knowledge of such claim, or other title of realty.
Plese a vostre treshaute et tresexcellent seignurie considerer les grandez malx, perdes, destruccions et duretees queux vostre dit poeple ad soeffert issint en tiel cas, sans lour dessert, jusqes encea. Et auxint considerant coment tiel en effect n'est autre chose en verite qe un trespas ou mesprisioun par voie de negligence ou ignorance, et sur ce de vostre benigne grace entre autres graces especialx, queux, tresredoute seignur, vous entendez de faire a vostre dit poeple ore a cest parlement, lour voillez faire general pardoun des tieux mesprisions du temps passe, au fin q'ils puissent estre ent quites et deschargez; et ceo par lettres patentes de vostre grande seal s'ils le voillent suyr. May it please your highest and most excellent lordship to consider the great evils, losses, destructions and hardships which your said people have suffered up to now in such cases, without deserving them. And also, considering how in effect this trespass or crime is done through negligence or ignorance, and what, most dread lord, of your kind grace among other special graces, you intend to do to your said people now at this parliament, you should make them general pardon of such crimes of times past, to the end that they might be quit and discharged of the same; and this by letters patent of your great seal if they will pursue it.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi ent ferra sa grace a ceux qe luy plest. The king will make his grace thereon to those who please him.
Qe executours etc. accomptent en socage. That executors etc. should render account in socage.
123. LXIIII. Item, prie le commune: qe par la ou homme tient en socage, et soun heir deins age et soit en la garde de soun ancestre a qi la dite heritage ne doit descendre, acomptant a dit heir a soun age etc. et le dit auncestre devye devaunt soun dit age acomplie, bon serreit qe le dit heir purroit aver acompt de lez executours de soun dit ancestre come s'il meisme eust estee en plein vie, ou qe autre remedie covenable y soit ordeigne. 123. LXIIII. Also, the commons pray: that when a man holds in socage, and his heir is underage and is in the wardship of a relative to whom the said inheritance should not descend, rendering account to the said heir at his full age etc., and the said relative dies before his said full age is reached, it would be good for the said heir to be able to have the account from the executors of his said relative as if he himself had been alive, or that other suitable remedy should be ordained.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi se ent vorra adviser tanqe al proschein parlement. The king will consider this further pending the next parliament.
De priours aliens. Concerning alien priors.
124. LXV. Item, prie le commune: de considerer et avoir regard, en honour de Dieu et salvacioun de seint esglise, coment lez religiousez [editorial note: The letters 'ou' have been interlined between the letters 'i' and 's'.] alienes sont ouste et expulsez de lour possessions en Engliterre, auxibien de lour temporaltez come de espiritualtez, les queux sont baillez et lessez a ferme, auxibien a seculers hommes come as autres des autres ordres, en destruccioun des esglises, mansions, meisons et des autres choses de lour ditz possessions, et en subtraccioun et anientisment des divines services, almoignes et dez autres oeveres de charite qe soleient estre faitz pur lez almes des fondours de lez ditz possessions; quel meschief bosoigne < et > demande remede < covenable, > en honour de Dieu et de seinte esglise, issint qe les gentz de meisme la religioun del nacioun d'Engleterre puissent estre governours, et restituitz a lour possessions, rendant ent a roi durant la guerre certein ferme, come lez ditz aliens soleient faire. 124. LXV. Also, the commons pray: to consider and have regard, in honour of God and the salvation of holy Church, how the alien religious were removed and expelled from their possessions in England, from their temporalities as well as from their spiritualities, which were leased and let at farm to secular men as well as to others of other orders, to the detriment of the churches, monasteries, houses and other things of their said possessions, and in withdrawal and destruction of divine services, alms and other works of charity which used to be done for the souls of the founders of the said possessions; which misfortune needs and demands suitable remedy, in honour of God and of holy Church, so that people of the same religion from the nation of England might be administrators, and restored to their possessions, rendering thereon a certain farm to the king during the war, as the said aliens used to do.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Endroit des dites fermes < comprises et demandez, il plest > au roi qe ce lour soit grantee, quant as priories, [col. b] esglises conventueles, collegiales et parochieles et chaunteries; mais quant a ce qe est demande < des > gouvernours Engloys, et restitucion a eulx, le roi enprendra advis de son grant conseil. As regards the said farms specified and requested, it pleases the king that this should be granted to them with respect to priories, [col. b] conventual, collegiate and parochial churches and chantries; but as regards what is requested concerning English administrators, and their restoration, the king will take the advice of his great council.
De grant en especial. Concerning special grants.
125. LXVI. Item, soit ordeigne qe nul grante especial soit fait pur singulere profit a nully, qe purreit tourner ou sonner en desavantage du roi ou de soun roialme. 125. LXVI. Also, it should be ordained that no special grant should be made for the singular profit of anyone which could turn to or mean the disadvantage of the king or of his realm.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Declare pluis en especial. This should be further explained in detail.
Des achatours et purveiours des seignurs. Concerning the buyers and purveyors of lords.
126. LXVII. Item, prie la dite commune: qe come ils ont grandez oppressions et duresses des grandez prises faites des vitailles et des cariages en grevouse manere par purveours et achatours des grandes seignurs de roilme, en < oppressioun > du poeple, sanz paiement faire ou autre regard avoir a l'estatut sur ceo devaunt ces heures fait et ordeigne de les achatours susditz. 126. LXVII. Also, the said commons pray: that they have great oppressions and hardships from the great prises of victuals and carriages made in grievous manner by the purveyors and buyers of the great lords of the realm, in oppression of the people, without making payment or having other regard for the statute made and ordained thereon before this time concerning the aforesaid buyers.
Par qei prient lez ditz communez, pur Dieu et en oevere de charite, qe la statut et ordinance qe fuit fait l'an nostre seignur q'ore est .xxxvi., touchant lez ditz achatours, (fn. ii-321-542-1) poet estre affermez et enforcez et gardez en toutz poientz, et sur ceo q'il poet estre mys en execucion sur ceux qe facent ascun point al encontre; ou altrement qe lez justices de la pees de chescun counte purront enquere de ceux qe fount al encontre del dit estatut, et sur ceo execucioun faire de ceux qe sont trovez coupables des tiels prises et achatez par vertu de lour commissiouns. Wherefore the said commons pray, for God and in way of charity, that the statute and ordinance which was made in the thirty-sixth year of our present lord the king [1362], concerning the said buyers, (fn. ii-321-542-1) might be affirmed, enforced and observed in all points, and put in execution upon those who do anything to the contrary; or else the justices of the peace from each county could inquire into those who do the contrary of the said statute, and make execution thereon of those who are found guilty of such prises and purchases by virtue of their commissions.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soient les estatutz ent faites duement gardez et mys en execucion. Et en oultre, eient les justices de la paix en chescun countee poair de ent enquere et d'oier et terminer. The statutes made thereon should be duly observed and executed. And further, the justices of the peace in each county should have power to inquire into, hear and determine thereon.
Des fyns levez deinz age. Concerning fines levied underage.
127. LXVIII. A nostre seignur le roi et a soun consail; monstre la commune: < qe come > devaunt sez heures fynes ou notes q'ount este levez en la court le roi par hommes ou femmes tanqe come ils furont deinz age, ne purrent en nulle manere estre reversez n'anulliz si la sute ne fuisse comence avaunt ceo q'ils aveyndrent a lour pleine age; par la ou femmes covertz par desturbance de lour barons, et autres enfantez deinz age, nyenconisantz la lei estre tiel come desuz est dit, et alafoitz par mavays consail, ont este desturbez et aloignez q'ils ne purroient faire nul seute tanqe q'ils feussent de plein age, et lez femmes par cas tanqe apres la mort lour barouns; par ou ils ont en tiel cas sovent este malement desheritez. 127. LXVIII. To our lord the king and his council; the commons declare: that whereas before this time fines or abstracts have been levied in the king's court by men or women while underage, which cannot be reversed or annulled in any manner if the suit was begun before they came to their full age; nevertheless, covered women by the disturbance of their husbands, and other underage children, not knowing the law to be as aforesaid, and sometimes by evil counsel, have been disturbed and eloigned so that they could not make any suit until they were of full age, and the women perhaps not until after the death of their husbands; whereupon in such cases they have often been wickedly disinherited.
Par qei prie la commune qe tieux enfantz puissent avoir plus large temps, come de deux ans ou trois apres lour age plein, de comencer tiel seute d'anuller et reverser tielx fyns et note issint leve tanqe come ils furent deinz age; issint qe si parinspeccion de justicez il purra aparer ou par averement trove ou par prove estre prove qe la fyn ou note se leva tanqe come l'enfant estoit deinz age, q'adonqe la fyn ou note soit reverse, nientcontresteant qe la dite seute ne soit commense deinz age. Et cest estatut sei estende as toux y ceux qe soit el dit cas en temps avener, qe ne soint pas unqore passez l'age .xxiiij. anz; ou altrement ensuera tiel inconvenience, qe la ou tiel enfant ad bone droit et accioun d'estre grandement enherite a un jour a sure pur le temps q'il est deinz age, et alendimain quant il serra de plein age, par defaute de sa seute nient comence tanqe come il estoit deinz age, par tiel lechese il serra disherite. Dount ils prient remedie, come desuz est dit, de larger le temps. Wherefore the commons pray that such children might have a longer time, such as two or three years after their full age, to begin such suit to annul and reverse such fines and abstracts thus levied until they were of legal age; so that if by the inspection of the justices it might appear, be found by averment or proven by proof that the fine or abstract was levied while the child was underage, then the fine or abstract should be reversed, notwithstanding that the said suit was not begun underage. And this statute should extend to all those who are in the said situation in times to come who have not yet passed the age of twenty-four years, or who will otherwise sue such misfortune, lest when such child has a good right and action to have right of inheritance on a day to sue for the time he was underage, by default of his suit not begun while he was underage, on the morrow when he comes of legal age, he will be disinherited by such negligence. Wherefore they pray remedy, as is aforesaid, to lengthen the time.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi s'advisera tanqe al proschein parlement de y chaunger la lay devant usee. The king will consider changing the law previously observed pending the next parliament.
Des priours aliens. Concerning alien priors.
128. LXIX. A nostre seignur le roy et a soun bone consaill; monstront lez communes de sa terre: coment sez progenitours et autres seignurs ount foundez pleuseurs maisons de religione en Engliterre quelles sont conventuelles et autres et sont subgiz as autres maisons depar [p. ii-343][col. a] de la meer; as queles maisons en Engliterre sount mandez moignes Franceys depar de la pur government d'eux, les quelles n'ount conissance des gentz ne savount la langage ne la manere de la terre. Et outre ceo pleusurs d'eux avenont notoirement feble vie, soeffront leur maisons deschaer, divine service amenuser et degastont lez biens de leur maisons, come le chose se monstre en faite; et ount graunt indignacioun qe nul Engleys soit avance entre eux, soit il ja si able persoun. Et qe plus est a douter, come homme suppose comunement, par eux, leur cosynes et leur allies et autres Fraunceoys qui demourront ovesqe eux, le consell de la terre est descovert, et lez biens emportez a lez oeps des enemys. 128. LXIX. To our lord the king and his good council; the commons of his land declare: that whereas his progenitors and other lords have founded many religious houses in England, conventual and other, which are subject to other houses overseas; [p. ii-343][col. a] French monks are sent from overseas to govern these houses in England, who have no knowledge of the people and do not know the language or the conduct of the land. And in addition to this many of them lead a notoriously poor life, suffering their houses to decay and divine service to diminish, and wasting the goods of their houses, as is apparent; and they have great indignation that any English man should be advanced among them, however able a person he may be. And what is more, it should be assumed, as one commonly supposes, that the counsel of the land is disclosed by them, their kinsmen and their allies and other Frenchmen who stay with them, and the goods carried away to the use of enemies.
Dount suppliont les ditz communes, en oevre de charite et pur la commune profit de la terre, qe de cy en avant nulles tiels alienes soient resceux ne acceptez al governement des ditz maisons conventuelles ne dez autres, mais qe ils soient presentez par ceux depar de la. Mais qe plese a nostre seignur le roy, par assent de soun parlement, d'escrivre et envoier as ditz sovereignes parde la quant il serra supplie a lui, q'ils presentent ou facent vicairs et deputez en Engleterre, q'ils puissent presenter a ly et as autres seignurs en meisme cely cas moignes Englys, et en Engliterre nees, de meisme l'ordre, q'ils puissent governer les ditz maisouns conventuelles et autres; et tiel remedy mettre, par soun bone conseill, qe lez ditz maisouns puissent estre relevez par lez Engleys, qe longement ont estee [memb. 18] destrutz et anientez par lez Franceoys, ensy qe la religione, divine service, altres almoignez et chargez appourtenantz as ditz maisouns puissent estre parfaitz et accompliez, et lez maisones reparaillez en dehue manere. Eiant regard especialment qe touz lez moignez en lez ditz maisouns, et nomement ceux de l'ordre de Cluny, sont a regard Engleys et noun pas alienes, et la pluis grant partie de eux auxi sachant et sufficieant ou plus de governer en Engliterre qe nul aliene, come la chose monstre bien en ceux priours qui sount Engleys. Et coment les ditz priours alienes pourront faire moult de male en leur maisouns sanz seeu et assent de leur covent, faisant touz jours lez priours Engleys, et lez governours a leur sovereignez depar dela leur obedience, come appent, et autres choses deshuez a eux solonc la temps qui court, et paier a nostre seignur le roi lez fermes de leur maisons en temps de guerre, come fount ore lez Franceoys avantditz, si meillour grace ne pourra estre. Suppliant qe les Engleys puissent avoir tant de favour en la roialme ent temps avener come ont ore lez alienes. Et qe pur le temps qe la guerre se dure, qe touz lez Franceoys soient bannes et oustes del roialme, a voider Engliterre deinz un certein temps, sur graunt peine. Wherefore the said commons petition, in way of charity and for the common profit of the land, that henceforth no such aliens should be received or accepted to govern the said conventual or other houses, but that they should still be presented by those overseas. But may it please our lord the king, by assent of his parliament, to write and send to the said masters overseas when it will be asked that they present or appoint representatives and deputies in England, that they might present to him and to other lords in the same manner English monks, born in England, from the same order, so that they might govern the said conventual and other houses; and to set such remedy, by his good counsel, that the said houses, which for a long time have been [memb. 18] destroyed and ruined by the French, might be restored by the English so that the religion, divine service, other alms and charges belonging to the said houses might be performed and accomplished, and the houses repaired in due manner. Considering especially that all the monks in the said houses, and especially those of the order of Cluny, are considered English and not alien, and the greatest part of them also are more knowledgeable and sufficient to govern in England than any alien, as is properly demonstrated in the case of those priors who are English; and that whereas the said alien priors do much evil in their houses without the knowledge and assent of their convent, the English priors and governors always make their obedience to their superiors overseas, as it appears, and other things due to them according to the passage of time, and pay our lord the king the farms of their houses in times of war, as the aforesaid French now do, unless there can be better grace. They ask that the English might have such favour thereon in the realm in times to come as the aliens now have. And while the war lasts, all the French should be banned and removed from the realm, to leave England within a certain time, on a great penalty.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Rienz n'ent estoit fait. Nothing was done thereon.
Des gentz d'armes. Concerning men-at-arms.
129. LXX. Item, monstront lez ditz communes: come il lour semble q'il serroit graunt necessite au roi < et > a roialme d'eider, meienteigner et susteigner lez gentz d'armes, q'ount travaille tout lour temps en lez guerres et services nostre seignur le roi et pur le profit du roialme, unqore sont prestez de faire si mestier [[The following text has been deleted:
soit]] serra, et especialment tiels qe par lez grauntz diligences q'ils ont fait, et par les aventures ou ils se sont mys meynt foitz pur grever lez enemys de roy et de roialme, sont renommez et tenuz par lour enemys de si graunt estate passant lour avoir, qe quant ils sont pris prisoners entre eaux ils sont mys a si grantez et outrages financez qe jammes ne purront estre deliverez saunz l'eide du roi nostre seignur et de roialme, come Monsir Mahew de Gourney, Monsir Maheu de Redmane, Monsir Thomas Fogg', Monsir Johan de Herpeden', Monsir Degary Seys, Monsir Geffrey de Werkesley, Monsir Robert Twyford, Monsir Johan Beurser et plusurs autres chivalers et esquiers; suppliant a nostre dit seignur le roi d'eider et comforter et deliverer les avantditz, et les mettre en lour estat, a fyn q'ils purront servire le roi et roialme quant busoigne serra.
129. LXX. Also, the said commons declare: since it seems to them that it would be a great necessity for the king and the realm to aid, maintain and sustain the men-at-arms who have laboured all their time in the wars and services of our lord the king and for the profit of the realm, and who still are prepared to do what is necessary, and especially those who are renowned for the great services which they have performed and the risks which they have often undertaken to aggrieve the enemies of the king and the realm, and who are held by their enemies to be of such great estate surpassing their wealth that, when they are taken prisoner among them, they are put to such great and outrageous expenses that they cannot be delivered without the aid of our lord the king and the realm, such as Sir Matthew Gourney, Sir Matthew Redmayne, Sir Thomas Fogge, Sir John Herpeden, Sir Digory Sais, Sir Geoffrey Werkesley, Sir Robert Twyford, Sir John Beurser and many other knights and squires; they ask our said lord the king to aid and comfort and deliver the aforesaid men, and to put them in their estate, so that they can serve the king and the realm when necessary.
[col. b]
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi est en bone volentee de faire en confort de eulx < et aide, en quanqe > reson demande. The king intends to act for their comfort and aid, in whatever manner reason requires.
[memb. 19]
Pur l'esteymerye de Deveneshire. For the stannaries of Devon.
130. LXXI. A tresexcellent et tresredoute seignur, nostre seignur le roi; supplie sa povre commune del counte de Devensshire: qe luy plese, par l'avys des prelatz, countes, barons et autres sages en cest present parlement, ordeigner remede, de ceo qe les esteymours et les ministres de l'esteymerye el dit countee ont long temps a la dit commune, sibien as seignurs come as autres, fait et font de jour en autre diverses extorcions, oppressions et grevaunces, par colour de les fraunchises a eux grantez par les chartres nostre seignur le roi et de ces progenitours, encontre la ley et le purport des ditz chartres, < et > par lour malveys interpretacion d'ycelles; et qe les dites chartres, et les franchises comprises en ycell, puissent estre lieuz et declarez d'article en article, si qe la commune du dite countee puissent estre apris droiturelment d'ycelles, et qe cest declaracion soit mys en record. Et si nul article y soit en les dites chartres qe touche custumes ou usages, qe plese a nostre dit seignur le roi d'ordeigner et maunder en brief temps suffisantz justices, seignurs et autres apris de la ley, a celles parties, d'enquere des dites custumes et usages; et q'ils eyent poair d'oier et terminer touz les conspiracies, confederacies, alliaunces, champarties, extorcions, oppressions, grevaunces, fauxines et meyntenaunces, queux les ditz esteymours et lour ministres ont fait a la dite commune, ou a nul de eux qi pleyndre se vorra; (fn. ii-321-568-1) et ce auxibien al seute le roi come de la partie, entendantz qe le roi nostre seignur ent gaygnera molt. Et d'autre part, si remedie ne lour y soit ore fait, ils serront en brief temps pur la greyndre partie desheritez et destruitz a touz jours, qe Dieu ne voille. 130. LXXI. To the most excellent and most dread lord, our lord the king; his poor commons of the county of Devon petition: that it might please him, by the advice of the prelates, earls, barons and other wise men in this present parliament, to ordain remedy, because the tin-miners and the officials of the stannaries in the said county for a long time have made and do make from day to day various extortions, oppressions and grievances to the said commons, by colour of the franchises granted to them by the charters of our lord the king and of his progenitors, contrary to the law and the purport of the said charters, by their evil interpretation of the same; and that the said charters, and the franchises contained in the same, might be read and explained article by article, so that the commons of the said county might be properly informed of the same, and this explanation should be put on record. And if there is any article in the said charters which concerns customs or usages, may it please our said lord the king to ordain and send to those parts in a short time sufficient justices, lords and others learned in the law to inquire into the said customs and usages; and they should have power to hear and determine all the conspiracies, confederacies, alliances, champerties, extortions, oppressions, grievances, deceits and maintenances which the said tin-miners and their officials have done to the said commonalty, or to any of them who will complain; (fn. ii-321-568-1) and this at the suit of the king as well as of the party, understanding that our lord the king will gain much from the same. And on the other hand, if remedy is not now provided, in a short time they will for the most part be disinherited and destroyed forever, which God forbid.
Le tenour d'ascuns des articles de les dites chartres (fn. ii-321-570-1) qe lour busoignent de declaracion s'ensuent cy enapres. Primerement, c'estassavoir: The tenor of some of the articles of the said charters (fn. ii-321-570-1) which need elucidation follow hereafter. First, that is to say:
[editorial note: Article.] [editorial note: Article.]
'Sciatis, nos, ad emendacionem stannariarum nostrarum in comitatu Devon', ad tranquilitatem et utilitatem stannatorum nostrorum predictorum earumdem, concessisse pro nobis et heredibus nostris quod omnes stannatores predicti operantes in stannariis illis que sunt dominica nostra, dum operantur in eisdem stannariis liberi sint et quieti de placitis nativorum et de omnibus placitis et querelis curiam nostram et heredum nostrorum qualitercumque tangentibus; ita quod non respondeant coram aliquibus justiciariis vel ministris nostris seu heredum nostrorum de aliquo placito seu querela infra predictas stannarias emergentibus, nisi coram custode nostro stannariarum nostrarum predictarum qui pro tempore fuerit; exceptis placitis terre, vite et membrorum. Nec recedant ab operacionibus suis per summonicionem alicujus ministrorum nostrorum seu heredum nostrorum nisi per summonicionem communem dicti custodis nostri. Et quod quieti sint de omnibus tallagiis, theoloniis, stallagiis, auxiliis et aliis custumis quibuscumque in villis, portubus, feriis et mercatis, infra comitatum predictum, de bonis suis propriis etc.' 'Be it known that we, in improvement of our stannaries in the county of Devon, for the peace and benefit of our aforesaid tin-miners of the same, have granted for us and our heirs that all the aforesaid tin-miners working in those stannaries which are of our lordship, while they work in the same stannaries, should be free and quit of pleas of neifty and of all pleas and quarrels touching our court and that of our heirs in any way whatsoever; so that they should not answer before any of our justices or officials or those of our heirs concerning any plea or quarrel arising within the aforesaid stannaries, but only before our warden of our aforesaid stannaries who will be at the time, excepting pleas of land, life and limb. And they should not withdraw from their work by the summons of any of our officials or those of our heirs but only by the common summons of our said warden. And they should be quit of all tallages, tolls, stallages, aids and other customs whatsoever in towns, ports, fairs and markets within the aforesaid county, of their own goods etc.'
[editorial note: Requeste.] [editorial note: Request.]
Sur qoi plese declarer si autres persones qe les esteymours overantz en les estemeryes averont et enjoyeront la fraunchise grante par la dite chartre du roi, desicome la dite chartre voet, 'Quod omnes stannatores predicti operantes in stannariis illis sint liberi etc.' Et autres persones qe les overours, c'estassavoir, lours maistres qi les louent et lours servantz et autres claymont mesme la fraunchise. Et auxint plese declarrer si les ditz overours y averont les fraunchises en autre temps qe quant ils overont en mesme l'esteymerye, desicome la chartre voet, 'Dum operantur in eisdem stannariis sint liberi etc.' Whereupon may it please him to explain whether people other than the tin-miners working in the stannaries should have and enjoy the franchise granted by the king's said charter, inasmuch as the said charter wills, 'That all the aforesaid tin-miners working in those stannaries should be free etc.' And whether people other than the workers, that is to say, their masters who hire them and their servants and others, should claim the same franchise. And may it also please him to explain whether the said workers should have the franchises at times other than when they are working in the same stannaries, inasmuch as the charter wills, 'While they work in the same stannaries should be free etc.'
[p. ii-344]
[col. a]
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Endroit de les dites paroles, 'Operantes in stannariis illis' et 'Dum operantur in eisdem stannariis' soient clerement entenduz, 'De operariis laborantibus dumtaxat in stannariis illis sine fraude et dolo, et non de aliis nec alibi laborantibus.' As regards the said words, 'Working in those stannaries' and 'While they work in the same stannaries', it should be clearly understood, 'Concerning workers working only in those stannaries without fraud and deceit, and not others or those working elsewhere.'
[editorial note: Requeste.] [editorial note: Request.]
Item, soit declarre si mesmes les overours averont mesmes le fraunchises tant come ils overont aillours qe en les demesnes qe feurent au roi l'aiel nostre seignur le roi q'ore est, lui quel roi aiel lour grantast la dite chartre au temps del dit grant des fraunchises, desicome la chartre voet, 'Quod omnes stannatores predicti operantes in stannariis illis que sunt dominica nostra, dum operantur in eisdem stannariis sint liberi etc.' Et ils les clayment d'avoir, tout soit il einsi q'ils overont aillours q'en les dites demesnes le roi l'aiel. Also, it should be explained whether the same workers should have the same franchises while they work elsewhere than in the lordships which belonged to the king, the grandfather of our present lord the king, who granted them the said charter at the time of the said grant of franchises, inasmuch as the charter wills, 'That all the aforesaid tin-miners working in those stannaries which are of our lordship, while they work in the same stannaries should be free etc.' And they claim to have them, even if they work elsewhere than in the lordship of the said king, the grandfather.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Endroit de ceste article, pur ce q'il y a une autre article en mesme la chartre qe lour doune congie et licence de fouer, 'In terris, moris et vastis ipsius domini regis et aliorum quorumcumque in comitatu predicto, et aquas et cursus aquarum ad operaciones stannariarum predictarum divertere ubi et quociens opus fuerit, et emere buscam ad functuram stanni, sicut antiquitus fieri consuevit, sine impedimento domini regis, heredum suorum, episcoporum, abbatum, comitum, baronum seu aliorum quorumcumque etc.', il semble bien busoignable chose en ce cas qe lours custumes et usages soient diligeaument enquiz. Et qe le gardein de l'esteymerie soit chargez q'il ne soeffre nul overour del dit esteymerye fouer en prees, ne autry boys, nene abate autry boys, ou autry mesons, ne bestonerer eawe ou cours de eawe par malice. Et si par cas le dit gardain se y vorra excuser, qe les ditz esteymours n'y voillent obeire a ses mandementz, ne cesser lour malice pur luy, qe tant < tost > il ce face monstrer al grant conseil le roi, et due et hastive remede ent serra ordeignez. As regards this article, because there is another article in the same charter which gives them permission and licence to dig, 'In lands, moors and wastes of the same lord king and of any others whatsoever in the aforesaid county, and to divert water and waterways to the work of the aforesaid stannaries when and as often as necessary, and to buy wood for smelting tin, as was formerly the custom, without hindrance from the lord king, his heirs, bishops, abbots, earls, barons or any others whatsoever etc.', it seems to be necessary in this case that their customs and usages should be diligently ascertained. And the keeper of the stannaries should be charged not to suffer any worker of the said stannaries to dig in the meadows or the woods of another, or to cut down the wood or houses of another, or to divert water or waterways by malice. And if by chance the said keeper will make the excuse that the said tin-miners will not obey his orders or cease their malice for him, he should immediately cause this to be declared to the king's great council, and due and swift remedy will be ordained thereon.
[editorial note: Requeste.] [editorial note: Request.]
Item, soit declarrez en especial comen les justices q'ore serront assignez d'aler celles marchees pur ent faire la dite enquerree, prendront l'issue du paiis si ascun y chiece entre parties; et coment ceste article precedent touchant les custumes et usages estoit usez devaunt la fesaunce de la dite chartre l'aiel, et par queux gentz tielle issue serra trie; c'estassavoir, le quiel par foreins soulement ou par esteymours soulement ou par ambedeux etc. Also, it should be explained in detail how the justices who will now be assigned to go to these markets to make the said inquiry should take the issue if any should occur between the parties; and how this preceding article touching the customs and usages was observed before the making of the grandfather's said charter, and by which people such issue will be tried; that is to say, by foreigners only, by tin-miners only or by both etc.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Endroit de ceste article, ensoit l'advis pris du grant conseil; et y soient les recordz en eyre, si nulles y soient, et autres evidences et remembrances deinz le tresorie le roi et aillours, et auxint les remembrances des seignurs queux y ont este pur le temps, serchez et duement examinez. Et auxint soient les livres et evidences quelles les ditz esteymours ent ont envers eulx veuez et regardez, issint qe l'en y purra le mieltz venir al droite veritee. As regards this article, the advice of the great council should be taken; and the records in eyre, if there are any, and other evidences and remembrances in the king's treasury and elsewhere, and also the remembrances of the lords who were at the time, should be searched and duly examined thereon. And the books and evidences which the said tin-miners have thereon concerning them also should be viewed and examined, so that he can better arrive at the rightful truth.
[editorial note: Requeste.] [editorial note: Request.]
Item, soit declarre si le gardein de l'estemerye puisse tenir plee entre esteymour et foreyn, de querele sourdante aillours qe en les lieux ou ils sont overantz, desicome la chartre voet, 'Quod custos noster predictus, vel ejus locum tenens, teneat omnia placita inter stannatores predictos emergencia, et eciam inter ipsos et alios forinsecos, de omnibus transgressionibus, querelis et contractibus factis in locis in quibus operantur infra stannarias predictas similiter emergencia, etc.', qar il tient plee des tieux quereles sourdantz chescune part deins le dit countee. Also, it should be explained whether the warden of the stannaries might hold pleas between tin-miners and foreigners, of a quarrel arising elsewhere than in the places where they are working, inasmuch as the charter wills, 'That our aforesaid warden, or the holder of his place, should hold all pleas arising between the aforesaid tin-miners, and also between them and other foreigners, of all trespasses, quarrels and contracts made in places in which they work likewise arising within the aforesaid stannaries etc.', since he should hold pleas of such quarrels arising each part within the said county.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Et endroit de ceste article, se ent extende la jurisdiccion clerement solonc les paroles del dit chartre; c'estassavoir, 'In locis ubi iidem operarii operantur' et nemye aillours, ne en autre manere. And as regards this article, the jurisdiction clearly should extend according to the words of the said charter; that is to say, 'In places where the same workers work' and not elsewhere, or in other manner.
[editorial note: Requeste.] [editorial note: Request.]
Item, plese declarrer de ceo qe la dite chartre voet einsy, 'Et si qui stannatorum predictorum in aliquo deliquerint [col. b] per quod incarcerari debeant, per custodem predictum arestentur, et in prisona nostra de Lydeford et non alibi detineantur, quousque secundum legem et consuetudinem regni nostri deliberentur.' Et en cas qe esteymour soit pris pur felonie et liverez au gardein, il est suffert sovent d'aler a large, de quoi grant peril avient moelt des foitz; et auxint de ce qe la delivrance del dit gaiole n'est pas faite une foitz en dis ans. Et qe pis est, par colour de mesme ceste article, le dit gardein prent hors d'autry prisone les emprisonez, pur arrerages sur accomptez, et les mette a Lydeford, ou ils sont en tant favorez q'ils n'y font force de jammais faire gree a lour seignurs. Also, may it please you to explain what the said charter wills by, 'And if any of the aforesaid tin-miners trespass in any way [col. b] by which they should be imprisoned, they should be arrested by the aforesaid warden and detained in our prison of Lydford and not elsewhere, until they are delivered according to the law and custom of our king.' And if a tin-miner is taken for felony and delivered to the warden, he is often allowed to go free, whereby great peril ensues many times, and also because the delivery of the said gaol is not made once in ten years. And what is worse, by colour of this same article, the said warden takes the imprisoned out of the prisons of others, for arrears on accounts, and puts them in Lydford, where they are in such favour that they never worry about making satisfaction to their lords.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Endroit de ceste article, ensoit enquiz diligeaument, devant les justices q'ore y serront proscheinement assignez d'enquere, par quele auctoritee ils y font einsi, depuis qe en mesme la chartre sont exceptez par especial touz plees de terre et de vie et de membre. Et celle enqueste retournee, soit declarie en especial s'il busoigne. As regards this article, it should be diligently inquired by what authority they did this before the justices who will soon be assigned to inquire, since in the same charter all pleas of land and of life and limb are excepted in particular. And when this inquest has been returned, the matter should be explained in detail if necessary.
[memb. 20]
Pur l'esteymerie de Cornoaille. For the stannaries of Cornwall.
131. LXXII. Item, supplient sa povre commune del counte de Cornewaylle: de ceo qe les esteymours et les ministres de l'esteymerye el dit counte ont long temps a la dite commune, sibien as seignurs come as autres, fait et font de jour en autre diverses extorcions, oppressions et grevaunces, par colour de les fraunchises a eux grantez par les chartres nostre seignur le roi et de ces progenitours, encountre la ley et le purport des dites chartres, par lour malveys interpretacion d'icelles; et qe les dites chartres, et les fraunchises comprises en ycell, puissent estre lieuz et declarrez d'article en article, si qe la commune du dite counte puissent estre apris droiturelment d'ycelles, et qe ceste declaracion soit mys en record. Et si nulle article y soit en les dites chartres qe touche custumes et usages, qe plese a nostre seignur le roi d'ordeigner et maunder en brief temps suffisauntz justices, seignurs et autres apris de la ley, a celles parties, d'enquere des ditez custumes et usages q'ils eyent poair d'oier et terminer touz les conspiracies, confederacies, alliaunces, champarties, extorcions, oppressions, grevaunces, fauxines et meyntenaunces queux les ditz esteymours et lour ministres ont fait a la dite commune, ou a nul de eux qi pleyndre se vorra; (fn. ii-321-605-1) et se auxibien al seute le roi come de la partie, entendantz qe le roi nostre seignur ent gaygnera moelt. Et d'autre part, si remedie ne lour y soit ore fait, ils serront en brief temps pur la greindre partie desheritez et destruitz a touz jours, qe Dieu ne voille. 131. LXXII. Also, his poor commons of the county of Cornwall petition: because the tin-miners and the officials of the stannaries in the said county for a long time have made and do make from day to day various extortions, oppressions and grievances to the said commons, by colour of the franchises granted to them by the charters of our lord the king and of his progenitors, contrary to the law and the purport of the said charters, by their evil interpretation of the same; and that the said charters, and the franchises contained in the same, might be read and explained article by article, so that the commons of the said county might be properly informed of the same, and this explanation should be put on record. And if there is any article in the said charters which concerns customs or usages, may it please our said lord the king to ordain and send to those parts in a short time sufficient justices, lords and others learned in the law to inquire into the said customs and usages; and they should have power to hear and determine all the conspiracies, confederacies, alliances, champerties, extortions, oppressions, grievances, deceits and maintenances which the said tin-miners and their officials have done to the said commonalty, or to any of them who will complain; (fn. ii-321-605-1) and this at the suit of the king as well as of the party, understanding that our lord the king will gain much from the same. And on the other hand, if remedy is not now provided, in a short time they will for the most part be disinherited and destroyed forever, which God forbid.
Le tenor d'ascuns des articles de les dites chartres (fn. ii-321-607-1) qe lour busoignent de declaracion s'ensuent cy enapres. Primerement, c'estassavoir: The tenor of some of the articles of the said charters (fn. ii-321-607-1) which need elucidation follow hereafter. First, that is to say:
[editorial note: Article.] [editorial note: Article.]
'Sciatis, nos, ad emendacionem stannariarum nostrarum in comitatu Cornubie, ad tranquilitatem et utilitatem stannatorum nostrorum predictorum earumdem, concessisse pro nobis et heredibus nostris quod omnes stannatores predicti operantes in stannariis illis que sunt dominica nostra, dum operantur in eisdem stannariis liberi sint et quieti de placitis nativorum et de omnibus placitis et querelis curiam nostram et heredum nostrorum qualitercumque tangentibus; ita quod non respondeant coram aliquibus justiciariis vel ministris nostris seu heredum nostrorum de aliquo placito seu querela infra predictas stannarias emergentibus, nisi coram custode nostro stannariarum nostrarum predictarum qui pro tempore fuerit; exceptis placitis terre, vite et membrorum. Nec recedant ab operacionibus suis per summonicionem alicujus ministrorum nostrorum seu heredum nostrorum nisi per summonicionem communem dicti custodis nostri. Et quod quieti sint de omnibus tallagiis, theoloniis, stallagiis, auxiliis et aliis custumis quibuscumque in villis, portubus, feriis et mercatis infra comitatum predictum, de bonis suis propriis etc.' 'Be it known that we, in improvement of our stannaries in the county of Cornwall, for the peace and benefit of our aforesaid tin-miners of the same, have granted for us and our heirs that all the aforesaid tin-miners working in those stannaries which are of our lordship, while they work in the same stannaries, should be free and quit of pleas of neifty and of all pleas and quarrels touching our court and that of our heirs in any way whatsoever; so that they should not answer before any of our justices or officials or those of our heirs concerning any plea or quarrel arising within the aforesaid stannaries, but only before our warden of our aforesaid stannaries who will be at the time, excepting pleas of land, life and limb. And they should not withdraw from their work by the summons of any of our officials or those of our heirs but only by the common summons of our said warden. And they should be quit of all tallages, tolls, stallages, aids and other customs whatsoever in towns, ports, fairs and markets within the aforesaid county, of their own goods etc.'
[p. ii-345]
[col. a]
[editorial note: Requeste.] [editorial note: Request.]
Sur quoi plese declarrer si autres persones qe les esteymours overantz en les esteymeryes averont et enjoieront la fraunchise grante par la dite chartre du roi, desicome la dite chartre voet, 'Quod omnes stannatores predicti operantes in stannariis illis sint liberi etc.' Et autres persones qe les overours, c'estassavoir lour maistres qi les louent et lour servantz et autres, claymont mesme la fraunchise. Et auxint plese declarrer si les ditz overours y averont les fraunchises en autre temps qe quant ils overont en mesme l'esteymereye, desicome la chartre voet, 'Dum operantur in eisdem stannariis sint liberi etc.' Whereupon may it please him to explain whether people other than the tin-miners working in the stannaries should have and enjoy the franchise granted by the king's said charter, inasmuch as the said charter wills, 'That all aforesaid tin-miners working in those stannaries should be free etc.' And whether people other than the workers, that is to say, their masters who hire them and their servants and others, should claim the same franchise. And may it also please him to explain whether the said workers should have the franchises at times other than when they are working in the same stannaries, inasmuch as the charter wills, 'While they work in the same stannaries should be free etc.'
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Endroit de les ditz paroles, 'Operantes in stannariis illis' et 'Dum operantur in eisdem stannariis' soient clerement entenduz 'De operariis laborantibus dumtaxat in stannariis illis sine fraude et dolo et non de aliis, nec alibi laborantibus.' As regards the said words, 'Working in those stannaries' and 'While they work in the same stannaries', it should be clearly understood, 'Concerning workers working only in those stannaries without fraud and deceit, and not others or those working elsewhere.'
[editorial note: Requeste.] [editorial note: Request.]
Item, soit declarre si mesmes les overours averont mesmes les fraunchises tant come ils overont aillours qe en les demesnes qe feurent au roi l'aiel nostre seignur le roi q'ore est, lui quiel roi aiel lour grantast la dite chartre au temps del dit grant des fraunchises, desicome la chartre voet, 'Quod omnes stannatores < predicti > operantes in stannariis illis que sunt dominica nostra, dum operantur in eisdem stannariis sint liberi etc.' Et ils les clayment d'avoir, tout soit il einsy q'ils overont aillours q'en les dites demesnes le roy l'aiel. Also, it should be explained whether the same workers should have the same franchises while they work elsewhere than in the lordships which belonged to the king, the grandfather of our present lord the king, who granted them the said charter at the time of the said grant of franchises, inasmuch as the charter wills, 'That all the aforesaid tin-miners working in those stannaries which are of our lordship while they work in the same stannaries should be free etc.' And they claim to have them, even if they work elsewhere than in the lordship of the said king, the grandfather.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Endroit de ceste article, pur ce q'il y a une autre article en mesme la chartre qe lour doune congie et licence de fouer, 'In terris, moris et vastis ipsius domini regis et aliorum quorumcumque in comitatu predicto, et aquas et cursus aquarum ad operaciones stannariarum predictarum divertere ubi et quociens opus fuerit, et emere buscam ad functuram stanni, sicut antiquitus fieri consuevit, sine impedimento domini regis, heredum suorum, episcoporum, abbatum, comitum, baronum seu aliorum quorumcumque etc.', il semble bien busoignable chose en ce cas qe lours custumes et usages soient diligeaument enquiz. Et qe le gardeyn de l'esteymerye soit chargez q'il ne soeffre nul overour del dit l'esteymerye fouer en prees ne autry boys, nene abate autri boys ou autri mesons, ne bestoner eawe ou cours de eawe par malice. Et si par cas le dit gardeyn se y vorra excuser qe les ditz esteymours n'y voillent obeire a ces mandementz ne cesser lour malice pur luy, qe tant < tost > il ce face monstrer al grant conseil le roi, et due et hastive remedie ent serra ordeignez. As regards this article, because there is another article in the same charter which gives them permission and licence to dig, 'In lands, moors and wastes of the same lord king and of any others whatsoever in the aforesaid county, and to divert water and waterways to the work of the aforesaid stannaries when and as often as necessary, and to buy wood for smelting tin, as was formerly the custom, without hindrance from the lord king, his heirs, bishops, abbots, earls, barons or any others whatsoever etc.', it seems to be necessary in this case that their customs and usages should be diligently ascertained. And the keeper of the stannaries should be charged not to suffer any worker of the said stannaries to dig in the meadows or the woods of another, or to cut down the wood or houses of another, or to divert water or waterways by malice. And if by chance the said keeper will make the excuse that the said tin-miners will not obey his orders or cease their malice for him, he should immediately cause this to be declared to the king's great council, and due and swift remedy will be ordained thereon.
[editorial note: Requeste.] [editorial note: Request.]
Item, soit declarrez en especial coment les justices q'ore serront assignez d'aler celles marchees pur ent faire le dit enquerre prendront l'issue du paiis si aucun y chiece entre parties. Et coment cest article precedent touchant les custumes et usages estoit usez devaunt la fesaunce de la dite chartre l'aiel, et par queux gentz tielle issue serra triez; c'estassavoir, le quiel par foreins soulement ou par esteymours soulement ou par ambedeux etc. Also, it should be explained in detail how the justices who will now be assigned to go to these markets to make the said inquiry should take the issue if any should occur between the parties; and how this preceding article touching the customs and usages was observed before the making of the grandfather's said charter, and by which people such issue will be tried; that is to say, by foreigners only, by tin-miners only or by both etc.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Endroit de ceste article, en soit l'advis pris du grant conseil; et y soient les recordz en eyre, si nulles y soient, et autres evidences et remembrances deinz le tresorie le roi et aillours, et auxint les remembrances des seignurs queux y ont este pur le temps, serchez et duement examinez. Et auxint soient les livres et evidences quelles les ditz esteymours ent ont envers eulx veuez et regardez, issint qe l'en y purra le mielt venir al droite veritee. As regards this article, the advice of the great council should be taken; and the records in eyre, if there are any, and other evidences and remembrances in the king's treasury and elsewhere, and also the remembrances of the lords who were at the time, should be searched and duly examined thereon. And the books and evidences which the said tin-miners have thereon concerning them also should be viewed and examined, so that he can better arrive at the rightful truth.
[editorial note: Requeste.] [editorial note: Request.]
Item, soit declarrez si le gardein de l'esteymerye puisse tenir plee entre esteymour et forein, de querele sourdante aillours q'en les lieux ou ils sont overantz, desicome la chartre voet, 'Quod custos noster predictus, vel ejus locum tenens, teneat omnia placita inter stannatores predictos emergencia, et eciam inter ipsos et alios forinsecos de omnibus transgressionibus, querelis et contractibus [col. b] factis in locis in quibus operantur infra stannarias predictas similiter emergencia etc.', qar il tient plee des tieux quereles sourdantz chescune part deins le dit countee. Also, it should be explained whether the warden of the stannaries might hold pleas between tin-miners and foreigners, of a quarrel arising elsewhere than in the places where they are working, inasmuch as the charter wills, 'That our aforesaid warden, or the holder of his place, should hold all pleas arising between the aforesaid tin-miners, and also between them and other foreigners, of all trespasses, quarrels and contracts [col. b] made in places in which they work likewise arising within the aforesaid stannaries etc.', since he should hold pleas of such quarrels arising each part within the said county.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Et endroit de ceste article, se ent extende la jurisdiccion clerement solonc les paroles del dite chartre; c'estassavoir, 'In locis ubi iidem operarii operantur' et nemye aillours, ne en autre maneree. And as regards this article, the jurisdiction clearly should extend according to the words of the said charter; that is to say, 'In places where the same workers work' and not elsewhere, or in other manner.
[editorial note: Requeste.] [editorial note: Request.]
Item, plese declarrer de ceo qe la dite chartre voet einsy 'Et si qui stannatorum predictorum in aliquo deliquerint per quod incarcerari debeant, per custodem predictum arestentur et in prisona nostra de < Lostwythiell et non alibi > < custodiantur > et detineantur quousque secundum legem et consuetudinem regni nostri deliberentur.' Et en cas qe esteymour soit pris pur felonie et liverez au gardain, il est suffert sovent d'aler a large, de quoi grant peril avient moeltz des foitz; et auxint de ceo qe la deliveraunce del dite gaiole n'est pas faite une fois en dis ans. Et qe pis est, par colour de mesme ceste article, le dit gardein prent hors d'autry prisone les emprisonez pur arrerages sur accomptes, et les mette a Lostwythiell ou ils sont en tant favorez q'ils n'y font force de jammais faire gree a lour seignurs. Also, may it please you to explain what the said charter wills by, 'And if any of the aforesaid tin-miners trespass in any way by which they should be imprisoned, they should be arrested by the aforesaid warden and guarded and detained in our prison of Lostwithiel and not elsewhere, until they are delivered according to the law and custom of our king.' And if a tin-miner is taken for felony and delivered to the warden, he is often allowed to go free, whereby great peril ensues many times, and also because the delivery of the said gaol is not made once in ten years. And what is worse, by colour of this same article, the said warden takes the imprisoned out of the prisons of others for arrears on accounts, and puts them in Lostwithiel, where they are in such favour that they never worry about making satisfaction to their lords.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Endroit de ceste article, ensoit enquiz diligeaument devant les justices q'ore y serront proscheinement assignez d'enquere, par quelle autorite ils y font einsy; depuis qe en mesme la < chartre sont > exceptez par especial touz plees de terre et de vie et de membre. Et celle enqueste retournee, soit declarrez en especial s'il y busoigne. As regards this article, it should be diligently inquired by what authority they did this before the justices who will soon be assigned to inquire, since in the same charter all pleas of land and of life and limb are excepted in particular. And when this inquest has been returned, the matter should be explained in detail if necessary.
[memb. 21]
Pur le contee de Cumbr'. For the county of Cumberland.
132. LXXIII. Item, prie la communalte de la counte de Cumbr', en parcell des meschiefs du dite counte, en manere q'ensuyt: adeprimes, qe la cite de Cardoyll et le chastiel sont en grauntez meschiefs des mures, fosses; et les portes du dite cite ne poent estre closez ne les pontz levez, pur defaute de amendement et de eayde; et qe les citezeinz du dite cite si pours et nounpuissantz de lour mesmes q'ils ne sont mye suffisantz de garder la quarte partie du dite cite, horspris le dit chastiel. Et priont le dite communalte qe le evesqe de Cardoyll, les seignurs de Percy et de Clifford, qe sont marchers, Monsir Guy de Brian, Monsir Henry de Scrop' et Monsir Rauf de Fererers, les queux ont viewe la dite cite, soient examinez en tesmoignance des meschiefs suysnomez. Item, monstre la communalte q'ils sont sanz governayl de seignur ou de gardeyn de march demurant entre eux deinz le dite counte, par qi ils purront estre eidez et mayntenez, sibien pur rebellions faitz deinz la dite counte par Engleys encontre la ley come a contre esteire la malice des enemys d'Escoce. Issint pur defaute des seignurs demurantz sour la marche, come desuys est dit, march est tout destruyt. (fn. ii-321-643-1) 132. LXXIII. Also, the commonalty of the county of Cumberland, in listing the misfortunes of the said county, pray in the manner that follows: first, the city of Carlisle and the castle are in great trouble concerning its walls and ditches; and the gates of the said city cannot be closed or the bridges raised for lack of repair and aid; and the citizens of the said city are themselves so poor and weak that they are not capable of guarding one quarter of the said city, except the said castle. And the said community prays that the bishop of Carlisle, Lord Percy and Lord Clifford, who are marcher lords, Sir Guy Brian, Sir Henry Scrope and Sir Ralph Ferrers, who have seen the said city, should be examined in witness to the aforesaid misfortunes. Also, the community declares that they are without the governance of a lord or warden of the march living among them in the said county, by whom they could be aided and maintained, in respect of rebellions made in the said county by Englishmen, contrary to the law, as well as to withstand the malice of enemies from Scotland. Thus for lack of lords living on the march, as is aforesaid, the march is completely destroyed. (fn. ii-321-643-1)
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
S'assemblent les prelatz et seignurs de la march, appellez a eux le counte de Warr', Monsir Guy de Bryen et autres qi ont este ore novellement, et tretent de bone remede, et sur ce ent facent leur report al grant conseil, et le roi par leur advis y fra ordeigner covenablement de remede. The prelates and lords of the march should gather and, consulting with the earl of Warwick, Sir Guy Brian and others who have recently been there, should negotiate a good remedy and make their report thereon to the great council, and the king by their advice will ordain suitable remedy.
Des niefs et deodandz. Concerning ships and deodands.
133. LXXIIII. Item, prient sez povres enhabitantz les villes portes deinz son roialme qe se medelent de navie faire: come devaunt cest heures il ont este en bone purpoise de navie faire et meinteigner, quele ad este graunt eide et recoverir a tout le roialme; et ore par la grace de Dieu ils ount soeffre et sustenuz grauntez perdes et meschiefs par la guerre; et entre touz autres meschiefs et perdes ore est apparant tresgraunde meschief: qe si un neof, un creyer, un shoute, un cogge shipp, un batewe, qeconqe vessell qe soit partenant al ewe, soit en rade ou en porte, fierment ancore, et un vallet aille hors d'ascouns des ditz vessellez ou voet encrece, et par yveresse ou autre cause cheiot hors de la vessell [p. ii-346][col. a] qeconqe qe soit, et soit mort; quele meschief ne poet nulle manere estre le faut del seignur de la vessell, et sur ceo les seigneurs des places ou tiel chaunce est chalengent tielx niefs come deodantz; q'il serroit dure si un homme pardroit tout son loial chatell, pur defaut seen, ou yveresse, de garsoun, qe n'est mye le defaute del seignur del nief. 133. LXXIIII. Also, his poor inhabitants of the port towns in his realm, who are occupied in building a fleet, pray: whereas before this time it was determined to build and maintain a fleet, which has been a great aid and help to all the realm; now by the grace of God they have suffered and sustained great losses and misfortunes as a result of the war; and among all other misfortunes and losses a very great misfortune is now apparent: if one ship, whether a crayer, a shout, a cog, a boat or whatever vessel it may be belonging to the water, is sailing or anchored firmly in port, and a man disembarks or wishes to alight from any of the said vessels, and by drunkenness or other reason falls out of the vessel, [p. ii-346][col. a] whatever it may be, and dies, which misfortune could in no way be the fault of the master of the vessel, and thereon the lords of such places where such mischance occurs claim such ships as deodands; it would be harsh if a man lost all his lawful chattel for the fault of his man or the drunkenness of a boy, which is not the fault of the master of the ship.
Qe pleise a nostre seignur le roy et a son bon conseil ordeigner de sa bone grace ent remedie, auterement pur certein la navie deinz brief temps serra anientz, qar nul ne oisera si graundez costagez faire sour les niefs si remedie de y ceo ne y soit mys. May it please our lord the king and his good council to ordain remedy thereon of his good grace, or else for certain the fleet will be destroyed in a short time, since no-one will dare to make such great expenditures on the ships if remedy is not provided in this matter.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Si tielx niefs ou vessell soient en la meer, nent y soit deodande adjuggiee; et s'ils soient en eawe fresche, soit monstrez al roi, pur ent faire sa grace, si luy plest. If such ships or vessels are on the sea, no deodand should be adjudged; and if they are on fresh water, it should be declared to the king, to do his grace thereon, if it pleases him.
Des lokes et weres en Thamise. Concerning locks and weirs in the Thames.
134. LXXV. Item, supplient sez liges, sibien gentz de Loundres come autres du pays q'ont shoutes et bateux passantz sur la ewe de Thamyse, pur servir nostre seignur le roi, ses enfantz, les grauntez seignurs, la cite de Loundres et les communes du roialme: qe la ou ordeine soit par nostre seignur le roi et son sage conseil qe touz shoutes et bateux deussent avoir bon et fraunc passage alant et revenant parmy la dite eawe, sanz estre destourbez par nusance des lokes, weres, stages ou pountz, saunz nulle custume paiere; et ore depuys la dite ordinace [sic: read 'ordinance'] il y ad un loke fait de novell qe homme appelle Hamelden Lok, q'ad fait et fete tresgraunt damage as ditz suppliantz, qar, par nusance de passage illoeqes, vadlettz des shoutes ount este en grant peril de lour vies, et malement blessez, et ore tard y avoit un valet la periz. Et auxint les vesseaux ont este meyntfoitz en point de perir, si qe homme n'oiesera illoeqes passer si noun qe remedie y soit mys. Auxint touz les autres lokes et weres pur la greindre partie lour font grande nusance et destourbance. Auxint ils sount constreintz de paier custumes as pountz de Stanes, Wyndesorez et de Maydehethe et as touz les lokes pur la greyndre partie la ou ils sont privileges de nulles paiere. 134. LXXV. Also, his lieges, the people of London as well as others of the region who have shouts and boats passing on the water of the Thames, to serve our lord the king, his children, the great lords, the city of London and the commonalty of the realm, pray: that whereas it was ordained by our lord the king and his wise council that all shouts and boats should have good and free passage going and returning by the said water, without being disturbed by the nuisance of locks, weirs, stages or bridges and without paying any custom; recently, since the said ordinance, a lock called Hambleden Lock has been newly built, which has caused and causes very great damage to the said petitioners, because due to the nuisance of passage there, the men of the shouts have been in great peril of their lives, and wickedly harmed, and recently a man has died there. And also, vessels have been on the point of being wrecked many times, so that no-one dares to pass there unless remedy is provided. Also, all the other locks and weirs cause them great nuisance and disturbance for the most part. Also, they are forced to pay customs at the bridges of Staines, Windsor and Maidenhead and at all the locks for the most part where they are privileged to pay nothing.
Par qoi ils suppliont, pur l'amour de Dieu, qe des touz ceux nusances, impedimentz, chalenge des custumes, remedie y soit fait. Wherefore they petition, for the love of God, that remedy should be provided for these nuisances, impediments and claims of customs.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Quant as lokes ou kideux, soit l'estatut < ent > fait l'an .xlvij. me duement execut. (fn. ii-321-658-1) Et quant as deniers pris par extorsion es pountz de Stanes et aillours, encontre leur fraunchises, ent facent leur suite en la chauncellerie; et y averont briefs founduz sur leur franchises de cesser de tieux prises. As regards locks or kiddles, the statute made thereon in the forty-seventh year should be duly executed. (fn. ii-321-658-1) And as regards money taken by extortion at the bridges of Staines and elsewhere, contrary to their franchises, they should make their suit thereon in the chancery; and they will have writs based on their franchises to cease such levies.
Del jurisdiccion du chastel de Dovre. Concerning the jurisdiction of Dover castle.
135. LXXVI. Item, supplient sez povrez ligez del counte de Kent: qe par la ou plusours de eux rienz ne tiegnent ne clament tenuz del chastell de Dovor, ne sour eux null jurisdiccioun ount, sont constreintz grevousement par les ministres del dit chastell, de jour en autre, par duresce, amerciementz, capias a regardez devers eux, a respondre devaunt eux as diversez gentz des dettes, trespas, contractez et de touz autres plees personels qe attiegnent al court nostre dit seignur le roi et des autres seignurs < des franchises; parount qe les ditz > povres liges sont grevousement reintez, anientez, distruitz, par les officers del dit chastel appelles kechepolles et autres ministres illoeqes. 135. LXXVI. Also, his poor lieges of the county of Kent petition: that whereas many of them hold or claim to hold nothing of Dover castle, which has no jurisdiction over them, they are heavily forced by the officials of the said castle, from day to day, by duress, amercements and capias reserved towards them, to answer before the said officers to various people concerning debts, trespasses, contracts and all other personal pleas which belong to the court of our said lord the king and of other lords of franchises; wherefore the said poor lieges are grievously oppressed, ruined and destroyed by the officers of the said castle called catchpoles and other officials there.
Q'il pleise a nostre dit seignur le roi et son conseil ordeigner qe le dit chastell eit tiel liberte come auncienement estoie doigne, et qe les usages et custumes ore de novell accrochez par extorsions soient repellez, qe les ditz povres ligez ne soient anientez et destruez as touz jours. May it please our said lord the king and his council to ordain that the said castle should have such liberty as was anciently granted, and that the usages and customs recently accroached by extortion should be repealed, so that the said poor lieges are not ruined and destroyed forever.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
N'eient les ditz ministres jurisdiccion hors du fee del honur du chastel de Dovorr', ne ne facent proces par capias hors des fraunchises de cynk portz. (fn. ii-321-664-1) The said officials should not have jurisdiction outside the fee of the honour of Dover castle, or make process by capias outside the franchises of the Cinque Ports. (fn. ii-321-664-1)
Des niefs prises en la baye. Concerning ships taken in the Bay [of Bourgneuf].
136. LXXVII. Item, prient sez liges par les costes de la meer d'Engleterre: qe la ou lours niefs furont arestuez par voz ministres pur servire pur le passage de Monsir [col. b] Thomas de Felton', seneschall de Gascune, et de Monsir William Elmam, governour de Bayoun, a voz gages, tanqe a Burdeux et Bayoun; la quele viage issint parfournee, touz les meistres des les suisditz niefs ensemblement conuz ceileront qe lours serront meux affaire. Et puis ils accorderont, solonc la proclamacioun des trives illoeqes fait et parentre vous et vostre counseil d'un part, et le counseil de vostre adversarie de France, et pur la adversarie du Castille de autre part pris; specifiant en mesme le dit proclamacion le comencement des ditez triwes come ils furont pris en chescun pays auxi bien par terre come par le meer, si co les trieves del adversaire de Spayn comenceront le secunde jour d'August, come en mesmes les trieves pluis expressement appiert. (fn. ii-321-667-1) Par vertue de quels trieves les meistres des ditz niefs ovesqe lour niefs passeront al bay pur ceyl illoeqes chargere pur le roialme viteller. Et esteantz mesmes les niefs al bay desceivez de prendre lour charge, vindront les gayles de Spayn, le disme jour d'August suisdit, et mesmes les suisditz niefs < pristeront, > et ascuns niefs arderont, et les meistres de les ditz niefs et maryners < occierent; > issint qe les suisditz niefs ovesqe ses biens et chateux sont pris et arcez et destrutz, dont mesmes ligez sount tresgrandement endamagez et defaitz, s'il ne soit par eide de vostre tresgraciouse poier real. 136. LXXVII. Also, his lieges by the sea coasts of England pray: that whereas their ships were arrested by your officials to serve for the passage of Sir [col. b] Thomas Felton, seneschal of Gascony, and of Sir William Elmham, governor of Bayonne, at your wages, as far as Bordeaux and Bayonne; when this voyage was thus completed, all the masters of the aforesaid ships concerned decided together what it would be best for them to do. And then they agreed, according to the proclamation of truces made there between you and your council on the one part and the council of your enemy of France and the enemy of Castile on the other part, specifying in the same said proclamation the beginning of the said truces as they were taken in each region, by land as well as by sea, that the truce of the enemy of Spain would begin on 2 August, as more expressly appears in the same truces. (fn. ii-321-667-1) By virtue of which truces the masters of the said ships crossed with their ships to the Bay [of Bourgneuf] to load salt there to provision the realm. And with the same ships which were in the Bay thwarted from loading their cargo, the Spanish galleys came on 10 August and seized the same aforesaid ships, and burned certain ships, and killed the masters and mariners of the said ships; so that the aforesaid ships with their goods and chattels were seized, burned and destroyed, whereby the same lieges are very greatly damaged and ruined, unless they should have aid of your most gracious royal power.
Qe il pleise a vostre hautesse as ditz povres ligez de les suisditz niefs et biens remedie ordeigner, solonc la tenur de trieves avantditz; et qe meistres et mariners des niefs puissent estre paiez de lour gagez en temps avenir, comensant le primer jour quels sont arestuz de servir nostre seignur le roi. May it please your highness to ordain remedy to your said poor lieges for the aforesaid ships and goods, according to the tenor of the aforesaid truces; and in times to come the masters and mariners of ships should be paid their wages, beginning on the first day they are arrested to serve our lord the king.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi ad fait, et encores il ferra au mieltz q'il poet pur restitucion et redresse ent avoir. The king has done, and still will do, the best that he can to provide restitution and redress thereon.
Pur la ville de Sutht' pardoun de ferme. For the pardon of the farm of the town of Southampton.
137. LXXVIII. Item, priont ses povres communers et tenantz de la ville de Suthampton': qe il pleise a son tresredoute seignurie de prendre la dite ville en ses tresgracious meyns, solom son tresgracious regne come as toutes ligez il est seignur de grace, et les descharger de la ferme. Pur ceo, tresredoute seignur, qe la ville avantdite ne eit mye la moyte enhabitee, et les comuniers et tenantz suisditz sont anientisse pur la grant ferme devaunt paie, et ont grantement despenduz de lour aveir entour la muragez, fossez et autres fortificacions faitz entour la dite ville, les queux costagez et despensez ils ne purront pluis longement endurer, et uncoqore grant partie est d'enclosere. Et pur mesmes les despensez et costagez graunt partie de les povres communers et tenantz sont departiez hors de la dite ville, et altre graunt partie ont en purpois en briefs temps depasser. 137. LXXVIII. Also, his poor commoners and tenants of the town of Southampton pray: that it might please his most dread lordship to take the said town into his most gracious hands, in accordance with his most gracious reign since to all lieges he is a lord of grace, and to discharge them from the farm. Because, most dread lord, one half of the aforesaid town is uninhabited, and the aforesaid commoners and tenants were destroyed by the great farm previously paid, and have greatly spent their wealth on the walls, ditches and other fortifications built around the said town, which expenditures and outlays they can no longer endure, and a great part still remains to be walled. And due to the same outlays and expenditures a great part of the poor commoners and tenants have left the said town, and another great part intend to leave in a short time.
Pur quel cause, q'il pleise a sa tresredoute seignurie, en eovere de charite, de granter pardoun a ses communers et tenauntz avaunditz de lour ferme des y cestes deux ans passetz, en quele ils sont duwes; la quele ferme et .m. livers pluis sont despenduz entour la murage et fortificacion de la ville avaundite. Et ensement de ordeigner gentz en defense du dite ville, et en fortificacion de ycell, pur la salvete de vostre honour et de la dite ville, et des les communers et tenauntz avaunditz et de tout le pais environ, qar ils ne sont puissant de defendre la dite ville encountre la force de enemys, come ils sont en purpoys de venir, sicome il est dit. For this reason may it please his most dread lordship, in way of charity, to grant pardon to his aforesaid commoners and tenants of their farm from these past two years, in which they are owing; which farm and £1,000 more were spent on the walls and fortification of the aforesaid town. And further, may it please him to appoint people in the defence of the said town and in the fortification of the same, for the protection of your honour and of the said town, and of the aforesaid commoners and tenants and the whole surrounding region, since they are not powerful enough to defend the said town against the force of enemies, as they intended to do, as was said.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi se ent vorra adviser. The king will consider this further.
[memb. 22]
Pur la ville de Wyncestre pur aide al murage. For the town of Winchester for aid of the walls.
138. LXXIX. Item, prient sez povres ligez meire, baillifs et communalte de la cite de Wyncestre: qe lui pleise de sa grace especial, en eovere de charite et pur les almes des sez tresnoblez progenitours, renoveller lour chartres et confermentz de lour fraunchise et custumes de la dite cite, en manere come les citezeins de Loundres darrein avoient lour chartres de lour franchise et customes renovellez. Supplient ensement qe lui pleise de sa dite grace granter a eux ascun eide, come de lour ferme, ou del custome du petit seal q'est appell [p. ii-347][col. a] aunage, en eide du reparacioun du murage du la dite cite de Wyncestr', qar la greindre partie de la mure du dit cite est chei a terre, et graunt partie de la remenant est ruinouse et en point de chaier au terre; eiant regard a lour simplisse et noun pouer pur porter lour fermes et altres charges, qar la greindre partie de mesme la cite est pleinement gaste et anienti par resoun du povert, et nient meyns plusours hommes de lour resceantz de jour en altere passent hors de mesme la cite, par cause de lour graunt charge q'ils portent en ycelles. 138. LXXIX. Also, his poor lieges, the mayor, bailiffs and commonalty of the city of Winchester, pray: that it might please him of his special grace, in way of charity and for the souls of his noblest progenitors, to renew their charters confirming their franchise and the customs of the said city, in the manner the citizens of London recently had their charters or their franchise and customs renewed. They further petition that it might please him of his said grace to grant them some aid, such as of their farm or of the custom of the little seal called [p. ii-347][col. a] alnage, in aid of repairing the walls of the said city of Winchester, since the greatest part of the walls of the said city have fallen to the ground, and a great part of the remainder is in ruins and on the point of falling to the ground; having regard for their low degree and powerlessness to bear their farms and other charges, since the greatest part of the same city is completely wasted and ruined due to poverty, and nevertheless many men living there leave the same city from day to day, because of their great charge which they bear in the same.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi ent prendra avisement. The king will take advice thereon.
Pur citees et burghs, de paiement avoir du roi. For cities and boroughs to have payment from the king.
139. IIII XX . Item, prient les communes de plusours citez et burghs: qe come ils apresteront al oeps nostre seignur le roi grauntz sommez d'argent, en temps qe Thomas de Brantyngham, l'evesqe d'Excestre, estoit tresorier d'Engleterre, des quels ne sount unquore paiez, ne rienz ent resceux, a lour grauntez arerissementz. 139. IIII XX . Also, the commons of many cities and boroughs pray: that whereas they lent great sums of money to the use of our lord the king during the time that Thomas Brantingham, bishop of Exeter, was treasurer of England; these are not yet paid, and nothing has been received for the same, to their great detriment.
Qe pleise a conseil nostre dit seignur le roy de ordeigner qe les ditz communes puissent estre paiez des les ditz sommes; eiant regard a long desporte de dit argent, et q'ils sont grandement enpoverez par diverses grandes chargez et perdes sur le meer, en eovere de charite. May it please our said lord the king's council to ordain that the said commonalty might be paid the said sums; having consideration for the lengthy loss of the said money, and that they are greatly impoverished by various great charges and losses on the sea, in way of charity.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Si tost qe l'en purra bonement < ils > serront paiez. They will be paid as soon as possible.
Pur governaille des communes de citees. For the governance of the commonalties of cities.
140. IIII XX I. A nostre seignur le roi et a son < tressage > conseil; supplient ses ligez, les poveres seignours de son roialme et de lour tenauntz qe tiegnont terres bien pres cites et burghes: qe come grant foison des comunes des ditz cites et burghes, de lour propre autorite, pur defaute de bon governaill, et simplesse de ceulx qe ont la leye et la pees a garder en les ditz citez et burghes, vignont a force et armes ove grant poer en manere de guerre, et abatent lour hayes et fossez de lour chaumps, et arbres cresantz sour le ditz haies et fossez coupont et emportiont, a grant damage des ditz seignours. Et outre ceo, < entront en les ditz chaumpes > ove grant nombre des bestez, enclamantz comune en les terres des ditz seignours et lour tenantz, la ou les ditz communes des dit cites et burghs ont assetz suffisance commune en les wastes appurtenantz as ditez cites et burghs. Et outre ceo le greindre partie des ditz communes ne ount des terres gisantz ovesqe les ditz seignours, ne lour tenantz, en quels les ditz seignours ou lour tenantz purront avoir ascun profit de entre comuner. 140. IIII XX I. To our lord the king and his wisest council; his lieges, the poor lords of his realm and their tenants who hold lands near to cities and boroughs, petition: that whereas a great quantity of the commonalties of the said cities and boroughs, of their own authority, for default of good governance and the low degree of those who keep the law and the peace in the said cities and boroughs, come by force and arms with great power in the manner of war, and raze the hedges and ditches of their fields, and cut down and carry away trees growing on the said hedges and ditches, to the great damage of the said lords. And further, they enter the said fields with a great number of beasts, claiming common in the lands of the said lords and their tenants, when the said commonalties of the said cities and boroughs have sufficient common in the wastes belonging to the said cities and boroughs. And further, the greatest part of the said commonalties do not have lands lying with the said lords or their tenants, in which the said lords or their tenants could have any profit from common entry.
Sur qoi pleise a nostre dit seignur le roy et a son tressage conseil de ordeigner covenable remedie a cest parlement en ceo cas, qe ceulx des ditz communes qe ne ount des terres gisanez ovesqe les ditz seignours ne purroient comuner en les terres des ditz seignurs, et nomement come ils ount suffisance comune en < les wastes > appurtenantz ad ditz cites et bourghs. Et outre ceo, de ordeigner covenable remedie pur refreiner les communes en tiel cas, qe riote ne soit fait en temps avenir; et de mettre grevouse peine sour les meyntenours et fautours qe font lever les ditz communes, pur eschuer toute mauveys ensaumple de riote, et de norrir bone pees et quiete en toute la roialme, en eovere de charite. Wherefore may it please our said lord the king and his wisest council to ordain suitable remedy in this case at this parliament, so that those of the said commonalties who do not have lands lying with the said lords cannot share in the lands of the said lords, especially if they have sufficient common in the wastes belonging to the said cities and boroughs. And further, may it please him to ordain suitable remedy to restrain the commonalties in such cases, so that no riot should occur in times to come, and to set grievous penalty on the maintainers and supporters who cause the said commonalties to rise, in order to avoid all evil example of riot and to nurture good peace and quiet in all the realm, in way of charity.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Devant le grant conseil. Before the great council.
Pur la citee de Bathe. For the city of Bath.
141. IIII XX II. A nostre seignur le roi et al conseil de parlement; monstrount la commune de la cite de Bathe: qe come de temps dont il n'y ad memorie une marche ad este a Bathe, chescun samady apres le feste de Seint Calixt tanqe a Pasqe floriee, la ount le maire et la comune de Bristuit leve une marche de novell a Bristuit, qe n'est qe dis lieux de la dite cite de Bathe, a tenir de mesme le temps. Et ount mys une peyne entre eux qe nul de lour comune ne del dite ville de Bristuit ne soit si hardy de vendre drape n'autre marchaundisez a la dite marche de Bathe, sur peyne de perdre son chescun drape entier illoeqes vendu, ou mys a vent, dymi marc, et sour dymy [col. b] drape .xl. d. et sour meyns meyns, et sour plus plus, solom l'afferaunt. 141. IIII XX II. To our lord the king and the council of parliament; the commonalty of the city of Bath declares: that whereas since time immemorial there has been a market at Bath, from each Saturday after the feast of St Calixtus until Palm Sunday; the mayor and the commonalty of Bristol have recently established a market at Bristol, which is not ten leagues from the said city of Bath, to be held during the same time. And they have set a penalty among them that none of their commonalty of the said town of Bristol should be so presumptuous as to sell cloth or other merchandise at the said market of Bath, on penalty of losing a ½ mark for each whole cloth sold there or put for sale, and 40d. [col. b] on the half cloth, and less on less and more on more, according to the rate.
Par quey pleise a nostre dit seignur le roi et al dit conseil, en oevre de charite, d'ordeigner qe le dit errour soit redresse, ensi qe chescun homme poet estre franche de venir al dit marche de Bath, et illoeqes vendre lour marchandisez come ils soloient, sans perde ou estre enpesche; eiant regard qe la dite cite est grandement enpoverez, et la pais environ grandement endamage par l'errour suisdite. Wherefore may it please our said lord the king and the said council, in way of charity, to ordain that the said error should be redressed, so that every man is free to come to the said market of Bath and sell their merchandise there as they used to, without loss or being impeached; having regard for the fact that the said city is greatly impoverished and the neighbouring region greatly damaged by the aforesaid error.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Devant le grant conseil. Before the great council.
Pur draps appellez cogware. For cloths called cogware.
142. IIII XX III. A nostre seignur le roi et a son bon conseil; monstrent les communes de les contees d'Essex et de Suff': qe par la ou en l'estatut fait l'an .xlvij. me du regne nostre seignur le roi q'ore est, ordeigne fust qe touz draps de colour qe serront faitz en Engleterre vendables serroient de la longeure de .xxvi. aulnes mesurez par le dos, et de laieure de .v. quarters au meins; et demy drap de longeure et de laieure solonc l'afferant, sur forfaiture de mesmes les draps. (fn. ii-321-703-1) 142. IIII XX III. To our lord the king and his good council; the commonalties of the counties of Essex and Suffolk declare: that whereas, in the statute made in the forty-seventh year of the reign of our present lord the king [1373], it was ordained that all coloured cloths made for sale in England would be 26 ells in length measured by the back, and at least 5 quarters in width; and half cloth of the length and width according to the rate, on forfeiture of the same cloths. (fn. ii-321-703-1)
Plese a nostre seignur le roi et a sa tresnoble conseil granter a voz dites communes voz graciouses lettres patentes, et par ycelles declarer en ce present parlement, qe les draps appellez cogware et kerseyes faitz es ditz contes, et autres tieux estroites draps y faites et en autres paiis auxint, q'eles ne soient compris en dit estatut, en aide et relief del dite commune. May it please our lord the king and his noblest council to grant to your said communities your gracious letters patent and to declare by the same in this present parliament that the cloths called cogware and kersey made in the said counties, and other such narrow cloths made there and in other regions also, should not be included in the said statute, in aid and relief of the said commonalty.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
< Le roi voet q'ils eient tielles lettres par les quelles soit declarree, qe les estreites draps appellez cogware et kerseyes, acustumes d'estre faites es dites contees, ne doivent mye estre entenduz pur estre compris en dit estatut, ne souz la paine d'ycelle. (fn. ii-321-706-1) > The king wills that they should have such letters in which it should be declared that the narrow cloths called cogware and kersey, usually made in the said counties, are not intended to be included in the said statute or under the penalty of the same. (fn. ii-321-706-1)
Pur la citee de Londres. For the city of London.
143. IIII XX IIII. A nostre seignur le roi et a son bone conseil; monstrent ses liges, mair, aldermannes et communes de la citee de Londres: qe come ils ont plusours foitz pursuiz es diverses parlementz d'avoir consideracion coment ils sont empovriz et annientiz par cause qe lours fraunchises par luy et ses nobles progenitours a eulx grantez et confermez lour sont restreintz, et en grant partie tolluz; et ore al darrain parlement tenuz a Westm' lour fust responduz q'ils deussent declarrer lours grevances en especial, et ils auroient bon remede. (fn. ii-321-709-1) Des queux grevances, entre diverses autres, sont qe chescun estraunge poet demurrer en la dite citee et et tenir hostiel, et estre brocour et vendre et achater toutes maneres marchandises a retaille; et estraunge vendre a estraunge pur revendre, a grant encherissement de les marchandises; et de faire lour demoeure outre .xl. jours, la ou en temps passe nul estraunge marchant nul de cestes pointz soloit user, encountre les franchises de la dite citee devant ces heures eues et usez. Par queux grevances les marchantz de la dite citee sont grantment empovriz, et la navie grantment empeiree, et les privitees de la terre par les avantditz estraunges descovriz a voz enemys par espies et autres estraunges en lours hostiels resceuz. 143. IIII XX IIII. To our lord the king and his good council; his lieges, the mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the city of London, declare: that whereas often they have sued in various parliaments that he have consideration for how they are impoverished and ruined because their franchises granted and confirmed to them by him and his nobles progenitors are withheld from them, and in large part removed; recently at the last parliament held at Westminster he answered that they should explain their grievances in detail, and they would have good remedy. (fn. ii-321-709-1) These grievances, among various others, are that each foreigner can remain in the said city and keep a house, and be a broker and sell and buy all manner of merchandise at retail; and foreigner can sell to foreigner for resale, to the great inflation of the price of the merchandise; and they can make their stay beyond forty days, when in times past no foreign merchant used to observe any of these points, contrary to the franchises of the said city had and used before this time. By these grievances the merchants of the said city are greatly impoverished, and the fleet greatly depreciated, and the secrets of the land revealed by the aforesaid foreigners to your enemies by spies and other foreigners accepted into their households.
Plese a treshaute et tresgracious seignurie nostre seignur le roi et a son bon conseil, en oevre de charitee, en cest present parlement ordiner qe les estraunges marchantz soient de cestes avantditz pointz restreintz, et qe les liges mair, aldermannes et communes de la dite citee puissent enjoiser lours dites franchises, nient contresteant aucun estatut ou ordinance de temps passe fait a l'encontre. (fn. ii-321-709a-1) May it please his highest and most gracious lordship our lord the king and his good council, in way of charity, to ordain in this present parliament that the foreign merchants should be restricted from the aforesaid points, and that the lieges, the mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the said city, might enjoy their said franchises, notwithstanding any statute or ordinance of times past made to the contrary. (fn. ii-321-709a-1)
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi de sa grace especiale ad grantez qe souz condicion q'ils mettent la dite citee souz bone governaille, al honour de luy et profit de son roialme, qe desoremes nul estraunge tiegne hostel, ne soit brocour, nene vende aucunes marchandies a retaille deinz la dite citee ou les suburbes d'ycelle, nientcontresteant aucun estatut ou ordinance fait a l'encontre; salvez as marchants del Hans d'Alemaigne lours franchises a eulx grantez et confermez par le roi et ses progenitours. The king of his special grace has granted, upon the condition that they put the said city under good governance, to the honour of him and the profit of his realm, that henceforth no foreigner should keep a house, be a broker or sell any merchandises at retail in the said cities or the suburbs of the same, notwithstanding any statute or ordinance made to the contrary; saving to the merchants of the Hanse of Germany their franchises granted and confirmed to them by the king and his progenitors.
[p. ii-348]
[col. a]
[memb. 23]
Pur citees et burghs. For cities and boroughs.
144. IIII XX V. A nostre seignur le roi et soun noble consaill; prient ses citezeines et burgeyses de ses burghs Notyngham, Derby, Northampton', Bedeford et la cite de Chichestre: qe come ils tiegnent les ditz burghs et cite de nostre seignur le roi au ferme, rendantz ent par an certeinz fermes en l'escheker nostre seignur le roi; et plusours burgeyses des ditz burghs qe tiegnent diverses burgages de nostre dit seignur le roi, rendantz ent certeine rent q'est parcelle des mesmes les fermez, ont gastez les ditz burgagez et les soeffrent giser frischez, issint qe les communes des ditz burghs ne puissent avenir a les dites rentes pur paier les fermes avantditz, en grant poverissement des ditz burghs et arrierissement des paiementz des fermes avantditz. 144. IIII XX V. To our lord the king and his noble council; his citizens and burgesses of his boroughs of Nottingham, Derby, Northampton, Bedford and the city of Chichester petition: that whereas they hold the said boroughs and city of our lord the king at farm, rendering certain farms yearly for the same in our lord the king's exchequer; many burgesses of the said boroughs who hold various burgages of our said lord the king, rendering for the same a certain rent which is part of the same farms, have laid waste the said burgages and allowed them to lie empty, so that the commonalty of the said boroughs might not reach the said rents to pay the aforesaid farms, in great impoverishment of the said boroughs and destruction of the payments of the aforesaid farms.
Qe pleise a nostre dit seignur le roi ordeigner q'il puissent avoir recuverer des ditz burgages issint gastez en covenable manere come plerra a lui et a soun conseil, en amendement et relevacioun des ditz burghs, pur Dieu et en eovere de charite. Et soit cella graunte a toutz cites et burghs nostre seignur le roi par toute Engleterre. May it please our said lord the king to ordain that he might have recovery of the said burgages thus wasted in a suitable manner as will please him and his council, in amendment and relief of the said boroughs, for God and in way of charity. And this should be granted to all cities and boroughs of our lord the king throughout England.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soit ceste bille mieltz declarrez. This bill should be better explained.
Pur la citee de Cicestre. For the city of Chichester.
145. IIII XX VI. Item, supplient les dites communes de la cite de Chichestre: qe par la ou eux et lour predecessours ne soloient ne deveroient en temps de vos progenitours estre empledez de lour frank tenementz ne de rienz qe a lour frank tenementz serroit appurtenant, n'estre travaillez devant justices des assises a oyer et terminer, ou autres enquerres en cessions, forsqe en la dite cite, et mais qe tous les justices, sibien as assises come as autres enquerres et cessions dedeinz le counte de Sussex assignez, de tout temps puis memorie de chose tochaunt citezeins de la dite cite, si bien de lour frank tenementz come autre chose a enquerre surdant deinz la dite cite, soloient venir seer et faire lour cessions et enquerrez dedeinz mesme la cite, et les dites choses illeoqes terminer; tanqe ore tarde en vostre temps, q'ils ont artez par seignurie, et par voz justicez et ministrez, par duresses des issuez et amercimentz, devenir devant eux auxi communement come autres des corps de dite counte, en grant arrerissement et damagez de vostre dite cite et en poverissement de vostres povers citezeins dedeinz ycelx enheritez; et pur celle cause plusours voident la dite ville. Et < ce, par cause qe noz chartres et > confermentz de nostre seignur le roi et de ces progenitours de noz fraunchises et usages sont grantez par generalx paroles, et noz cleymes de noz ditz usages rienz compris en especialx paroles; pur quoi vos justices a ore ne preignent de ceo qe poy regard ne allowaunce. Dont de vostre grace et en eovre de charitee supplient remedie. (fn. ii-321-721-1) 145. IIII XX VI. Also, the said commons of the city of Chichester petition: that whereas they and their predecessors in the time of your progenitors neither used to be nor should have been impleaded of their free tenements or of anything which was appurtenant to their free tenements, or troubled before justices of assizes appointed to hear and determine, or other inquiries in sessions, except in the said city, and all the justices, those assigned to assizes as well as to other inquiries and sessions within the county of Sussex, for all time immemorial concerning a matter touching the citizens of the said city, their free tenements as well as other things to be inquired into arising in the said city, used to come to sit and hold their sessions and inquiries in the same city, and determine the said things there; until recently in your time they have been compelled by your lordship, and by your justices and officials, through hardships of issues and amercements, to appear before them as commonly as others from the body of the said county, in great destruction and damage of your said city and in impoverishment of your poor citizens able to inherit in the same; and for this reason many leave the said town. And this because our charters and confirmations of our franchises and customs from our lord the king and from his progenitors are granted by general words, and our claims of our said customs contain nothing in particular words; for which your justices now have almost no regard or allowance. Wherefore they request remedy of your grace, in way of charity. (fn. ii-321-721-1)
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Monstrent leur chartres en la chancellerie, et droit leur serra fait. They should show their charters in the chancery, and justice will be done to them.
Pur la citee de Cicestr'. For the city of Chichester.
146. IIII XX VII. Item, priont ses povres lieges, mair, baillifs et la communalte de la povre cite de Chichestre: qe luy plese graunter lour franchises et custumes en la dite cite, par tout temps puis le temps de memorie usez, et par voz progenitours grauntez et confermez; et lour aunciens chartres del graunte de voz ditz progenitours ratifier et confermer, en la manere come les ditz chartres purportent. 146. IIII XX VII. Also, his poor lieges, the mayor, bailiffs and the commons of the poor city of Chichester, pray: that it might please him to grant their franchises and customs in the said city, observed forever since time immemorial, and granted and confirmed by your progenitors; and to ratify and confirm their ancient charters of the grant of your said progenitors, in the manner the said charters purport.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Semblablement monstrent leur chartres etc. They similarly should show their charters etc.
Pur Surr' et Sussex'. For Surrey and Sussex.
147. IIII XX VIII. Item, prient ses gentz liges dez countez de Surr' et Sussex': qe par la ou ordeigne est a son parlement tenuz a Northampton', l'an de soun regne secunde, qe toutz houndredez et wapentaks lesses a ferme avantmeyn fusent rejoynt as counteez, et qe null tiel hundred ne wapentak apres fuisse lesse ne graunte; (fn. ii-321-733-1) puis quel temps nostre dit seignur le roi graunta a Richard nadgairs count d'Arundell et de Surr' les deux tournes de viscont en les rapes de Cicestre et Arundell, deinz queux il ad diverses hundredes qe valerent a nostre dit seignur le roi [col. b] .x.li. annuelement, pur quelx tournez le dit count ne paya a nostre seignur le roi qe .lxxvi. s. come la value estendu fuyt par un enquest procure en ad quod dampnum. Par colour de quele graunte, le dit count acrocha et comensa en soun temps par purprise sur nostre dit seignur le roy une novele court appelle shirecourt a Arundell, et la fist tenir de trois symeyns en trois. En quele courte touz lez plez qe soloient estre pledez en le counte nostre dit seignur le roi a Cicestre, de les rapes avantditz, sont terminez, dont le profit amont a luy annuelement a .xxx.li. et plus. Et auxint nostre seignur le roi ad graunte de sa grace especiale au dit count une rente q'est appelle shereveyeld qe amount a .xiiij.li. .xix. s. .i. d. par an, provenantz des ditz deux rapes. Nient contresteant quele graunte, touz le viscountez qe puis ont este de counteez avantditz ont este chargez sur lour acompt de l'entiere ferme du countee, save de .lxxvi. s. avaunditz, par cause de quels chosez ils ont estez empoverez et unquore sont. 147. IIII XX VIII. Also, his liege people of the counties of Surrey and Sussex pray: that whereas it was ordained at his parliament held at Northampton in the second year of his reign [1328] that all hundreds and wapentakes previously let at farm would be rejoined to their counties, and that no such hundred or wapentake would be let or granted henceforth; (fn. ii-321-733-1) since this time our said lord the king granted to Richard, former earl of Arundel and of Surrey, the two sheriffs' tourns in the rapes of Chichester and Arundel, in which he has various hundreds which are worth £10 annually to our said lord the king, [col. b] for which tourns the said earl paid our lord the king only 76s. as the value that was assessed by an inquest taken ad quod dampnum. By colour of this grant, the said earl seized, and began in his time by encroachment on our said lord the king, a new court called shire court at Arundel, and caused it to be held every three weeks. All the pleas which used to be pleaded in our said lord the king's court at Chichester, from the aforesaid rapes, were determined in this court, for which his profit amounts to £30 annually and more. And our lord the king of his special grace has also granted the said earl a rent which is called shereveyeld which amounts to £14 19s. 1d. yearly arising from the said two rapes. Notwithstanding this grant, all those who have been sheriffs of the aforesaid counties since have been charged on their account of the entire farm of the county, except for the aforesaid 76s., because of which they have been, and still are, impoverished.
Sur qoi plese a nostre seignur le roi de rejoyndre les ditz tournez et rent appelle shereveyeld a counte, solonc le purpos de parlement avaundit, ou qe le viscountez soient deschargez de lour ferme de la quantite des summes avantditz; desicome nostre dit seignur le roi est dessu et desherite, et les ditz viscountez soient nyent le meynz chargez en arrerissement de lour estate. Et qe la dite courte appell shirecourt, comense par purprise sur nostre dit seignur le roi, soit defendu et annulle tout outre. Et qe pleyn restitucioun soit fait as touz yceux qe ont est viscountz puis la grant fait au dit count. Et qe fyn soit fait a nostre dit seignur le roi pur cause de la parprise sur luy fait par le dit count. Et qe autiel remedie soit fait en autiel cas parmy tout le roialme. Wherefore may it please our lord the king to rejoin the said tourns and rent called shereveyeld to the county, according to the intention of the aforesaid parliament, or to discharge the sheriffs of their farm of the amount of the aforesaid sums; inasmuch as our said lord the king is deceived and disinherited, and the said sheriffs should be charged nothing more in destruction of their estate. And the said court called shire court, begun by encroachment on our said lord the king, should be completely forbidden and annulled. And full restitution should be made to all those who have been sheriffs since the grant made to the said earl. And a fine should be made to our said lord the king because of the encroachment made on him by the said earl. And similar remedy should be provided in similar cases throughout the realm.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soit monstre au roi, et s'il plest al roi q'il le rejoise soit le viscont deschargez pur l'afferant; et si nemye, soit le counte a sa respounce. It should be declared to the king, and if it pleases the king that the earl should enjoy it, the sheriff should be discharged for the share; and if not, the earl should answer in court.
Pur Southwerk. For Southwark.
148. IIII XX IX. Item, prient les povers burgeyses de Suthewerk: qe come ils avoient jadys une chartre de franchise, quele par survenaunce de sodeyn feu estoit arse; q'il plese au roi et a les seignurs desuis ditz ottroier a les ditz povres burgeyses, qe vewe la tenure de mesme la chartre par l'enroulement d'icell, ele purra estre exemplifie en cest present parlement, si pleiser y soit, pur Dieu et en eovere de charite. 148. IIII XX IX. Also, the poor burgesses of Southwark pray: whereas they formerly had a charter of franchise, which was burned in an outbreak of sudden fire; that it might please the king and the aforesaid lords to grant to the said poor burgesses, who viewed the tenor of the same charter by the enrolment of the same, that an official copy could be made in this present parliament, if it is pleasing, for God and in way of charity.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Ent facent leur pursuite en la chancellerie, et droit leur serra fait. They should make their suit thereon in the chancery, and justice will be done to them.
Pur la ville du Chastiel Noef sur Tyne. For the town of Newcastle upon Tyne.
149. IIII XX X. Item, plese a nostre seignur le roi et soun consail, depuis qe le priour de l'ospitall Seynt Johan Jerusalem en Engleterre et soun consail, et ascuns depart les maiour et communes de la ville de Noefchastell sur Tyne, examinez avaunt la chaundeloure darrain passe devaunt le dit consail < de > roi, sur la matiere d'une speciale assise pursuy devers lez ditz maiour et communes par le dit priour, sembloit a dit consail, et examinacioun dez partiez avauntditz et des autres personez indifferentz, qe la suite du dit priour fuit compasse par sotilete, en desheretesoun de la corone et en defaut des ditz maiour et communes, par alliance parentre le dit priour et gentz du paiez, sibien le viscont et ses ministres come par jurours empaneles en la dite assise; nomement, en tant come dit priour port soun brief de soun frank tenement en Ferham, et ad mys en vewe et en pleinte la greindre parcell en value de la dite ville de Noefchastell, tenu a ferme del corone par les dites maiour et communes avant temps de memorie et jusqes ensea, come plus pleyn apiert par plusours chartres nostre seignur le roi et ses progenitours, et par un enquest prys par les pluis vaillantz gentz du pays ou les tenemenz sont a la suit le priour de Tynmuth, qe clama .xix. anz passez lez ditz tenemenz estre parcell de soun manoir de Elstewyk. Ou trove fuist qe les ditz tenemenz furont parcell de la dite ville de Noefchastell de tout temps, et tenuz a ferme [p. ii-349][col. a] de la corone; et quele enquest est de recorde en la chauncellerie par retourne des justices de record. Par queles causez le dit consail du roi ordeina, avant la chaundelure darrein passe, qe les justices du dite especiale assise n'averont brief de procedendo aprendre la dite assise par lez ditz genz empanelez en ycele assise, a cause avantdite; et a cause qe brief de decies tantum pende sur plusours dez ditz jurours, avant ceo qe justices indifferentz avoient enquis par les pluis vaillantz gentz du pays si les tenemenz mys en vewe sont parcell du dite ville, et tenuz a ferme del corone, et qe le dit enquest retourne soit devant le dit consail, issint qe de null rien la corone ne serroit descieu ne de membre; et qe viwe la dite inquisicioun le dit consail purroit faire droit as partiez, et saver le droit de roi et la corone, sanz damagez. Comissioun de quele matiere fuit fait par avys de chaunceller par Thomas de Midelton', parson del chauncellerie, al dite chaundelure darrein passe, prest d'avoir este ensealle; et les dites maiour et communes ont pursuy de jour en autre continuelement al chaunceller, del dite chaundeleure jusqe al .ix. me jour devant Pasche darrein passe, pur le dit commission avoir. Et le dit chaunceller promist de jour en autre la livere ent avoir faite as ditz mair et communes, et nel fist, enz lour comanda a revenir al .xv. me de Pasqe et la dite commissioun eux serroit delivere voluntiers. 149. IIII XX X. Also, may it please our lord the king and his council, since after the prior of the hospital of St John of Jerusalem in England and his council, and certain people on behalf of the mayor and commonalty of the town of Newcastle upon Tyne, had been examined before Candlemas last before the said king's council on the matter of a special assize sued against the said mayor and commonalty by the said prior, it seemed to the said council, by examination of both the aforesaid parties and other impartial people, that the suit of the said prior was plotted through scheming, in disinheritance of the crown and in default of the said mayor and commonalty, by alliance between the said prior and people of the region, the sheriff and his officials as well as jurors empanelled in the said assize; namely, inasmuch as the said prior bore his writ of his free tenement in Fenham, and has put on inspection and complaint the greater part in value of the said town of Newcastle, held at farm of the crown by the said mayor and commonalty before time immemorial and until now, as more fully appears by many charters of our lord the king and his progenitors, and by an inquest taken by the most worthy people of the region where the tenements are at the suit of the prior of Tynemouth, who claimed that for nineteen years past the said tenements were part of his manor of Elswick. In this inquest it was found that the said tenements were part of the said town of Newcastle forever, and held at farm [p. ii-349][col. a] of the crown; which inquest is on record in the chancery by the return of the justices on record. For which reasons the said king's council ordained before Candlemas last that the justices of the said special assize did not have a writ of procedendo to take the said assize by the said empanelled people in the same assize, for the aforesaid reason; and because a writ of decies tantum was pending on many of the said jurors, before impartial justices had inquired of the worthiest people of the region whether the tenements put on inspection were part of the said town, and held at farm of the crown, and that the said inquest should be returned before the said council, so that the crown would be deceived of nothing or of member; and that after the said inquest was inspected, the said council could do justice to the parties, and save the right of the king and the crown, without damages. Commission of this matter was made with the advice of the chancellor by Thomas Middleton, clerk of the chancery, at the said Candlemas last, ready to have been sealed; and the said mayor and commonalty have sued from day to day continually to the chancellor, from the said Candlemas until the ninth day before Easter last, to have the said commission. And the said chancellor promised from day to day to have made the delivery of the same to the said mayor and commonalty, and did not do it, but ordered them to return on the octave of Easter when the said commission would be delivered to them willingly.
Comander voillez, en oevre de charite, et en salvacioun del droit del corone et dez maiours et communes avantditz, au chaunceller, q'il face ensealer la dite commissione fait par le dit Thomas par avys du dit consail, et la liverer as ditz maiour et communes. Et qe comande soit par brief as justices du dite especiale assise, q'ils n'alent plus avant a la dite assise, avant qe les justices indifferentz ont enquiz del droit de la corone, solonc la purport de la commission fait par le dit Thomas al avys del chaunceller et de le dit consail. (fn. ii-321-745a-1) Will you order the chancellor, in way of charity and in salvation of the right of the crown and of the aforesaid mayor and commonalty, to cause the said commission made by the said Thomas with the advice of the said council to be sealed and delivered to the said mayor and commonalty. And the justices of the said special assize should be ordered by writ not to proceed further with the said assize, before the impartial justices have inquired into the right of the crown, according to the purport of the commissions made by the said Thomas with the advice of the chancellor and of the said council. (fn. ii-321-745a-1)
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Remede ent est ordeignez en cest parlement, come piert par une autre bille sur ce faite, et endosee. Remedy is ordained thereon in this parliament, as appears by another bill made thereon, and endorsed.
Pur arraier gentz en Estrything. For arraying people in the East Riding.
150. IIII XX XI. A lour tresexcellent seignur nostre seignur le roi et son bon consail; monstront les communes marcheres de la mere en la Estrithing en le counte de Everwyk: qe come il y ad une overt arrivail parentre un certein lieu q'est appelle le Erledyk et la ville de Whitby, deins quel purcoynt plusours grantz meschiefs ont este faitz deinz ceux deux anz passez, et plusours gentz illeoqes reseauntz prys par enemyes, et mesnez hors de le roialme, et raunsonez outre la summe de .mm.li., a cause q'ils y sont nulles gardeyns del dite marche illeqes reseantz. Par qoi plese a nostre dit seignur le roi et son bon consail granter commissioun as certeins gentz illeoqes reseauntz, c'estassavoir Monsir de Percy, le priour de Bridlyngton', Monsir Robert de Boynton', Monsir Robert Conestable, Monsir Johan de Snardeby et Johan del Almory, q'ils facent arraier, sibien deinz fraunchise come dehors, touz les suffisantz persones chescun solonc lour estat; et ceux qe ne sont my ables en persone, et sont suffisantz en terres et biens, de eider a les ablez en persone qe neont des biens pur lour arraier en defense et salvacioun del dite marche; considerantz les grauntz meschiefs qe sont avenuz et purront avenir pur defaut de bone garde del dit marche. 150. IIII XX XI. To their most excellent lord our lord the king and his good council; the commonalty of the borders of the sea in the East Riding in the county of Yorkshire declare: that whereas there is an open incursion between a certain place called the Earldike and the town of Whitby, in which precinct much great misfortune has been done in those two years past, and many people living there have been taken by enemies, carried out of the realm and ransomed for more than £2,000, because there are no wardens of the said march living there. Wherefore may it please our said lord the king and his good council to grant a commission to certain people living there, that is to say, Lord Percy, the prior of Bridlington, Sir Robert Bointon, Sir Robert Constable, Sir John Snardeby and John Almory, who should cause all the sufficient people to be arrayed, inside as well as outside franchises, each according to their estate; and those who are not capable in person and are capable in lands and goods should aid those who are capable in person but not in goods to array them in defence and salvation of the said march; considering the great misfortunes which have arisen and could arise for default of good keeping of the said march.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Il plest au roi. It pleases the king.
[memb. 24]
De mettre la pardon en certein des countees de Essex et Hertf'. To fix the pardon for certain concerning the counties of Essex and Hertfordshire.
151. IIII XX XII. Item, prient les contes de Essex et Hertf': qe come le viscont des ditz contes soit chargee annuelment de lever .cclvij.li. et .xvij. s. de fermes, serjauntes, purprestures et des mesmes fermes des ditz contes, come piert en la pipe del escheker; dont chescun viscont pardy devant ceste darreine pestelence .c. li. par an, et ore par cause de darrein pestelence est la perde plus grant, pur ceo qe les profitz del contee ne peussent en nulle manere estre levez. Et coment qe nostre seignur le roi de sa grace especiale face pardoun as visconts des ditz contes [col. b] de .c. marcz par an de partie de lour perde, ils sont tant tariez devant q'ils peussent avoir allouance qe lour despences par celle cause amontent bien pres a la somme del dit pardoun. Parount chescun an un homme des ditz contes est grevousement anienty, et bienpres destrut. 151. IIII XX XII. Also, the counties of Essex and Hertfordshire pray: that whereas the sheriff of the said counties was charged annually to levy £257 17s. from farms, serjeants, purprestures and the same farms of the said counties, as appears in the pipe of the exchequer; whereby before this last pestilence each sheriff lost £100 yearly, and now as a result of the last pestilence the loss is greater, because the profits of the county cannot be levied in any manner. And although our lord the king of his special grace makes pardon to the sheriffs of the said counties [col. b] of 100 marks yearly for part of their loss, they are so pestered before they might have allowance that for this reason their expenditures amount almost to the sum of the said pardon; whereby each year men of the said counties are grievously ruined and nearly destroyed.
Qe lui plese de sa exelente grace, en oevre de charite et pur les almes de ses progenitours, mettre la pardoun en certein de les .c.li. pardonez, ou abbregger la somme des ditz fermes de tant, et granter qe celle somme lour soit allowe sur acompt, sanz nulle seute pur ceo faire. (fn. ii-321-757a-1) May it please his excellent grace, in way of charity and for the souls of his progenitors, to fix the pardon for certain of the £100 pardoned, or to reduce the sum of the said farms by as much, and to grant that this sum should be allowed them on account, without making any suit for the same. (fn. ii-321-757a-1)
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Facent sercher en l'escheqier et en le tresorie < du roi et aillours, les > causes de descrees de mesmes les fermes, et autres evidences touchantes celle matire dedeinz ces deux ans proschien ensuantz. Et le mene temps y aient < les viscontes > pardoun de .c. marcz par an. A search should be made in the exchequer, the king's treasury and elsewhere for the reasons for the decrease of the same farms, and other evidences touching this matter within these two years immediately following. And in the meantime the sheriffs should have pardon of 100 marks yearly.
Que Rouchestre soit deschargez del clerc du marchee. That Rochester should be discharged of the clerk of the market.
152. IIII XX XIII. Item, prient ses povres citezeins et communers de sa povre cite de Rouchestre en le countee de Kent: qe come la dite povre cite, de dusze livres rendant a nostre seignur le roi et a ses heirs a touz jours annuelment, et dys marcz de novelle encrecee mist a celle ferme par an a touz jours par Johan de Shepeye, nadgairs evesque de Rouchestre et tresorer d'Engleterre, la quele ferme est moult chargeant pur les ditz povres citezeins et communers paier. Et qe par la qe la dite cite est governee par les conestables et par les baillifs del dite cite, et les laghdayes par eux tenuz deux foith en l'an et pur l'assise de pain et cervoise, des mesures, et totes autres choses qe apparteignont a les laghdayes, et par les ditz conestables et baillifs les trespassours pur lour trespasses devant eux sont amerciez et puniz, come la lei demande. Et sur ceo vynt chescun an le clerk del marche nostre seignur le roi, et fait illeosqes son office, et execucions de son office, et prist de eux raunceons et fyns sy grevousement qe les ditz povres citezeins et communers sont destrutz. 152. IIII XX XIII. Also, his poor citizens and commonalty of his poor city of Rochester in the county of Kent pray: that whereas the said poor city renders £12 to our lord the king and to his heirs annually forever, a new increment of 10 marks yearly forever was added to this farm by John Sheppey, former bishop of Rochester and treasurer of England, which farm is too burdensome for the said poor citizens and commonalty to pay. And whereas the said city is governed by the constables and bailiffs of the said city, and the law-days are held by them twice a year for the assize of bread and ale, measures and all other things which belong to the law-days, the trespassers are amerced and punished before them for their trespasses by the said constables and bailiffs, as the law requires. And thereon each year the clerk of the market of our lord the king comes and does his office there, and the executions of his office, and he takes ransoms and fines from them so heavily that the said poor citizens and commonalty are destroyed.
Par qoi, tresredoute seignur, suppliont les povres citezeins et communers avantditz, pur l'amour de Dieu et en oevre de seinte charite, et de sa especiale grace, descharger la dite povre cite del office del dit clerk del marchee nostre seignur le roi, en relevacion de lour povre estat. Wherefore, most dread lord, the aforesaid poor citizens and commonalty petition, for the love of God and in way of holy charity and of his special grace, to discharge the said poor city of the office of the said clerk of the market of our lord the king, in relief of their poor estate.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Endroit del clerc du marche, face l'assai et due punissement de ceulx q'il trovera en defaute, solonc la quantite du mesfait, sanz prendre fyns en groos de mesme la ville la ou il ne fait mye son office. As regards the clerk of the market, the assay should be made and due punishment done to those whom he finds in default, according to the quantity of the crime, without taking fines generally from the same town when he does not do his office.
Del ferme du countee de Northumbr'. Concerning the farm of the county of Northumberland.
153. IIII XX XIIII. Item, prient ses povres et liges de Northumbr': qe come le viscount de Northumbr' en est chargee annuelment de .c.li. appaiers pur le profit del counte, et l'encrece d'icelle; dont le viscont n'ad parcelles a lever la dite somme outre la somme de cynkant et trois livres .iij. s. .iiij. d., dont plusours viscontes de mesme le conte sont reintz et grandement empoveriz de lours biens propres, et la commune grandement grevez. 153. IIII XX XIIII. Also, his poor lieges of Northumberland pray: that whereas the sheriff of Northumberland is charged £100 annually to be paid for the profit of the said county, and the increment of the same; the sheriff has to levy part of the said sum in addition to the sum of £53 3s. 4s., whereby many sheriffs of the same county are ruined and greatly impoverished of their own goods, and the commonalty greatly aggrieved.
Suppliont les ditz povres liges qe plese a lour dit tresgraciouse seignur lige, pur Dieu et en oevre de charite, d'avoir consideracion al dit contee, et de lour feblesse en quele ils sont escheu de ceo qe les bledz et les bestes sont faillez deinz le dit conte pur meschief de tempest queux sont escheux illeosqes, et par sovent destruccion d'Escotz. The said poor lieges petition that it might please their said most gracious liege lord, for God and in way of charity, to have consideration for the said county, and for their low degree into which they have fallen because the corn and the beasts have failed in the said county, as a result of the misfortune of storms which have occurred there, and of frequent destruction from Scots.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Declarent en especial lour requeste. They should declare their request in detail.
Des forfaitures des genez nyent atteintz en leur vies. Concerning forfeitures from people not attainted during their lives.
154. IIII XX XV. Item, prient les ditz povres communes: qe plese a lour tresredoute seignur d'avoir regarde qe come soventfoith devant ces heures, en temps des progenitours lour dit seignur, ont estee destrutz et lour terres degastez et par les gents d'Escoce, et grant partie de les gentz de paiis exilez de lour terres a cause < qe > les eschetours devant ces heures ont seisiz plusours terres en la main nostre dit seignur le roi, surmettantz les dites terres estre forfaitz par fait des gentz nient attaintz en lour vies. 154. IIII XX XV. Also, the said poor commons pray: that it might please their most dread lord to have regard that often before this time, in the time of our said lord's progenitors, they have been destroyed and their lands wasted by the people of Scotland, and a great part of the people of the region have been exiled from their lands because the escheators of earlier times have seized many lands into the hands of our said lord the king, claiming the said lands to be forfeited by the deeds of people not attainted during their lives.
Qe plese au lour tresredoute seignur de faire [p. ii-350][col. a] general pardon des tiels forfaitures, et d'ordeigner qe nulles terres soient en ceste manere seisiz en temps avenir. May it please their most dread lord to make a [p. ii-350][col. a] general pardon of such forfeitures, and to ordain that no lands should be seized in this manner in times to come.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi ent prendra avisement. The king will take advice thereon.
Discontinuance de nisi prius ut supra. Discontinuance of nisi prius ut supra.
155. IIII XX XV. [sic] Item, priont les ditz communes: qe come certeins gentz ount pursuez, sibien al sute le roi come de partie, tanqe a ce qe l'issu soit joynt parentre partie, et a cause qe freche seute par les ditz gentz n'ad este fait avant ces heures, d'avoir nisi prius en paiis ou en autre manere devant justiz assignez solonc ce qe la ley demande, pur mettre la chose en execucion des juges, solonc ceo qe la busoigne demande; la partie n'ad pursuy pur avoi fyn de son busoigne par quatre anz ou plus, issint qe proces ad este fait devers les jurours de l'enquest par destresce, et en autres maners, par les estretes des escheker par verte cere, a grant charge d'eux et l'autre partie descharge. 155. IIII XX XV. [sic] Also, the said commons pray: that whereas certain people have sued, at the suit of the king as well as of the party, until the issue was joined between the parties, and because a fresh suit has not been made by the said people before this time, to have nisi prius on trial or in other manner before justices assigned as the law requires, to put the matter in the execution of judges, as the business requires; the party has not sued to have an end to his business for four years or more, so that the process has been made against the jurors of the inquest by distress and in other manner, by the estreats of the exchequer in green wax, to the great burden of them and of the other discharged party.
Qe plese a vostre tresgraciouse seignurie granter qe si la partie ne pursiewe avaunt dens un an proschein apres ceo qe l'issu soit joynt entre les parties, pur avoir execucion del busoigne, et le brief de venire facias tut outrement servy solonc ce qe l'issu demande, issint totes voies qe par entendement il purra estre ajuge defaute del partie < demandant, > et nemye des jugges, qe le proces devant fait sur l'original soit discontinuz et tenuz pur null, et les jurours ent descharges a touz jours, pur Dieu et en eovre de charite. May it please your most gracious lordship to grant that if the party does not sue within one year after the issue is joined between the parties to have execution of the business, and the writ of venire facias is completely served as the issue requires, provided always that it could be judged by understanding to be the default of the party demandant and not of the judges, the process previously made on the original should be discontinued and treated as null, and the jurors thereon discharged forever, for God and in way of charity.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Ent estoise la loy devant usee. The law previously observed thereon should stand.
Des passages des bledz hors du roialme. Concerning the export of corn outside the realm.
156. IIII XX XVI. Item, prient les communes: pur la grant cherte des blees q'ad est este en le roialme par long temps endurant par cause des plusours patentes et licences grantez sibien as Escoces et autres tiels come as Engleys, qe ordeigne soit par estatut qe de cy enavant nuls ne passe le roialme od nuls blees par patent, conge ne licence de nulle persone, sanz assent et ordinance du parlement q'est avenir, forspris a Caleys et autres teres nostre seignur le roi. Et si ascun, qe q'il soit, par lui ou autre, par licence ou autre garant, ou sanz garant, face le contrayre, soient mesmes les blees et touz ces autres chateux forfaitz au roi. Issint totes voies qe checun des liges nostre seignur le roi qe primerement puist seisir ou arester des ditz blees, eit la terce partie pur son travail, et le viscont ou baillif du roi deins lour ballies eiant l'autre rentanant al oeps le roi. 156. IIII XX XVI. Also, the commons pray: for the great scarcity of corn which has existed in the realm for a long time because many letters patent and licences have been granted to Scots and other such men as well as to English, it should be ordained by statute that henceforth no-one should leave the realm with any corn by the letters patent, permission or licence of any person, without the assent and ordinance of a future parliament, except to Calais and other lands of our lord the king. And if anyone, whoever he may be, by himself or another, by licence or other warranty, or without warranty, does the contrary, the same corn and all his other chattels should be forfeited to the king; provided always that every liege of our lord the king who first seizes or makes arrest of the said corn should have one third for his labour, and the king's sheriff or bailiff in their bailiwicks should have the remainder to the use of the king.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soient les liges du roi franks de les carier ou lour mieltz semblera pur lour profit, forsqe en temps de defens quiel serra fait par le continuel conseil. The king's lieges should be free to export it where it seems best to them for their profit, except in times of prohibitions which will be made by the continual council.
Del pount de Notyngham. Concerning the bridge of Nottingham.
157. IIII XX XVII. Item, prient les communes des countes de Notyngham, Derby, Nichol et de la vile de Notyngham: qe par la ou il y ad un grant pount outre l'ewe de Trent joust la ville de Notyngham appele Heybethebrigg, as fesaunce ou reparailler de quele nul y est charge fors tauntsoulment d'almoigne, paront touz les venantz et revenantz parentre les parties del south et north deyvent avoir lour passage; et pur ce qe le dit pount ne puist estre sustenuz sanz granz custages d'an en an, et a quele passage quant l'ein ne pont passer sur le dit pount pur ruynouste, sovent foith ount plusours gentz este noiez, auxibien gentz a chivalx com charettz, homme et hernays, et quant il y avoit. 157. IIII XX XVII. Also, the commonalties of the counties of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, Lincolnshire and of the town of Nottingham pray: that whereas there is a great bridge over the water of the Trent near the town of Nottingham called Hethbeth Bridge, by which all who come and return between the north and south parts must cross, to build or repair which nothing is charged except alms only; and because the said bridge cannot be sustained without great expenditures from year to year, and at this crossing one cannot cross on the said bridge due to its ruinous state, many people often have been drowned, people on horses as well as carts, men and baggage.
Q'il plese a nostre dit seignur le roi de graunter par ses lettres patentz as ditz communes qe le dit commune de Notyngham et la vile puissent eslire deux gardeyns perpetuels du dit pount, un de la dite vile et l'autre du dit counte de Notyngham; qe puissent purchacer et resceyvre terres, tenementz et rentz a eux et a lour successours, sanz autre licence qeconqe, pur sustenaunce et meyntenaunce du dit pount, pur Dieu et en eovre de charite. May it please our said lord the king to grant by his letters patent to the said commonalty that the said commonalty of Nottingham and the town might choose two perpetual keepers of the said bridge, one from the said town and the other from the said county of Nottinghamshire, who might purchase and receive lands, tenements and rents to them and to their successors, without other licence whatsoever, for the sustenance and maintenance of the said bridge, for God and in way of charity.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi se ent vorra adviser. The king will consider this further.
[col. b]
De usure. Concerning usury.
158. IIII XX XVIII. Item, supplie la commune de la terre: qe come l'orrible vice de usure soit taunt espaundu et usee parmy la terre qe la vertu de charite, sanz quele nul puist estre sauve, est bienpres tote perdue; par quel, com trop bien est coni, grant plente des prosdes hommes ont este anientiz et menez a grant poverte. 158. IIII XX XVIII. Also, the commons of the land petition: that whereas the horrible vice of usury is so widespread and common throughout the land that the virtue of charity, without which nothing might be saved, is nearly completely lost; whereby, as is known well, a great number of worthy men have been ruined and brought to great poverty.
Q'il plese, al honour de Dieu, en cest present parlement establir qe l'ordinance fait en la cite de Loundres sur remedie d'ycell, bien avisetz et correctz par vostre sage counseil et niesment par l'evesqe de mesme la cite, soit reddement mys en execucyon, sanz favour faire a nuly, devers chescune persone, de qeconqe condicion q'il soit, qe desorenavant serra atteynt, principal ou < parcener ou brocour > des tielx faux bargaynes. Et qe touz les mairs et baillifs des citees et borghs parmy le roialme eyent mesme le poair de punir touz ceux qe serront atteintz de cele fauxine deins lour baillies, solonc la fourme des articles comprises en mesme l'ordinaunce. Et qe mesme l'ordinaunce soit teigne parmy tout le roialme, deins fraunchises et dehors. May it please him, to the honour of God, to establish in this present parliament that the ordinance made in the city of London on the remedy of the same, well advised and corrected by your wise council and especially by the bishop of the same city, should be strictly executed, without showing favour to anyone, against every person, of whatever condition he may be, who henceforth will be attainted as the leader, accomplice or broker of such false bargains. And all the mayors and bailiffs of the cities and boroughs throughout the realm should have similar power to punish all those who will be attainted of such deceit in their bailiwicks, according to the form of the articles contained in the same ordinance. And the same ordinance should be upheld throughout the realm, inside as well as outside franchises.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Y courge la loy ancienement usee. The law formerly observed should remain in force.
D'assise d'anusance faite au molyn. Concerning the assize of nuisance done at a mill.
159. IIII XX XIX. Item, prie la commune: qe homme eyt recoveryr, et attourne par brief d'assise de novel dissesyn, d'anusance fait au molyn ou a autre frank tenement, et auxibien d'anusance fait as gentz en temps passe come en temps avenir. 159. IIII XX XIX. Also, the commons pray: that a person should have recovery, and attorney by writ of novel disseisin, of nuisance done at a mill or at another free tenement, and of nuisance done to people in times past as well as in times to come.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Courge la commune ley en ceo cas. The common law should remain in force in this case.
[memb. 25]
Bille encontre les Lumbardz. Bill against the Lombards.
160. C. Item, prie la commune: qe come diverses marchantz de Florence et autres diverses marchantz de Lumbardie, par leur fauxe compassement et fraude et conspiracie entre eux, devant eux ont faitz devant ces hures aucuns de leur compaignie et de leur faitours, et unquore de jour en autre font, achatre leynes et autres diverses marchandises parmye le roialme d'Engleterre, et preignent les dites marchandises a creance, affermantz as ditz creanceours q'ils sont de la compaignie de Albertynes ou des Stroze ou des autres compaignies de Lumbardie. Et apres ceo qe les ditz faitours et marchantz avantditz ont receuz les dites marchandises issint prises a creance, et les ont fait mesner hors du roialme, les ditz marchantz de les dites compaignies font leur ditz compaignons et faitours soi retrere hors de roialme d'Engleterre, et de la ligeance d'Engleterre, surmettantz as ditz creanceours qe les ditz faitours ou marchantz qe issint ont pris les dites marchandises a creance ne sont pas de leur compaignie, la ou touz sont d'une accorde et d'une covyne d'anienter les marchantz d'Engleterre par leur fauxe covyne et conspiracie avauntdites. Queux fauxes compassement et conspiracie ore tarde est overtement prove, en ceo q'un Thomas Blaunchard, Nicholas Johan et autres leur faitours et de leur covyne avantdite ont achatez des diverses bones gentz del citee de Nicole, et de mesme le countee, et des autres countees parmye le roialme, diverses leynes et autres marchandises, aucun an amontantz a la somme de trent mille livres et aucun an vint mille livres; pur queux marchandises les compaignies queux sont demurrantz en Engleterre ont paiez la custume a nostre seignur le roi. Queux marchantz et faitours avantditz se ont retretz hors du roialme saunz gree faire a leur creanceours avantditz, en grande anientisement et empovrisement des toutz les marchantz des ditz citee et contee et des toutz les communes parmy le roialme d'Engleterre; ne unqes feust proclamacion faite en aucune estaple come use est en ycelle au contraire, mais toutdis ont este conuz pur leur faitours, et de leur covyne, come dessus est dit. 160. C. Also, the commons pray: that whereas various merchants from Florence and various other merchants from Lombardy, by their false plotting, fraud and conspiracy among themselves, have caused before this time, and still do cause, some of their company and their factors to buy wool and other various merchandise throughout the realm of England, and they take the said merchandise on credit, assuring the said creditors that they are of the company of Alberti, Strozzi or other companies of Lombardy. And after the said factors and aforesaid merchants have received the said merchandises thus taken on credit, and have caused them to be taken out of the realm, the said merchants of the said companies make their said companions and factors withdraw from the realm of England, and from the allegiance of England, telling the said creditors that the said factors or merchants who thus have taken the said merchandise on credit are not of their company, when all are of one accord and agreement to ruin the merchants of England by their aforesaid false scheming and conspiracy. This false plotting and conspiracy recently was proven openly, in that one Tommaso Biancardi, Nicholas Giovanni and others who are their factors and of their aforesaid association have bought from various good people of the city of Lincoln, and of the same county, and from other counties throughout the realm, various wool and other merchandise, some years amounting to the sum of £30,000 and some years to £20,000; for which merchandise the companies which are resident in England have paid the custom to our lord the king. These aforesaid merchants and factors have withdrawn from the realm without making satisfaction to their aforesaid creditors, to the great detriment and impoverishment of all the merchants of the said city and county and of all the commonalty throughout the realm of England; and a proclamation was never made in any staple to the contrary as is customary in the same, but they have always been known to be their factors and of their association, as is aforesaid.
Par quoi prie toute la commune a nostre seignur le roi et son bon conseil ore en cest present parlement, en cest trope meschevous cas, et encontre ceste fauxe conjecture et faux compassement avantdit, ordeigner covenable remedie. Et nomement pur les citezeins nostre seignur le roi del citee de [p. ii-351][col. a] Nicole, et pur les communes de mesme le countee, qe sont overtement destrutz et anientiez par tiele fauxe conjecture, si autere remedie ne soit fait, come overtement est conuz parmye le roialme. Wherefore all the commons pray our lord the king and his good council now in this present parliament to ordain suitable remedy in this very troublesome case and against this false scheming and aforesaid false plotting. And especially for our lord the king's citizens of the city of [p. ii-351][col. a] Lincoln, and for the commonalty of the same county, who are clearly destroyed and ruined by such false scheming, if other remedy is not made, as openly is known throughout the realm.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Devant le grant conseil. (fn. ii-321-814-1) Before the great council. (fn. ii-321-814-1)
Qe enqueste soit pris de diverses paiis ou il busoigne. That an inquest should be taken of various regions where needed.
161. CI. Item, prie la commune: qe la ou heritage descent a un homme en un countee et il nasquist en autre countee, et il soit emplede del dit heritage en la court le roi, et issue soit a prendre entre eux qi fitz ou file l'une partie ou l'autre, ou leur auncestre soit ou feust, ou autre issue sur quel la privitee de sank purra estre trie, par quel l'une partie ou l'autre serroit enheritable ou purroit estre desheritee; qe l'enqueste juree ou assise de ceo soit prise des gentz del dit countee ou celuy nasquyst qi sank est a trier. 161. CI. Also, the commons pray: that when inheritance descends to a man in one county who was born in another county, and he is impleaded of the said inheritance in the king's court, and issue is to be taken between those who are the sons and daughters of either party, where their ancestor is or was, or other issue on which the blood relationship can be tried, by which either party will be able to inherit or could be disinherited; that the sworn inquest or assize of this should be taken of people from the said county where he whose blood is to be tried was born.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Se tiegne l'anciene loy. The ancient law should be upheld.
De cariage pur l'ostel le roi. Concerning carriage for the king's household.
162. CII. < Item, > prie la commune: qe come le roi en temps passe, et ses progenitours nobles princes, soleient avoir leur cariage, c'estassaver, chivalx, charietz et charettes, pur servir leur hostiel; et ore les purveours del hostel nostre dit seignur le roi, pur defaut de sa propre cariage et de bone governance, parnont chivalx, charietz et charettes des povres communes la environ par .x. leukes ou le roi tient son hostel, sibien des gentz de loigne paiis par .iiij. .xx. leukes ou .lx. passantz par la chymyne, come des gentz demurrantz en mesme le paiis, en grande arrerisement et poverisement des dites communes. 162. CII. Also, the commons pray: that whereas the king and his progenitors, noble princes, in times past used to have their carriage, that is to say, horses, carriages and carts, to serve their household; now the purveyors of our lord the king's household, for default of his proper carriage and of good governance, take horses, carriages and carts from the poor commonalty for ten leagues around where the king holds his household, from people from distant regions of eighty or sixty leagues passing by the road as well as from people living in the same region, to the great detriment and impoverishment of the said commonalty.
Par qoi suppliont les ditz communes, en eovre de charite, ordeigner et establer par vostre bone avysement et conseil qe nostre seignur le roi puisse estre servy a lui et son hostel de cariage de chivalx, charietz et charettes, a ses propres coustages, sanz chargier, tarier ou endamager les povres communes. Et remembrez, seignurs, del mareschalcie nostre seignur le roi, qar y lui ad trop grande pleynte d'icelle par tout le roialme. Wherefore the said commons petition, in way of charity, to ordain and establish by your good advice and counsel that our lord the king might be served with carriage of horses, carriages and carts, for him and his household, at his own expense, without charging, troubling or damaging the poor commonalty. And remember, lords, our lord the king's marshalsea, since there is a very great complaint about the same throughout the realm.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi ne sciet mye qe tielles choses soient faites, mais si einsi soit, il ferra charger le seneschal et les autres ministres de son hostiel, et redresse y serra covenablement fait. Et quant al article de mareschalcie, soit declarree. The king did not know that such things were done, but if it is so, he will cause the steward and other officials of his household to be charged, and suitable redress will be made. And as regards the article concerning the marshalsea, it should be explained.
Des noveux imposicions des leynes. Concerning new impositions of wool.
163. CIII. Item, monstrent ses communes: coment les marchantz sont constreintz de paier certeins imposicions et charges sur les laynes et peaux lanutz al Wolkey en la port de Londres, autres qe ne solent estre paiez en veil temps passe: primerement, pur chescun sac .i. d. et de chescun sarpler obole; et pur chescun .c. peaux lanutz .ij. d. pur tronage illeoqes, q'amonte communement en le dit port .c.li. par an ou plus; la ou ils ne soleient paier en temps passe qe obole del sarpler et obole pur les .c. peaux pur la dit tronage. 163. CIII. Also, his commons declare: how the merchants are forced to pay certain impositions and charges on the wool and woolfells at the Wool Wharfe in the port of London, other than were accustomed to be paid in old times past: first, 1d. for each sack and ½d. for each sarpler, and 2d. for each 100 woolfells for tronage there, which commonly amounts to £100 yearly or more in the said port; when in times past they used to pay only ½d. for each sarpler and ½d. for 100 woolfells for the said tronage.
Quadre pris pur chalkyng. The farthing taken for chalking.
Item, ils paient de chescun sac quadre pur chalkyng, la ou en temps passe n'estoit riens paie ne pris de eux en tiel manere. Item, la ou il estoit ordeigne par les custumers et marchantz qe pur chescun sarpler esteante en la mesoun de pois par un noet, homme ne deust paier q'un quadre; ore sont ils constreintz de paier pur mesonage de chescune sarpler obole et un autre obole pur querfage, encontre la dite ordinance, a grande damage des marchantz. Item, ils sont constreintz de paier de chescun noun en chescun nief .i. d. a dieu, la q'ils ne soleient paier q'a chescun sort .i. d. ou riens a leur volente. Item, ils paient en chescun nief pur chescun noun .ij. d. pur la coket. Queux imposicions et charges amontent a grande somme par an, a grande damage [col. b] des toutz les communes, et encontre l'estatutz sur ceo avant ces hures faitz. Also, they pay 1/4d. for each sack for chalking, when in times past nothing was paid or taken from them in such manner. Also, whereas it was ordained by the customs officials and merchants that for each sarpler which was in the weighing room for one night a man should pay 1/4d.; now they are forced to pay ½d. for the storage of each sarpler and another ½d. for wharfage, contrary to the said ordinance, to the great damage of the merchants. Also, they are forced to pay for each sailor on each ship 1d. to depart, when they used to pay for each sort 1d. or nothing at their will. Also, they pay 2d. for each sailor on each ship for the cocket. These impositions and charges amount to a great sum yearly, to the great damage [col. b] of all the commonalty, and contrary to the statutes made thereon before this time.
Dont ils supplient a vostre graciouse seignurie ordeigner en cest present parlement qe toutz tieux charges puissent estre oustez et repellez, noun contresteante aucune chartre ou especial grant fait a contraire; paiantz come ils soleient faire en auncien temps sanz plus, come devant est declare. Wherefore they petition your gracious lordship to ordain in this present parliament that all such charges might be removed and repealed, notwithstanding any charter or special grant made to the contrary; paying as they used to do in ancient times and no more, as is previously explained.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Il plest al roi qe les ancienes custumes y soient tenuz, et qe nul novel imposicion y soit mys. Et sur ceste bille le roi se enfourmera par inquisicions, si embusoigne. It pleases the king that the ancient customs should be upheld, and that no new imposition should be set. And the king will acquaint himself with this bill by inquisitions, if necessary.
Des routes et ryote des gentz en paiis. Concerning havoc and riots of people in regions.
164. CIIII. Item, supplie la commune: qe come ore de novel grande riote si comence par pluseurs gentz en diverses parties d'Engleterre, qe chivachent ove grande nombre des gentz armez et font partie devers autres; quele chose, si remedie ne soit ordeigne, tournera a grande meschief du roialme et a deshonur de roi. 164. CIIII. Also, the commons petition: whereas recently a great riot was begun by many people in many parts of England, who ride with a great number of armed men and form bands against others, which thing, if remedy is not ordained, will turn to the great misfortune of the realm and the dishonour of the king.
Qe pleise a nostre seignur le roi et son conseil en cest present parlement ordeigner qe les visconts des countees et les justices de la pees y soient commandez, sur grande peyne, q'ils preignent ove eaux le poair del countee d'arester tiels gents quant il serra bosoigne, et les mettre en prisone a y demurrer tanqe le roi ent eit fait de eux sa volente. Et qe grande peyne soit myse sur chescun d'iceux qe refusent d'aler ove les visconts a cel bosoigne faire. Et qe les viscontz et justices de la pees meyntenant enfourment le conseil le roi des tielx rebelles. May it please our lord the king and his council in this present parliament to ordain that the sheriffs of counties and the justices of the peace should be ordered, on great penalty, to take with them the power of the county to arrest such men when necessary, and to put them in prison to remain there until the king has done his will concerning them. And a great penalty should be set on each of them who refuses to go with the sheriffs to conduct this business. And the sheriffs and justices of the peace should inform the king's council of such rebels immediately.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi par l'advis de son grant conseil y ferra ordeigner de remede covenable si embusoigne, mais soient les estatutz ent faitz duement mys en execucion. The king will ordain suitable remedy by the advice of his great council if necessary, but the statutes made thereon should be duly executed.
De la salve garde du chastel de Notingham et des filz Bloys. Concerning the safekeeping of Nottingham castle and of the Blois boys.
165. CV. Item, monstrent les communes a tresnoble conseil nostre seignur le roi de leur aviser pur la garde du chastel de Notyngham, ensemblement ove les deux fitz Monsir Charles de Bloys, les queux sont en le dit chastel dessouth la garde d'un alien, et nient pas lige a nostre dit seignur le roi, come dit est. Le quel semble as communes nostre dit seignur le roi qe n'est pas bien sagement ordeigne, qar conue chose est a touz qee le dit gardeyn n'est pas suffisant a faire gree a nostre dit seignur le roi en cas q'ascune mesaventure avendroit en ycelles parties. 165. CV. Also, the commons declare: that our lord the king's noblest council should advise them concerning the keeping of Nottingham castle, together with the two sons of Sir Charles of Blois who are in the said castle in the custody of an alien, who is not a liege of our said lord the king, as is aforesaid. It seems to our said lord the king's commons that this was not very wisely ordained, since it is known to all that the said keeper is not sufficient to make satisfaction to our said lord the king if any misadventure should occur in the same parts.
Sur qoi supplient les ditz communes, pur eschuire meschief qe purra avenir, qe pleise a nostre dit seignur le roi et a son dit conseil de ceo ordeigner remedie, come leur semble mieutz pur le honur nostre dit seignur le roi et profit du roialme; eantz regarde del eschap Monsir Hugh Casteleyn illeoqes en le temps Esteven Rumbilows le bon esquier, et qe devaunt son temps le gardeyn du dit chastel soleit estre un seignur du roialme, come est certifie as ditz communes. Wherefore the said commons petition, in order to avoid the misfortune which could occur, that it might please our said lord the king and his said council to ordain remedy in this matter, as seems best to them for the honour of our said lord the king and the profit of the realm; having regard for the escape of Sir Hugh Casteleyn from there in the time of Steven Rumbilows, the good esquire, and that before his time the keeper of the said castle used to be a lord of the realm, as was certified to the said commonalty.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soit monstree au roi et a son grant conseil. This should be declared to the king and his great council.
[memb. 26]
Des hameles deinz burghs. Concerning hamlets in boroughs.
166. CVI. Item, priont ses povres communes des citees et borghs: qe come deins lour closures sont parcelles et hamelles des villes nient enfraunchiez, ne as ditz citees et borghs appurtenauncz, mes as autres villes hors de la dite closure; qe luy plese graunter qe les ditz parcelles et hamelles soient contributz a touz maners des costages faitz entour les ditz closures, desicome les ditz parcelles et hamelles ont si avaunt avauntage par les ditz closures come les ditz citees et borghs. Et qe pur tiel contribucion les maires ou les baillifs des ditz citees et borghs puissent destresses prendre; et qe les mairs ou baillifs oue tielx parcelles et hamelles sont deins les closures des citees et borghs eient poair d'arester touz malfesours et enfreinantz la pes nostre seignur le roi, si avaunt en les ditz parcelles et hamelles come deins les citees et borghs, et les comettre as conestables ou baillifs des ditz parcelles et hameles, a demourrer en lour garde tanqe ils eient troveez suffisant meynprise as ditz meires ou baillifs des ditz citees et borghs de lour [p. ii-352][col. a] bien porter a pees nostre dit seignur le roi, si qe les ditz citees et borghs puissent le multz estre governez deins lours ditz closures; eiant regard qe ascuns borghs estoient en point d'aver este destruitz et anientiz par enchesoun de malveis compaignie assemblez par diverses malfaisours en les ditz parcelles et hamelles. 166. CVI. Also, his poor commons of the cities and boroughs pray: that whereas within their enclosures there are parts and hamlets of the towns which are not enfranchised, and do not belong to the cities and boroughs but to other vills outside the said enclosure; that it might please him to grant that the said parts and hamlets should contribute to all manner of expenditures made around the said enclosures, inasmuch as the said parts and hamlets have the advantage of the said enclosures as completely as the said cities and boroughs. And for such contribution the mayors or the bailiffs of the said cities and boroughs should take distresses; and the mayors or bailiffs in whose enclosures of cities and boroughs such parts and hamlets are should have power to arrest all criminals and disturbers of our lord the king's peace in the said parts and hamlets as completely as in the cities and boroughs, and to commit them to the constables or bailiffs of the said parts and hamlets to remain in their custody until they have found sufficient mainprise to the said mayors or bailiffs of the said cities and boroughs of their [p. ii-352][col. a] good bearing towards our said lord the king's peace, so that the said cities and boroughs might be the better governed in their said enclosures; having regard that some boroughs are on the point of being destroyed and ruined due to the evil company assembled by various wrongdoers in the said parts and hamlets.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi ent prendra avisement. The king will take advice thereon.
Pardon des issues et amerciementz pur les communes de Northumbr'. Pardon of issues and amercements for the commons of Northumberland.
167. CVII. Plese a nostre seignur le roi, depuis qe les communes de Northumbr' ont eouz grandes perdes par long temps, sibien de moryne des bestes come defaillez de cressaunce des bledz et come des aventures de guerre, graunter vuillez, en eovre de charitee, pardoun de les deniers perduz par issues et amerciamentz en l'escheker, et les autres courtz nostre seignur le roi par enchesoun de les ditz communes, del commencement del an du regne nostre seignur le roi .xlix. e tanq'en cea. 167. CVII. May it please our lord the king, since the commonalty of Northumberland have had great losses for a long time, through cattle murrains as well as the failure of corn to ripen and the hazards of war, in way of charity, to grant pardon of the money lost by issues and amercements in the exchequer, and the other courts of our lord the king, on account of the circumstances of the said commonalty, from the beginning of the forty-ninth year of the reign of our lord the king [1375] until now.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi se ent avisera. The king will consider this further.
De ceux qi fount extorsions au temps de leur passage dela la meer, come le seignur de Nevill et autres. Concerning those who make extortions when they cross overseas, such as Lord Nevill and others.
168. CVIII. A nostre seignur le roi et son consail; pleynent ses povres communes del counte de Sutht': qe la ou le seignur de Nevyle, seneschal del hostiel nostre dit seignur le roi, estoit ordeigne par nostre dit seignur le roi et son consail de passer ove certeins gentz d'armes et archers outre meer en Bretaygne, en aide del duc illeoqes; pur les qeles gentz ensy par luy amenes il avoit pris bon et suffisant paiement de nostre dit seignur le roi pur lours gages, come estoit dit en ycelles parties. Et nepurqant les ditz gentz ensy en son governement esteantz prestrent et robberent plusours gentz de dit conte de bestayle, bleedz et autres diverses biens et chateux de la value de .d.li. Et ce par cause de noun paiement de lours gages, come ils disoyont. 168. CVIII. To our lord the king and his council; his poor commons of the county of Hampshire complain: that whereas Lord Nevill, steward of our said lord the king's household, was ordained by our said lord the king and his council to cross overseas into Brittany with certain men-at-arms and archers, in aid of the duke there; for the wages of which men thus led by him he had taken good and sufficient payment from our said lord the king, as was said in the same parts. And nevertheless the said men thus under his control took from and robbed many people of the said county of cattle, corn and other various goods and chattels of the value of £500. And this was because of the non-payment of their wages, as they claimed. Whereupon complaint was made to Lord Nevill, but no amendment was made or found thereon.
Dont pleynte fust faite a le seignur de Nevyle, mes nul amendement de ce fait ne trove. Dont les ditz communes priont qe remedie soit ordeigne, et punissement en temps avenir sur tiele matiere, en quele pays q'il soit deins la roialme d'Engleterre. Wherefore the said commons pray that remedy should be ordained, and punishment on this matter in times to come, in whatever region this may occur in the realm of England.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Pur le temps passe respoignent les trespassours, et pur le temps avenir le roi ordenera, par l'advis de son grant conseil, remede suffisant. For times past the trespassers should answer, and for times to come the king will ordain sufficient remedy by the advice of his great council.
Des prises des berbitz par purveours du roi el countee de Norff' et ailleurs. Concerning prises of lambs by the king's purveyors in the county of Norfolk and elsewhere.
169. CIX. Item, prie la commune de Norff': qe come grand nombre des berbitz ont este pris par les purveours le roi des diverses gentz, en l'an .xlviij. e et .xlix. e , sanz dener paie, encountre la fourme de lours commissions et de les estatutz faitez des purveances affaires pur l'ostiel le roi; (fn. ii-321-871-1) et sont les ditz bestes prisez a meyndre pris del tierce dener q'ils ne furent de value, et unqore sont deues les ditz deniers, a grant damage et enpoverissement del poeple. 169. CIX. Also, the commons of Norfolk pray: that whereas a great number of lambs have been taken from various people by the king's purveyors in the forty-eighth and forty-ninth years [1374-5], without paying money, contrary to the form of their commissions and of the statutes made concerning purveyances to be made for the king's household; (fn. ii-321-871-1) the said beasts are taken at a price one-third less than that at which they were valued, and the said money is still due, to the great damage and impoverishment of the people.
Q'il plese a nostre dit seignur le roi comaunder qe plein satisfaccion soit fait et paiement au dit poeple pur lour bestes avauntditz. Et en mesme la manere plese au roi comaunder paiement en touz autres countees en cas semblable, pur Dieu et en eovre de charitee. Et estre, granter commissions a les justices de la pees en totes countees, a eux qi veullent sure, d'enquere et terminer sur les ditz purveours et lours deputes, solom l'effect et tenour del dit estatut fait des purveours, et en mesme la manere d'enquere de les purveours de les fitz le roi, queux ont greve la commune poeple nounduement. May it please our said lord the king to order that full satisfaction and payment should be made to the said people for their aforesaid beasts. And in the same manner may it please the king to order payment in all other counties in similar cases, for God and in way of charity. And further, may it please him to grant commissions to the justices of the peace in all counties, to those who will sue, to inquire into and deliver judgment on the said purveyors and their deputies, according to the effect and tenor of the said statute made concerning purveyors, and in the same manner to inquire into the purveyors of the king's sons, who have aggrieved the common people unduly.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Ceste bille est ailleurs responduz; c'estassaver, en la bille des achatours. (fn. ii-321-874-1) This bill is answered elsewhere; that is to say, in the bill concerning buyers. (fn. ii-321-874-1)
Proteccions pur les gentz de Grande Jernemuth. Protections for the people of Great Yarmouth.
170. CX. Item, prie la commune: qe les poveres communeres de Jernemouth qi sont venuz a Londres pur eux pleyndre au parlement des diverses duresces, tortz et oppressions qe lour sont fait, encountre lour fraunchise, par les grantz de la ville de Jernemouth considerez, talliez ensemble, q'ils soient en la proteccion le roi, q'ils soient jurez et examinez pur grand profit au roi. 170. CX. Also, the commons pray: that the poor commonalty of Yarmouth who have come to London to complain at parliament of the various hardships, wrongs and oppressions which were done to them contrary to their franchise, and taken into consideration and written down by the great men of the town of Yarmouth, should be in the king's protection, so that they should be sworn and examined for the king's great profit.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Il plest al roi. It pleases the king.
[col. b]
Del ercevesqe d'Everwyk. Concerning the archbishop of York.
171. CXI. A nostre seignur le roi et son bon consail; monstrent les communes de la diocise d'Everwyk: qe come il ad este use du temps dont memoire ne court, si aucune persone estoit presente a benefice de seinte eglise deins le dit diocise, et devoit estre admys al dit benefice par l'ercevesqe d'Everwyk, il dorroit pur les lettres de admissioun escrivre as clercz .ij. s. et pur le seal demy marc, sanz plus paier en temps passe, tanq'ore tard qe l'ercevesqe Alisaundre q'ore est prist pur le seal en tiel cas de la plus meyndre chaunterie deins le dit diocise .xx. s. et les clercs .xl. d. Par quele encheson pluseurs chaunteries gisent ore voides, et nul chapeleyn les voet resceivre ne occupier, pur ycelles grandes et excessives coustages ensy de novel levez; par qoi le servise de Dieux et de seinte esglise est grandement suistret, les almes de les foundours nient serviz et les dites chaunteries en peril pur touz jours d'estre consounduz. 171. CXI. To our lord the king and his good council; the commons of the diocese of York declare: that whereas it has been the custom from time immemorial that if any person was presented to a benefice of holy Church in the said diocese, and should be admitted to the said benefice by the archbishop of York, he should give the clerks 2s. for writing the letters of admission and a ½ mark for the seal, without paying more in times past; recently the present Archbishop Alexander [Nevill] took 20s. for the seal in the case of the most inferior chantry in the said diocese, and the clerks took 40d. For this reason many chantries now lay vacant, and no chaplain will receive or occupy them as a result of the same great and excessive costs thus newly levied; whereby the service of God and of holy Church is greatly diminished, the souls of the founders are not served and the said chantries are in peril of being destroyed forever.
Dont ils prient remedie, en relevisement de divine service et en eovre de charite. Wherefore they pray remedy, in restoration of divine service and in way of charity.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Celluy qi se pleigne en especial sue par la ley. He who makes a specific complaint should sue by the law.
De descharge des hundred en Sussex queux les gentz de cynk portz ont purchacez. Concerning the discharge of hundreds in Sussex which the people of the Cinque Ports have purchased.
172. CXII. A tresexcellent et tresredoute seignur le roi et a son sage parlement; supplient ses liges gentz del counte de Sussex', c'estassavoir, ses poveres gentz del hundred de Gostelyng en la dite counte: la ou les ditz poveres gentz del dit hundred portent touz maneres charges appurtenantz al dit hundred, les gentz de cynk portz ont purchacez la moytie del dit hundred, et rienz ne paient pur ycell a les hundredeirs par cause de lour fraunchise; issint q'en defaut de lour contribucion faire de les terres avantditz, les ditz poveres hundreders sont cy enpoverez et anientisshez q'ils ne puissent l'avauntdit charge pluis longement porter ne sustener. 172. CXII. To the most excellent and most dread lord the king and his wise parliament; his liege people of the county of Sussex, that is to say, his poor people of the hundred of Guestling in the said county, petition: whereas the said poor people of the said hundred bear all manner of charges belonging to the said hundred, the people of the Cinque Ports have purchased the moiety of the said hundred and pay nothing for the same to the wardens of the hundred by reason of their franchise; so that for want of making their contribution from the aforesaid lands, the said poor wardens are so impoverished and ruined that they might not bear or sustain the aforesaid charge any longer.
Par qoi plese a vostre trespuissant seignurie et a vostre avauntdit parlement d'ordeiner remedie solonc la fourme q'ensuyt: qe les ditz gentz de cynk portz ne eient pluis de fraunchise forspris ce q'est contenuz en lour chartre de fraunchisez; et ce en relevement et meintenaunce de vostres poveres gentz del hundred avauntdit, pur Dieux et en eovre de charitee. Wherefore may it please your most powerful lordship and your aforesaid parliament to ordain remedy according to the form which follows: that the said people of the Cinque Ports should have no more franchise than that which is contained in their charter of franchises, in relief and maintenance of your poor people of the aforesaid hundred, for God and in way of charity.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Devant le grant conseil. Before the great council.
Des marchantz arestuz pur autri dettes et trespas. Concerning merchants arrested for the debts and trespass of another.
173. CXIII. A tresnoble conseil nostre seignur le roi; monstrent les countes de Wyrcestre, Salop', Stafford, Hereford', Bristut et Glouc': qe come pluseurs marchauntz et autres gentz des ditz countes travallent en Caleys ove lour marchaundies, en profist des ditz countes et de tout le roialme; queux marchantz et autres gentz plusours foitz sont arestutz, ascun foith pur trespas, ascun foith pur dettes des autres hommes des ditz countes; des qeux trespas et dettes les ditz marchantz et autres gentz n'ount rien affaire, et plusours foitz n'ount conissance de ceux pur queux ils sount arestuz, ne unqes pur eux deviendroient dettours ou plegges; par qoi les ditz marchantz et autres gentz sont grantment grevez et empoverez. 173. CXIII. To our lord the king's noblest council; the counties of Worcestershire, Shropshire, Staffordshire, Herefordshire, Bristol and Gloucestershire declare: that whereas many merchants and other people from the said counties travel to Calais with their merchandise, in profit of the said counties and of all the realm; these merchants and other people are often arrested, sometimes for the trespasses and sometimes for the debts of other men from the said counties, which trespasses and debts the said merchants and other people had nothing to do with, and they often had no knowledge of what they were arrested for, or ever became debtors or pledges for them, whereby the said merchants and other people are greatly aggrieved and impoverished.
Qe plese a dit tresnoble conseil, pur Dieu et en eovre de charite, de ent ordeignent remedie. May it please his said noblest council to ordain remedy thereon, for God and in way of charity.
Qe gentz de Gales forfacent en Gales pur felonies faites en Engleterre. That the people of Wales should forfeit in Wales for felonies committed in England.
CXIIII. Et auxint monstrent les ditz countes au dit tresnoble conseil: qe les gentz de Galys, de la marche de Galys et del counte de Cestre, pur petit debate ou pur petit ire viegnent deinz les ditz countes, et illeoqes tuent et ardent gentz demurrantz en mesmes les countes, par cause q'ils ne purront forfaire lour biens et terres en Galys, la marche ou en le counte de Cestre pur felonie ou trespas faitz deinz les ditz countes. CXIIII. And the said counties also declare to the said noblest council: that, on the pretext of a little quarrel or a minor offence, the people of Wales, the march of Wales and the county of Chester come into the said counties and kill and burn people living in the same counties, because they cannot forfeit their goods and lands in Wales, the march or the county of Chester for a felony or trespass committed in the said counties.
Par qoi plese a dit tresnoble conseil, pur restreindre la malice de tieulx malfaisours, ordeigner qe s'ils soient atteintz de felonie ou trespas faitz deinz les boundes d'Engleterre, par proces fait sur eux en le counte ou le trespas ou felonie furent faitz, q'ils [p. ii-353][col. a] perdent lours biens et terres a lour seignurs en Galys, la marche et en le counte de Cestre, solonc ceo qe le trespas ou felonie demandent. Wherefore may it please his said noblest council, in order to prevent the malice of such wrongdoers, to ordain that if they are attainted of a felony or trespass committed within the boundaries of England by process made on them in the county where the trespass or felony was committed, they should [p. ii-353][col. a] lose their goods and lands to their lords in Wales, the march or the county of Chester, as the trespass or felony requires.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Y soient les leies auncienement usez tenuz et gardez. The laws formerly used should be upheld and observed.
[memb. 27]
Fil de leyne appelle wollen yerne. Yarn of wool called woollen yarn.
174. CXV. A conseil nostre seignur le roi; si pleynont les chivalers, marchantz de Wiltes', Bristoll, Somers', Glouc' et Dors' et touz les communes du roialme d'Engleterre: qe come l'ein font en les ditz countes file de layn appelle wolyn yerne a vendre, a tresgrand damage du roi et du poeple; par cause qe l'ein cariont le dit yern en tonelx, pipes, sakes et fardelx en Normandie et Lumbardie a vendre. Et issint le roi perde son custume de drape et de leynes, et les ditz chivalers, marchantz et communes sont dissuz en draps pur cause du diversite le dit yern. Et ensy les servantz ne voillent servir au coiler les blees et feyn, en temps d'an, mes font excusacion en fesant le dit yern; et par celle cause les servantz sont le plus fols du corps. 174. CXV. To our lord the king's council; the knights and merchants of Wiltshire, Bristol, Somerset, Gloucestershire and Dorset and all the commons of the realm of England complain: that in the said counties yarn of wool called woollen yarn is made for sale, to the very great damage of the king and of the people, since they transport the said yarn in tuns, pipes, sacks and bundles for sale in Normandy and Lombardy. And thus the king loses his custom of cloth and wool, and the said knights, merchants and commonalty are deprived of their cloths as a result of the lack of regulation of the said yarn. And thus servants will not gather the corn and hay in that season, but make the excuse that they are making the said yarn; and for this reason the servants are more uncooperative in their labour.
Dont suppliont les ditz chivalers, marchantz et communes au dit conseil qe nul manere fil de leyn appelle wolyn yern ne soit mise au vendre, sur peyne du forfaiture le dit fil du leyn appelle wolyn yern au roi; mes tout maner de yern suzdit soit mise en drape, et issint venduz, et nul autre manere, sur peril suisdit. Wherefore the said knights, merchants and commons petition the said council that no manner of yarn of wool called woollen yarn should be put for sale, on penalty of forfeiture of the said yarn of wool called woollen yarn to the king; but all manner of the aforesaid yarn should be made into cloth and thus sold, and in no other manner, on the aforesaid peril.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soit defense faite qe nul tiel fil passe hors du roialme, sur peine de forfaiture d'ycell. A prohibition should be made that no such yarn should leave the realm, on penalty of forfeiture of the same.
Des fermers deinz fraunchises et qe fraunchises soient confermez par lour ancienes chartres. Concerning farmers in franchises, and that franchises should be confirmed by their ancient charters.
175. CXVI. Item, prie la commune: des citezeins et burgeis, qe par la ou plusours citees, borghs et villes qe ont este es mayns nostre seignur le roi et de ses progenitours, as queux cites, borghs et villes nostre seignur le roi et ses progenitours ont grauntez plusours fraunchises et diverses libertees, des queux fraunchises et libertees les citezeins et burgeis des dites citees, borghs et villes furent par long temps possessiones, et puis cell temps les ditz citees, borghs et villes sont grantez par nostre seignur le roi et ses progenitours a diverses gentz, rendant ent par an au roi en l'escheker certein ferme; les queux fermes destourbent et oustent les ditz citezeins et burgeis de lour fraunchises et libertees a eux et au lour auncestres come desuis est dit grauntez. 175. CXVI. Also, the commons pray: concerning citizens and burgesses, that whereas many cities, boroughs and towns have been in the hands of our lord the king and of his progenitors, to which cities, boroughs and towns our lord the king and his progenitors have granted many franchises and various liberties, which franchises and liberties were possessions of the citizens and burgesses of the said cities, boroughs and towns for a long time, and since this time our lord the king and his progenitors granted the said cities, boroughs and towns to various people, rendering a certain farm yearly for the same to the king in the exchequer; these farms disturb and inhibit the said citizens and burgesses from their franchises and liberties granted to them and their ancestors as is aforesaid.
Par qoi supplie la dite commune q'ils puissent avoir et enjoyer pur le temps avenir touz les fraunchises et libertees a eux et a lour auncestres par nostre seignur le roi et ses progenitours grauntez; et qe touz les chartres de tielx fraunchises et libertees par nostre seignur le roi et ses progenitours grauntez puissent ore estre confermez et renovelez a touz yceux qe purroient monstrer les aunciens chartres, ou lour confermementz, et le voudroient demaunder. Et qe comande soit a touz tielx fermers, sur greve peyne, q'ils ne facent rienz ne purparnent sur tiels fraunchises ou libertees as citees, borghs et villes par nostre dit seignur le roi et ses progenitours grantez. Et ceo en eovre de charite. Wherefore the said commons petition that in future they might have and enjoy all the franchises and liberties granted to them and their ancestors by our lord the king and his progenitors; and that all the charters of such franchises and liberties granted by our lord the king and his progenitors might now be confirmed and renewed to all those who can show their ancient charters or their confirmations, and who will require it. And all such farmers should be ordered, on grave penalty, to do or take nothing regarding such franchises or liberties granted to cities, boroughs and towns by our said lord the king and his progenitors. And this in way of charity.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Ceux qi ont tieux chartres le monstrent en la chauncellerie; et par advis du grant conseil droit leur serra fait. Those who have such charters should show them in the chancery, and justice will be done to them by the advice of the council.
Qe les communes de Jernemuth purront vendre et achatre fraunchement. That the commons of Yarmouth can sell and buy freely.
176. CXVII. A tressage conseil nostre tresredoute seignur le roi; suppliont les poveres communes de Jernemuth: q'il plese en eovre de charite ordeigner qe les ditz communes purroient vendre et achater fraunchement solonc le tenure de lour chartre de fraunchise en dite Jernemuth, qar les mestres de la dite ville receivont par lour realte touz profitz venantz au ville pur lour soleyn profit, encountre le tenure de dite chartre; et nomement en temps de pescherye, en tant qe les poveres communes et comburgeys, paiantz a lot et schot et totes autres coustages, venantz au ville ne puissent avoir atant de harang come appent a lour estor pur l'an, en grant < damage > et oppression des communes, et outre ceo en prejudice de tout le roialme, qar quant les gentz et mestres hostes ont acroche tot le harang en lour mayns, ils sont issint riches q'ils n'ont cure de le [col. b] vendre si noun q'ils le purront vendre a lour volunte, la qe un povere communer et comburgeys le coviendroit vendre de necessite, pur ent prendre son argent. 176. CXVII. To the wisest council of our most dread lord the king; the poor commons of Yarmouth petition: that it might please him, in way of charity, to ordain that the said commonalty can sell and buy freely according to the tenor of their charter of franchise in the said Yarmouth, since by their realty the masters of the said town receive all the profits coming to the town for their own profit, contrary to the tenor of the said charter, especially in the fishing season, in as much as the poor commonalty and comburgesses coming to the town, paying lot and scot and all other costs, might not have as much herring as belongs to their stock for the year, in great damage and oppression of the commonalty and also in prejudice of all the realm, since when outsiders and masters have accroached all the herring into their hands, they are so rich that they have no care to sell it [col. b] except at their will, where a poor commoner and comburgess needs to sell it of necessity, to take his money for the same.
Par ont plese au dit conseil, pur profitz de communes et de roialme, ordeigner remedie en icell cas, issint qe les dites poveres communes et comburgeys purroiount vendre et achater fraunchement solomqe ce qe loure chartre demaunde. Wherefore may it please the said council, for the profits of the commonalty of the realm, to ordain remedy in the same case, so that the said poor commonalty and comburgesses might sell and buy freely as their charter requires.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
< Monstrent lour grevances en especial > devant le grant conseil, et illoeqes lour serra purveuz de remede. They should declare their grievances in detail before the great council, and remedy will be provided for them there.
Des gentz de Tevedale destrutz par Escotz. Concerning the people of Teviotdale destroyed by the Scots.
177. CXVIII. A lour tresredoute seignur le roi et son bon conseil; supplient ses liges gentz de Tevydale, sibien religious come seculers: qe come par le grantz de vostre conseil sont oustez de lours droites heritages et possessions et donez a lour adversaires d'Escoce, encountre le vertu et le force de lour condicions a eux faitz a lour venir a vostre pees. Dont, tresdoute seignur, ils ne poient endurer ne viver, si noun lour deignez ordeigner par vostre bon conseil juste remedie et restorance de lour ditz possessions. Et tout soit qe vous, nostre seignur, eiez mounde les countes de Marche et de Warewyk et autres deputes al marches pur redresser nos injuries, et lorsmes sibien a nous fetz par gentz d'Engleterre come d'Escoce, nulle redresse noun sont fetz d'une part ne d'autre. 177. CXVIII. To their most dread lord the king and his good council; his liege people of Teviotdale, the religious as well as the secular, petition: that whereas they were removed from their lawful inheritances and possessions and given to their Scottish enemies by the great men of your council, contrary to the tenor and the force of their conditions made to them at their coming to your peace; because of this, most dread lord, they cannot endure or live unless you by your good council deign to ordain them just remedy and the restoration of their said possessions. And although you, our lord, have sent the earls of March and of Warwick and other deputies to the marches to redress our injuries then done to us by the people of England as well as of Scotland, no redress has yet been made on either side.
De quelles, tresdoute seignur, deignez nous ordeigner par vostre bon conseil due redresce et remedie, si qe nous poioms viver et demurer sur vostre obeisaunce come gentz de pees. Wherefore, most dread lord, may you by your good council deign to ordain us due redress and remedy, so that we can live and reside on your obedience as people of peace.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soient les seignurs marchiez, prelatz et autres, c'estassaver, l'ercevesqe d'Everwyk, l'evesqe de Durhem, l'evesqe de Kardoill, le counte de Warr', le seignur de Percy, le seignur de Clifford, le seignur de Nevill, Monsir Johan Mountagu, Monsir Guy de Bryen et Monsir Richard de Stafford, qi mieltz ont conissance de la matire, assignez de treter de la matire finalment, et declarent as seignurs du parlement la meilleur remede qe mieltz leur semble en ce cas. The marcher lords, prelates and others, that is to say, the archbishop of York, the bishop of Durham, the bishop of Carlisle, the earl of Warwick, Lord Percy, Lord Clifford, Lord Nevill, Sir John Montagu, Sir Guy Brian and Sir Richard Stafford, who have better knowledge of the matter, should be assigned to bring the matter to a conclusion, and they should explain to the lords of parliament the remedy which seems best in this case.
Del frette des leynes el port de Kyngeston'. Concerning freight of wool at the port of Kingston upon Hull.
178. CXIX. Item, prie la commune: qe come les citezeins d'Everwyk fretteront en le port de Kyngeston' sur Hull .xxxvi. sarplers des laynes ov Petre Arnaldeson', en le nief appelle le Newedaught de Skydham en Holand, pur amesner a la ville de Caleys, et les dites leynes duement cokettez et custumez; dont le dit Petre par male engine amesnoit les ditez leynes en Holland sur les terres le seignurie de Arcle et Corkham. Et le dit seignur surmettant qe nostre seignur le roi lui doit une grande somme des deniers pur sa retenue en la guerre de Fraunce; et par celle cause ad pris et detient les avantditz .xxxvi. sarplers, qe vaillont .ix. .c. li. Et nostre seignur le roi ad maunde ses graciouses lettres du prive seal, et auxint nostre seignur de Castiell ad maunde ses graciouses lettres pur deliveraunce faire des ditez leynes. Et le dit seignur de Arcle nulle deliveraunce ad fait, ne voet faire, a tresgrande perde et enpoverissement des dites citezeins. 178. CXIX. Also, the commons pray: that whereas at the port of Kingston upon Hull the citizens of York shipped thirty-six sarplers of wool with Peter Arnaldeson, in the ship called the Newdaughter of Schiedam in Holland, to be brought to the town of Calais, with the said wool duly cocketted and customed; whereupon by guile the said Peter took the said wool to Holland to the lands of the lordship of Arkel. And the said lord of Arkel claimed that our lord the king owed him a great sum of money for his retinue in the war of France, and for this reason he has taken and detained the aforesaid thirty-six sarplers, which are worth £900. And our lord the king has sent his gracious letters of the privy seal, and our lord of Castile has also sent his gracious letters, to cause deliverance of the said wool. And the said lord of Arkel has made, and will make, no deliverance, to the very great loss and impoverishment of the said citizens.
Sur qoi vous plese graunter a voz ditez citezeins garrant de arester les niefs et les merchandises del seignurie de Holand ou q'ils soient trovez en Engleterre ou a Caleys, tanqe ils eient restitucion de lour dites leynes, issint qe vos ditez povres citezeins ne soient anientiz de lour biens par tiel mal engin, pur Dieu et en eovre de charitee. Wherefore may it please you to grant your said citizens a warrant to arrest the ships and the merchandises of the lordship of Holland wherever they are found in England or at Calais until they have restitution of their said wool, so that your said poor citizens are not damaged of their goods by such deceit, for God and in way of charity.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soit monstre au grant conseil, et ent remede leur serra fait resonablement. This should be declared to the great council, and remedy thereon will be reasonably made.
Del scire facias Johan de Butesthorn'. Concerning the scire facias of John Butesthorn.
179. CXX. A nostre seignur le roi et a son conseil; supplie Johan de Butesthorn': qe come il porta nadgairs deux briefs de scire facias en la chauncelerie devers Robert de Beverlee; comparnant qe come autrefoith fyn se leva en la court nostre seignur le roi, entre mesme cesti Johan pleynant et Johan de Grymstede deforsant, de manoir de Grymstede el counte de Wiltes', ove l'avowesoun de mesme le manoir, et de la moite de manoir de Eukesbury el counte de South'; pur quele fyn le dit [p. ii-354][col. a] Johan de Grymstede conust les manoir, moite de manoir et avowesoun avauntditz estre le droit le dit Johan de Butesthorn', et graunta qe mesmes les tenementz et advowesoun, qeux Alianore qe fuist la femme William de Walkynton' tient partie < en dowere et > partie a terme de vie, et les qeux apres la mort la dite Alianore a dit Johan de Grymstede et a ses heires deveroient revertier, remeyndroient a dit Johan de Butesthorn' et a ses heires a touz jours. Et puis nostre seignur le roi par sa chartre pardona al dit Johan le trespas q'il fist en ceo q'il purchasa la reversion des tenementz et avowesoun avauntditz, qe sont tenuz en chief de nostre seignur le roi, sanz congee le roi, come par les ditz fyns et chartre en la chauncelerie monstrees plus pleynement appiert. Et le dit Johan de Butesthorn' des ditz tenementz fuyst seisi apres la mort la dite Alianore peisiblement, tanqe par deux enquestez d'office prisez par diverses eschetours en les ditz countes, par quelles fuist trove qe la dite Alianore tient joynt ove le dit Johan de Grymstede nadgairs soun baroun, a eux et a les heires soun baroun; et par cele cause seisiront les ditz tenementz et l'avowesoun en la mayn nostre seignur le roi. Et puis nostre seignur le roi les tenementz avauntditz par ses lettres patentes commyst a dit Robert de Beverlee, pur ce qe le heir le dit Johan de Grymstede baroun la dite Alianore ne pursuyt pur son droit a avoir pur tut le temps qe les ditz tenementz demourroient en la mayn le roi, reddant au roi un certeyn rente, com en la dite patente plus pleynement est contenuz. Et par les ditz briefs fist garner le dit Robert d'estre en la chauncellerie as oytaves de la Trinitee, l'an du regne nostre seignur le roi q'ore est qaraunte syme, a savoir moue s'il savoit rienz dire pur nostre seignur le roi, ou pur luy, pur qoi le dit Johan de Butesthorn' ne serroit restitut a sa possession avantdite, et les ditez lettres patens faitez al dit Robert repellez. A quel jour le dit Robert vient, et pria ayde de nostre dit seignur le roi sur la matiere avauntdite; quelle ayde luy fuist graunte, et sur ceo jour done oultre en la chauncellerie. 179. CXX. To our lord the king and his council; John Butesthorn petitions: that whereas he formerly brought into the chancery two writs of scire facias against Robert Beverlee; containing that a fine was previously levied in the court of our lord the king between this same John, plaintiff, and John Grymstede, deforciant, of the manor of Grimstead in the county of Wiltshire, with the advowson of the same manor, and of the moiety of the manor of Exbury in the county of Hampshire; in exchange for this fine the said [p. ii-354][col. a] John Grymstede acknowledged the manor, the moiety of the manor and the aforesaid advowson to be the right of the said John Butesthorn and granted that the same tenements and advowson, which Eleanor, the wife of William Walkynton, held, part in dower and part for term of life, and which after the death of the said Eleanor should revert to the said John Grymstede and his heirs, should remain to the said John Butesthorn and his heirs forever. And then by his charter our lord the king pardoned the said John the trespass which he made when he purchased the reversion of the aforesaid tenements and advowson, which are held in chief of our lord the king, without the king's licence, as more fully appears by the said fines and charter displayed in the chancery. And the said John Butesthorn was seized of the said tenements peacefully after the death of the said Eleanor, until it was found, by two inquests of office taken by various escheators in the said counties, that the said Eleanor held jointly with the said John Grymstede, formerly her husband, to them and to the heirs of her husband; and for this reason the said tenements and the advowson were seized into the hands of our lord the king. And then, because the heir of the said John Grymstede, husband of the said Eleanor, did not sue to have his right for the entire time that the said tenements remained in the king's hands, by his letters patent our lord the king committed the aforesaid tenements to the said Robert Beverlee, rendering a certain rent to the king, as more fully is contained in the said patent. And the said Robert was ordered by the said writs to be in the chancery on the octave of the Trinity in the forty-sixth year of the reign of our present lord [20 June 1372], to find out if he knew any reason, for our lord the king or for him, why the said John Butesthorn should not be restored to his aforesaid possession, and why the said letters patent made to the said Robert should not be repealed. On which day the said Robert came, and prayed aid of our said lord the king on the aforesaid matter; which aid was granted to him, and thereon a further day was given in the chancery.
Qe plese a nostre dit seignur le roi et a son consail, en eovre de charite, eyant regard al droit le dit Johan de Brutesthorn' par fyn aferme, et a sa droit tere le possessioun dont il fuyst oustee, et a ceo qe le dit Johan de Grymstede, cosyn et heir Johan de Grymstede, baroun de la dite Alianore, c'estassavoir, filz Adam filtez l'avantdit Johan de Grymstede, se demyst de droit par la fyn avantdit, comaunder a chaunceller de aler avaunt en la dite plee, et faire droit as ditz partiez, nientcountresteant la legaunce ne l'ayde prier avantdite. May it please our said lord the king and his council, in way of charity, having regard for the right of the said John Butesthorn affirmed by fine, and for his right to hold the possession from which he was removed, since the said John Grymstede, kinsman and heir of John Grymstede, husband of the said Eleanor, that is to say, son of Adam, son of the aforesaid John Grymstede, divested himself of the right by the aforesaid fine, to order the chancellor to proceed with the said plea, and to do justice to the said parties, notwithstanding the aforesaid relief and aid of prayer.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Devant le grant conseil. Before the great council.
Des extorsions faitz par le duc de Bretaign' en Devenshire, sur son passage dela la meer. Concerning extortions made by the duke of Brittany in Devon on his passage overseas.
180. CXXI. A lour tresgraciouse seignur, nostre seignur le roi; monstrent ses liges du counte de Devenschire: par la ou le duk de Bretaigne, et plusours autres de sa retenue, a soun darrayn passage devers Bretaigne furent par long temps demurrauntz en le dit counte devant lour passage, la plusours de sa retenue, et plusours d'autri retenue, pristrent auxibien par noet come par jour de diverses gentz beofs, vaches, berbitz, blees, feynes, aveynes et touz autres vitailles, et rienz ne paierent pur la greindre partie de icelles; et ascuns d'eux mystrent le pris des vitailles q'ils pristrent a lour volunte de mesme a la moyte et meynz de pris qe les vitailles ne vaillerent, dont rienz n'est unqore paie, a grant destruccion et arerissement de la dite commune. 180. CXXI. To their most gracious lord, our lord the king; his lieges of the county of Devon declare: whereas the duke of Brittany, and many others of his retinue, at his last passage to Brittany was residing in the said county for a long time before the passage, many of his retinue, and many of the retinue of others, by night as well as by day took oxen, cows, lambs, corn, hay, oats and all other victuals from various people, and for the most part paid nothing for the same; and some of them set the price of the victuals which they took from the same people at their will at less than one half of the price the victuals were worth, for which nothing is yet paid, to the great destruction and ruin of the said commonalty.
Sur qoi supplie la dite commune qe comaunde soit qe paiement soit fait a eux a queux tiele dette est dewe, de puisqe nostre seignur le roi les ad paie; et null proteccion soit allowe en briefs la ou dette par celle cause est demaunde; et qe general proclamacion soit fait qe si ascune passage serra fait en temps avenir en ascune part a passer outre le meer, qe nulle homme pregne nulles vitailles de nully encountre le gree celuy a qi ils sont, paiant pur icelles [col. b] meyntenaunt devant lour passage solonc ceo q'ils sont acordez. Et qe autrement les prent, soit fait de luy come la commune ley de la terre demaunde. (fn. ii-321-941a-1) Wherefore the said commons pray that it should be ordered that payment should be made to those to whom such debt is due, after our lord the king has paid them; and no protection should be allowed in writs where the debt is required for this reason; and a general proclamation should be made that if any passage to cross overseas is made in any region in times to come, no man should take any victuals from anyone against the will of him to whom they belong, paying for the same [col. b] immediately before their passage as they have agreed. And if they take otherwise, they should be treated as the common law of the land requires. (fn. ii-321-941a-1)
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Pur le temps passe respoignent les trespassours; et pur le temps avenir, le roi par l'advis de son grant conseil ent ordeignera remede covenable. For times past the trespassers should answer; and for times to come, the king by the advice of his great council will ordain suitable remedy thereon.
[memb. 28]
Des retournes de nichil habent. Concerning the returns of nichil habent.
181. CXXII. A touz les seignurs en parlement; les povres communers nostre seignur le roi prient: de bon et gracious remedie, pur la mercie de Dieu et en eovre de charite, en meyntenance de la leye et le droit nostre dit seignur le roi et ses povres communers, des touz tielx baillifs du roi, qe facent retour de brief de trespas en tiel manere, c'estassavoir qe s'ils soient suffisantz ou nemye, tielx baillifs retournent nichil habent, et sur ceo un capias. Et tielx baillifs prendront de chescun de eux comprises en le dit capias .ij. s. ou .iij. s. ou a tant come ils veullent pur leur fee. Et auxi, par cause de tiel fee prendre, les ditz baillifs purchacent brief de trespas en leur propre noun des diverses gentz povres, et les retourneront leur mesmes en manere avantdit, par cause de tiel fee. Et auxi, les ditz baillifs somonent diverses povres gentz du paiis d'estre devant les justices pur les travailler, ou chescun des ditz gentz paieront a les ditz baillifs un fyn d'argent, ou des blees, ou de maeresme, ou travailler pur eux par journe. Et auxi, qe nul povre homme avera paynel d'enquest faite par tielx baillifs tanq'il fera fyn ovesqe eux a leur volentee. Et tielx baillifs ont ove chescun de eux trois servantz ou quatre, en charge du pays. Et tielx baillifs allowent leur offices si cherement q'ils ne puissent faire droit; et ceux sont mayntenez de leur soveraignes. Et des tielx maneres des baillifs leur malveises faitz sont enforcez. 181. CXXII. To all the lords in parliament; our lord the king's poor commons pray: for good and gracious remedy, for the mercy of God and in way of charity, in maintenance of the law and the right of our said lord the king and his poor commonalty, concerning all such bailiffs of the king, who make returns of writ of trespass in such manner, that is to say, whether or not they are sufficient, such bailiffs return nichil habent, and a capias issues thereon. And such bailiffs take for their fee from each person contained in the said capias 2s. or 3s. or as much as they will. And also, by reason of taking such a fee, the said bailiffs purchase a writ of trespass in their own name against various poor people, and return them themselves in the aforesaid manner, by reason of such fee. And also, the said bailiffs summon various poor people of the region to appear before the justices in order to torment them, or else require each of the said people to pay a fine of silver, corn or timber to the said bailiffs or to do a day's work for them. And also, no poor man can have a panel of inquest made by such bailiffs until he pays them a fine at their will. And every such bailiff has three or four servants, who are a burden on the region. And such bailiffs sell their services so dearly that they cannot do justice; and these are maintained by their lords. And the evil deeds of such manner of bailiffs increase.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Devant le grant conseil. Before the great council.
D'eschape des felons agardez en la mareschalcie. Concerning the escape of felons examined in the marshalsea.
182. CXXIII. Pleise a nostre tresdoute seignur le roi et a son bon conseil ordeigner remedie des choses faitz et de novel useez en la maraschalcie de son hostel; de ceo qe par la ou homme, pur dout de ses esnemys et de sa morte, fue al seinte esglise, et nul enditement y ad sur lui, ne pris ove mayneovre, ne confession fait devant coroner, ne nule garde faite entour lui; et puis apres ailla hors du dite esglise, le seneschall del dit hostell fait enquere coment il passa hors de esglise. Et ceste matire trove, mayntenant agarde eschape sur la ville ou la paroche, et le fait lever par destresse, sanz respons de la ville ou de la paroche, a grande destruccion de commune poeple, et expressement contre la leie. 182. CXXIII. May it please our most dread lord the king and his good council to ordain remedy concerning things done and newly practised in the marshalsea of his household; because when a man flees to holy Church for fear of his enemies and of his death, and there is no indictment upon him, and he is not caught in the act, and does not make a confession before the coroner, and no guard is kept around him, after he goes outside the said church, the steward of the said household inquires into how he left the church, and when this matter is found, maintaining award of escape on the town or parish, he causes it to be levied by distress, without the answer of the town or parish, to the great destruction of the common people, and expressly contrary to the law.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi s'advisera par [...] son grant conseil. The king will be advised by his great council.
De proces de nisi prius discontinuer. To discontinue process of nisi prius.
183. CXXIIII. Item, prient les communes: qe par la ou avant ces hures en chescun plee parentre partie et partie ou ils ont pledez a l'enqueste, l'une partie ne l'autre n'ad suy nul nisi prius par un an, deux, trois ou quatre, par qoi gentz de l'enqueste ont perduz leur issues, et nomement gentz qu demurrent loinz de la courte, queux mieutz voudrient perdre leur issues q'al courte travailler. 183. CXXIIII. Also, the commons pray: that whereas before this time, in each plea between party and party where they have pleaded at the inquest, neither party has sued any nisi prius for one, two, three or four years, whereby the people of the inquest have lost their issues, and especially people who live far from the court who would rather lose their issues than travel to court.
Par qoi pleise a nostre seignur le roi de grauntir qe si la partie pleyntif ou demandant ne sue al habeas corpora retourne un nisi prius, q'adonqe son proces soit discontinue. Et qe ceo eit relacion a chescun plee moeve en chauncellerie, bank le roi, commune bank ou escheqer. Wherefore may it please our lord the king to grant that if the party plaintiff or demandant does not sue habeas corpora or return a nisi prius, then his process should discontinue. And this should be considered at each plea moved in the chancery, the king's bench, the common bench or the exchequer.
Qe nisi prius soit grante en chescun place sanz suer ailleurs mesq'il touche le roi. That nisi prius should be granted in each court without suing elsewhere unless it concerns the king.
CXXV. Item, prient qe nostre seignur le roi veulle grantir nisi prius en chescun plee qe touche lui mesmes come autres, sanz suire a prive seal ou ailleurs, sinoun en les places ou le plee est pendant. CXXV. Also, they pray that our lord the king will grant nisi prius in each plea which concerns himself as well as others, without suing at privy seal or elsewhere, except in the courts where the plea is pending.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Courge la ley usez. The law as practised should be in force.
[p. ii-355]
[col. a]
De traverser l'offices des enquestes des eschetours. To traverse the offices of inquests of escheators.
184. CXXVI. Item, prie la commune: porceo qe grandes meschiefs ont eschuz as pluseurs de la terre devant ces hures, a cause, par la mort de leur auncestres qi tiendrent de nostre seignur le roi en chief, leur heritages feurent seisez en la mayne le roi par ses eschetours, par vertue des briefs de Diem clausit extremum, ou en autre manere; et devant les ditz eschetours par leur enquestes prises d'office feust trove qe les dites heritages feurent tenuz en chief du roi par certeins servicz, la ou en verite les dites heritages, ou parcelle d'icelles, feurent tenuz du roi par autres services, ou parcelle feust tenuz des autres seignurs et nemye du roi, come suppose feust par les dites enquestes d'office; et leur heirs, adonqes esteantz de pleyne age, sueront livere de leur dites heritages hors de la mayne le roi en la chauncellerie, accordantes as ditz offices, saunz travers doner a ycelles en partie ou en tout, et ceo par cause q'ascuns des ditz heirs feurent mesconuz de la leye, et aucuns nient aprises de qi ne par quel service leur heritage feust tenuz; par quele cause les ditz heirs apres ont este souvent grevez vers le roi en son escheqer et ailleurs, aucuns a faire relief accordant as ditz offices, la ou unqes nul de leur auncestres feust charge de tiel relief, et aucuns d'acompter des issues et profitz de tout ou de parcelle de leur heritage de temps de leur auncestres, pur ceo qe ne feust pas trove en la courte le roi qe les auncestres avoient conuz devaunt leur heritage en parcelle ou en tout estre tenuz du roi, accordant as ditz offices. 184. CXXVI. Also, the commons pray: whereas great misfortunes have occurred to many people of the land before this time, because, as a result of the death of their ancestors who held of our lord the king in chief, their inheritances were seized into the king's hands by his escheators, by virtue of writs of diem clausit extremum or in other manner; and before the said escheators, taking their inquests of office, it was found that the said inheritances were held in chief of the king by certain services, when in truth the said inheritances, or part of the same, were held of the king by other services, or part was held of other lords and not of the king, as was supposed by the said inquests of office; and their heirs, then being of full age, sued for delivery of their said inheritances out of the king's hands in the chancery, according to the said offices, without challenging the same in part or in whole, because some of the said heirs were ignorant of the law, and some were not aware of whom or by which service their inheritances were held; for this reason the said heirs afterwards have often been aggrieved by the king in his exchequer and elsewhere, some to make relief according to the said offices, when none of their ancestors was ever charged such relief, and others to account for the issues and profits of all or part of their inheritance from the time of their ancestors, because it was found in the king's court that the ancestors had known before that their inheritance in part or in whole was held of the king, according to the said offices.
Qe vous pleise ordeigner qe chescun homme, en qecunqe courte le roi purra estre resceu d'averer, de qi et par quel service, son heritage tout ou parcelle est tenuz en chief, saunz estre estope ou destourbe par cause des dites enquestes d'office, ou des dites suites de livere sur ceo faites, come dessus est dit, ou des semblables enquestes ou suites de livere affaires en temps avenir. May it please you to ordain that, in any of the king's courts, each man could be received to aver of whom and by which service all or part of his inheritance is held in chief, without being estopped or disturbed by reason of the said inquests of office or of the said suits of delivery made thereon, as is aforesaid, or of similar inquests or suits of delivery to be made in times to come.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Si nulle enqueste soit pris en charge de nully heritage, celluy qi se ent pleindra serra rescuz de traverser l'enqueste devant l'omage fait. If any inquest is taken in a charge of any inheritance, he who will complain will be received to traverse the inquest before the homage is made.
Des lettres du tresorer contremandantz les mandementz du roi. Concerning letters of the treasurer countermanding the king's orders.
185. CXXVII. Item, prie la commune: de mettre remedie d'un grande meschief fait as seignurs et as autres communes du roialme, la come ils eient acomptez ove le tresorer de leur gages et leur fees a leur venue d'outre mier, et le roi est trove en le dette les seignurs, aucuns de .m.li., aucun de .mm.li., ou plus ou meyns, et tailles et lettres sont deliverez as ditz seignurs de resceivre leur paiement as certeins portz as certeins jours. Et les seignurs s'affient tant de resceivre leur paiement a les jours assignez q'ils se liont a leur dettours, la ou ils devont, de paier leur dettes a mesme le jour. Encontre cela ad este use par les tresorers d'envoier leur lettres dessouz leur sealx demesne de contremander l'argent assigne par le prive seal. Ensi sont les seignurs deceuz, a grande damage et perde de eux. Sur qoi soit remedie ordeigne qe nul tresorer n'eit poair de surmontre par sa lettre la lettre le roi. 185. CXXVII. Also, the commons pray: to provide remedy concerning a great misfortune done to the lords and other commonalty of the realm, because they have rendered account with the treasurer of their wages and fees upon their arrival from overseas, and the king was found to be in the debt of the lords, some for £1,000 and some for £2,000, or more or less, and tallies and letters were delivered to the said lords to receive their payment at certain ports on certain days. The lords trust so much to receive their payment on the days assigned that they bind themselves to their debtors, when they should, to pay their debts on the same day. Instead it has been the treasurers' practice to send their letters under their own seals to countermand the money assigned by the privy seal. Thus the lords are deceived, to their great damage and loss. Wherefore remedy should be ordained that no treasurer should have power to surpass the letter of the king with his letter.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi le voet. The king wills it.
Qe le parlement soit tenuz chescun an. Des eleccions des chivalers des countees. Des eleccions des viscontes. That parliament should be held each year. Concerning elections of knights of the shire. Concerning elections of sheriffs.
186. CXXVIII. Item, prie la commune: qe pleise establier par estatut en cest present parlement qe chescun an soit tenuz un parlement, de faire correccions en roialme des erroures et fauxtees, si nuls y soient trovez. Et qe les chivalers des countees pur celles parlementz soient esluz par commune eleccion de les meillours gentz des ditz countees; et nemye certifiez par le viscont soul saunz due eleccion, sur certeine peyne. Et en mesme le manere soient les viscontz des countees du roialme d'an en an esluz, et nemye faitz par brocage en la courte du roi, come ils soleient faire, pur leur singuler profit et par procurement des meyntenours du pays, pur sustener leur fausetees et malices et leur fauxes quereles, come ils ont fait communement avant ces hures, en destruccion du poeple. 186. CXXVIII. Also, the commons pray: that it might please him to establish by statute in this present parliament that a parliament should be held each year, to correct errors and deceits in the realm, if any are found. And the knights of the shires for these parliaments should be chosen by common election from the best men of the said counties, and not certified by the sheriff alone without due election, on a certain penalty. And the sheriffs of the counties of the realm should be chosen in the same manner from year to year, and not appointed by bribery in the king's court, as they used to do, for their own profit and by procurement of the maintainers of the region, to sustain their deceits and evils and their false quarrels, as they have commonly done before this time, in destruction of the people.
[col. b]
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
En droit du parlement chescun an, il y a ent estatutz et ordenances faitz, les queux soient duement gardez et tenuz. (fn. ii-321-983-1) Et quant as viscontes, il y a une bille responduz. (fn. ii-321-983-2) Et quant al article del eleccion des chivalers qi vendront a parlement, le roi voet q'ils soient esluz par commune assent de tout le contee. As regards a parliament each year, there are statutes and ordinances made thereon which should be duly observed and upheld. (fn. ii-321-983-1) And as regards sheriffs, there is a bill which has been answered. (fn. ii-321-983-2) And as regards the article concerning the election of knights who come to parliament, the king wills that they should be elected by the common assent of the whole county.
Des petites extentes des terres appurtenantz au roi; et qe les suters et leur coadjuteurs perdent leur tenance et soient oustez du roi. Concerning small extents of lands belonging to the king; and that the suitors and their collaborators should lose their tenancy and be removed from the king.
187. CXXIX. Item, prie la dite commune: qe la ou nostre seignur le roi ad este deceu meynte foithe par diverses gentz, q'ont demandez du roi dys marchez de terre; et par celle demande de tiele summe acrochantz a eux les eschetours, procurantz a eux commission especial d'enquere, et par enqueste procure encontre le roi, font extenter celle terre a dys marcz par covyne et fausetee encontre le roi, qe bien vaut par an .xl.li. ou .c. marcz, et ensint vint livres de terre qe vaut par an .cc. marcz. 187. CXXIX. Also, the said commons pray: whereas our lord the king has been deceived many times by various people who have requested ten marks' worth of land from the king, gathering the escheators to them by this request of such sum, procuring a special commission of inquiry, and by inquest procured against the king, by trick and deceit against the king, they cause this land to be valued at 10 marks when it is truly worth £40 or 100 marks yearly, and likewise £20 worth of land is worth 200 marks yearly.
Par qoi soit le roi desore garny et son sage conseil des tiels deceites. Et soit enquys par les plus loialx inquisitores en chescun countee, deinz fraunchises et dehors, pur profit le roi, des tielx demandours, suitours, promettours, resceyvours des tieles terres en ce cas. Et ceux qi serront trovez en tiel deceit au roi, soit il religious ou lays, perdent ils leur tenantie au roi, soit il pur petit ou pur grande, et oustez du service le roi, si nul tiel soit entour lui; et touz leur coadjutours, mayntenours, promettours, suytours, puniz duement pur leur fauxine et deceit encontre leur roi en celle partie, par bone discrecion du conseil, saunz favour. Wherefore henceforth the king and his wise council should be warned of such deceits. And the most loyal inquisitors in each county, inside as well as outside franchises, should inquire into such inquirers, suitors, promisers and receivers of such lands in this case, for the king's profit. And those who will be found in such deceit to the king, be they religious or lay, should lose their tenancy to the king, be it small or great, and be removed from the king's service, if any such should be close to him; and all their collaborators, maintainers, promisers and suitors should be duly punished by their evil and deceit against their king in this matter, by the good discretion of the council, without favour.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi ent ferra enquere quant lui plerra. The king will inquire thereon when it pleases him.
Qe nulle pardoun soit grante as empeschez en cest parlement. That no pardon should be granted to those impeached in this parliament.
188. CXXX. Item, prie la commune a nostre dit seignur le roi: qe nule pardon soit grante a nully persone, petit ne grande, q'ont este de son conseil et serementez et sont empeschez en cest present parlement de vie ne de membre, fyn ne de raunceon, de forfaiture des terres, tenemenz, biens ou chateux, les queux sont ou serront trovez en aucun defaut encontre leur ligeance et la tenure de leur dit serement; mais q'ils soient duement punizselonc leur desert; ne q'ils ne serront jammes conseillers ne officers du roi, mais en tout oustez de la courte le roi et de conseil as touz jours. Et sur ceo soit en present parlement fait estatut s'il plest au roi, et de touz autres en temps avenir en cas semblable, pur profit du roi et de roialme. 188. CXXX. Also, the commons pray our said lord the king: that no pardon should be granted to any person, small or great, who has been of his council and oath and is impeached in this present parliament of life and limb, fine or ransom, forfeiture of lands, tenements, goods or chattels, who is or will be found in any default against his allegiance and the tenor of their said oath; but they should be duly punished according to their guilt; and they should never be councillors or officers of the king, but should be completely removed from the king's court and council forever. And a statute should be made thereon in the present parliament if it pleases the king, and of all others in similar cases in times to come, for the profit of the king and the realm.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi ent fra sa volente come mieltz lui semblera. The king will do his will thereon as seems best to him.
[memb. 29]
Qe execucions soient faites des empeschementz. Et qe les jugementz ne soient repellez. That executions of impeachments should be made. And that the judgments should not be repealed.
189. CXXXI. Item, prie la dit commune: qe toutes les articles d'empeschementz, ove les circumstances mys avant en cest present parlement par les communes pur profit le roi et commune profit du roialme, nient triez a ore par defaut de prove, ou par quecunqe autre cause, soient freschement par commissions et par les justices le roi, de les plus loialx et seignurs ovesqe eux assignez, enquys et terminez en Londres et en autres lieux busoignables, solonc la demande des ditz articles, et due processe fait solome ce qe la lei demande, sanz favour. Et qe les jugementz donez en cest parlement, par l'assent de grandes seignurs et les communes, ne soient par brocores devers le roy repellez en temps avenir. 189. CXXXI. Also, the said commons pray: that all the articles of impeachments, with the circumstances put forward in this present parliament by the commons for the king's profit and the common profit of the realm, not now tried for lack of proof, or for any other reason whatsoever, should be freshly inquired into and determined, in London and in other necessary places, by commissions and by the king's justices, appointed from the most loyal lords among them, according to the request of the said articles, and due process made as the law requires, without favour. And the judgments given in this parliament, by the assent of the great lords and the commons, should not be repealed by negotiation with the king in times to come.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi par avis de son grant conseil ferra assigner de covenables justices, et de tieux come lui mieltz semblera, d'enquere de ce q'est a enquere, sauvant a chescuny ville ses fraunchises. The king, by the advice of his great council will appoint suitable justices from such as seem best to him, to inquire into what is to be inquired, saving to each town its franchises.
Qe gardes et mariages ne soient donez legerement. That wardships and marriages should not be given lightly.
190. CXXXII. Item, prie la dite commune a nostre dit seignur le roy: avoir regard a soun povere commune et poeple, de les grandes custages, charges, myses et travailles q'ils ont sustenu de bon gree en pes et guerre, pur luy et soun honur mayntener, depuis sa coronement, et unquore covendront et voillent soeffrer et sustenir de bon coer, s'ils eient bone et droiturel covernance, due correccion [p. ii-356][col. a] et punissementz de celles conseillers q'ont deceu et enpoverez le roy et sa dite commune, et de touz altres mesfesores et lours aherez de lour covyne. Et q'il plese au roy aussynt prendre tendrement a cuer les meschiefs de les grandes pestilences q'ont este en vostre roialme chescun apres altre, en outre destruccion et enpoverisement de soun dite poeple et commune. Et q'il pleise a nostre dit seignur le roy qe les profitz de les ercevesqes, evesches, abbathies, baronies, eschetes, fynes, raunsounes, gardes, mariages et toutes profitz provenantz et escheantz en mayn le roy de jour en altre ne soient desormes donez a nully persone, ne pardonez en partie n'en tout legerement, sanz bon et juste cause, par procurement de nully, et sanz bone et sage deliberacion de son grande counseil. Eyns q'ils soient sagement gardez touz les profitz desuisditz, pur meintenance de soun honur et de ses guerres en espern [...] de sa dite commune et poeple, et par les causes suisdites. 190. CXXXII. Also, the said commons pray our said lord the king: to have regard for his poor commonalty and people, concerning the great expenses, charges, outlays and hardships which they have sustained willingly since his coronation in peace and war, to maintain him and his honour, and to which they are still amenable and are willing to suffer and sustain in good faith, if they have good and lawful governance, and due correction [p. ii-356][col. a] and punishment of those councillors who have deceived and impoverished the king and his said commonalty and of all other criminals and their adherents of their faction. And also, may it please the king to take to heart the misfortunes of the great pestilences which have occurred in your realm one after another, in further destruction and impoverishment of his said people and commonalty. And may it please our said lord the king that the profits of the archbishoprics, bishoprics, abbeys, baronies, escheats, fines, ransoms, wardships, marriages and all other profits arising and issuing in the king's hands from day to day henceforth should not be given to any person, or pardoned lightly in part or in whole, without good and just cause, by the procurement of anyone, and without the good and wise deliberation of his great council. Instead, all the aforesaid profits should be reserved wisely, for the maintenance of his honour and of his wars in sparing his said commonalty and people, and for the aforesaid reasons.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi par advis de son grant conseil ferra le mieltz qe lui semblera, sibien pur le bon governement du roialme come pur son profit demesne et ese de sa commune. The king by the advice of his great council will do what seems best to him, for the good government of the realm as well as for his own profit and the ease of his commonalty.
De ceux qi mettont novelles imposicions, eient juggement de vie et de membre. That those who set new impositions should have judgment of life and limb.
191. CXXXIII. Item, prie la dite commune: q'il soit ordeigne par estatut en ceste present parlement, de touz ceux qe deci enavant y mettont ou font pur lour singuler profit noveles imposiciouns par lour auctorite demesne, acrochantz a eux roial poair de riens qe soit establi en parlement, sanz assent de parlement, q'ils eient jugement de vie et de membre et de foresfaiture. 191. CXXXIII. Also, the said commons pray: that it should be ordained by statute in this present parliament that all those who heretofore have set or made new impositions for their own profit by their own authority, accroaching royal power to themselves, concerning anything which should be established in parliament and done without the assent of parliament, should have judgment of life and limb and of forfeiture.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Courge la commune ley, come estoit avant usee. The common law should be observed, as it was previously.
Des enquestes de quale jus pur religiouses. Concerning inquests of quale jus for religious.
192. CXXXIIII. A nostre seignur le roy et a son counseil; suppliont les communes: qe come abbes et priours et autres gentz de religion cleiment diverses choses sanz droit ou ascun verray title, et adonqes eux alleggent continuance de possessione de temps dont il n'ad memorie, ou autre faux matiere triable par enquest, et font lour brocage et grauntz dounes et promesses as viscountes, as meintenours des quereles et a les enquestes issint par enquestz enpaneles par viscountes a lour voluntee des tielx qe voillent brocage prendre, et malement enformez par lours maintenours qe les enquestes passent pur eaux fausement, auxibien en desheritesoun nostre seignur le roy come des autres communes de poeple, et alefoiz encountre grauntz seignurs; la quele chose eaux ont continue puis l'estatut 'de terris aut tenementis ullo modo ad manum mortuam non ponendis'. (fn. ii-321-1021-1) Et diont, puis qe purchas a eux est defenduz, qu'eux purront ove melour marche purchaser par tielx enquestes q'en autre manere, enformant lour consience, purceo qe eaux sont resceiuz de purchaser par estatut fait par seculers sanz lour assent, q'eaux purront de bone consience acrocher tant come eux purront sur tielx seculers en eide de seint eglise, soit il par faux enquestes, par brocage ou en autre manere; et nomement puis le temps qe nostre seignur le roy ad defendu soun chaunceller, q'il ne graunte nul licence pur nule fine faire de rien amortiser sanz especial comandement du roi, issint qe meindre meschief serreit, qe les religiouns purroient pur lour donaunt purcheser, qe issint desheriter gentz sanz rien eaux doner. 192. CXXXIIII. To our lord the king and his council; the commons petition: that whereas abbots and priors and other people of religion claim various things without right or any true title, and then claim continuity of possession from time immemorial, or other false matter triable by inquest, and make their favours and great bribes and promises to sheriffs, maintainers of quarrels and the inquests thus empanelled by inquests by sheriffs at their will of such who will take favour, and are wickedly informed by their maintainers that the inquests should pass falsely for them, in disinheritance of our lord the king as well as of others of the common people, and sometimes against great lords; which thing has continued since the statute 'of lands or tenements not to be put in mortmain in any way'. (fn. ii-321-1021-1) And they say, because purchase is forbidden them, that they can purchase with better profit by such inquests than in other manner, saying in their justification that, because they are allowed to purchase by statute made by secular men without their assent, they can of good conscience accroach as much as they can on such secular men in aid of holy Church, be it by false inquests, by corrupt practices or in other manner; and especially since the time that our lord the king forbade his chancellor to grant any licence for any fine to be made of anything to be amortised without the king's special order, so that there would be less misfortune, the religious could purchase by their own payment, thus disinheriting people without giving them anything.
Qe pleise sur cestes meschiefs deordenir tiel remedy; c'estassavoir, qe si asqune homme de religioun face, ou asqune autre pur eaux facent, brocage, douns ou promesses as viscountz, maintenours ou a ascunz des gentz enpaneles ou a ascun homme de la court le roi ou autre, en ascun plee entre ascun homme de religioun et nostre seignur le roi, ou entre homme de religioun et autre persone qiconqe, et l'enquest passe pur l'omme de religioun, seit il actour ou defendour, apres jugement sur ce rendu, celui qe perd et ses heirs eient scire facias devers l'abbe et terre tenaunt. Et si ascun brocage, douns ou promesses en le manere susdit puisse etre trove par enquest, ou nieint dedire ou autre manere resonable, et [col. b] qe le pardaunt ou ses heirs soient restitituz as tenemenz et as dreiturs perduz, ovesqe les issues, en le mesn temps, et tiels jugementz en tout repellez et anullez; et si de poeple ascun voille suer encontre homme de religioun de ascun doun, promesse ou brocage en le manere susdit par ascun homme de religioun fait, et de ce seit atteint, q'il paiera disfoitz tant, de quel le roi eit la moite et la partie qe suit l'autre moite. La quel seute serra < fait > par bille devaunt justices d'assise ou de nisi prius, ou justice de la pees, ou autrement par brief aillours en la court le roi, par brief devaunt qiconqe justice, al elleccion celui qe voldra seuer; le quel remedie le communes priont, ou autre remedie covenable. May it please him to ordain such remedy on these misfortunes; that is to say, that if any man of religion, or any other for him, makes favours, bribes or promises to sheriffs, maintainers or to any empanelled people or to any man of the court of the king or other, in any plea between any man of religion and our lord the king, or between a man of religion and any other person whatsoever, and the inquest is found for the man of religion, be he the plaintiff or defendant, after the judgment thereon is returned he who loses and his heirs should have a scire facias against the abbot and landowner. And if any corruption, bribes or promises might be found in the aforesaid manner by inquest, non-denial or in other reasonable manner, [col. b] the loser or his heirs should be restored to the lost tenements and rights, with the issues, in the meantime, and such judgments completely repealed and annulled; and if any of the people will sue against a man of religion concerning any bribe, promise or favour made in the aforesaid manner by any man of religion, and he is attainted of this, he will pay ten times as much, of which the king should have one half and the party who sues the other half. This suit will be made by bill before justices of assize or of nisi prius, or justices of the peace, or otherwise by writ elsewhere in the king's court, by a writ before any justice whatsoever at the election of him who will sue; which remedy the commons pray, or other suitable remedy.
Item, priont les communes: qe come devaunt eschetour ou autres ministres nostre seignur le roi en citees, grauntz villes queux sont enfraunchises et ount retourne des briefs, ascun droit ou dreiturele profit soit trove pur le roi d'ascun chose deinz lour franchise, par enquest de mesme le franchise, encountre ascun homme de religioun ou autre homme de seinte esglise, par cause d'amortisement sanz licence, ou par autre cause veritable; et quaunt cel dreit serreit autrefoitz attrier par novele enquest, les viscountz ount retournez enquestz de gentz foreinz queux n'ount conissance de chose faite deinz teux franchises, pur douns et favour des gentz de seinte esglise, et en desheriteson le roi. En quele cas si le viscount ust mande as bailifs de teles franchises pur avoir enqueste de gentz de mesime la fraunchise queux ont de ceo < conisance, > le droit le roi serroit sauve. Also, the commons pray: that whereas, before the escheator or other officials of our lord the king in cities and great towns which are enfranchised and have the return of writs, some right or lawful profit should be found for the king of something within their franchise, by inquest of the same franchise, against any man of religion or other man of holy Church, by reason of amortisation without licence or other valid reason; when this right is tried again by new inquest, the sheriffs have returned inquests of outsiders who have no knowledge of things done inside such franchises, as a result of the bribes and favour of people of holy Church, in disinheritance of the king. If, in this case, the sheriff had sent for the bailiffs of such franchises to have an inquest of people from the same franchise who have knowledge of this, the king's right would have been saved.
Qe pleise, si aucune tiele < chose trove > pur le roi en Everwyk, Oxenford, Bristuyt, Excestre et autres tieles grandes citees ou villes par gentz de mesmes les villes, encontre aucun homme de seynte esglise, et cele chose soit autresfoitz a trier par novele enqueste, q'il soit issint ordeigne qe le viscont doit mander a ceux de la fraunchise q'ont retourne des briefs preigne retourne de eux par endenture, come en autre cas entre autres parties; ou autrement d'ordeigner autre remedie, c'estassavoir, si le viscount en aucun tiel cas retourne enqueste des gentz foreyns des gentz de seynte esglise, et en desheritesoun le roi, et tieles enquestes passent encontre le roy fauxement, q'a quele hure qe le meir d'aucune tiele ville q'est sermente au roi en escheqer viegne a chaunceller qi serra pur le temps et monstre al chaunceller par son serement le roi estre desceu en le manere suisdit, qe meyntenant un scire facias compreignant la matire par le meir issint monstre issera, de garnir le homme de seynte esglise, pur tiele enqueste < issint passee de > respondre a tiele matire par le meir issint monstre, et le homme de seynte esglise et le roi soient atravers sur tiele matire, brief issera as viscountz de faire venir paiis. En quel brief soit contenuz, q'il mande as baillifs de la franchise, et preigne retourne de eux par endenture des nouns des enquestes, le quel retourne des baillifs le viscount retourne et nul autre; issint qe tiele enqueste soit prise par bones gentz et loialx demurrantz deinz la fraunchise q'ont conisance de tiele matire, et nemye par foreyns; sauvant as gentz de seynte esglise excepcions et chalanges resonables. Et si par tiele enqueste droit le roi soit trove, et qe l'enqueste des foreins, par ignorance, par brocage ou par autre voie, ont dit autre qe veritee, et qe le viscont les retourna en favour del homme de seynte esglise et en damage du roi, adonqe celle enqueste issint des foreyns soit de tout repelle et auxint le jugement sur ce renduz, et le roi ove les issues restitut a sa possessione, et le viscont amercie. En mesme la manere si homme de seynte esglise soit garny par le dit scire facias, et face defaut, ou viegne et la dite matire ne puissent dedire, forspris qe le viscont en tiel cas ne serra mye amercie. May it please him, if any such thing is found for the king in York, Oxford, Bristol, Exeter and other such great cities or towns by the people of the same towns, against any man of holy Church, and this thing is to be tried again by new inquest, it should be ordained so that the sheriff should send for those of the franchise who have the return of the writs and should take the return from them by indenture, as in other cases between other parties; or else to ordain other remedy, that is to say, if the sheriff in any such case concerning people of holy Church returns an inquest of outsiders, in disinheritance of the king, and such inquests are wrongly found against the king, the current mayor of any such town who is sworn to the king in the exchequer should come to the chancellor of the time, and declare to the chancellor by his oath that the king was deceived in the aforesaid manner, so that a scire facias containing the matter thus declared by the mayor is issued immediately, to garnish the man of holy Church for such inquest thus found to answer such matter thus declared by the mayor, and when the man of holy Church and the king challenge each other on such matter, a writ will be issued to the sheriffs to cause a jury to come. This writ should contain that he should send for the bailiffs of the franchise and take return from them by indenture of names of inquests, which return of the bailiffs the sheriff should return and no other; so that such inquest is taken by good and loyal people living inside the franchise who have knowledge of such matter, and not by outsiders; saving to people of holy Church reasonable exceptions and challenges. And if by such inquest the king's right is found, and the inquest of outsiders has said other than truth, by ignorance, corruption or in any other way, and the sheriff returns them in favour of the man of holy Church and in damage of the king, then this inquest of outsiders should be completely repealed and also the judgment returned thereon, and the king should have the issues restored to his possession, and the sheriff should be fined. And likewise if a man of holy Church is garnished by the said scire facias, and makes default or comes and denies the said matter, except that the sheriff in such case will not be fined.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Se y tiegne la loy devant usee. The law previously observed should be upheld.
[p. ii-357]
[col. a]
Qe nulles wapentakes ou hundredes desore soient grantez par patentes. Qe baillifs soient suffice et demurgent forsqe un an. That henceforth no wapentakes or hundreds should be granted by letters patent. That bailiffs should be sufficient and remain only one year.
193. CXXXV. A nostre seignur le roi et a son present parlement; monstre la povre gent et la commune de son roialme: come autrefoitz soit ordeigne par l'estatut qe les viscountz devoient ordenir tiels bailifs es wapentaches et en hundredez qe soient sufficiantz, et pur queux ils veullent respondre a lour peril, puis l'estatut avantdit ascuns baillifs nient sufficiantz ount purchacez, par patentz et lettres de prive seal, wapentaches et hundredez. Et par cause q'ils ne sont remuables par les viscountz, ils sont meyns obedientz as viscountz, enfesantz tortz, et ils doutent meyns a malfaire a la dite povre gentz par faux summons et par pluseurs extorcions. 193. CXXXV. To our lord the king and his present parliament; the poor people and the commonalty of his realm declare: whereas it was previously ordained by statute that the sheriffs should ordain such bailiffs in wapentakes and hundreds who are sufficient, and for whom they will answer at their peril; since the aforesaid statute some unsuitable bailiffs have purchased wapentakes and hundreds by letters patent and letters of privy seal. And because the sheriffs cannot remove them, they are less obedient to the sheriffs, committing illegal acts, and they hesitate less to injure the said poor people by false summons and by many extortions.
Dont y priont qe tielx patentz et lettres soient repelez, et qe nulle soit graunte desorenavant, et si soit graunte soit tenuz pur nulle. Et qe touz les baillifs qeux serront mys soient suffisantez a respoundre a chescun qe voet pursuier devers eux, et ne demorgent plus qe un an. Et qe chescun homme a suggescion eit brief de la chauncellerie a remuer touz tielx baillifs, qe ount ore este ou serront en apres baillifs outre un an entier. Wherefore they pray that such patents and letters should be repealed, and that none should be granted henceforth, and if any are granted, they should be treated as null. And all the bailiffs who are appointed should be sufficient to answer to each person who will sue against them, and should not remain for more than one year. And each man upon suggestion should have a writ of the chancery to remove all such bailiffs, who now are or afterwards will be bailiffs for more that one whole year.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soient les estatutz ent faitz tenuz et gardez. (fn. ii-321-1036-1) The statutes made thereon should be upheld and observed. (fn. ii-321-1036-1)
Quant turnes des viscontes serront tenuz. When tourns of sheriffs should be held.
194. CXXXVI. Item, la ou de tout temps de memorie ad este usee defaire solempne proclamacion et suffisant garnissement al tourne de viscount apres le Seint Michel et Pasqe du jours covenables a tenir les grandes wapentaches et les hundredez, issint qe les gentz qe deussent venir et presenter a yceux puissent renablement estre garniz; les baillifs de viscontz qe ount les wapentachez et les hundres a ferme ne veullent faire la proclamacion ne autre garnissement des jours qe leur wapentach et hundred deussent estre tenuz, issint qe les povrez gentz et husbandes, pur eschuier leur grevous amercimentz, ascun foitz y veignent as lieuz ou y soleint estre tenuz et attendont un jour ou deux ou trois ou pluseurs, quidantz ou supposantz q'ils deussent leur wapentach et hundred tenir durant lour presence; les ditz baillifs ne veullent estre ne court tenir, mes autrefoitz en leur < absence, > a jour nient assigne ou garny, ils veignont et tiegnont leure wapentach et hundred privement, et amerciont asquns des povres gentz, les uns a .xij. d ou .ij. s. ou a pluis sanz afferement, et levont les ditz amercimentz par grevous destresse des bestes de leur charuz et lour husbandriez, a grande oppressioun et empoverissement de la dit povere gent. Dont ils priont remedie, pur Dieu. 194. CXXXVI. Also, whereas from time immemorial it has been the custom to make solemn proclamation and sufficient warning at the sheriff's tourn after Michaelmas and Easter of suitable days to hold the great wapentakes and the hundreds, so that the people who should come and be present at the same might be reasonably warned; the bailiffs of the sheriffs who have the wapentakes and the hundreds at farm will not make the proclamation or other warning of the days on which their wapentake and hundred should be held, so that the poor people and yeomen, to avoid their grievous amercements, sometimes come to places where they used to be held and wait one, two, three or more days, thinking or supposing that they should hold their wapentake and hundred during their presence; but the said bailiffs will not be or hold court there, but at another time in their absence, on a day not assigned or proclaimed, they come and hold their wapentake and hundred secretly, and amerce some of the poor people, some at 12d. or 2s. or more without assessment, and they levy the said amercements by grievous distress of their plough beasts and their livelihoods, to the great oppression and impoverishment of the said poor people. Wherefore they pray remedy, for God.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soient les estatutz ent faitz tenuz et gardez. (fn. ii-321-1042-1) The statutes made thereon should be upheld and observed. (fn. ii-321-1042-1)
[memb. 30]
Des presentementz affaire en lete et vewe de francplege. Concerning presentments to be made in leet and view of frankpledge.
195. CXXXVII. Item, ou de ancien temps ad este custume qe les presentours dussent presenter les articles du lete et de vewe de frank plegg tansoulement deux foitz par an, c'estassavoir, a le grande wapentache prochein apres les festz de Seint Michel et de Pasqe; les baillifs avauntditz fount les povres gentz et les husbandes de pais, qeux dussent travailer en leur labours et leur husbandriez et pur le commune profit, venir de trois semaignes en trois a lour wapentachez et hundredez, par colour de presentement avoire, et rettent leur labours et leur husbanderiez au terre, sinoun q'ils leur veullent doner tiels ransons et fyns q'ils ne purront sustener ne endurer. 195. CXXXVII. Also, whereas of ancient times it has been the custom that the presenters should present the articles of leet and of view of frankpledge only twice a year, that is to say, at the great wapentake immediately following the feasts of Michaelmas and Easter; the aforesaid bailiffs make the poor people and the freeholders of the region, who should work in their labour and their agriculture and for the common profit, come every three weeks to their wapentakes and hundreds, on the pretext of having presentment, and they take away their labour and agriculture from the land, unless they will give them such ransoms and fines which they cannot sustain or endure.
Dont ils priont de grace d'ordeigner q'ils purront presenter choses presentables deux foitz par an tansoulement, en ease de la dite povre gent, issint q'ils puissent meuth susteyner leur labours et leur husbandriez, pur commune profit du roialme, et estre deschargez des tiels charges. Wherefore they pray of grace to ordain that they may present presentable things twice a year only, in ease of the said poor people, so that they might better sustain their labour and their agriculture, for the common profit of the realm, and be discharged from such charges.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Il y ad estatutz suffisaument. (fn. ii-321-1048-1) There are adequate statutes on this matter. (fn. ii-321-1048-1)
De ceux qi doivent faire suyte as wapentakes. Concerning those who should make suit at wapentakes.
196. CXXXVIII. Item, ou avant ses heurs nulle homme soleit venir as wappentach ne as hundres a presenter, meas tansoulement les resceantz, et ensement femmes, clerkz et gentz de religioun ont este quitez de venir as tiels wappentaches et hundreds; les baillifs avauntditz [col. b] amercient, et ils meisme mettont les amerciamentz a leur volunte sanz afferours et levont amerciamentz, par grande destrisse de noun resceantz, et des femmes, clerkz et gent de religion, et ensement des povres gentz qe n'ount forsqe un acre de terre, ou deux ou trois ou poy pluis, la ou ils ne sont resceantz ne ont resceantie; dont plusours lessont leur terre giser friche pur le graundes amerciamentz et fyns q'ils demandent outre la value de lour terres. 196. CXXXVIII. Also, whereas before this time no man used to come to wapentakes or hundreds to present, but only to receive suits, and also women, clerks and men of religion have been exempted from coming to such wapentakes and hundreds; the aforesaid bailiffs [col. b] fined them, and they themselves set the amercements at their will without assessors and levied the amercements, by great distress of non-residency, and from women, clerks and men of religion, and also from poor people who have only one acre of land, or two, three or a little more, where they are not resident and do not have residency; whereby many let their land lie fallow as a result of the great amercements and fines which they are charged beyond the value of their lands.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Il est ordenez par estatutz qi doivent tieles suytes faire, et queux nemye. (fn. ii-321-1054-1) It is ordained by statutes who should make such suits, and who should not. (fn. ii-321-1054-1)
Des trespasses et autres contractes faitz hors de jurisdiccions. Concerning trespasses and other contracts made outside jurisdictions.
197. CXXXIX. Item, baillifs de faires et des marchez fount attachementz sur gentz du pais et gentz estrangez, a respondre en leur courtez des trespas, des debtz et des convenancez faitz hors de lour jurisdiccion, et des autres choses queux ne toucheint merchandie, et ascun foitz ils se fount partiez en la vantage et profit prendre des tielx pleez. Dont gentz estrangez et les communes graundement endamagez priont a nostre seignur le roi de sa grace remedie, pur Dieu. 197. CXXXIX. Also, bailiffs of fairs and markets make attachments upon people of the region and outsiders, to answer in their courts concerning trespasses, debts and covenants made outside their jurisdiction, and concerning other things which do not concern trade, and sometimes they cause parties to be taken to the advantage and profit of such pleas. Wherefore the greatly damaged outsiders and commons pray our lord the king remedy of his grace, for God.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Il y ad estatutz ent faitz. (fn. ii-321-1060-1) There are statutes made thereon. (fn. ii-321-1060-1)
Des fermers des hundredes etc. qi fount moever pleintes. Concerning farmers of hundreds etc. who cause plaints to be moved.
198. CXL. Item, baillifs qeux ont wapentaches et hundredes a ferme font les uns des gentz lever pleyntez et meyntener plees devaunt eux, qe ne sont en volunte defaire la pleynte ne lever sinoun par procurement de ditz baillifs, et ascun foitz sanz la sachance de ceux en quel nouns le pleyntz sont levez, tanqe ils ont gaynez deniers et amerciamentz a leure volunte. Et outre ceo, ils parnont pleyntz de grandes summes, et font severance de yceux par pluseurs pleintz, en prejudice del court le roy et grande damage de commune poeple, qar ils ne sont sachantz de leye, ne bien apris de tenir plees des grandes summes. 198. CXL. Also, bailiffs who have wapentakes and hundreds at farm make some of the people raise plaints and maintain pleas before them, who are unwilling to make or raise the plaint except by the procurement of the said bailiffs, and sometimes without the knowledge of those in whose names the plaints are raised, until they have gained money and amercements at their will. And further, they take plaints of great sums, and make severance of the same by many plaints, in prejudice of the king's court and in great damage of the common people, since they are ignorant of the law, and not properly educated to hold pleas of great sums.
Par quoi ils priont a nostre seignur le roy et a son present parlement, s'il pleise, qe les avauntditz baillifs n'eyent conissance devaunt eaux des pleez queux passent .x. s. ou .xiij. s. .iiij. d. pur l'amour de Dieux. Wherefore they pray our lord the king and his present parliament, if it please him, that the aforesaid bailiffs should not have cognisance before them of pleas which exceed 10s. or 13s. 4d., for the love of God.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
< Se tiegnent l'estatuz ent faitz devant. (fn. ii-321-1066-1) > The statutes previously made thereon should be upheld. (fn. ii-321-1066-1)
[memb. 31]
PETICIONES CLERI. PETITIONS OF THE CLERGY.
CXLI. Excellentissimo principi et domino suo, domino Edwardo, Dei gracia, regi Anglie et Francie illustri, supplicant sui humiles et devoti oratores clerus tocius Cantuarien' provincie humiliter et devote: quatinus peticiones infrascriptas pro reformacione gravaminum eidem clero de diebus in dies contra jura et libertates ecclesiasticas illatorum dignetur sua regia celsitudo, ob reverenciam Dei et ecclesie, benigniter exaudire, eademque gravamina debite reformari facere, ac in presenti parliamento sufficienter statuere ne de cetero talia attemptentur. CXLI. To their most excellent prince and lord, Lord Edward, by the grace of God illustrious king of England and France, his humble and devoted petitioners the clergy of the whole province of Canterbury humbly and devotedly petition: that his royal highness should deem worthy the petitions written below for the correction of the grievances inflicted upon the same clergy from day to day contrary to the laws and ecclesiastical liberties, to the reverence of God and the Church, and kindly grant that the same grievances should be corrected, and sufficiently established in the present parliament so that no-one should attempt such henceforth.
199. Inprimis, licet decima silve, presertim cedue, de jure divino et ecclesiastico Deo et ecclesie sit solvenda, tamen ubi dum taxat de decima silve hujusmodi cedue coram judice ecclesiastico agitur, prohibiciones regie parti et judici poriguntur, et consultaciones debite et antiquitus consuete minime conceduntur, set par clausulas jam de novo contra justiciam subtiliter adinventas nimium restringuntur, adeo quod judices ecclesiastici in causa hujusmodi silve cedue cognoscentes, timore clausularum in consultacionibus hujusmodi jam noviter ut premittitur insertarum ulterius in dicta causa procedere non audebunt. Et quamvis consultacio sufficiens concedatur, concedi solita ab antiquo, iterato prohibicio regia prime consimilis super eadem materia impetratur, et nichilominus si postea consultacione secunda eciam preobtenta judex in causa procedat ulterius, datur attachiacio contra judicem, advocatum et partem, consultacione hujusmodi ultima non obstante. [Tithes of wood.]
199. First, it is permitted that tithes of wood, especially cut wood, should by divine and ecclesiastical law be paid to God and the Church, nevertheless where tithes only of this cut wood are made before an ecclesiastical justice, writs of prohibition are delivered to the party and the justice, and modifications are not granted by due and ancient custom, but they are greatly restricted by recently invented subtle clauses contrary to justice, so that ecclesiastical justices cognisant in these cases of cut wood, for dread of the clauses recently inserted into these modifications, as is aforesaid, will not dare to proceed further in the said cases. And sufficient modification, customarily granted since antiquity, may be granted to anyone, and similarly a writ of prohibition may be especially procured on the same matter, and nonetheless if afterwards, in a second modification which has also been previously obtained, a judge should proceed further in the case, arrest may be imposed upon the judge, advocate and party, notwithstanding this last modification.
Unde supplicat idem clerus quod in causis silve hujusmodi cedue consultaciones debite et consuete absque difficultate et restriccione qualibet concedantur; [p. ii-358][col. a] cesset quoque attachiacio de qua prefertur, < aut > quevis alia molestacio et inquietacio in curia seculari, eciam post primam consultacionem optentam; liceatque judici ecclesiastico post eandem, prohibicione regia impetranda postmodum non obstante, ulterius inpune absque offensa regie majestatis libere procedere sine consultacione alia impetranda. Wherefore the same clergy petitions that in these cases of cut wood modifications should be granted by right and custom without any difficulty or restriction whatsoever; [p. ii-358][col. a] and also the arrest of any of the aforesaid should cease, or any other trouble and disturbance in secular court whatsoever, also after the first modification is obtained; and after the same it should be permitted to the ecclesiastical judge, notwithstanding writs of prohibition acquired afterwards, to proceed freely in the future unpunished without offence of royal majesty freely to proceed without other modification being acquired.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Un consultacion grantee suffist par la loy en celle cause ou querele; et s'il busoigne, y averont clause especial pur prohibicions faites et affaires. A modification granted by the king should suffice in this case or quarrel; and if necessary, they will have a special clause for prohibitions made and to be made.
200. Item, nonulli laici, quod ab eis decima silve cedue peti debeat, presumentes, ante quamcumque litem contra ipsos motam et citacionem quamcumque, se tractos in placitum coram judice ecclesiastico super decima grossarum arborum minus veraciter suggerentes, prohibiciones regias impetrant, eas parti et judici porrigi facientes; sicque is cui debetur decima hujusmodi silve cedue impeditur contra ejusdem decime debitores instituere accionem, cum consultacionem juxta libellum dari solitam, quem non dedit, nequeat optinere. [Writs of prohibition in tithes of wood.]
200. Also, some lay people, from whom tithes of cut wood should be sought, presuming themselves to be sued before an ecclesiastical justice concerning falsely assigned tithes of great trees, before any suit or summons whatsoever has been moved against them, acquire writs of prohibition and cause them to be delivered to the party and the judge; so that he who is owed these tithes of cut wood is prevented from beginning an action against the debtors of his same tithe, using a modification according to the writ usually given, which he did not give and could not obtain.
Petit propterea idem clerus, contra fraudem hujusmodi remedium ordinari, ac licere parti contra quam prohibicio impetratur, prohibicione hujusmodi fraudulenta non obstante, facere decime debitorem ad judicium evocari, et ibidem contra eum libellum porrigere in decima silve dum taxat cedue concludentem. Ac quod judex ecclesiasticus partis prohibicionem hujusmodi callide impetrantem punire valeat, juxta canonicas sancciones. The same clergy therefore petition that remedy should be ordained against this fraud, and notwithstanding this fraudulent prohibition, the party against whom the prohibition is sued should be permitted to cause the one who owes the tithe to be summoned to judgment, and to deliver a writ against him there specifying tithes of cut wood only. And an ecclesiastical justice of the party should be able to punish this hotly sued prohibition, according to the rule of canon law.
201. Item, ubi coram judice ecclesiastico pro quocumque crimine vel excessu agitur ad penam solum canonicam et correccionem anime infligendam, cesset penitus regia prohibicio; < que > si concessa fuerit, consultacio concedatur. [Writs of prohibition to cease in cases punishable by canon law.]
201. Also, a writ of prohibition should completely cease when it is made before an ecclesiastical justice for any crime or excess whatsoever to inflict only canonical penalty and correction of the soul; so that if any has been granted, a modification should be granted.
202. Item, ubi de pensione debita precipue ab ecclesia ecclesie, seu ab uno beneficio ecclesiastico alteri, causa coram judice ecclesiastico ventilatur, cesset penitus regia prohibicio. Que si forsan emanaverit, consultacio libere concedatur, et ipsius cause cognicio et decisio sint judicis ecclesiastici, et nullatenus secularis. [Writs of prohibition in cases of church pensions.]
202. Also, a writ of prohibition should completely cease when the case is moved before an ecclesiastical justice concerning a pension due principally by a church to a church, or by another ecclesiastical benefice; so that if by chance one has been issued, a modification should be freely granted, and cognisance and decision of the same case should belong to ecclesiastical justices and not to secular ones.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Les justices s'assembleront en presence d'aucuns prelatz, et y ferront tiellement qe ils lour ent devront tenir pur contentz. The justices will assemble in the presence of certain prelates, and they will do as much as they should to keep them content.
203. Item, in causa decimarum quandoque opponitur, quod decime excedunt quartam partem valoris ecclesie, et ex hoc prohibicio regia impetratur, et super hoc cognoscit curia secularis in causa decimarum notorie contra jura. [That secular courts should not have cognisance of cases concerning tithes.]
203. Also, whenever cases of tithes are disputed, because the tithes exceed one quarter the value of the church, and as a result a writ of prohibition is sued, the secular court has cognisance of this in cases of tithes notoriously against the law.
204. Item, provisores et ministri regii, pro provisionibus regiis faciendis feodum et loca ecclesiastica invitis viris ecclesiasticis seu eorum custodibus non intrent, nec animalia aliaque res et bona inde auferant, prout fecerint et faciunt nunc indies, contra ecclesiasticam libertatem et constituciones sanctorum patrum et statuta < regni > edita in hac parte. Nec in via extra feoda et loca predicta predictorum virorum cariagium, carectas ve capiant vel arrestent. [Purveyance.]
204. Also, the king's purveyors and officials should not enter fees and ecclesiastical places to make royal purveyances against the will of ecclesiastical men or of their keepers, or remove any animals, items and goods from there, as they did and do from day to day, contrary to the ecclesiastical liberty, the constitutions of the holy fathers and the statutes of the realm ordained in this matter. And they should not seize or arrest the carriages or carts of the aforesaid men in the streets outside the aforesaid fees and places.
205. Item, si super decimis sub nomine catallorum coram seculari judice quis trahatur, et ita tractus coram eodem proponat judice quod vere sunt decime et non catalla, hanc judex ecclesiasticus et non secularis decidat et terminet quescionem. [Distinction between tithes and chattels.]
205. Also, if anyone is dragged before a secular justice concerning tithes under the name of chattels, and when dragged before the same justice claims that they are truly tithes and not chattels, an ecclesiastical justice and not a secular one should decide this and determine the question.
206. Item, si concedatur aliqua consultacio condicionalis in causa spectante ad forum ecclesie, per ista [col. b] verba, 'si sit ita, vel dumtamen etc.' aut aliis verbis consimilibus, quod judex ecclesiasticus coram quo causa ventilatur poterit cognoscere de veritate illius condicionis, ad effectum purificacionis ipsius, et ulterius postea procedere in causa absque impeticione judicis secularis etc. [Conditional modifications.]
206. Also, if any conditional modification is granted in a case belonging to the jurisdiction of the church, by these [col. b] words, 'if it is so, or only etc.', or by other similar words, the ecclesiastical justice before whom the case is moved can know the truth of these conditions, with the effect of the purification of the same, and then afterwards can proceed in the case without disturbance from secular justices etc.
207. Item, licet omnes et singuli litteras impetrantes, per quas jurisdiccio ecclesiastica et processus judicis ecclesiastici in causis et negociis ad forum et jurisdiccionem ecclesiasticam spectantibus impedita sint, ipso facto majoris excommunicacionis sentencia dampnabiliter involuti; nonulli tamen, Dei timore postposito, censuram ecclesiasticam non timentes, in causis et negociis hujusmodi prohibiciones regias impetrare, et per eas jurisdiccionem et processus ecclesiasticos impedire ausu temerario solito frequentius non formidant, dictam majoris excommunicacionis sentenciam hoc ipso ut premittitur incurrendo. [Writs of prohibition in cases incurring excommunication.]
207. Also, whereas it is lawful to sue in each and every letter, by which ecclesiastical jurisdiction and process of ecclesiastical justice should be sued in cases and business belonging to the ecclesiastical court and jurisdiction, whereby the sentence of major excommunication is culpably involved; nevertheless some people, setting aside the fear of God, and unafraid of ecclesiastical censure, sue writs of prohibition in these cases and business, and they do not fear to sue frequently for ecclesiastical jurisdiction and process by such audacious efforts, incurring the said sentence of major excommunication as is aforesaid.
Supplicat igitur dictus clerus [pro animarum periculo caucius] evitando, ne de cetero prohibiciones regie in causis et negociis hujusmodi impetrentur judicibus ecclesiasticis [porrigendis, nisi prius domini nostri regis] cancellario, vel alteri ad quem prohibiciones hujusmodi concedere pertinet, pars volens prohibiciones hujusmodi impetrare [libellum sigillo judicis coram quo] causa hujusmodi agit sigillatum exhibeat seu presentet, ut juxta ejusdem libelli conclusionem liquide valeat apparere [an prohibiciones] hujusmodi concedende fuerint, aut negande. The said clergy therefore petitions, for the better avoidance of danger to souls, that henceforth no writs of prohibition should be sued in these cases and business to be delivered to ecclesiastical justices, unless first the party wishing to sue these prohibitions should exhibit or present the writ by the seal of the justice before whom this cause was made to our lord the king's chancellor or to another who can grant these prohibitions, as the conclusion of the same writ clearly shows, whether these prohibitions should have been granted or not.
208. Item, supplicat dictus clerus: quatinus dignetur regia celsitudo in presenti parliamento statuere, < ne > quivis clericus ecclesiastica ve persona, dum sacris misteriis et divinis officiis occupatur, pro transgressione qualibet licet gravi, in ecclesia vel ejus cimiterio aut locis aliis Deo dedicatis, capiatur per ballivos et alios ministros regios seu aliorum dominorum temporalium, seu al' arrestetur; ne ex hoc divinum turbetur officium, vel inceptum contingat forsitan intermitti. Idem eciam statuatur de presbitero ad infirmum eukaristiam deferente, ac eciam ipsius clerico, si quem habeat secum. [Sanctuary.]
208. Also, the said clergy petition: whereas it was deemed worthy by his royal highness in the present parliament to ordain that no ecclesiastical or parish clergy, while occupied with sacred ministries and divine offices, should be allowed sanctuary in the church or its cemetery or in other places dedicated to God for any trespasses, if he should be taken by bailiffs and other officers of the king or of other temporal lords, or otherwise arrested; that divine office should not be disturbed because of this, or a service come by chance to be interrupted. The same ought also to be ordained concerning a priest delivering the eucharist to the weak, and also his clerk, if he has one with him.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi le voet, et grante par tielle manere qe nul ne se tiegne en le saintewaire par fraude. The king wills and grants it in such manner that no-one should be held in sanctuary by fraud.
[memb. 32]
Pur la ville de Caleys. For the town of Calais.
209. CXLII. A tresexcellent et tresdote seignur nostre seignur le roy et soun noble et sage conseil; monstrent ses simples burgeises de la ville de Caleis qe sont demurez au present: qe pur recoverer de la dite ville et du pais, queux sount destrutz, pleise a nostre dit seignur et a soun sage conseil granter illosqes l'estaple des leynes entierment et des toutz autres petites marchaundises qe viendront hors d'Engleterre, Irland et Gales pur illosqes estre venduz et nul part ailleurs, a graunt profit au roy et de tout le royalme et a grant seuretee de la ville; qar quant l'entiere estaple fuist a Caleis, et le capitayn fist aucun chivalchie, le meir fist gaite deinz la ville ove .c. gleyves et ove .cc. archiers des marchauntz et lour servantz, qe ne pristrent nulles gages du roy. Et ore sount ils voidez, a graunt peril de la ville. 209. CXLII. To the most excellent and most dread lord our lord the king and his noble and wise council; his simple burgesses of the town of Calais who are here at present declare: for the recovery of the said town and region, which are destroyed, that it might please our said lord and his wise council to grant there the entire staple of wool and of all other small merchandise which comes from England, Ireland and Wales to be sold there and nowhere else, to the great profit of the king and of all the realm and to the great security of the town; since when the entire staple was at Calais, and the governor caused some to go out to fight, the mayor was able to stand watch in the town with 100 men-at-arms and 200 archers taken from the merchants and their servants, who took no wages from the king. And now they have left, to the great peril of the town.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Ceo lour soit grauntez, c'estassavoir, qe le dit estaple y soit tenuz et null part aillours es parties de outre myer, sibien des leynes, quirs et pealx lanutz come de plumbe, esteym, draps appelles worstedes, furmage, bure, plume, gaul, felperie et suwe. (fn. ii-321-1104-1) This should be granted them, that is to say, that the said staple of wool, leather and woolfells as well as of lead, tin, cloths called worsted, cheese, butter, feathers, wood, frippery and tallow should be held there and nowhere else overseas. (fn. ii-321-1104-1)
210. Item, qe la veile chartre de Mahaut, countesse d'Artois, des fraunchises et privileges confermes et enseales du graunt < seal > nostre seignur le roy, leur soit alowe et confermee, except qe la ley des terres et tenementz soient amesnez et jugges solonc les communes leys d'Engleterre; les queux chartre, fraunchises et privileges les suisditz burgeois unqes ne forsfierent; toutz dis les articles [p. ii-359][col. a] des fraunchises et privileges grauntes par nostre seignur le roy as marchantz de l'estaple illeoqes sauvez et reservez. 210. Also, the old charter of Mahaut, countess of Artois, of franchises and privileges confirmed and sealed with our lord the king's great seal, should be allowed and confirmed to them, with the exception that the law concerning lands and tenements should be removed and judged according to the common law of England; which charter, franchises and privileges the aforesaid burgesses never forfeited; saving and reserving all the said articles [p. ii-359][col. a] of the franchises and privileges granted to merchants of the staple there by our lord the king.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roy se advisera. The king will consider this further.
211. Item, la ou contenuz est en la dite chartre, d'avoir baillif, eskivyns et cornemans, les ditz burgeois supplient: q'ils puissent avoir un meir et .xij. aldermans, et le mair a lour eleccion d'un des ditz aldermans, come ils font en la citee de Londres. Et la ou le meir q'ad estee avaunt ses hures prist du roy .cc.li. par an, et ne fist nul charge de gaite ne de garde; ils supplient qe le mair qe serra a lour eleccion ne prendra qe .c.li. par an, portant le charge de .vi. hommes, come un alderman fait au present, pur la sauve garde de la ville suisdit et au profit du roy. Et les aldermans parnantz atant par an come ils fount a present, portant mesme le charge de .vi. hommes pur la sauve garde de la ville avaundite. 211. Also, whereas it is contained in the said charter that they may have a bailli, échevins and coremans, the said burgesses petition: that they might have a mayor and twelve aldermen, and the mayor at their election from one of the said aldermen, as they do in the city of London. And whereas the previous mayor took £200 yearly from the king and did not make any charge of watch or guard, they petition that the mayor who will be at their election should only take £100 yearly, bearing the charge of six men, as one alderman does at present, for the safekeeping of the aforesaid town and to the profit of the king. And the aldermen should take as much yearly as they do at present, bearing the same charge of six men for the safekeeping of the aforesaid town.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Il plest a roy q'ils y aient en la dit ville un meir de la ville et .xij. aldermans, et q'ils y aient de eux et entre eux mesmes franche eleccion de mesme les mair et aldermans qe soient persones Engleises, par tiele manere q'ils portent touz maneres des charges affairs dedeinz la ville, sibien de mesme les mair et aldermans et de touz autres officers de la ville come de reparacioun du pavment et des communes gutteres et fontaignes et nettement de la ville, et touz autres charges affaires en ycelle. Et en aide d'ycells charges supportier et susteigner, mesme le mair, aldermans et communes de la ville averont devers eulx l'assise de vin, pain et de cervoise et la stallage des bouchers et la stallage des drapers et mercers, et auxint le picage en la marche, et ensement touz les profitz sourdantz de la courte devant les mair et aldermans, come issues, amerciamentz et tieux autres profitz; reservez tutdis au roy nostre seignur le fyn pur la tret de sank, et pur le coup, et auxint reservez a lui touz eschetes et terres, tenemenz, biens et chateux confiscatz. Et y soient les ditz mair et aldermans deschargies des toutz gaites faire en la ville, horspris des gaites dont lour tenantz sount chargiez illosques. Et y ait le mair poair de cognoistre en touz quereles et de faire justice a chescun qi se [y vorra pleindre] de chose qe a luy appartene. It pleases the king that the said town should have a mayor of the town and twelve aldermen, and that they should have free election of the same mayor and aldermen, who should be English people, from and among themselves, in such manner that they bear all manner of charges to be made in the town, concerning the same mayor and aldermen and all other officers of the town as well as concerning the repair of streets, common gutters and fountains and the cleansing of the town, and all other charges to be made in the same. And in aid of supporting and sustaining the same charges, the same mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the town should have for themselves the assize of wine, bread and ale and the stallage of butchers, drapers and mercers, and also the pickage in the market, and also all the profits arising from the court before the mayor and aldermen, such as issues, amercements and such other profits; reserving always to our lord the king the fine for bloodshed and violence, and also reserving to him all confiscated escheats and lands, tenements, good and chattels. And the said mayor and aldermen should be discharged from making all watches in the town, except the watches for which their tenants are charged there. And the mayor should have power to have cognisance in all quarrels and to do justice to each person who will complain about anything which pertains to him.
212. Item, qe come la dite ville ad este governe par diverses loies puis le conquest, primerement, par les auncienes loies du pais, et apres par la chartre de .xxvi. meirs et aldermans; suppliont les ditz burgeois qe si ascun plee des terres, tenementz ou d'autres sourde parentre partie et partie des alienaciouns faites par les auncienes loies, q'ils soient amesnez et adjugges solonc les loies uses en le temps de les alienacions faites. 212. Also, whereas the said town has been governed by various laws since the conquest; first, by the ancient laws of the region, and then by the charter of twenty-six mayors and aldermen; the said burgesses petition that if any plea of lands, tenements or others arises between party and party concerning alienations made by the ancient law, they should be brought and adjudged according to the laws used in the time the alienations were made.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Les alienacions des terres et tenementz faites puis le temps qe le roi avoit le governement en temps qe les loies du pais furent usees, et avaunt les novelles loies faitz, estoisent en lour force si avaunt come elles deussent, solonc les loies adonqes usees. The alienations of lands and tenements made since the time the king had the government when the laws of the region were used, and before the new laws were made, should remain in their force as completely as they should, according to the laws then used.
Item, qe les ditz burgeois puissent franchement deviser lour terres et tenemenz deinz la dit ville as gentz Engleis, auxi franchement come ils font en la cite de Londres. Also, that the said burgesses might freely devise their lands and tenements in the said town to English people, as freely as they do in the city of London.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Il plest bien au roi qe ceo lour soit grantee. It pleases the king that this should be granted to them.
Item, qe les ditz burgeois et lour servantz de la dite ville puissent achatier fraunchement touz maneres des merchandises et vitailles qeconqes pur la sustenance de la dite ville, par touz les partz en Engleterre, quit de tollnu et custume paier, sibien par tut le roialme d'Engleterre come en la dite ville, eskivinage et toute la seignurie nostre seignure le roy celles parties; exceptz leynes, peaux lanutz, quirs et esteym qe touchent a l'estaple; [col. b] la quele fraunchise fuist graunte as bonz gentz de la dite ville qant ele estoit Franceoys, el temps del Roy Richard, le Roy John et le Roy Henry, jadis roys d'Engleterre. Also, that the said burgesses and their servants from the said town might freely buy all manner of merchandises and victuals whatsoever for the sustenance of the said town, in every part of England, quit from paying tolls and customs, throughout the realm of England as well as in the said town, the jurisdiction of the échevins and all the lordship of our lord the king in those parts; with the exception of wool, woolfells, leather and tin which belong to the staple; [col. b] which franchise was granted to the good people of the said town when it was French, in the times of King Richard, King John and King Henry, former kings of England.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Ce lour est auxint grauntez, purveuz toute foitz q'ils paient les custumes et subsides des lynes et d'autres lour marchandises de l'estaple. This is also granted to them, provided always that they pay the customs and subsidies of wool and their other merchandises of the staple.
Item, q'ils purront avoir commune pasture pur lour bestes en les dounes parentre Caleis et Wale et parentre Caleis et Sandegate, en l'eskivynage. Also, that they might have common pasture for their beasts in the dunes between Calais and Waldam and between Calais and Sangatte, in the jurisdiction of the échevins.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roy se ent vorra enfourmer quel damage ceo fust a lui ou as autres, si ce lour ruist grantee. The king will consider what damage he or others might incur if this was granted to them.
Item, qe par la ou sont pluseurs maisons eschieuz et abateuz en la ville de Caleis, sibien des seignurs come des autres, et sont ascons devenuz as mains du roy, des queux le roy ad perdue partie de sa rente, et les gaites de la ville perduz, a graunt anientesment a les burgeois et enhabitantz de la dite vill. Also, many houses, of lords as well as others, are in ruins and have fallen down in the town of Calais and some have come into the king's hands, from which the king has lost part of his rent, and the watches of the town are lost, to the great detriment of the burgesses and inhabitants of the said town.
Par qoy suppliont les ditz burgeois de remede, et qe le roy ne doune nuls maisons en fee ne a terme de ive n'autrement, qe soloient porter charge de gaite, sanz gaite faire a graunt surtee de la ville. Wherefore the said burgesses petition for remedy, and that the king will not give any houses in fee, for a term of life or otherwise which used to bear the charge of watch, without making watch for the greater security of the town.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roy le voet bien. The king wills it.
Item, qe chescon burgeois soit enheritez en la dit ville deinz un an et jour apres soun serement fait, sur paine de perdre sa franchise, pur profit de roy et reparacioun de la dit ville. Et qe null estrange ne soit burgeois deinz la dit ville, par qeconqe voie, pur la salvacion d'icelle. Also, that each burgess should have right of inheritance in the said town for a year and a day after he makes his oath, on penalty of losing his franchise, for the king's profit and the repair of the said town. And that no alien should be a burgess in the said town, in any way whatsoever, for the salvation of the same.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Quant a le second point, < le roi le voet; > salvez a lui et a ses heirs q'il y purra faire grace a estraunge marchant d'y estre burgeois, si plest au roy del faire. As regards the second point, the king wills it; saving to him and his heirs that he can show favour to an alien merchant by making him a burgess, if it pleases the king to do so.
Item, pleise a nostre seignur le roy graunter comissioun as capiteyn et tresorer de Caleis pur bailler as gentz Engleis en fee les terres, tenemenz et voides places deinz la dite ville, qe sont au roy, pur un petit rente; par quel ils averont volunte de les prendre et enheriter. Et ce ferra plusours maisons enherites queux sont ore chiez et destruytz. Also, may it please our lord the king to grant a commission to the governor and treasurer of Calais to grant in fee to English people the lands, tenements and empty places in the said town, which belong to the king, for a small rent; whereby they will have power to take and inherit them. And thus many houses will be inherited which are now in ruins and destroyed.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Il pleist au roy qe ensi soit fait. It pleases the king that it should be so.
Item, qe nul proteccioun ne soit alowe desore enavaunt en la ville de Caleis qe purroit destourber le loial paiment faire par entre merchant et merchant ou souldeour < ou > burgeois des merchandises achatez illeoqes durant l'estaple. Also, that no protection should be allowed henceforth in the town of Calais which could disturb the lawful payment to be made between merchant and merchant or soldier or burgess for merchandise bought there through the staple.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi ent se advisera. The king will consider this further.
Item, qe nul burgeois ne soit amesne hors de la franchise de Caleis par brief du roy n'autrement, pur plee de dette, terres, tenemenz ne par qeconqe autre voye. Also, that no burgess should be taken outside the franchise of Calais by writ of the king or otherwise, for plea of debt, lands, tenements or in any other way whatsoever.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Ce lour soit graunte de choses faites deinz la dite ville, si le roi ne soit partie, ou si ne soit par voie d'errour. This should be granted to them concerning things done inside the said town, if the king is not party, or if it is not by way of error.
Item, qe null plee des terres, tenemenz ne de nul autre contract civilier ne criminel soient ajuggez en nul court deinz la ville de Caleis, forsqe par les meir et aldermans, par les lois et privilegges a eux grantez par nostre seignur le roy; toutes voies les privileges de l'estaple sauvez. Also, that no plea of lands, tenements or any other civil or criminal contract should be adjudged in any court inside the town of Calais, except by the mayor and aldermen, by the laws and privileges granted to them by our lord the king; always saving the privileges of the staple.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Ce lour soit grantez; salvez al capitein sa jurisdiccioun, et salves qe si plee serra mue en dite ville ou la jurisdiccioun d'ycelle, parentre soldeour et burgeois, qe la querele en ce cas soit pledee et juggee sibien devaunt le capitain come le mair de la ville. This should be granted to them; saving to the governor his jurisdiction, and saving that if a plea is moved in the said town or in the jurisdiction of the same, between soldier and burgess, the quarrel in this case may be pleaded and judged before the governor as well as before the mayor of the town.
Item, qe les mair, aldermans et burgeois eient poiar defaire ordenances qe bons soient pur la bone governement de les gentz liges et autres deinz la ville, [p. ii-360][col. a] sibien par neot come par jour deinz la dite ville. Et qe celles ordenaunces q'ils ferront pur la commune profit soient tenuz pur fermes et estables. Also, that the mayor, alderman and burgesses should have power to make ordinances which are good for the good government of the liege people and others in the town, [p. ii-360][col. a] by night as well as by day in the said town. And that these ordinances which they make for the common profit should be upheld as firm and binding.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Ent serra enquiz quele damage y purrount avenir. It will be inquired what damage could come from the same.
Requeste des communes. Request of the commons.
Et sur ce mesmes les communes y baillerent avant en parlement une grande rolle ou une grande cedule, et une autre bille annexez a mesme le rolle, contenantes entour .xli. articles. Mais une article y estoit cancellez et denygrez par manere come ce est: ore empriantz humblement au roi lour seignur lige et as continuels conseillers ordenez entour le roy qe de < toutz celles articles comprises en ditz roulle, cedule et bille, qeux sont en filace avec autres billes > < de cest parlement, > fust bone execucion et due justice fait pur profit du roi nostre seignur et de tout le roialme d'Engleterre. (fn. ii-321-1171-1) Et surce apres y fust dit par le chanceller d'Engleterre depar le roi, as chivalers des ditz contees et cetizeins et [col. b] burgeoys illeoqes presentz q'ils feissent pursuyte pur briefs pur lour gages de parlement, par manere accustumez. Et tantost apres se leverent les prelatz et seignurs, et pristrent lour congie del roi nostre seignur dessusdit; et issint se departist ce present parlement al dit lieu de Eltham, mesme le parlement continuez devant de jour en autre puis le comencement d'ycelle tanqe a ce present joefdy, qe fust le sisme jour de Juyl, l'an present, mesme cest parlement durant en tout .x. sesmaynes et pluis. And thereon the same commons put forward in parliament a great roll or a great schedule, and another bill annexed to the same roll, containing around forty-one articles. But one article was cancelled and crossed out in the manner following: 'now praying humbly to the king their liege lord and to the continual councillors appointed around the king that concerning all these articles contained in the said roll, schedule and bill, which are on file with other bills of this parliament, good execution and due justice should be made for the profit of our lord the king and of all the realm of England.' (fn. ii-321-1171-1) And thereon the said chancellor of England, on behalf of the king, then said to the knights of the said shires and citizens and [col. b] burgesses there present that they should make suit for writs for their wages of parliament in the usual manner. And soon after, the prelates and lords rose and took leave of our aforesaid lord the king; and thus when they left this present parliament for the said place of Eltham, the same parliament had continued from day to day from the beginning of the same until this present Thursday, 6 July in the present year, this same parliament lasting over ten weeks in all.
Et fait remembre qe depuis qe le parlement issint estoit finiz, les communes baillerent avant as seignurs deux grantz billes faitz par la communaltee de la ville < de > Grant Jernemuth', dont plusours y estoient presentz a pursuir mesmes les billes; les quelles billes, avec lours endossementz y faitz par les seignurs, sont auxint en [...] . And let it be remembered that when the parliament had thus ended, the commons put forward to the lords two great bills made by the commonalty of the town of Great Yarmouth, many of whom were present to pursue the same bills; which bills, with their endorsements made by the lords, are also in . . . .

Appendix 1376

1

Roll comprising lists of the messengers sent with writs proroguing the parliament of 1376 to meet on 28 April, with full details of the lords and sheriffs to whom were directed the writs for which each messenger had responsibility; the amount of the pay for undertaking the task is recorded against the name of each messenger, and there is a note on the dorse of the document that the payments are recorded on the issue roll for 5 February 1376. The lists are as follows (in the order in which they appear on the roll):

John March, paid £1 for delivering writs to: the bishop of Carlisle; Lords Percy, Greystoke, Aldeburgh, Clifford, Furnival, Grey of Codnor; the sheriffs of Northumberland, Westmorland, Cumberland, Lancashire, Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire.

William ?, paid 16s 8d for delivering writs to: the archbishop of York; the earl of Angus; the abbots of Thorney, St Mary's York, Ramsey, Bardney, Peterborough, Croyland; Lords la Ware, de la Pole, Zouche of Harringworth, Cromwell, Huntingfield, Grey of Ruthin, (Henry) Scrope; the abbot of Selby; the sheriffs of Northamptonshire, Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, Rutland, Bedfordshire and Buckinghamshire; Lord Roos.

John Bryghtwell, paid £1 for delivering writs to: the bishops of St Davids, Llandaff; the abbot of Abingdon, Oseney (deleted, with a note that he was in London: see below), Cirencester, Gloucester, Reading, Winchcombe; Lord St Amand; the abbot of Malmsbury; Lord (Richard) Scrope; the sheriffs of Herefordshire, Gloucestershire, Oxfordshire and Berkshire, Worcestershire; Lord Talbot.

John Cook, paid 13s 4d for delivering writs to: the bishop of Ely; the abbots of St Albans, Waltham, St Benet's Hulme, Bury St Edmunds, Colchester; Lords Morley (but see below), Bardolf; the sheriffs of Norfolk and Suffolk, Cambridgeshire and Huntingdonshire, Essex and Hertfordshire; Lord Scales (but see also below).

John Elyot, paid 13s 4d for delivering writs to: the archbishop of Canterbury; the bishops of Rochester, Chichester; Lords Clinton, Northwode; the sheriffs of Kent, Surrey and Sussex.

William Hardyng and John Ely (payments not specified) for delivering writs at London to: the bishops of Worcester, Durham, Bath and Wells, Hereford, Norwich, Lincoln, Ely (deleted); the earls of March, Suffolk, Warwick, Stafford; the abbots of Westminster, St Augustine's Canterbury; Lord Scales (but see also below); the prior of St John of Jerusalem; Lords Montagu, Lovell, Lisle; the sheriff of Middlesex; the abbot of Oseney (see also above).

William Hardyng, paid £1 6s 8d for delivering writs to: the bishop of Lichfield; the keepers of the spiritualities of the bishoprics of Bangor, St Asaph; the prior of Coventry; the abbot of Shrewsbury; Lords Stafford, Burnell, Botetourt, Ferrers; the sheriffs of Staffordshire, Warwickshire and Leicestershire; the abbot of Shrewsbury (deleted as an accidental repetition: see above); Lord Burnell (deleted as an accidental repetition: see above).

Thomas Seyne, paid £1 for delivering writs to: the bishops of London, Salisbury; the earl of Devon; the abbots of Hyde, Glastonbury; Lords Brian, Botreaux, Poynings; the sheriffs of Cornwall, Devon, Bristol, Somerset, Wiltshire, Hampshire; Lord Beauchamp.

Robert Shyrrington, paid 5s for delivering a writ to Lord Morley (see also above).

Source : E 175 Roll 25

2

Petition of John Burdet, monk of the abbey of St Wandrille, Normandy (and prior of the alien priory of Ecclesfield in the diocese of York): at the suit of Henry Medbourne, clerk and chaplain to Lord Latimer, John has been ousted from the priory on a suit brought by a writ of quare impedit , and cannot recover his rights as a result of the maintenance of the case by Lord Latimer. Henry Medbourne, since taking the priory, has committed waste and destruction to the value of 300 marks. Remedy is requested. No endorsement. If this petition was presented in the parliament of 1376, it provides the basis on which the commons made their allegation against Lord Latimer concerning his false intrusion of Medbourne into the priory of Ecclesfield (item 46); a writ was issued to the escheator of Yorkshire on 4 August 1376, warranted 'by the council in parliament', ordering an inquisition to be taken on the matter.

Sources : SC 8/290/14452; CFR 1369-77 , 362; CIM 1348-77 , no. 1003.

3

Petition of the king's poor tenants and lieges of the town of Lowestoft: their grievances against the town of Yarmouth concerning rights at Kirkley Roads; request that the charter granted to Yarmouth allowing it rights of jurisdiction over Kirkley Roads be repealed. No endorsement. This petition is probably that referred to in the memorandum on the parliament roll for 1376 to the effect that, 'at the complaint of the commons of England as well as at the suit of certain people from the town of Lowestoft in the county of Suffolk made in this parliament, our lord the king's charter, by which he formerly granted to his burgesses of the town of Yarmouth that a place in the sea called Kirkley Roads was united and annexed to the port of the said town of Great Yarmouth forever, was completely repealed and revoked ...' (item 49). The bailiffs and commonalty of Yarmouth were ordered to appear before the king on 4 July 1376 to give up the relevant charter, granted to them in 1372; and the record of that charter on the charter roll has a note stating that it was annulled in the parliament of 1376.

Sources : SC 8/124/6155; CCR 1374-7 , 432, 434; CChR, 1341-1417 , 224-5.

4

Petition (damaged) of the commons concerning the jurisdiction of the steward and marshal of the king's household. Except for the address (which reads 'A tresexcellent et tresredote seigneur nostre seigneur le roi supplient ses communes de sa terre [etc]'), the petition is identical in content to that found among the common petitions on the parliament roll for 1376 (item 91, no. XLI), of which it may be the original; the endorsement to the unenrolled petition is the same as the answer on the parliament roll except that the unenrolled version reads '... ou le roi mesmes est, ou, s'il plest au roi , del lieu ou le tynell se tient ...' (italics inserted to denote variation).

Source : C 49/8/16.

5

Petition (damaged) of the poor commons of the county of Devon, with endorsement; transcribed verbatim in, and presumably the original of, the petition among the common petitions of this parliament (item 130, no. LXXI). See also below, no. 17.

Source : SC 8/14/653.

6

Petition of the mayor and citizens of Carlisle: the bishop of Carlisle, Lords Percy and Clifford, Sir Guy Brian, Sir Henry Scrope and Sir Ralph Ferrers have examined the problem of the defences of the city; they plead impoverishment and vulnerability and request relief. No endorsement. It is possible, given the similarity of detail concerning the commission of inquiry, that this petition was presented in the parliament of 1376 and was incorporated into a broader petition made in the name of the commonalty of Cumberland which was in turn taken up and included among the common petitions enrolled on the parliament roll (item 132, no. LXXIII).

Source : SC 8/119/5950.

7

Petition of the king's poor lieges of the county of Kent, with endorsement; presumably the original of the petition transcribed among the common petitions of this parliament (item 135, no. LXXVI). The address clause is adapted to fit the model of the schedule of common petitions ('Item ...'), and the endorsement is adapted as it appears on the parliament roll with the addition of 'les ditz ministres', presumably for clarification.

Source : SC 8/14/652.

8

Petition of the mayor, aldermen and commonalty of the city of London, identical to that found among the common petitions in the parliament roll of 1376 (item 143, no IIII XX IIII), with the exception of one addition (' ... et estre brocour et vendre et achater toutes maneres marchandises a retaille; et estraunge vendre a estraunge pur revendre, a grant encherissement ...' [italics denote additional text in the enrolled petition]), and lacking an endorsement. The petition is also cited in full in letters patent granting its request, made with the assent of the prelates, nobles and magnates in parliament, dated 4 December 1376 and warranted 'by the great council', which stated that the matter would be discussed in the next parliament; these letters patent were cited in a common petition on behalf of London (and recited in full) on the parliament roll of January-March 1377 (under the date of 4 November 1376) (parliament of January-March 1377, item 33.).

Sources : SC 8/205/10232; CPR 1374-7 , 389.

9

Petition of the king's poor lieges, the mayor and commonalty of Chichester. This is presumably an original of the petition found among the common petitions of this parliament (item 145, no IIII XX VI). However, the petition on the parliament roll is made simply in the name of 'the commons of the city of Chichester'. Furthermore, the unenrolled petition follows that on the parliament roll only as far as 'dedeinz ycelx enheritez', after which it concludes 'de quey ils prient eyde et remedie', whereas the enrolled petition continues with further text. The unenrolled petition is not endorsed.

Source : SC 8/14/654.

10

Petition of the mayor and commonalty of Newcastle upon Tyne not identical with, but showing a close affinity to, one of the common petitions of this parliament (item 149, no. IIII XX X). Given the reply supplied to the petition on the parliament roll, it is possible that the unenrolled petition is the document on which the council acted, though it is not in fact endorsed. The unenrolled petition ends with a comment, not found in the version on the parliament roll, that without justice, the mayor and commonalty of Newcastle upon Tyne would be in danger of being bought and sold like oxen in the market.

Source : SC 8/65/3203, printed in full in Ancient Petitions Relating to Northumberland , ed. C.M. Fraser, Surtees Society 176 (161), no. 64.

11

Petition of the commonalties of the counties of Essex and Hertfordshire to the king: identical in substance to, and presumably the original of, the petition from these counties included in the common petitions on the parliament roll of 1376 (item 151, no. IIII XX XII). The unenrolled petition is endorsed 'xjx'. See also parliament of January-March 1377, item 61, no. XLIIII.

Source : SC 8/109/5405.

12

Petition of merchants of Lincoln and Lincolnshire to the king and council 'in this present parliament', against the companies of the Strozzi and Alberti of Florence: Thomas Biancardi, Dino Biancardi and Nicholas Giovanni, factors of the companies, have purchased goods valued at £10,000 but have left the realm suddenly without paying for their purchases. Remedy requested. No endorsement. This is apparently the petition that provoked the commons' attack on the Alberti and Strozzi in the common petitions recorded on the parliament roll of 1376 (item 160, no. C). The crown ordered the seizure of the goods of the Strozzi and Alberti in London on 15 July 1376 but subsequently cancelled the instruction pending an inquiry before the great council in October; the case was heard, a compromise was agreed, and proceedings were stayed until 1 August 1377.

Sources : SC 8/123/6150; CFR 1369-77 , 357; CCR 1374-7 , 440, 473-4.

13

Petition of the king's liege men of the county of Devon. This is presumably an original of the petition found among the common petitions of this parliament (item 180, no. CXXI). However, while the two texts are more or less identical down to 'de la dite commune', they differ thereafter: the unenrolled petition specifically states that the men who have committed the seizures of foodstuffs are in the retinue of Sir Robert Ashton and requests a writ to Thomas Melbourne and others, purveyors, that they pay for goods taken, whereas the version on the parliament roll is general on these matters; furthermore, the parliament roll version adds another request, not mentioned in the unenrolled petition, for a proclamation on the matter. Interestingly, the unenrolled petition is endorsed 'Il est responduz entre les communes billes'; a substantive answer is provided only to the version on the parliament roll.

Source : SC 8/14/655.

14

Petition made in the name of chaplains, deans and chapters of cathedral churches, made in parliament, surviving as an exemplification recorded on the patent roll, with its endorsement. The petition concerns their rights to free possession of their holdings; it was agreed and confirmed 'by the king, lords and other great men assembled in this parliament'. The exemplification is dated 12 July 1376 and is not warranted.

Source : CPR 1374-7 , 294-5.

15

Petition of the earl of Angus, specifying within its text that it is made 'en cest present parlement', resulting in the appointment of a commission of oyer and terminer dated 14 March ( sic ) 1376. In spite of the dating of the action, the endorsement of the petition indicates that it is to be related to the parliament of 1376, and is of some significance: 'petitiones parciales liberate in parliamento [apud] Westm' die lune proxima post festum [Sancti Georgii] anno regni regis Edwardi tercii post conquestum quinquagesimo' (the lacunae are supplied from the title of the parliament roll). This may suggest that the petition was used as a cover, or label, for a bundle of private petitions submitted in the Good Parliament.

Sources : SC 8/162/8091; CPR 1374-7 , 317-18.

16

Chancery instrument dated 1 July 1376 and warranted 'by the council in parliament', appointing the earl of Angus and others to inquire into the 'complaint of the commonalty of the realm in parliament' that Richard Lyons had attempted to levy tunnage and poundage on merchandise coming into the realm from Scotland. This commission appears to arise from the concerns of the commons expressed not in the common petition section of the parliament roll but in the record relating to affairs at Kirkley Roads in item 31.

Source : CPR 1374-7 , 327.

17

Chancery instruments, dated 6 July 1376 and warranted 'by council in parliament', taking action upon the petitions recorded on the parliament roll of the people of Devon (item 130, no. LXXI; see also above, no. 5) and of Cornwall (item 131, no. LXXII), appointing commissions of oyer and terminer (warranted 'by council in parliament') to inquire into extortions and oppressions by the officers of the stannaries in the two counties, and ordering the wardens of the stannaries in the two counties to desist from such extortions and oppressions. See also parliament of January-March 1377, item 64, no. XLVII, and parliament of January-March 1377, Appendix no. 4.

Sources : CPR 1374-7 , 328; CCR 1374-7 , 380-1.

18

Petition of Robert Sambourn resulting in a chancery instrument dated 1 July 1376; although the chancery instrument is not warranted, the dating of the instrument makes it likely that this petition was heard in parliament.

Sources : SC 8/70/3491; CPR 1374-7 , 286.

19

Petition of the town of Penrith concerning the contamination of their water supplies. Endorsed: let an inquiry be set up returnable in chancery. The resulting commission was appointed under letters patent dated 8 July 1376 and warranted 'by petition in parliament'.

Sources : SC 8/136/6761, printed in full in Northern Petitions , ed. C.M. Fraser, Surtees Society 176 (1961), no. 75; CPR 1374-7 , 327-8.

20

Exemplification in the form of letters patent, dated 14 December ( sic ) 1376, of the petition of the commonalties of the counties of Essex and Suffolk as it appears among the common petitions on the parliament roll of 1376 (item 142, no. IIII XX III), by way of fulfilment of the crown's agreement to grant letters patent in the terms requested by the petition.

Source : CPR 1374-7 , 396.

21

General commission of oyer and terminer, headed by the earl of Suffolk, appointed to inquire into extortions, oppressions, etc., committed in Norfolk and Suffolk by the king's ministers and agents and others. The commission is dated 16 November ( sic ) 1376 and warranted 'by petition in parliament'. It states that it arose from a petition of the commonalties of Norfolk and Suffolk, but according to the parliament roll of January-March 1377 (item 96), it arose from 'the clamour made at the end of the last parliament' (that is, of 1376) for a general inquiry in the counties to investigate the oppressions of Hugh Fastolf and others.

Source : CPR 1374-7 , 413.

22

Petition (not extant) of the burgesses of the town of Blaye in Gascony made before king and council in parliament, resulting in letters patent dated at Westminster, 3 July 1376, and warranted 'by petition in parliament', confirming the town's annexation to the English crown.

Source : C 61/89, m. 6.

23

Prorogation of a protection previously granted (on 15 July 1372) to John Heritz, knight, and his son, of Scotland; prorogation issued on 1 July 1376 and warranted 'by the council in parliament'. There is no evidence within the chancery instrument as to the circumstances under which the protection was made.

Source : Rot. Scot. , I.977.

24

Fragmentary list of the names of 50 petitioners, individually numbered, conjecturally dated to the parliament of 1376. If the dating is correct, then the list provides important evidence of the submission of a larger number of private petitions in this parliament than is indicated by the individual entries in this Appendix. It may also explain the Roman numerals written on the dorse of the petition described in no. 11, above, and the apparent survival of the bundle cover or label of the private petitions from this parliament (above, no. 15).

Source : C 49/43/10.

25

Writ (dated 16 January 1377) to the sheriff of Bedfordshire and Buckinghamshire ordering that Giles Daubeney and Fulk Pembrigg be required to contribute to the expenses of the knights of the shires for those two counties at the parliament of 1376.

Source : Foedera III.ii.1036.

Footnotes

  • f1376int-1. For further discussion, see D. Rayner, 'The forms and machinery of the "commune petition" in the fourteenth century', EHR 56 (1941), 225-6.
  • f1376int-2. J.E. Powell and K. Wallis, The House of Lords in the Middle Ages (London, 1968), 371.
  • f1376int-3. The close roll does not clarify the matter of the new earl's summons to the delayed assembly, but the issue roll records a payment made to a messenger on 22 April 1376 for delivering a writ of summons to him: Issues of the Exchequer, Henry III-Henry VI , ed. F Devon (London, 1847), 199.
  • f1376int-4. RDP , IV.662-7; Powell and Wallis, House of Lords , 372.
  • f1376int-5. CCR 1374-7 , 428-30; T.F. Tout, Chapters in the Administrative History of Mediaeval England , 6 vols. (Manchester, 1920-33), III.291 (n. 1).
  • f1376int-6. M. McKisack, The Parliamentary Representation of the English Boroughs during the Middle Ages (Oxford, 1932), 146; G. Holmes, The Good Parliament (Oxford, 1975), 104.
  • f1376int-7. A.K. McHardy, 'The representation of the English lower clergy in parliament during the later fourteenth century', SCH 10 (1973), 100 (n. 13).
  • f1376int-8. For the origins of the label, see Tout, Chapters , III.290, n. 3; J. Taylor, English Historical Literature in the Fourteenth Century (Oxford, 1987), 199 (n. 17).
  • f1376int-9. Holmes, Good Parliament , summarises and supersedes most previous work.
  • f1376int-10. The most recent analysis is Taylor, English Historical Literature , 198-205.
  • f1376int-11. Chronicon Angliae , ed. E.M. Thompson (London, 1874), 68-101; The best analysis of the dating of Walsingham's chronicles is G.B. Stow, 'Richard II in Thomas Walsingham's chronicles', Speculum 59 (1984), 68-102. Walsingham eliminated his account of the Good Parliament from later recensions.
  • f1376int-12. A. Goodman, 'Sir Thomas Hoo and the parliament of 1376', BIHR 41 (1968), 139-49.
  • f1376int-13. The Anonimalle Chronicle , ed. V.H. Galbraith (Manchester, 1927), 79-94, translated in Taylor, English Historical Literature , 301-13.
  • f1376int-14. Taylor, English Historical Literature , 139-43.
  • f1376int-15. Anonimalle Chronicle , 80; Taylor, English Historical Literature , 301-2.
  • f1376int-16. Anonimalle Chronicle , 80-5; Taylor, English Historical Literature , 302-5.
  • f1376int-17. Anonimalle Chronicle , 85-8; Taylor, English Historical Literature , 305-8. The first three charges are recorded in item 16. De la Mare argued (erroneously: no evidence exists to support the point) that the Calais staple had been set up by parliament. His actual citation from a book of statutes referred not to this 'phantom' legislation but to the principle that a statute made in parliament ought only to be undone there - though this in itself causes some problems of identification. For discussion of the matter, see T.H. Lloyd, The English Wool Trade in the Middle Ages (Cambridge, 1977), 221-2.
  • f1376int-18. The Sermons of Thomas Brinton, Bishop of Rochester , ed. M.A. Devlin, 2 vols., Camden Society 3rd series 86 (1954), II.316-21.
  • f1376int-19. Anonimalle Chronicle , 88-90; Taylor, English Historical Literature , 308-10.
  • f1376int-20. Anonimalle Chronicle , 90-2; Taylor, English Historical Literature , 310-12; Holmes, Good Parliament , 105.
  • f1376int-21. Anonimalle Chronicle , 93-4; Taylor, English Historical Literature , 312-13.
  • f1376int-22. For the latter date, see Tout, Chapters , III.304 (n. 5).
  • f1376int-23. For the significance of this material, see Tout, Chapters , III.299-300.
  • f1376int-24. CFR 1369-77 , 348.
  • f1376int-25. There is some evidence that Roger Beauchamp was already functioning in this position, which he formally assumed by the end of July 1376: Tout, Chapters , VI.47.
  • f1376int-26. CPR 1374-7 , 278; Holmes, Good Parliament , 106.
  • f1376int-27. Holmes, Good Parliament , 106, says 2 June, but this is a misreading of the information in Tout, Chapters , VI.43-4.
  • f1376int-28. CFR 1369-77 , 348.
  • f1376int-29. Chronicon Angliae , 87; Anonimalle Chronicle , 92; Holmes, Good Parliament , 109, 112; C. Given-Wilson, The Royal Household and the King's Affinity: Service, Politics and Finance in England 1360-1413 (London, 1986), 148-9.
  • f1376int-30. Given-Wilson, Royal Household , 151. For Sporier, see Holmes, Good Parliament , 112 (n. 5) .
  • f1376int-31. R. Barber, Edward, Prince of Wales and Aquitaine (London, 1978), 234, 236.
  • f1376int-32. CCR 1374-7 , 428-30. For a problem case arising from the issue of these writs, see Appendix no. 25.
  • f1376int-33. Tout, Chapters , III.304 (n. 5).
  • f1376int-34. W.M. Ormrod, The Reign of Edward III (London, 1990), 35.
  • f1376int-35. Rayner, 'Forms and machinery', 225.
  • f1376int-36. W.R.. Jones, 'Bishops, politics and the two laws: the gravamina of the English clergy, 1237-1399', Speculum 41 (1966), 233-4; D.B. Weske, Convocation of the Clergy (London, 1937), 259; Holmes, Good Parliament , 147-9; Ormrod, Reign of Edward III , 140-3.
  • f1376int-37. For discussion of the contents of these petitions, see D. Greaves, 'Calais under Edward III', in Finance and Trade under Edward III , ed. G. Unwin (Manchester, 1918), 329-33.
  • f1376int-38. A.R. Myers, 'Parliamentary petitions in the fifteenth century', EHR 52 (1937), 385-404, 590-613; Rayner, 'Forms and machinery', 198-233, 549-70.
  • f1376int-39. J.S. Roskell, The Commons and their Speakers in English Parliaments 1376-1523 (Manchester, 1965), 3-30, surveys the origins of the office.
  • f1376int-40. Roskell, Commons , 12-13, 23-7.
  • f1376int-41. For the development of impeachment, see G. Lambrick, 'The impeachment of the abbot of Abingdon in 1368', EHR 82 (1967), 250-76. See also J.G. Bellamy, 'Appeal and impeachment in the Good Parliament', BIHR 41 (1966), 35-46.
  • f1376int-42. M.C. Buck, 'The reform of the exchequer, 1316-1326', EHR 98 (1983), 254; Harriss, King, Parliament , 314-20; Ormrod, Reign of Edward III , 65, 77-80.
  • f1376int-43. Harriss, King, Parliament , 320-7.
  • f1376int-44. Harriss, King, Parliament , 467-9.
  • f1376int-45. Ormrod, Reign of Edward III , 169.
  • ii-321-36-1. SR , I.384 (c. ix)
  • ii-321-48-1. CFR 1368-77 , 225; Calendar of Letter Books of the City of London , ed. R.R. Sharpe (London, 1899-1912), Letter Book G . 318-20
  • ii-321-53-1. For the problems associated with the identification of this parliamentary sanction for the Calais staple, see Introduction, and Introduction to parliament of 1373.
  • ii-321-101-1. SR , I.374 (c. xi), 393 (c. iv)
  • ii-321-126-1. In the parliament of January-March 1377 (item 94) it was stated that the case had gone before the commission of inquiry in Norfolk and Suffolk headed by the earl of Suffolk, for which see Appendix to this parliament, no. 21
  • ii-321-128-1. SR , I.321 (c. iv), 382 (c. xviii), 384 (c. ix)
  • ii-321-128-2. A reference back to the commissions cited at item 19
  • ii-321-136-1. SR , I.321 (c. iv), 382 (c. xviii), 384 (c. ix)
  • ii-321-143-1. For the possible origins of this case, and its outcome, see Appendix no. 2
  • ii-321-152-1. See Appendix no. 3
  • ii-321-173-1. SR , I.89-90 (c. xxxviii), 113, 139 (c. ix), 365 (c. iv), 389-90 (c. xi)
  • ii-321-188-1. SR , I.117 (c. xxiii), 315 (c. iv), 393 (c. ii)
  • ii-321-194-1. SR , I.117 (c. xxiii), 315 (c. iv), 393 (c. ii)
  • ii-321-200-1. See below, item 143, no. IIII XX IIII
  • ii-321-219-1. SR , I.97 (c. iv), 268 (c. xiv), 347 (c. xi)
  • ii-321-234-1. SR , I.254 (c. viii)
  • ii-321-260-1. SR , I.91-2 (c. xli)
  • ii-321-272-1. SR , I.259-60 (c. xii), 277 (c. iii), 284 (c. ix)
  • ii-321-278-1. SR , I.117 (c. xxiii), 315 (c. iv), 393 (c. ii)
  • ii-321-302-1. SR , I.283 (c. vii), 346 (c. vii), 389 (c. ix)
  • ii-321-319a-1. SR , I.47 (c. iii)
  • ii-321-331-1. SR , I.283 (c. vii): the legislation actually states that the sheriffs ought to be replaced at All Souls; but see the crown's answer to the petition immediately below
  • ii-321-364-1. SR , I.350 (c. iv)
  • ii-321-375-1. Parliament of 1373, item 18, no. VI
  • ii-321-375-2. Above, item 14
  • ii-321-378a-1. SR , I.365-6 (cc. v-vi)
  • ii-321-390-1. SR , I.33 (c. xxv), 139 (c. xi), 216
  • ii-321-399-1. Below, item 94, no. XLIII
  • ii-321-402-1. SR , I.138 (c. iii)
  • ii-321-405-1. SR , I.138 (c. iii), 301 (c. vii); and see Appendix no. 4
  • ii-321-414-1. SR , I.93 (c. xliv)
  • ii-321-432-1. Apparently a reference to the king's answer to the petition in the parliament of 1373, item 30, no. XVIII
  • ii-321-465-1. Most recently, SR , I.385-7
  • ii-321-470-1. SR , I. Charter of Liberties, 5
  • ii-321-490-1. SR , I.307, 311-12 (cc. i-iii), 350 (c. vii), 366-7 (cc. ix-xi), 388 (c. vi)
  • ii-321-493-1. SR , I.285-6 (c. xiii)
  • ii-321-508-1. A reference to the material above, at item 94, no. XLIIII, and item 104, no. XV
  • ii-321-542-1. SR , I.371-3 (cc. ii-vi)
  • ii-321-568-1. For the original of this petition, see Appendix no. 5; and for the resulting action, see Appendix no. 17
  • ii-321-570-1. The charter is question is that of 1305, which had been confirmed in 1327: CChrR, 1300-26 , 53; CChR, 1327-41 , 53
  • ii-321-605-1. For resulting action, see Appendix no. 17
  • ii-321-607-1. The charter is question is that of 1305, which had been confirmed in 1327: CChrR, 1300-26 , 53; CChR, 1327-41 , 53
  • ii-321-643-1. For a possible connection between this and a petition of the mayor and citizens of Carlisle, see Appendix no. 6
  • ii-321-658-1. SR , I.393 (c. ii): this statute is in fact of 1371 (that is, the forty-fifth year of the reign), not 1373 (the forty-seventh year)
  • ii-321-664-1. For the original of this petition, see Appendix no. 7
  • ii-321-667-1. Foedera , III.ii.1036
  • ii-321-703-1. SR , I.395 (c. i)
  • ii-321-706-1. See Appendix no. 20
  • ii-321-709-1. Parliament of 1373, item 16, no. IIII
  • ii-321-709a-1. For the original of this petition, see Appendix no. 8
  • ii-321-721-1. For the possible original of this petition, see Appendix no. 9
  • ii-321-733-1. SR , I.259-60 (c. xii)
  • ii-321-745a-1. See also Appendix no.10
  • ii-321-757a-1. For the original of this petition, see Appendix no. 11
  • ii-321-814-1. For the origins and outcome of this petition, see Appendix no. 12
  • ii-321-871-1. Unknown.
  • ii-321-874-1. Above, item 126, no. LXVII
  • ii-321-941a-1. For the possible original of this petition, see Appendix no. 13
  • ii-321-983-1. SR , I.265 (c. xiv), 374 (c. x)
  • ii-321-983-2. Either item 74, no. XXIII, or perhaps item 79 no. XXIX
  • ii-321-1021-1. SR , I.106
  • ii-321-1036-1. SR , I.175, 258 (c. iv), 259 (c. xii), 264 (c. ix), 266 (c. iv), 284 (c. ix)
  • ii-321-1042-1. The most recent statutory statement was SR , I.352 (c. xv)
  • ii-321-1048-1. The most recent statutory statement was SR , I.352 (c. xv)
  • ii-321-1054-1. SR , I.21-2 (c. ix)
  • ii-321-1060-1. SR , I.260 (c. xv), 266 (c. v)
  • ii-321-1066-1. SR , I.284 (c. ix)
  • ii-321-1104-1. For this concession, and those that follow for the town of Calais, see Foedera , III.ii.1057-8
  • ii-321-1171-1. This article does not appear on the parliament roll in its extant form