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Edward III: January 1377

Parliament Rolls of Medieval England. Originally published by Boydell, Woodbridge, 2005.

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In this section

1377 January

Introduction January-March 1377

Westminster

27 January - 2 March

(C 65/31. RP , II.361-375. SR , I.396-398)

The first parliament of 1377, which also proved to be the last parliament of Edward III's reign, is recorded in C 65/31. This is a roll of 9 membranes, numbered from 9 to 1, each approximately 350 mm. in width, sewn together in the chancery style. The condition of the roll is good, apart from the bottom half of membrane 1 which is slightly torn and stained with gallic acid, rendering certain sections of text illegible. The text, written in a small, clear chancery script, occupies the recto of the membranes only. The dorses are blank, apart from the later note, 'Anno 51 E 3 parla. Westm' Anglie; anno E 3 in Francia 38', the heading, 'Rotulus parliamenti tenti apud Westm' .xv. sancti Hillar' anno regni regis E. tercii post conquestum Anglie quinquagesimo primo', at the bottom of membrane 9, and the later notes, 'Parl. apud Westm' .xv. Hillar' anno 51 Ed 3 pars unica', where the membranes are joined. Marginal headings are contemporary. Arabic numerals throughout the roll are later, although Roman numerals are contemporary. The roll does not appear to be incomplete. It contains an incidental reference to the clerk of parliament, but does not name him (item 87).

The parliament of 1377 was summoned by writs dated 1 December 1376 to meet at Westminster on 27 January following. (fn. f1377aint-1) Payments to messengers delivering the personal summonses and writs for election were recorded in the exchequer on 12 December. (fn. f1377aint-2) There was one novice among the lords temporal in receipt of summonses: Thomas of Woodstock, the king's youngest son, who although still lacking a noble title of his own was probably considered to be entitled (now that he had come of age) to sit by right of his wife, the co-heiress of the deceased Humphrey Bohun, earl of Hereford, Essex and Northampton. (fn. f1377aint-3) Ten royal clerks and lawyers were also ordered to be in attendance. The election returns are well preserved; they, in conjunction with the writs de expensis , provide the names of all 74 knights of the shires and 147 of the citizens and burgesses. The identities of the 12 barons of the Cinque Ports are also know, as are those of six of the proctors of the lower clergy returned to this assembly. (fn. f1377aint-4) The Chronicon Angliae claims that John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, laboured the elections to ensure that his own supporters were returned to this assembly: (fn. f1377aint-5) indeed, the speaker of the assembly identified on the parliament roll (item 87), Thomas Hungerford, one of the representatives for Wiltshire, was himself a Lancastrian steward. (fn. f1377aint-6) Modern prosopographical research suggests that there were not more than a dozen or so Lancastrian retainers among the shire representatives in this parliament, though this does not eliminate the possibility of a wider body of Lancastrian 'sympathisers'. (fn. f1377aint-7) It may also be of some significance in this respect that the number of shire knights elected to this assembly who had also sat in the Good Parliament was considerably lower than might have been expected in light of the general pattern of re-election observed over the previous twenty years. (fn. f1377aint-8) One further (previously unnoticed) detail suggesting that the assembly was carefully managed is the evidence that certain unnamed bishops, earls and barons were summoned to London before the council for 17 January, a week before the parliament was due to meet. (fn. f1377aint-9)

Since the summer of 1376 the government, under the informal general leadership of John of Gaunt, had been actively at work attempting to circumvent or confound the actions of the Good Parliament. By October 1376 the disgraced courtiers had been pardoned and restored to their titles, lands and influence. Peter de la Mare, the Speaker in the Good Parliament, was imprisoned in Nottingham Castle. The earl of March, who had supported the opposition, was deprived of his office of marshal. And William Wykeham, bishop of Winchester, who had supported the case for putting Latimer to trial, was dispossessed of his estates and brought before the council. (fn. f1377aint-10) A particularly assertive act occurred a fortnight before the opening of the new parliament, when the crown abandoned the position into which it had been forced by parliament in 1371, of appointing laymen to the posts of chancellor and treasurer, and returned to a clerical succession with the appointments of Adam Houghton, bishop of St Davids, as chancellor, and of Henry Wakefield, bishop of Worcester, as treasurer. (fn. f1377aint-11) The political community responded negatively to the high-handed manner of the regime: in particular, a major and potentially violent dispute arose between Gaunt and the Londoners during the winter of 1376-7. (fn. f1377aint-12) However, any hope that the momentum of opposition established in the Good Parliament could be recovered in the Hilary parliament of 1377 seems rapidly to have evaporated. This was partly a consequence of the crown's decision to use the parliament as a celebration of the completion of Edward III's fiftieth year on the throne: the timing of the assembly to meet two days after the beginning of the new regnal year seems more than mere coincidence (see items 5, 7), even if it was apparently left to the commons to initiate the general pardon issued in celebration of this anniversary (item 22; item 24, no. II). (fn. f1377aint-1) More particularly, the parliament met in the context of the imminent renewal of the French war and major concerns over the security of the realm: rumour was rife that Charles V was planning a full-scale naval assault on the south coast of England and the country was to be put formally in a state of defence during the time that parliament was in session. (fn. f1377aint-14) If, as has been suggested, the commons' political obfuscation and final refusal to grant direct taxation in the Good Parliament was made possible to some degree by the prolongation of the truce of Bruges (see Introduction to parliament of 1376), then such circumstances palpably no longer existed early in 1377 and the government was evidently able to transcend a certain amount of domestic political difficulty by asserting a state of urgent necessity and placing a moral and constitutional obligation on the realm to rally behind the crown in its moment of need.

This state of emergency was heightened by the incapacity of the king. The parliament roll reports that, when the session opened on 27 January, the very first piece of business was the reading out of the absent king's commission to his grandson, Prince Richard, to act as president of the parliament (items 1-3). When Houghton re-convened the assembly in the prince's name the following day, he reported that the aged Edward III had 'for some time been visited by the grace of God in such manner that he has been in great peril of his life' (item 5). The Anonimalle Chronicle claims that the illness, which had afflicted the king since September 1376, broke on 3 February 1377, (fn. f1377aint-15) and Houghton told parliament that Edward was 'much better and almost cured'. The Anonimalle Chronicle also reports that the king was removed from Havering to Sheen on 10 or 11 February and travelled down the Thames past Westminster, where all the lords of parliament came out to honour his passing presence. (fn. f1377aint-16) Nevertheless, there never appears to have been any suggestion that he might make an appearance in formal sessions of this parliament. Although in some contexts (as, indeed, during the later stages of the Good Parliament) the royal absence might have been taken as an opportunity for unrestrained critical debate, Edward III's illness seems to have galvanised the Hilary parliament of 1377 into an awareness of the fragility of the domestic regime at a moment of international crisis, and made its members more inclined to accept the actions and guidance of those running the government. (fn. f1377aint-17)

Houghton's opening speech is of some interest in that it appears in effect to have combined what in recent parliaments had been two separate items: the sermon preached by a member of the episcopal bench, and the 'charge' to parliament delivered by the chancellor or chief justice of king's bench (items 4-12). Perhaps the re-establishment of the line of clerical chancellors encouraged the crown to use the same man for both jobs, and thus to ensure a particularly loyalist tone in the sermon. It is doubly interesting that the sermon, previously reported only in rather summary form, is recorded in some detail, if not as a verbatim report, on this parliament roll. Houghton dwelt not unsurprisingly on the symbolically purifying nature of the king's recent illness and a general celebration of his family. More specifically, he referred to Prince Richard in two seasonally apt Biblical contexts: the feast of the Epiphany (6 January, which also happened to be Richard's birthday), when the Magi had visited the infant Christ (item 10), and the feast of the Presentation at the Temple (2 February: Candlemas), on which occasion Simeon had announced the Nunc dimittus upon identifying the person of Jesus as the Saviour of his people (items 10-11). Clearly, as much as possible was being done to persuade the political community of the suitability of succession of a minor. The sermon over, Houghton then moved to the causes of summon of the assembly, which was pronounced chiefly, and unsurprisingly, in terms of the defence of the realm, though also in reference to more general issues of domestic governance (item 12). Houghton's speech was followed by a short statement from Sir Robert Ashton, the chamberlain, who explained that it was inappropriate for the bishop to speak on the matter that followed since it dealt critically with the influence of the pope: he invited the lords and commons to give consideration to the 'usurpations' committed by the see of Rome within the realm (item 13). The receivers and triers of petitions were then announced, and those intending to submit private petitions were given until Monday 2 February to lodge their bills with the receivers (items 14-17).

The parliament roll provides no further clue as to the chronology of the assembly over the following weeks. It is possible that the crown entertained hopes of concluding the assembly before the onset of Lent: Ash Wednesday fell on 11 February in 1377. However, this was to reckon without the lively political debate that evidently occupied the lords and commons over some weeks. The next recorded date within the roll is 22 February, when a deputation of the lords and other officials went to Sheen to secure the king's personal consent to the general pardon and various answers supplied to the common petitions (item 22). The same entry indicates that parliament had been in adjournment for some days prior to this, but was reconvened on 23 February to hear the formal reading of the common petitions and the crown's answers to them. Meanwhile, however, the lords and commons, meeting separately, but intercommuning through a committee of named prelates and lords (item 18), had already agreed upon a subsidy formally granted in a plenary session held on an unspecified date (item 19), which has been suggested as occurring some time between 16 and 19 February. (fn. f1377aint-18)

The form of the subsidy was novel: a poll tax of 4d per head on every man and woman over the age of fourteen years, with the exception of honest beggars. The roll provides no evidence on how the lords and commons reached the decision to adopt this new form of tax, though the Chronicon Angliae and the Anonimalle Chronicle both allude to the discussion of a number of different possible types of subsidy. (fn. f1377aint-19) There has been much debate among historians as to the significance of the poll tax duly selected. (fn. f1377aint-20) Some see it as the natural culmination of a deliberate policy pursued since the 1330s and gathering momentum in the 1370s whereby the political classes sought to extend the basis of liability and pass on the burden of taxation to those previously exempt from, or assumed to be under-assessed for, from direct subsidies. Others see it in reference to associated tax experiments in 1371 and 1379 and suggest that the assembly of 1377 may have been moved as much by compassion and equity as by a desire to punish a greedy and unworthy peasantry. Two points are of particular note in this respect.

First, the 1377 poll tax was granted in the context of an imminent threat to national security from the combined French and Castilian armada. The lords and commons were not necessarily any more keen that their predecessors in the Good Parliament to bow to demands for direct subsidies (indeed, their apology at the end of the tax grant may be read as a polite refusal to sustain 'a greater subsidy'), but the state of emergency placed upon them an obligation of necessity that had simply not existed in the summer of 1376. Speed was also of the essence: the subsidy may have been perceived as useful in that it would require no system of assessment (other, that is, than proof of age) and could potentially be made to yield its profits very quickly: the date for final delivery to the exchequer was fixed at 6 April 1377. (fn. f1377aint-21) Above all, they wanted value for money: as part of the schedule of the tax, the commons demanded that a special committee of receivers be appointed to manage the receipts from the tax and reserve them for military purposes; they also demanded that the exchequer have no control over the subsidy, which would thereby remain completely under the direction of the committee of receivers (item 20). The crown, however, persuaded them that this would not be cost-effective, and the scheme was dropped (item 21).

Secondly, the decision to fix the poll tax at 4d per head was probably not taken at random. The lowest valuation set for liability to a fifteenth and tenth in rural communities outside the royal demesne before the dropping of the taxable minimum was 8d, payable under normal circumstances in two instalments. It is interesting and relevant that the parliament roll records the decision of the lords and commons in 1377 to authorise a tax of 'four pence to be taken from the goods of each person' (item 19). In practice, this was a nonsense, since the tax on heads obviously took no account of moveable property; but the fact that it was expressed in this way suggests that the new capitation tax was perceived by the political classes as an emergency levy representing the former standard minimum payment towards one instalment of a fifteenth and tenth. This is not to say, of courses, that parliament did not appreciate the enormous changes that would be brought about in he distribution of this tax by its decision to change the levy not on selected households but on every adult head of population. Nevertheless, the evidence strongly suggests that the poll tax of 1377 was perceived very much as an alternative to, rather than a replacement for, the standard fifteenth and tenth, and that the startlingly regressive nature of the tax was a consequence less of some class conspiracy than of what was in many ways a rather rushed and muddled response to a particular financial emergency.

The grant of the poll tax was presumably among the business reported by the deputation led by John of Gaunt to meet with the sickly king at Sheen on 22 February (item 22). The memorandum of this visit makes it clear that the common petitions had also been submitted sufficiently earlier than this date in order already to be furnished with draft responses requiring royal assent: indeed, the text of one of the petitions, concerning the release of members of the commons from the duty to act as collectors of the subsidy, indicates that it was formulated before the grant of the subsidy by referring to the tax as 'what you will be granted at this present parliament' ( ce qe vous serra grante a ceste present parlement ) (item 48, no. XXXI). At Edward III's bidding, the petitions and the duly ratified answers were read out in full parliament at Westminster on 23 February. The memorandum of this meeting is followed immediately on the parliament roll by a recitation of the common petitions and royal responses in 61 numbered items (items 23-79, nos. I-LXI).

Whereas in the three immediately preceding parliaments the clerks had adopted the practice of attaching a draft of the common petitions to the parliament roll, (fn. f1377aint-22) for the assembly of January-March 1377 they reverted to the earlier norm of writing up a fair copy as part of the roll itself. Nevertheless, a number of the entries can be traced back to originals or alternative versions which reveal the highly composite nature of the common petitions on this as on other parliament rolls of the period. At least two originals exist, identical with the texts found on the parliament rolls and containing the same responses: these are, variously, a common petition proper concerning the custom of confiscating ships from which people have fallen to their deaths (item 73, no. LVI; Appendix no. 7), and a petition adopted or 'avowed' by the commons from the men of Devon concerning the stannaries (item 64, no. XLVII; Appendix no. 4). In two other cases of avowed petitions, however - those of diverse merchants of England concerning liability to the alnage of cloth (item 71, no. LIIII; Appendix no. 5) and from the communities of the counties bounding the River Severn (item 72, no. LV; Appendix no. 6) - the relationship is rather more complex, and the evidence makes it possible to argue that these matters were heard and answered first by the committees of triers but then passed on as matters of equity or grace to be heard with the common petitions by the council. (For a further case that may suggest the avowal of a private petition by the commons, see Appendix no. 15.) Furthermore, there exists a schedule of two common petitions concerning the fees of the king's chirographers and the tithe of silva cedua which, from internal evidence, may date to this parliament (Appendix no. 2); the fact that neither of these petitions appears on the parliament roll may provide an example of the discretion accorded to the clerks of parliament in determining the final list of enrolled common petitions. It is interesting to notice a further case among the common petitions, relating to the perambulations of the royal forests, which the crown specifically denied as being a matter of general concern (item 37, no. XX).

After their customary initial request for the liberties of the Church and the confirmation of the Charters (item 23, no. I), (fn. f1377aint-23) the common petitions proceed directly to the request for a general pardon (items 24-26, nos. II-X). The crown responded positively, by extending both the chronological and the thematic scope of the general pardon of 1362 to cover a wide range of offences committed up to the beginning of the fiftieth year of the reign, in January 1376 (item 24). (fn. f1377aint-24) It is interesting to notice two specifics within the general pardon: the request of the commons, granted by the crown, that actions arising from the Dordrecht bonds promulgated by Walter Chiriton and his merchant company in the 1340s should be null; (fn. f1377aint-25) and the qualification inserted by the government that William Wykeham, recently disgraced for his part in the Good Parliament, should be specifically excluded from the scope of the pardon. As in 1362, the general pardon was in effect the price paid by the crown for a hard-won subsidy. But the crown did not necessarily concede on all the commons' demands: it would grant release of unpaid fines and amercements only to the fortieth, rather the fiftieth, year of the reign (item 25, no. IX), and it refused to issue pardons as a matter of right and free of all charges (item 26, no. X). (fn. f1377aint-26) In particular, when the commons attempted to associate various limitations on the king's right to tax overseas trade with the grant of the general pardon, the government stood firm, reminding the commons that a statute of 1362 had already given parliament control of the wool subsidy and that it was the king's right to expect financial aid in great necessity (item 25, no. IX).

The remainder of the common petitions on the parliament roll of January-March 1377 cover a typically diverse selection of topics. Only a handful of items resulted in statutory legislation (item 51, no. XXXIIII; item 55, no. XXXVIII; item 71, no. LIIII), (fn. f1377aint-27) even though the commons specifically requested the issue of statutes on a number of other subjects (item 57, no. XL; item 62, no. XLV). The crown appears to have conceded rather passively to the commons' stated principle that 'the statutes made and to be made in parliament should not be annulled except in parliament, and this with the common assent of parliament', though the absence of a statutory statement on the point, and the fact that it seems to have been made in specific relation to the statute of purveyors of 1362, may render the case less significant than would otherwise be the case (item 44, no. XXVII) . (fn. f1377aint-28) On more mundane matters of day-to-day administration, the commons petitioned for a guarantee that the justices of the peace should meet four times a year (item 29, no. XIII), for the extension of the obligation to pay the expenses of those elected as knights of the shire (item 45, no. XXVIII), (fn. f1377aint-29) that no MP should have to serve as collector of the tax granted in this parliament (item 48, no. XXXI), and that those liable to take office in the king's government of the localities might be considered 'retired' beyond the age of sixty (item 59, no. XLII). An interesting petition on behalf of those whose ancestors had been collectors of the last ever fifteenth and tenth to be individually assessed by crown commission (that of 1332) reveals that the descendants of these men were still deemed liable to the personal assessments imposed on their ancestors in each successive fifteenth unless they sued out writs, each time, from the exchequer (item 70, no. LII).

Other petitions were more immediately topical. A general complaint was made about the crown's refusal (or inability) to replay loans contracted during the treasurership of Bishop Brantingham, that is in the early stages of the re-opening of the French war after 1369 (item 56, no. XXXIX); there is evidence that at least one of the constituencies, the town of Lynn, also petitioned individually on this matter in the same assembly (Appendix no. 17). The commons in the Good Parliament had already complained about the untoward extension of the jurisdiction of the court of the verge (or court of the marshalsea), and returned to the issue in January-March 1377. What made the case pressing was the fact that the king's own pattern of residence meant that the court of the marshalsea, which had jurisdiction within a twelve-mile radius of the royal household, was increasingly stationed within literal striking distance of the city of London. One petition, made in the name of the commons but probably arising, like the one immediately before it on the roll, from the city of London, complained how the marshalsea's activities in Southwark made it increasingly difficult to regulate retail in the city (item 31, no. XV). Another more general common petition requested a general restriction of the cognisance of the court (item 38, no. XXI). It seems, however, that these petitions were drafted before 19 February, the day on which, according to the Chronicon Angliae , John of Gaunt and the marshal, Henry Percy, announced in parliament their plan to extend the jurisdiction of this court formally and directly into the city of London, an action that helped to cause both political outrage and popular riots in the capital over the following days. (fn. f1377aint-30)

The schedule of common petitions transcribed onto the parliament roll is followed immediately by a list of clerical gravamina from the clergy of the province of Canterbury (items 80-5): these petitions must have arisen from the meeting of the southern convocation held at St Paul's from 3 February. This assembly is reported to have made representations to the king, whose answers were announced by Archbishop Sudbury on 18 February. (fn. f1377aint-31) It would seem appropriate to link this reference with the gravamina recorded on the parliament roll, especially since the reference in Sudbury's register agrees with the content of the parliament roll in providing a specific complaint about the recent royal treatment of Bishop Wykeham (item 85). (fn. f1377aint-32) On the other hand, it is noteworthy that the clerical gravamina must therefore have been submitted significantly in advance of the grant of supply, for there is also clear evidence to show that the Canterbury clergy did not make their complementary grant of a clerical poll tax until 26 February. (fn. f1377aint-33) Two minor statutory acts resulted among the modest legislative output from this parliament (items 80, 81). (fn. f1377aint-34) It may be noted in passing that one of the commons' requests (not granted) was that all statutes or ordinances proposed by the clergy should first be submitted for approval by the commons (item 46, no. XXIX): the self-conscious legislative superiority of parliament over convocation was thus clearly enunciated.

After the common petitions and clerical petitions, there is a further section of material on the parliament roll relating, apparently, to events on and after the reading out of the crown's responses to the common petitions in plenary session on 23 February. The assembly might normally have been assumed to have ended on this day, as the parliament roll itself implies (item 22). But the parliament was artificially prolonged, for two reasons. First, there was evidently a desire to continue in session until the clergy made their grant of a subsidy. The clerical poll tax authorised on 26 February was formally accepted by the king on 28 February and the archbishop announced it in parliament on 1 or 2 March. (fn. f1377aint-35) (It may be significant that it was under the date of 28 February that the chancery also recorded the formal grant to John of Gaunt of palatine powers in the duchy of Lancaster, an award made 'by the king with the assent of the whole parliament' [Appendix no. 18].) Secondly, as the parliament roll itself states, on 23 February the speaker, Sir Thomas Hungerford, made a formal request for the restitution of those judged guilty and deprived of their titles and possessions in the Good Parliament (item 87). The common petitions themselves had included just such a request on the part of Lord Latimer (item 75, no. LVIII), and Hungerford and his fellows were now instructed that they needed to make similar representations in the names of each of those whom they desired to be restored to favour. The commons then sent seven bills to the clerk of parliament whose contents are transcribed onto the roll (items 88-94): they were delivered 'immediately following the said last day [of parliament]', which presumably means on 24 February (item 87). Five of the bills are made in the name of the commons (items 88-92), but the last two recorded on the roll are in the names of those to whom they directly refer: John Peche and William Ellis. In the latter case, it is known that the substance of the petition was already in discussion and that Ellis's protagonists, John Botild and William Cooper, had been summoned before the council for the end of January 1377 (Appendix no. 8). The formulation of the seven bills was therefore presumably facilitated by the existence of at least partial records of the cases in question. The roll, however, records that the contents of none of the bills could be addressed 'because the said parliament concluded and finished on the same day [?23/24 February]'. The parliament roll concludes with a further bill, additional to the named seven, in which the commons made representations on behalf of another of the victims of the Good Parliament, Hugh Fastolf (item 96). Formal restorations of those impeached in the earlier assembly did not begin until mid-March (see notes to relevant items), by which time the parliament was certainly over. But it may be argued on the basis of the evidence of the clerical subsidy, and in spite of the statements on the roll itself, that the assembly formally continued in session until the banquet held to celebrate its formal conclusion on Sunday 1 March (fn. f1377aint-36) and the issue of the writs de expensis on Monday 2 March. (fn. f1377aint-37)

Text and translation

[p. ii-361]
[col. a]
[memb. 9]
ROTULUS PARLIAMENTI TENTI APUD WESTM' .XV. a SANCTI HILLAR', ANNO REGNI REGIS EDWARDI TERCII POST CONQUESTUM ANGLIE VIDELICET QUINQUAGESIMO PRIMO, ET FRANCIE .XXXVIII. o . THE ROLL OF THE PARLIAMENT HELD AT WESTMINSTER ON THE QUINZAINE OF SAINT HILARY IN THE FIFTY-FIRST YEAR OF THE REIGN OF KING EDWARD THE THIRD SINCE THE CONQUEST OF ENGLAND, AND THE THIRTY-EIGHTH OF FRANCE.
Continuance de parlement. Adjournment of parliament.
1. En la .xv. e de < Seint > Hiller qe fu le mardy proschein apres le feste del conversion Saint Poule, l'an du regne nostre seignur le roy Edward tierz puis le conquest d'Engleterre cynquante primer, qe fust le primer jour de < ce > present parlement, luy nobles et puissant seignur Richard, prince de Gales, duc de Cornewaille < et > conte de Cestr', et auxint les prelatz, seignurs, justices, communes et autres qe feurent venuz par somons de ce present parlement, s'assemblerent en le palays de Westm' en la chambre Depeintee. Et illeoqes en lour presence le dit prince alors seant en mylieu d'eulx, c'estassavoir en la place du roy meismes, nostre dit seignur le roy esteant meismes absent, et en partie a desaise de son corps, paront il n'y poait meismes bonement venir en sa propre persone, envoiast en dit parlement certains ses lettres patentes, souz son grant seal enseales, en la forme q'ensuit: 1. On the quinzaine of St Hilary on the Tuesday immediately following the feast of the Conversion of St Paul in the fifty-first year of the reign of our lord King Edward the third since the Conquest of England, which was the first day of this present parliament, the noble and powerful lord, Richard, prince of Wales, duke of Cornwall and earl of Chester, and also the prelates, lords, justices, commons and others who had come by the summons of this parliament, assembled in the Painted Chamber in the palace of Westminster. And there in their presence, with the said prince then sitting amongst them, that is to say, in the place of the king himself, our said lord the king, who was absent and somewhat diseased in his body so that he could not properly come in his own person, sent certain letters patent into the said parliament, sealed under his great seal, in the form that follows:
Commission Richard de Burdeux prince etc. Commission of Richard of Bordeaux, prince etc.
2. Edwardus, Dei gracia, rex Anglie et Francie, et dominus Hibernie, archiepiscopis, episcopis, abbatibus, prioribus, ducibus, comitibus, baronibus, militibus et omnibus aliis ad instans parliamentum nostrum summonitum conventurum, salutem. Cum ex certis causis simus ad presens prepediti ita quod ad primum diem parliamenti predicti ad locum predictum personaliter non poterimus interesse, de circumspeccionis et industrie magnitudine carissimi filii nostri Ricardi principis Wall', ducis Cornub' et comitis Cestrie, plenam fiduciam reportantes, eidem filio nostro ad parliamentum predictum nostro nomine inchoandum et ad faciendum ea que pro nobis et per nos ibidem faciend' fuerint plenam tenore presencium committimus potestatem. Et ideo vobis mandamus quod eidem principi intendentes sitis in premissis in forma predicta. In cujus rei testimonium has litteras nostras fieri fecimus patentes. Teste meipso apud Haveryng, .xxvi. die Januarii, anno regni nostri Anglie quinquagesimo primo, regni vero nostri Francie tricesimo octavo. Per ipsum regem. (fn. ii-361-8-1) 2. Edward, by the grace of God king of England and France and lord of Ireland, to the archbishops, bishops, abbots, priors, dukes, earls, barons, knights and all others summoned to come to our present parliament, greeting. Whereas for certain reasons we are at present hindered so that we are unable to be present in person on the first day of the aforesaid parliament at the aforesaid place, reposing full confidence in the discretion and ability of our dearest [grand-]son Richard, prince of Wales, duke of Cornwall and earl of Chester, by the tenor of the present we commit full power to our same son to begin the aforesaid parliament in our name and to do that which should be done there for us and by us. And also, we command you to attend to the prince in the aforesaid form. In witness of which we have caused these our letters to be made patent. Witnessed by myself at Havering on 26 January in the fifty-first year of our reign of England, and the thirty-eighth of our reign of France [1377]. By the king himself. (fn. ii-361-8-1)
3. Les quelles lettres y feurent luez en presence et audience de eux touz. Et surce l'evesqe de Seint Davy, chanceller d'Engleterre, y avoit le parole de la volente et commandement mon dit seignur le prince president, et dist qe pur ce qe grant partie des prelatz, seignurs et communes, aiantz sommons de venir a cest parlement, ne furent uncores venuz; et auxint pur ce qe plusours viscontz del roialme n'avoient mye retournez lours briefs du parlement en la chancellerie, qe mon dit seignur le prince president < voloist > qe cest parlement fust continuez tanqe al lendemain proschien ensuant; et lour comandast [...] depar le roi, de retournir a mesme la place al dit lendemain, entour le noefisme heure del clok, d'oier les causes de la sommonce de meisme le parlement. Et issint les seignurs, prelatz et autres se ent departirent trestouz, sanz pluis faire a celle jour. 3. These letters were read in the presence and hearing of everyone. And the bishop of St Davids, chancellor of England, was the spokesman for the will and instruction of my said lord the presiding prince, and said that because a great part of the prelates, lords and commons having summonses to come to this parliament had not yet arrived, and also because many sheriffs of the realm had not returned their writs of parliament in the chancery, my said lord the presiding prince willed that this parliament should be adjourned until the morrow; and, on behalf of the king, he ordered them to return to the same place on the said morrow, at about nine o'clock, to hear the reasons for the summons of the same parliament. And so the lords, prelates and others all departed, without doing more on this day.
4. A quel lendemain, s'assemblerent sibien mon dit seignur le prince come les prelatz, ducs, contes, barons, [col. b] justices et communes en la dite chambre Depeintee, et illeoqes devant eux touz le dit chanceller dist, 'Seignurs et sires, j'ai comandement de mon dit seignur le prince cy present, < qi > Dieu salve, de exposer [...] la cause pur quoi cest parlement estoit sommonez.' Et lour dist 'qe voirs est qe les sages soeffrent et ont desir d'oier les folx parler, et ce afferme Saint Poule en ses epistles, come il dit, "libenter suffertis insipientes cum [...] sitis ipsi sapientes". (fn. ii-361-12-1) Et pur tant qe vous estes sages et je fouls, j'entenk qe vous avez desir de moy oier. Et une autre cause y est auxint, la quele vous ferra joie si me verrez oier, qar l'escripture dist qe chescun message portant bones novelles si doit estre toutdys bienvenuz; et je sui message vous portant plesantes novelles, par quoi jeo doie estre a vous bienvenuz. [The opening speech of parliament.]
4. On the morrow my said lord the prince and also the prelates, dukes, earls, barons, [col. b] justices and commons assembled in the said Painted Chamber, and there before them all the said chancellor said, 'Lords and sirs, I have the instruction of my said lord the prince here present, whom God protect, to declare the reason why this parliament was summoned.' And he told them, 'that it is true that wise men suffer and desire to hear fools speak, and St Paul affirms this in his Epistles when he says, "you gladly bear with fools being wise yourselves". (fn. ii-361-12-1) And although you are wise and I am foolish, I think you have a desire to hear me. And there is also another reason, which will gladden you if you will hear me, since Scripture says that every messenger bearing good news should always be welcome; and I am a messenger bearing you pleasant news, whereby I should be welcome to you.
5. Et les novelles sont tielles qe coment nostre tresnoble et tresgracious seignur le roi, qi Dieux salve, ait este piecea visitez par la grace de Dieu par manere tielle q'il ad este en grand peril de sa vie; nientmains, loiez y soit nostre seignur, il est ore bien amendez et apoy garriz, a ce qe m'est reportez pur veritee. Et vous devez entendre qe par tant semble a moy, et doit clerement apparoir a vous touz, qe Dieux luy ayme, et ceste roialme auxint, qar l'escripture dit, "Quos diligo castigo". (fn. ii-361-14-1) Et ore est il ensi qe ce est l'an .l. me de son regne < accompli, > q'est l'an jubilee ou an de grace. Et auxint apparisante chose est qe Dieux luy ayme, et q'il est beneit de Dieu. 5. And the news is such that, although our noblest and most gracious lord the king, whom God protect, for some time has been visited by the grace of God in such manner that he has been in great peril of his life; nevertheless, the Lord be praised, he is now much better and almost cured, as was reported to me in truth. And you should understand that it therefore seems to me, and clearly should appear to you all, that God loves him and this realm as well, since the Scripture says, "I discipline those whom I love". (fn. ii-361-14-1) And it is now the case that this, the fiftieth year of his reign, which is the jubilee year or the year of grace, is completed. And it is also obvious that God loves him and that he is blessed of God.
6. Qar sicome sainte esglise fait ore mencion, qe Saint Poule q'estoit orde et cruel par pecchie devant sa conversion, et puis estoit visitez par la grace de Dieux, et chai en terre voegle, et rienz ne mangeast nene bust trois jours et trois noetz, et apres fuist relevez et resuscitez tresfoial et tresfort precheour et defendour de sainte esglise, dont y est dit, "Cecidit crudelissimus persecutor, set erectus est fidelissimus predicator". (fn. ii-361-16-1) Et y avoit grace d'estre appellez le vessel de eleccion a Dieu: "Vas eleccionis est iste michi ut portet etc." (fn. ii-361-16-2) Issint est ores nostre dit seignur le roy resuscitez et purifiez de toute ordure de pecchie, si nul y fust, et si Dieux plest, il est, et toutdys mais serra, le vessel de grace, ou le vessel de eleccion Dieu. Du quel vessel touz ses subgitz y treront, et auront grace et confort de bien faire sibien espirituelment come temporelment. Et qe nostre dit seignur le roy soit benoit de Dieu est provez par l'escriture qe dit, "Uxor tua sicut vitis habundans in lateribus domus tue", et auxint, "Filii tui sicut novelle olivarum in circuitu mense tue". Et tantost bien apres l'escripture dit en meisme le lieu, "Ut videas filios filiorum tuorum". Et surceo y ent suit la conclusion, "Ecce sic benedicetur homo". (fn. ii-361-16-3) Et regardez, seignurs, si unqes nul roy Cristien ou autre seignur al monde eust si noble et graciouse dame a femme ou tielles filz come nostre seignur le roy ad euz, princes, ducs et autres. Qar du roi et [p. ii-362][col. a] ses ditz filz toutes Cristiens ont euz doute, et par eux ad le roialme d'Engleterre tresnoblement amendez, honurez et enrichiz, et pluis qe unqes mes < ne > fuist en temps de nul autre roy. Et nostre seignur le roi, Dieu graces, poet ore veer ycy le filz de son filz. Et issint par toutes voies est concluz par meisme l'escripture qe mesme nostre seignur le roy soit gracious et benoit de Dieu, de qoy nous touz doions faire grant joie et feste. 6. For just as holy Church recounts, St Paul, who before his conversion was vile and cruel as a result of sin, and was then visited by the grace of God and fell to the ground blind, and ate and drank nothing for three days and three nights, and was then raised up and revived as a very faithful and strong preacher and defender of holy Church, of whom it is said, "He fell the cruellest persecutor, and was raised the most faithful preacher". (fn. ii-361-16-1) And he had grace to be called the vessel of God's choosing: "He is a chosen vessel of mine to carry etc." (fn. ii-361-16-2) So too is our said lord the king now revived and purified from all filth of sin, if there was any, and if God pleases, he is, and always will be, the vessel of grace or the vessel of God's choosing. From this vessel all his subjects draw, and they worship the grace and comfort of good deeds spiritually as well as temporally. And that our said lord the king is blessed of God is proved by the Scripture which says, "Your wife will be like a fruitful vine within your house"; and also, "Your children will be like olive shoots around your table". And very shortly afterwards the Scripture says in the same place, "May you see your children's children". And then follows the conclusion, "Lo, thus shall a man be blessed". (fn. ii-361-16-3) And consider, lords, if ever any Christian king or other lord in the world had so noble and gracious a lady for his wife or such children (princes, dukes and others) as our lord the king has had. Since all Christians have had dread of the king and [p. ii-362][col. a] his said children, and by them the realm of England has been most nobly improved, honoured and enriched, more than ever was in the time of any other king. And our lord the king, thanks be to God, can now see here the children of his children. And thus in every way it is demonstrated by the same Scripture that our same lord the king is gracious and blessed of God, for which we all should make great joy and celebration.
7. Mais si einsi soit qe nous ses subgitz disirons et vorrions avoir sa grace en cest an jubile, et trereconfort de luy qi issint est vessel de grace ou de eleccion Dieu, il nous covient a fyne < force > de nous conformer d'estre hables par bones vertuz de resceivre grace de mesme le vessel, et lesser toutes vices. 7. But if we, his subjects, desire and would have his grace in this jubilee year, and great comfort from him who thus is the vessel of God's grace or choosing, we must of sheer necessity undertake through good virtues to be fit to receive the grace of the same vessel, and to abandon all vices.
8. < Qar > voirs est qe si le chief d'un homme soit sain et plain de toutes vertuz, si le braas ou le jambe de meisme le homme y soit par maladie seek, issint q'il n'y ait moisture en ycelle, celle seek jambe ou braas n'est hables, nene poet par nature resceivre vertu ne grace de sauntee del chief de meisme le corps. Et par cest chief dont j'ai parle j'entende nostre seignur le roy, q'est nostre chief et nostre soverain, et nous touz sumes ses membres et subgitz, et si sumes < nous > ordez de pecchies et de vices, et principalement la vertu principale, q'est charitee, si est seek et tout faillante entre nous. Et Saint Poule dit qe si nous feisons distribucion des touz noz biens en almoigne, et encores nostre corps al feu pur ardre, et faillismes charite, tut l'autre nostre fait resemblant bon n'est rienz. (fn. ii-361-20-1) Et pur ce, si nous vorrons haurir de la grace del dit vessel, aions primerement charite entre nous, sanz la quelle nulle autre vertu poet estre ferme en coer d'omme; et adonqes nous y troverons grace assez sanz nulle defaute. 8. Since it is true that if a man's head is healthy and full of all virtues, but his arm or leg dries up due to illness so that he has no moisture in the same, this dried leg or arm is not fit for and by nature cannot receive the virtue or grace of health from the head of the same man. And by this head of which I speak, I mean our lord the king, who is our head and our sovereign, and we all are his limbs and subjects, and if we are sullied by sins and vices, the principal virtue in particular, which is charity, dries up and is completely absent among us. And St Paul says that if we distribute all our goods and alms, and also give our bodies to the fire to burn, and are lacking charity, all our other deeds which resemble good would be nothing. (fn. ii-361-20-1) And therefore, if we drink of the grace of the said vessel, we would immediately have charity among us, without which no other virtue can be firm in the heart of man; and then, without fail, we will find enough grace.
9. Et, seignurs, vous purrez veer qe nostre dit seignur le roy vous aime bien, paront vous deviez auxint faire joie d'estre amez de si nobles et gracious seignur. Qar, depuis qe Dieu avoit fait sa volente de monsir le prince, qi Dieux assoille, si vous avez depuis continuelment desirez l'onour et l'encrees de monsir le prince Richard son filz et heir, qi cy est present, qi Dieux salve, come bien apparust en le derrain parlement. 9. And, lords, you can see that our said lord the king loves you well, whereby you should also make joy to be loved by so noble and gracious a lord. Because, after God had done his will concerning my lord the prince, whom God absolve, you have since continually desired the honour and increase of my lord Prince Richard, his son and heir, who is here present, whom God protect, as was evident at the last parliament.
10. Et nostre seignur le roi ad parempliz voz desirs, par ottroiant et donant a luy tut entierment quanqe le roi poait de les ditz principaltee < de Gales, duchee > < de > Cornewaille et countee de Cestre, et l'ad ore envoiez come son lieu tenant en ce parlement devant vous, pur vous y conforter et joier de lui, par meisme la manere come l'escripture y parole, "Hic est filius meus dilectus, hic est desideratus cunctis gentibus". (fn. ii-361-24-1) A qi vous deivez et estes tenuz trestouz de faire honour et reverence come a vostre seignur, et heir apparant del roialme; et facez honour a luy par manere come les paiens, c'estassavoir les trois roys de Coloigne, firent al filz Dieux, qar ils luy offrerent or, mirre et encens, c'estassavoir, or in signifiance de richesse, mirre en signifiance q'il ne deust mie corumpre en sa sepulture, et encens en signifiance < de > saintete, come l'ordre de prestre doit estre; et del offrande del or et de mirre je le voille ore applier par resoun, si Dieu plest, a nostre dit seignur le prince, et del encens je voille lesser quant apresent. Et vous deivez entendre qe la loy civil dit qe luy poeple en la venue de lour prince pur signe de joie et de confort deivent espandre et jecter moneie sur le poeple, q'ils le puissent coiller, et ent par tant estre joieuse et avoir leesce en lours coers. Et si deivez vous faire, nemye soulement sur le poeple, mais doivez a luy doner et offrer or en signifiance de fait, pur luy faire riche. Et par auxint par offrande de mirre j'entende [col. b] argent, q'est un metal orde tanqe il soit purifiez par feu, par quel argent j'entende voz bones volentees et coers, apres ce qe vous soiez purifiez de pecche, et aiez herbergez charitee entre vous, et ent oustez tout rancour si nul y soit. Et les queux bones volentes luy offrez et lui embracez par amour de voz coers, qar vous deivez entendre, qe l'escripture dit qe estoit un Symon droiturrel qi avoit longement attenduz la redempcion de Israel, et avoit responce de Dieu, q'il ne murroit ja tanqe il eust veu son salveour Jhesu Crist, qy fuist l'expectacion du poeple. 10. And our lord the king has fulfilled your desires, by granting and giving him completely whatever the king could of the said principality of Wales, the duchy of Cornwall and the county of Chester, and he has now sent him to you as his lieutenant in this parliament, to comfort and welcome you on his behalf, in the same manner as the Scripture says, "Here is my beloved Son, here is he who is wished for by all men". (fn. ii-361-24-1) To whom you all should and are bound to do honour and reverence as your lord and the heir apparent of the realm; and you should do honour to him in the manner the pagans, that is to say, the three kings of Cologne, did to the son of God when they offered him gold, myrrh and frankincense, that is to say, gold as a sign of riches, myrrh as a sign that he should not rot in his tomb, and frankincense as a sign of holiness, as the order of priest ought to be; and concerning the offering of gold and myrrh, I will that it be applied by right, if God pleases, to our said lord the prince, and concerning the frankincense, I will leave it for the present. And you should understand that the civil law says that, at the coming of their prince, money should be scattered and thrown to the people, as a sign of joy and comfort, so that they might collect it, and therefore be joyous and have gladness in their hearts. And you should not only do this for the people, but you should also give and offer him gold as a sign of the deed, to make him rich. And by the offering of myrrh I mean [col. b] silver, which is a foul metal until purified by fire, by which silver I mean your good wishes and hearts, after you are purified of sin, and have harboured charity among you and removed all rancour, if there was any. And after these good wishes have been offered to him and you have embraced him with the love of your hearts, since you should understand that the Scripture says that one true Simeon, who for a long time had awaited the redemption of Israel, had an answer from God that he would not die until he had seen his Saviour Jesus Christ, who was awaited by the people.
11. Et quant Jhesu Crist fust presentez a luy en le temple, le dit Symeon luy rescest en ses braas, et dist, "Nunc dimittis servum tuum in pace, quia viderunt oculi mei salutare tuum." (fn. ii-361-26-1) Et issint deivez vous enbracer vostre noble roy de voz braas de parfit amour, a cause q'il vous ad envoiez par tielle guyse cellui qe vous avez desirez et a lui obeire en touz ses commandementz. Qar Saint Poul dit, "subjecti estote etc. tanquam regi quasi precellenti"; (fn. ii-361-26-2) et si vostre roi < vous > soit envoiez de Dieu, il est le vikaire ou le legat Dieu sur vous en terre. Et apres luy enbracez de parfit amour monsir le prince qe cy est present, qe Dieu salve, lui quel vous issint avez desirez si longement, et l'avez vous veuz de voz oils, endisantz, "Nunc dimittis servum tuum in pace, quia etc." Et issint vous avez ce qe l'escripture dist, "Pacem super Israel", (fn. ii-361-26-3) "paix sur Israel", pur quel Israel est a entendu l'eritage de Dieu, q'est Engleterre. Qar je pense vraiement qe Dieux ne voussist unqes avoir honurez ceste terre par manere come il fist Israel, par grantes victories de lour enemys, s'il ne fust q'il l'ad choise pur son heritage. La quele paix nous doine Dieux.' 11. And when Jesus Christ was presented to him in the temple, the said Simeon received him in his arms and said, "Now let Your servant depart in peace, for my eyes have seen Your salvation." (fn. ii-361-26-1) And thus you should embrace your noble king in your arms with perfect love, because in such a way he has sent you him whom you have desired and you should obey him in all his commands. For St Paul said, "Be subject etc. to the king as supreme"; (fn. ii-361-26-2) and if your king is sent you from God, he is God's vicar or legate for you on earth. And so you should embrace with perfect love my lord the prince who is here present, whom God protect, he whom you have thus desired for so long, and whom you have seen with your eyes, saying, "Now let your servant depart in peace, for etc." And thus you have what the Scripture calls, "Peace over Israel", (fn. ii-361-26-3) for which Israel is to be understood as the inheritance of God, which is England. For I truly believe that God would never have honoured this land in the manner he did Israel, by great victories over their enemies, if he had not chosen it for his inheritance. This is the peace that God shall give us.'
12. Et puis apres le dit chanceller y dist qe la cause principale de somons de cest parlement estoit tielle: 'qe pur ceo qe le roi nostre seignur ad certainement entenduz par plusours lettres et prives messages a luy envoiez d'outre meer, et voirs est qe coment nostre seignur le roy, qi Dieux salve, a la reverence de Dieu et de seinte esglise et a l'especiale requeste nostre seint pere le pape, ad condescenduz a tractie de paix entre luy et son adversaire de France, et sur ce y aient < este > trieves prises parentre eux tanqe a certain terme encores avenir, come bien le savez; toutes voies, son dit adversaire pendantes celles trieves, et souz umbre d'ycelles, s'apparaille tresfortement a la guerre, si bien par terre come par meer, a grante nombre de galeys, barges et autres grandes niefs; et auxint s'afforce par toutes les < voies > q'il poet, ovesqe l'aide de ceux d'Espaigne, d'Escoce et d'autres nos enemys, as queux ils s'est alliez, qi nous sont apoy envyrounez de toutz partz, a destruire nostre seignur le roy et soun roialme d'Engleterre, et d'ouster de tout la lange Engleys, qe Dieu ne veulle. Et nostre seignur le roi desirant le salvacione de luy et de son dit roialme, et auxint le bone governement et la paix de son roialme < avantdit > estre maintenuz et gardez en toutz pointz; et aiant en memoire coment, par la grace de Dieu et par voz bones aides et conseilx, meisme la roialme ad este en son temps maintenuz et gardez en grant honour et prosperitee, loiez y soit nostre seignur, et auxint coment vous luy aiez toutdys monstre parfit amour et bone volentee, dont il vous mercye moelt entierment, empriant toutdys de bone continuance, et meement ore en si grande necessitee, si ad il fait ore assembler ce present parlement, al entente pur estre le mieltz advis et conseillez, coment et par quel manere le soen estat et le paix deinz la roialme, et < auxint > ses terres et seignuries pardehors et la naviye du roialme, mieltz purront estre gardez et salvez, et la malice des ditz enemys resistez, et la guerre pardehors maintenuz et governez a la pluis hastive et bone esploit d'icelle et greinour honour et profit du roi et du roialme, et de quoy les despences [p. ii-363][col. a] qe faudront estre mys en celle partie pur defens du roialme, et < de > chescune singulere persone d'ycelle, purront sourdre et provenir. Et pur ce qe les ditz trievez si se sont bien pres faillez, si demande la chose la greindre haste.' Et partant le dit chanceller priast depar le roi a trestouz les ditz prelatz, seignurs et communes de eux ent aviser diligentment, et sur ce y ent durroient lour responce a pluis tost q'ils purroient bonement, pur greindre profit du roialme et hastive esploit du parlement avantdit. 12. And then the said chancellor said that the principal reason for the summons of this parliament was such: 'That because our lord king has certainly occupied himself with the many letters and secret messages sent to him from overseas, and it is true that our lord the king, whom God protect, to the honour of God and of holy Church and at the special request of our holy father the pope, has agreed to a peace treaty between him and his enemy of France, and truces thereon have been made between them up to a certain term still to come, as you know well; nevertheless, during these truces and under the shadow of the same, his said enemy prepares himself very strongly for war, by land as well as by sea, with a great number of galleys, barges and other great ships; and also gains strength in all the ways he can, with the aid of those of Spain, Scotland and our other enemies, to whom he is allied, who surround us on almost all sides, in order to destroy our lord the king and his realm of England, and to do away with the English language entirely, which God forbid. And our lord the king, desiring his salvation and that of his said realm, and also desiring the good governance and peace of his aforesaid realm to be maintained and protected in all points, and remembering how, by the grace of God and by your good aids and counsels, the same realm has been maintained and protected in his time in great honour and prosperity, our Lord be praised, and also how you have always shown him perfect love and good will, for which he wholly thanks you, praying always for good continuance, especially now in such great necessity, has caused this present parliament to assemble, in order to be better advised and counselled as to how and in what manner his own estate and the peace within the realm, and also his lands and lordships overseas and the fleet of the realm, might be better preserved and protected, and the malice of the said enemies resisted, and the war overseas maintained and arranged to the swiftest and best conclusion of the same, and with the greatest honour and profit to the king and the realm, and how the expenses [p. ii-363][col. a] which cannot be met here for the defence of the realm, and of each individual person of the same, might be levied and increased. And because the said truces have so nearly failed, the matter requires the greatest haste.' And therefore the said chancellor, on behalf of the king, asked all the said prelates, lords and commons to advise him diligently thereon, and to give their answer as soon as possible, for the greatest profit of the realm and the swift conclusion of the aforesaid parliament.
Touchant le pape. Concerning the pope.
13. Et puis apres Monsir Robert de Asshton', chamberlain du roy, y dist q'il avoit paroles a dire depar le roy et pur profit del roialme, les queux par cas ne gisent mye en bouche de prelat, a cause qe celles touche nostre saint pere le pape. Et il lour dist depar le roi, enfaisant protestacion pur le roy et pur toute le roialme d'Engleterre, qe le roy et touz ses subgitz furent prestz et apparaillez, et toutdys serront, de faire et parfournir et soeffrir estre fait quanqe fust meer droit du dit saint pere. Mais pur ce qe plusours usurpacions ont este longement faitz deinz le roialme par le see de Rome, et ores de novel pluis qe ne soloient estre faitz devant, encontre la regalye et le droit du roy et de son roialme, dont en temps et lieu covenable en ce present parlement certaines articles ent serront declaires pluis a plain, et par tant a fyn force l'en y covient de mettre et d'ordener due remede par conseil de vous seignurs et communes. 13. And then Sir Robert Ashton, the king's chamberlain, said that he had words to say on behalf of the king and for the profit of the realm, which ought not to be put in the mouth of a prelate in this case because they concern our holy father the pope. And he told them, on behalf of the king, making protestation for the king and the whole realm of England, that the king and all his subjects were ready and prepared, and always would be, to do and perform, and allow to be done, whatever was the right of the said holy father. But because the see of Rome for a long time has made many usurpations in the realm, and has recently made more than it used to, against the regality and right of the king and his realm, whereupon at a suitable time and place in this present parliament certain articles thereon will be more fully explained, of sheer necessity it is therefore fitting to set and ordain due remedy thereon by the counsel of your lords and commons.
Et sur ce y furent assignez et nomez certains prelatz, seignurs et autres d'estre triours, et certains clercs de la chancellarie d'estre receivours, des billes qe serront baillez en cest parlement. Des queux triours et resceivours les nouns cy apres s'ensuent: [Receivers and triers of private petitions.]
And thereon certain prelates, lords and others were assigned and named to be triers, and certain clerks of the chancery to be receivers, of the bills which would be put forward in this parliament. The names of these triers and receivers follow below:
[memb. 8]
14. Receivours des peticions d'Engleterre, Irland, Gales et Escoce:

  • Sire William de Burstall
  • Sire Richard de Ravenser
  • Sire Thomas Newenham
  • Sire Johan de Freton'.
14. Receivers of the petitions from England, Ireland, Wales and Scotland:

  • Sir William Burstall
  • Sir Richard Ravenser
  • Sir Thomas Newenham
  • Sir John Freton.
15. Receivours pur les peticions de Gascoigne et autres terres et paies dela la meer et de les Isles:

  • Mestre Wauter Skirlawe
  • Sire Michell de Ravendale
  • Sire Piers de Barton'
  • Sire Johan de Bouland.
15. Receivers for the petitions from Gascony and other lands and countries overseas and from the Channel Islands:

  • Master Walter Skirlaw
  • Sir Michael Ravendale
  • Sir Peter Barton
  • Sir John Bouland.
Et ceux qi verront bailler lours dites peticions les baillent avant parentre cy et lundy proschien, le dit lundy accomptee. Et pres [sic: read 'apres'] celle lundy nul peticion soit resceuz aucunement. And those who would put forward their said petitions should put them forward between now and next Monday, the day appointed. And after this Monday no petition should be accepted in any way.
[col. b]
16. Et sont assignez triours des peticions d'Engleterre, Irland, Gales et Escoce:

  • Le roy de Castille et de Leon, duc de Lancastre
  • Le cont de Cantebrigge
  • Monsir Thomas de Wodestok, conestable d'Engleterre
  • < L'ercevesqe de Canterbirs >
  • L'evesqe de Londres
  • L'evesqe de Nichole
  • L'evesqe de Ely
  • L'evesqe de Saresbirs
  • L'abbe de Westm'
  • L'abbe de Saint Austyn de Canterbirs
  • Le conte d'Arondell
  • Le conte de Warr'
  • Le conte de Saresbirs
  • Le conte de Stafford
  • Le seignur de Percy
  • Le seignur de Latymer
  • Le seignur de Nevill
  • Le seignur de Fitz Wauter
  • Monsir Guy de Bryane
  • Monsir Johan Knyvet
  • Monsir Johan de Cavendissh
  • Monsir Robert Bealknapp'
  • Monsir William Skipwyth
16. And the following are assigned triers of the petitions from England, Ireland, Wales and Scotland:

  • The king of Castile and Léon, duke of Lancaster
  • The earl of Cambridge
  • Sir Thomas Woodstock, constable of England
  • The archbishop of Canterbury
  • The bishop of London
  • The bishop of Lincoln
  • The bishop of Ely
  • The bishop of Salisbury
  • The abbot of Westminster
  • The abbot of St Augustine's, Canterbury
  • The earl of Arundel
  • The earl of Warwick
  • The earl of Salisbury
  • The earl of Stafford
  • Lord Percy
  • Lord Latimer
  • Lord Nevill
  • Lord Fitzwalter
  • Sir Guy Brian
  • Sir John Knyvet
  • Sir John Cavendish
  • Sir Robert Belknap
  • Sir William Skipwith
- appellez a eux chaunceller, tresorer, seneschal et chamberlain, quant y bosoignera; et auxint les sergeantz le roy, quant y bosoignera. Et tendront lour place en le chambre du chamberlain, pres la chambre Depeinte. - consulting with the chancellor, treasurer, steward and chamberlain when necessary; and also the king's serjeants when necessary. And they should hold their session in the chamberlain's chamber, next to the Painted Chamber.
17. Et sont assignez triours des peticions de Gascoigne et autres < terres et paiis > de la la meer et des Isles:

  • L'ercevesqe d'Everwyk
  • L'evesqe de Duresme
  • L'evesqe de Norwiz
  • L'evesqe de Hereford
  • L'evesqe de Roucestre
  • L'abbe de Waltham
  • Le count de < la > March
  • Le count de Suff'
  • Le seignur de Roos
  • Le seignur de Basset de Drayton'
  • Le seignur de Clifford
  • Monsir Johan de Mountagu
  • Monsir Henry Lescrop'
  • Monsir Richard de Stafford
  • Monsir Thomas de Ingelby
  • Monsir William de Wichyngham
  • Monsir Roger de Kirketon'
  • Monsir Roger de Fulthorp'
17. And the following are assigned triers of petitions from Gascony and other lands and countries overseas and from the Channel Islands:

  • The archbishop of York
  • The bishop of Durham
  • The bishop of Norwich
  • The bishop of Hereford
  • The bishop of Rochester
  • The abbot of Waltham
  • The earl of March
  • The earl of Suffolk
  • Lord Roos
  • Lord Basset of Drayton
  • Lord Clifford
  • Sir John Montagu
  • Sir Henry Scrope
  • Sir Richard Stafford
  • Sir Thomas Ingelby
  • Sir William Wichingham
  • Sir Roger Kirkton
  • Sir Roger Fulthorp
- appellez as eux chaunceller, tresorer, seneschal et chamberlein, quant y busoignera; et auxint les sergeantz le roi, quant y bosoignera. Et tendront lour place en la chambre Marcolf. - consulting with the chancellor, treasurer, steward and chamberlain when necessary; and also the king's serjeants when necessary. And they should hold their session in the Marcolf Chamber.
Seignurs assignez a les communes. Lords assigned to the commons.
18. Item, puis apres les ditz prelatz, seignurs et communes assemblez autrefoitz en parlement, fust dit a les ditz communes depar le roy q'ils se retraiassent par soi a lour aunciene place en la maison du chapitre del abbeye de Westm', et y tretassent et conseillassent entre eux meismes, principalment et primerement coment et en quelle manere l'en purroit faire due resistence a la malice des ditz enemys, en salvacion du roi, du roialme, de la navye et de eux meismes, et coment l'en purroit avenir a les despenses qe l'en y faut metre de necessitee, a pluis en haste et meins desaise ou grevance au poeple; et les prelatz et seignurs y ferroient semblable tretee et ordenance de lour part. Et lour y fust dit qe report serroit fait de l'une partie a l'autre de tout lour fait et purpos en celle partie. Et issint se departirent les communes a lour dit place. Et sur ce furent assignez en parlement les prelatz et seignurs souzescritz d'aler a meismes les communes, de estre en lour aide, et comuner avec eux des dites choses pur lour greineur informacion d'ycelles; c'estassavoir, les evesqes de Nichole, de Cicestre, de Hereford et Saresbirs, les [p. ii-364][col. a] conts d'Arondell, de Warr', de Saresbirs et de Stafford, et seignurs de Percy, de Roos, de Fitz Wauter et de Basset. 18. Also, after the said prelates, lords and commons had assembled again in parliament, the said commons were told on behalf of the king that they should withdraw by themselves to their accustomed place in the chapter house of Westminster abbey, and discuss and take counsel among themselves, principally and firstly, as to how and in what manner proper resistance could be made against the malice of the said enemies, in salvation of the king, the realm, the fleet and themselves, and how the outlays which have to be made of necessity might be raised with great haste and the least distress or grievance to the people; and the prelates and lords would make a similar debate and ordinance on their part. And they were told to report all they did and intended in this matter from one party to the other. And thus the commons left for their said place. And then the prelates and lords listed below were assigned in parliament to go to the same commons to assist them and discuss the said matters with them for their greater information concerning the same; that is to say, the bishops of Lincoln, Chichester, Hereford and Salisbury, the [p. ii-364][col. a] earls of Arundel, Warwick, Salisbury and Stafford, and Lord Percy, Lord Roos, Lord Fitzwalter and Lord Basset.
Grant del subside de .iiij.d. de chescune persone. The grant of the subsidy of 4d. from each person.
19. Les nobles seignurs et communes assembles en cest parlement, apperceivantz clerement les grandes charges et tresgrevouses et importables despenses quelles nostre seignur le roy fait, et encores faut mettre chescun jour pluis et pluis, sibien, c'estassavoir en maintenance de la guerre, et defens del roialme d'Engleterre, come autrement, de lour commune assent, et liberale volentee, ont grantez a nostre dit seignur le roy en maintenance de ses dites guerres, quatre deniers, a prendre des biens de chescune persone de meisme le roialme, sibien masles come femmeles, outre l'age de .xiiij. ans. Exceptes tantsoulement verrois mendivantz sanz fraude. Empriantz moelt humblement a lour dit seignur lige qe luy pleust lour avoir pur excusez de ce q'ils ne luy poaient ore granter < greignour > subside; qar en tresbone volentee fuissent a ce faire, < si ne feust > q'ils sont tant empovriz cea en arriere, sibien par grandes perdes sur la meer come autrement par malveys anees qe lour sont avenuz, < q'ils ne sont mye assez > suffisantz quant a present. 19. The noble lords and commons assembled in this parliament, clearly perceiving the great charges and most grievous and unbearable expenditures which our lord the king has made, and must continue to make, each day more and more, that is to say, in maintenance of the war and the defence of the realm of England as well as otherwise, of their common assent and free will, have granted 4d. to our said lord the king in maintenance of his said wars, to be taken from the goods of each person of the same realm over the age of 14 years, males as well as females, with the exception of genuine beggars; praying most humbly to their said liege lord that it might please him to consider them excused because they cannot now grant him a greater subsidy, since they would do this with very free will were they not already so impoverished by great losses on the sea as well as otherwise by the bad harvests which they have experienced, with the result that they do not at present have the means to do so.
Requeste des communes. The request of the commons.
20. Et auxint y prierent les dites communes: qe pleust a nostre seignur le roy de nomer deux contes et deux barons de tieux qe luy mieltz sembleroit, qe serroient gardeins et tresoriers sibien de ceste subside ore grante, et del subside qe le clergie d'Engleterre q'est encores a granter al roy nostre seignur, come del subside des leyns, quirs et pealx lanutz grantez en derrain parlement; et < qe > ceux quatre countes et barons y feussent jurrez en lour presence, qe quanqe fust par eux resceuz des ditz subsides serroit entierment expenduz sur mesmes les guerres, et en nul autre oeps; et qe le haut tresorier [col. b] d'Engleterre n'ent prenoit rienz, nene se medleroit en aucune manere. 20. And also, the said commons prayed that it would please our lord the king to name two earls and two barons, from those who seem best to him, to be keepers and treasurers of this subsidy now granted and of the subsidy which the clergy of England has yet to grant to our lord the king, as well as of the subsidy of wool, leather and woolfells granted at the last parliament; and that those four earls and barons would swear in their presence that whatever they receive from the said subsidies will be spent entirely on the same wars, and to no other use; and that the high treasurer [col. b] of England should take nothing from the same, or concern himself with it in any way.
21. Et fait a remembrer qe puis apres quant y fuist accomptez a quelle somme les gaiges des tieux quatre tresoriers continuelment residentz sur celle fait amonteroit par an, les communes se departirent de celle purpos; et prierent qe le dit haut tresorier ent fust receivour et gardein, al oeps des dites guerres, en manere acustumee. 21. And let it be remembered that afterwards, when it had been calculated how much the wages would amount to for four such treasurers employed continuously on this matter for a year, the commons abandoned this plan; and they requested instead that the said high treasurer would be the receiver and keeper of the same, to the use of the said wars, in the usual manner.
Aler a Shene. To go to Sheen.
22. Et puis apres, le .xxij. jour du moys de Feverer l'an present, aucuns des prelatz et seignurs, chanceller, tresorier, gardein du privee seal et touz les justices, par comandement nostre seignur le roi alerent a Shene, ou nostre dit seignur le roi gysoit trop malades; et illoeqes, en sa presence et en presence de monsir le Lancastre et les autres illoeqes issint venuz, estoient rehercez la manere et les articles de general pardoun et grace qe mesme le roy ad fait < a > sa commune, par manere come cy enapres s'ensuit, ensemble avec aucunes autres responces faites as communes peticions par manere come elles sont en apres escrites. Et ce fait, le roy y dist q'il s'agreast bien a ycelles et ent fust assez content; et comandast qe celles responces et graces furent lendemain lues en parlement, come la manere est de faire al darrain jour de parlement, et qe fin fust fait de ce parlement. Et sur ce les seignurs retournerent a Londres, et lendemain proschein ensuant, qe fust le lundy le .xxiij. e jour de Feverer, l'an dessusdit, mesme le parlement continuez de jour en autre par auctorite < del roi et > del dit president tanqe a cest darrain jour mesmes les communes peticions qe apres s'ensuent, avec lour responces faites a ycelles en dit parlement, en audience de touz prelatz, seignurs et communes en dit parlement en presence de mesme le president furent lues en manere acustumee. 22. And then, on 22 February in the present year, some of the prelates and lords, the chancellor, treasurer, keeper of the privy seal and all the justices, by the order of our lord the king, went to Sheen where our said lord the king lay very ill; and there in his presence and in the presence of my lord of Lancaster and the others who had thus come there, the manner and the articles of the general pardon and grace which the same king had made to his commonalty were recited, in the manner which follows afterwards, together with certain other answers made to the common petitions in the manner in which they are written below. And when this had been done, the king said that he fully agreed with the same and was well content; and he ordered that these answers and graces be read in parliament on the morrow, as it is customary to do on the last day of parliament, and that this parliament be brought to an end. And thereon the lords returned to London, and on the following morrow, which was Monday, 23 February in the aforesaid year (this same parliament having been adjourned from day to day by the authority of the king and of the said president until this same last day), the common petitions which follow afterwards, with the answers given to the same in the said parliament, were read in the usual manner in the hearing of all the prelates, lords and commons in the said parliament in the presence of the same president.
CY ENAPRES S'ENSUENT LES PETICIONS BAILLEZ AVANT EN PARLEMENT PAR LES COMMUNES, AVEC LES RESPONCES Y FAITES ET DONEZ A YCELLES. HEREAFTER FOLLOW THE PETITIONS PUT FORWARD IN PARLIAMENT BY THE COMMONS, WITH THE ANSWERS MADE AND GIVEN TO THE SAME.
COMMUNES PETICIONS. COMMON PETITIONS.
[col. a]
[memb. 7]
23. I. A lour tresredoute seignur le roi; suppliont ses liges, prelatz, ducs, contes, barons, communes, citeszeins, burgeois et marchantz de son roialme d'Engleterre en cest present parlement: qe en le honur de Dieux le droit estat et liberte de sainte esglise soit garde et savee. Et qe la grant chartre et la chartre du forest soient tenuz et confermez en touz pointz, nient contre esteantz aucuns estatutz ou ordeignances ent avant ces heures faitz encontrarie. [I. Confirmation of the Charters.]
23. I. To their most dread lord the king; his lieges, prelates, dukes, earls, barons, commons, citizens, burgesses and merchants of his realm of England in this present parliament petition: that in honour of God, the lawful estate and liberty of holy Church should be maintained and protected. And the Great Charter and the Charter of the Forest should be upheld and confirmed in all points, notwithstanding any statutes or ordinances made to the contrary before this time.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi le voet. (fn. ii-361-54-1) The king wills it. (fn. ii-361-54-1)
24. II. Item, suppliount voz ditz liges a lour tresredoute seignur le roi: q'il eit regard a les grantz charges, travailles et meschiefs q'ils ount suffert en son temps, et a la charge q'il les ad ore demande, granter a eulx pardon et relees en qanqe en lui est, generalment a ceste present parlement, q'est l'an jubile de son regne acompli, toutes maneres dettes, fyns, issues, forfaitz et amerciementz, acomptes, relieves et arrerages des fermes et de acomptes et occupacion de gardes et mariages faitz sanz vostre especial grant et occupacion des terres et tenementz en quelconqe manere, sibien en Engleterre, Irland come en Gascoigne, de tut temps passe tanqe al an de vostre regne cynquantisme; forspris ceulx q'ount este viscontz, eschetours, coillours des custumes, subsides, dismes ou quinzsimes, et autres q'ount este [col. b] en grantz offices avec le roi, qe unqore sont en plaine vie, q'ils respoignent de ce q'ils ont resceuz, faitz ou ordeinez des deniers, biens ou autres possessions le roi. Mes de touz tiels ministres et officers qe sont mortz, leur heirs, executours et terres tenantz soient quitement descharges et relesses. [II-VI. Request for a general pardon.]
24. II. Also, your said lieges petition their most dread lord the king: that he should have regard for the great charges, burdens and misfortunes which they have suffered in his time, and for the charge which he has now demanded of them, and that at this present parliament, which is the completion of the jubilee year of his reign, in all that is in him, he should fully grant them pardon and release of all manner of debts, fines, issues, forfeitures and amercements, accounts, reliefs and arrears of farms and of accounts and the business of wardships and marriages made without your special grant and the occupation of lands and tenements in any manner whatsoever, in England and Ireland as well as in Gascony, in all times past until the fiftieth year of your reign; with the exception of those who have been sheriffs, escheators, collectors of customs, subsidies, tenths or fifteenths, and others who have been [col. b] in great offices with the king, who are still healthy and who should answer for what they have received, done or ordained concerning the money, goods or other possessions of the king. But concerning all such officials and officers who are dead, their heirs, executors and landowners should be completely discharged and released.
III. Item, de pardoner et relesser chateux des felons et de futifs, eschaps des prisons, amerciementz des murdres, conspiracies, confederacies, champarties et toutes maneres des felonies, trespas, mespriseons, necgligences ou ignorances, ou article queconqe eschuz ou advenuz sibien deins forest come dehors, tanqe a ceste present parlement, quel demande juggement du fyn, raunceon, amerciement ou emprisonement ou autre penaunce pecuniel. Et ce sibien des fyns ou chateux, deodandez ou amerciementz queqonqes, qe purrount en aucune manere estre demandez ou levez par article du heire des contees, citees, burghs, villes ou villages des communes ou de singulere persone. III. Also, that he should pardon and release the chattels of felons and fugitives, escapes of prisoners, amercements of murders, conspiracies, confederacies, champerties and all manner of felonies, trespasses, crimes, negligences or ignorances, or any article whatsoever occurring or arising inside as well as outsides forests, up to this present parliament, which requires the judgment of a fine, ransom, amercement or imprisonment or other money penalty. And this concerning any fines or chattels, deodands or amercements whatsoever which in any way could be demanded or levied in common or individually by article of eyre concerning counties, cities, boroughs, towns or villages.
IIII. Item, de pardoner et relesser toutes maneres douns, alienacions et purchaces, faites des terres et tenemenz de vous en chief tenuz; issint qe pur cele cause nul fyn soit pris du temps passe tanqe a cest present parlement. IIII. Also, that he should pardon and release all manner of gifts, alienations and purchases made of lands and tenements held of you in chief; so that no fine should be taken for this reason for times past until this present parliament.
[p. ii-365]
[col. a]
V. Item, de pardoner et relesser a chescun homme q'est entree en son heritage apres la mort de son auncestre saunz due proces ent suiz d'avoir la liveree hors de voz mayns, de parcelle ou de tut, qe par celle cause son dit heritage ne soit reseisi; ne ils, leur heirs, ne executours ne terres tenantz, par celle cause ne soient endamagez ne grevez, mes oultrement relesse et pardone de tout temps passee tanqe al ceste present parlement. V. Also, that he should pardon and release to each man who has entered his inheritance after the death of his predecessor, without due process sued thereon to have the delivery from your hands, partly or completely, so that his said inheritance should not be re-seized for this reason; and neither they, their heirs, executors nor landowners should be damaged or aggrieved for this reason, but completely released and pardoned for all times past until this present parliament.
VI. Item, de pardoner et relesser a sa dite commune toutes maneres d'accions queux il ad, ou avoir purra, a par lui ou en commune ovesqe aultres persones, par cause de passage de leyns, quirs, pealx lanutz, draps des leynes ou autres marchaundises queconqes hors du roialme d'Engleterre, en coverture et en noun des marchantz, ou par colour des patentes ou en autre manere, de tout temps qe tiels passages des dites marchandises furent defenduz pur touz marchantz deniseinz, sibien par estatutz come autrement, le quel il fuist a Doredraught ou aillours pardela, sibien en temps Wauter de Cheryngton et ses compaignons, nadgairs fermers le roi des subsides et custumes du tiels marchandises par tut le roialme d'Engleterre, come en autre temps de defens, et de tout temps passe tanqe a cest present parlement. VI. Also, that he should pardon and release to his said commonalty all manner of actions which he has, or can have, on his own or together with other people, by reason of the export of wool, leather, woolfells, woollen cloth or other merchandises whatsoever out of the realm of England, under cover of and in the name of merchants, or on the pretext of patents or in other manner, for the times that such exports of the said merchandises were forbidden for all denizen merchants, by statute as well as otherwise, whether it was at Dordrecht or elsewhere overseas, in the time of Walter Chiriton and his companions, formerly the king's farmers or the subsidies and customs of such merchandise throughout the realm of England, or at other times of prohibition, and for all times past until this present parliament.
[editorial note: Responce.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Nostre seignur le roi eant consideracion a les tresgrandes charges et perdes les queux son dit people ad euz et portez cea enarere, auxibien parmy les guerres come autrement par pestilence des gentz, moryne des bestes et les fruitz de la terre communement failliez par malvais ans devant ces heures, dont nostre seignur le roi si ad grant compassion; et par tant leur veulliant ore en cest present an cynquantisme de son dit regne d'Engleterre faire greindre grace q'il ne lour fist unqes devant, a cause qe cest an si est droitement l'an jubilee, ou l'an de grace de son regne avantdit acomply, paront sa dite commune se purra le mieltz recomforter, et ent aient le greindre coer de bien faire en temps avenir. Et auxint nostre dit seignur le roi, eant au memoire coment en l'an de son dit regne d'Engleterre trent sisme qe fust l'an de son neestre cynquantisme, il fist grande grace et pardon a sa dite commune d'Engleterre, leur pardonant alors touz eschapes des felons et chateux des felons et des futifs, trespasses, negligences, mesprisons, ignorances et touz autres articles de eyre, et plusours autres choses escheuz et avenuz deinz le roialme d'Engleterre, dount le punissement cherroit en fyn ou en raunceon, ou en autres peynes pecuniers, ou autrement en emprisonement, ou en amerciement des communes des villes ou des singulers persones, ou en charge de frank tenement de ceulx qi unqes ne trespasserent, come heirs, ou terre tenantz des eschetours, viscontz ou coroners, a la suyte le roi, veulliant et grantant alors qe mesme sa commune ent feussent oultrement deschargez tanqe al treszime jour d'Octobre, le dit an trente sisme, au quel jour mesme le pardon se fist, come pluis au plain est contenuz en ycelle; voet et grante al honur de Dieu qe si longement lui ad soeffert regner sur mesme son poeple, en tant de prosperite, qe mesme sa commune d'Engleterre, et chescune singulere persone d'icelle de quelconqe estat ou condicion q'ils soient, sibien petitz come grantz, aient ores et enjoisent autielles graces et pardoun des toutes choses comprises deinz le pardoun avantdit, eschuz ou avenuz del dit treszime jour d'Octobre tanqe al comencement del avantdit an cynquantisme. Et outre ce, nostre dit seignur le roi ad ensement pardonez et relessez a sa commune avantdite, toutes maneres des douns, alienacions et purchaces faitz par eulx, ou aucun de eulx, des terres et tenemenz tenuz de lui en chief saunz licence du roi, et toutes maneres des entrees, si aucuns eient faitz, en leur heritages apres la mort leur auncestres sanz les pursuire hors des mains le roi par due proces, tanqe al comencement [col. b] de mesme l'an cynquantisme; forspris < de > ceulx tenemenz qeux sont alienez a mort mayn, et ceulx tenementz auxint queux sont ore seisiz es mayns de nostre dit seignur le roi par cause des tieulx alienacions et entrees. Et auxint lour ad entierement pardonez et relessez touz fyns, amerciementz, issues, forfaites, reliefs, escuages, faitz, escheuz et avenuz deinz mesme le roialme d'Engleterre, et avec ce, toutes maneres des dettes et accomptes tanqe al an nostre dit seignur le roi quarrantisme, et auxint toutes maneres d'accions et demandes queux il ad ou purra avoir, par lui soul ou autrement joint avec autres persones, envers nully de sa dite commune; sibien a cause de mesmes les acomptes et dettes come autrement a cause de passage des leynes, quirs, pealx lanutz ou autres marchandises de dela, encontre les defenses et ordenances ent faitz, sibien en < coverture > et en noun des marchantz, ou par colour des patentes granteez, et a Durdraght ou aillours depar dela, ou par autre voie quelconqe par celles causes, et sibien du temps Wauter de Chiryton' et ses compaignons, nadgairs fermers des subsides et custumes, come en autre temps tanqe al an de son dit regne d'Engleterre quarrantisme; forspris ceulx dettes qeux sont adjuggiez par seisine des terres ou tenemenz, ou atterminez en autre manere, et horspris celles dettes qe luy sont duez de present par aucuns q'ont este viscontz, eschetours, coillours des custumes et subsides, .x. mes ou quinszimes, fermers des manoirs, vitaillers et autres q'ont este en grantz offices avec le roi devant ceste heure, et les queux sont unqore en plaine vie. Et auxint nostre dit seignur le roi leur ad pardonez generalment la suyte de sa paix pur touz maneres des felonies faitz ou perpetrez avant le comencement del dit an cynquantisme, avec les utlagaries, si nuls en eulx soient par celles enchesons pronunciez; exceptes tantsoulement tresons, murdres, communes larons et rapes des femmes. Mais toutes voies il n'est mye l'entencion du roi qe Sire William de Wykeham evesqe de Wyncestre soit compris deinz les pardoun et grace avantditz, n'enjoisse rienz d'ycelles; ne qe null autre enjoisse rienz de la dite grace des pardoun des felonies s'il n'ent pursue sa chartre en especial parentre cy et la Nativite Seint Johan Baptistre proschein venant. (fn. ii-361-67-1) Our lord the king, having consideration for the very great charges and losses which his said people have had and borne previously, as a result of the wars as well as otherwise through the pestilence of people, the murrain of beasts and the fruits of the soil having generally failed in bad harvests before this time, for which things our lord the king has very great compassion; and therefore willing now in this present fiftieth year of his said reign of England to make them greater grace than he ever made before, because this year is indeed the conclusion of the jubilee year or year of grace of his aforesaid reign, so that his said commonalty can be the better comforted and take heart to do better in times to come. And also, our said lord the king, remembering how, in the thirty-sixth year of his said reign of England, which was the fiftieth year of his birth [1362], he made great grace and pardon to his said commonalty of England, then pardoning them all escapes of felons and chattels of felons and fugitives, trespasses, negligences, crimes, ignorances and all other articles of the eyre, and many other things which occurred and arose within the realm of England for which the punishment was a matter of fine or ransom, or other money penalties, or else of imprisonment, or amercement of the commonalty of vills or of individual people, or charge of free tenement of those who never trespassed, such as the heirs or tenants of escheators, sheriffs or coroners, at the king's suit, willing and granting then that his same commonalty would be utterly discharged until 13 October in the said thirty-sixth year, on which day he made the same pardon, as is more fully contained in the same; he wills and grants, to the honour of God who for so long has allowed him to reign over his same people in such prosperity, that his same commonalty of England, and each individual person of the same, of whatever estate or condition he may be, small as well as great, should now have and enjoy similar graces and pardon of all things contained within the aforesaid pardon which have occurred or arisen from the said 13 October until the beginning of the aforesaid fiftieth year. And further, our said lord the king has also pardoned and released to his aforesaid commonalty all manner of gifts, alienations and purchases made by them, or any of them, of lands and tenements held of him in chief without the king's licence, and all manner of entries, if they have made any, into their inheritances after the death of their predecessors without pursuing them out of the king's hands by due process, until the beginning [col. b] of the same fiftieth year; with the exception of those tenements which are alienated in mortmain, and also those tenements which are now seized into the hands of our said lord the king by reason of such alienations and entries. And also, he has entirely pardoned and released all fines, amercements, issues, forfeitures, reliefs and scutages made, having occurred and having arisen within the same realm of England, and in addition, all manner of debts and accounts until the fortieth year of our said lord the king [1366], and also all manner of actions and demands which he has or could have, solely by himself or jointly with other people, against any of his said commonalty, by reason of the same accounts and debts as well as otherwise by reason of the export of wool, leather, woolfells or other merchandise overseas, contrary to the prohibitions and ordinances made thereon, both under cover of and in the name of merchants, or on the pretext of patents granted, to Dordrecht or elsewhere overseas, or in any other way whatsoever for these reasons, during the time of Walter Chiriton and his companions, former farmers of the subsidies and customs as well as in other times until the fortieth year of his said reign of England; with the exception of those debts which are adjudged by seisin of lands or tenements, or to be determined in other manner, and also of those debts which are now due to him from any people who have been sheriffs, escheators, collectors of customs and subsidies, tenths or fifteenths, farmers of manors, victuallers and others who have been in great offices with the king before this time, and who are still alive. And also, our said lord the king has generally pardoned them the suit of his peace for all manner of felonies committed or perpetrated before the beginning of the said fiftieth year, with the outlawries, if any were pronounced in the same for these reasons; excepting only treasons, murders, common robbery and the rape of women. However, it is not the king's intention that Sir William Wykeham, bishop of Winchester, should be included in the aforesaid pardon and grace, or enjoy any of the same; and no other person shall enjoy any of the said grace and pardon of felonies if he does not specially pursue his charter between now and the Nativity of St John the Baptist next. (fn. ii-361-67-1)
25. VII. Item, < qe > querell du roi ne soit renovele q'ad passe vers lui par vereduist admise du partie. Et de granter as toutes gentz queux sont utlagez a vostre seute pardoun, et de ce faire voz chartres a ceste present parlement. [VII. Further additions requested to the general pardon.]
25. VII. Also, a suit of the king ought not to be renewed if verdict has been brought in favour of the party. And he should grant pardon to all people who were outlawed at his suit, and make his charters thereon at this present parliament.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Tiegne la loy devant usee. The law previously observed should be upheld.
VIII. Item, qe null heir, executour ne terre tenaunt ne porte charge d'autri meinprise. [VIII. Discharge of heirs, executors and landowners.]
VIII. Also, that no heir, executor or landowner should bear the charge of another's bail.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi voet qe des choses pardonez, et auxint la ou le principal est descharge, touz leur maynparnours, heirs, executours et terre tenantz soient quitement deschargez. The king wills that concerning things pardoned, and also when the principal is discharged, all their mainpernors, heirs, executors and landowners should be completely discharged.
IX. Item, de pardoner et relesser fyns et amerciementz faitz devant les justices de la pees queux fyns et amerciementz ne sont pas ore liverez en l'escheqer nostre seignur le roi, ne qe des choses pardonez riens ne soit enquys, ne nulle tenuz a respondre, d'estre greve, moleste ne damage par nulle manere de colour, ymaginacion ne interpretacion, avant cest present pardoun et relees; ne qe en temps avenir voz dites prelatz, contes, barons, communes, citiszeins et burgeaux de vostre roialme d'Engleterre ne soient disore chargez, molestez ne grevez de commune aide faire ou charge sustiner, si ce ne soit par commune assent des prelatz, ducs, contes et barons et autres grantz de la commune du vostre dit roialme d'Engleterre, et ce en plain parlement; ne null imposicion mys sur les leynes, pealx [p. ii-366][col. a] lanutz, quirs, si non le auxiene coustume, c'estassavoir, le saak du leyne demi marc, et de trois centz pealx lanutz demi marcz, et de un last de quirs une marcz de custume, tantsoulement, solonc l'estatut fait l'an vostre roialme quaturzsime. (fn. ii-361-79-1) Savant a vous la subside a vous grantee tanqe a certain temps limitee au darrein parlement, et nient levez a ore. [IX. Pardon of fines and amercements; abatement and authorisation of subsidies.]
IX. Also, that he should pardon and release fines and amercements made before the justices of the peace which have not yet been delivered to our lord the king's exchequer; so that none of the things pardoned should be inquired into, or anyone bound to answer concerning being aggrieved, troubled or damaged in any manner of pretext, trickery or interpretation, before this present pardon and release; so that in times to come your said prelates, earls, barons, commons, citizens and burgesses of your realm of England henceforth should not be charged, troubled or aggrieved to make common aid or sustain a charge, unless by the common assent of the prelates, dukes, earls and barons and other great men of the commons of your said realm of England, and this in full parliament; and that no impositions should be set on wool, [p. ii-366][col. a] woolfells and leather, except the ancient custom, that is to say, a custom of only a ½ mark on the sack of wool, and a ½ mark on three hundred woolfells, and 1 mark on a last of leather, according to the statute made in the fourteenth year of your realm; (fn. ii-361-79-1) saving to you the subsidy granted to you for a certain time at the last parliament, and not yet levied.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Pardoun des fyns et amerciementz y est fait pardessus tanqe al an quarrantisme. Et quant al pardoun ent affaire depuis mesme l'an .xl. me tanqe en cea; porce qe le roi est enformez qe plusours gentz des contees ont levez tielx fyns et amerciementz al lour oeps propres, il serroit damage al roi et null ease au people, si tiele pardoun ent se fist. Et quant a ce qe charge ne fuisse mys sur le people sanz commune assent; le roi n'est mye en volentee de le faire, sanz grande necessite, et pur la defense du roialme, et la ou il le purra faire par reson. Et quant a ce qe imposicions ne soient mises sur les leynes sanz assent des prelatz, ducs, contes, barons et autres grantz de la commune de son roialme; il y a estatut ent fait quele le roi voet q'il estoise en sa force. (fn. ii-361-82-1) Pardon of the fines and amercements until the fortieth year is made above. And as regards pardon to be made thereon from the same fortieth year until now, because the king is informed that many people from the counties have levied such fines and amercements to their own uses, it would be to the damage of the king and of no ease to the people if such pardon was thus made. And as regards the point that no charge should be set on the people without common assent, the king will not do it without great necessity and for the defence of the realm, and otherwise when he can reasonably do it. And as regards the point that no impositions should be set on wool without the assent of the prelates, dukes, earls, barons and other great men of the commonalty of his realm, there is a statute made thereon which the king wills should remain in its force. (fn. ii-361-82-1)
26. X. Item, suppliont voz dites communes: qe please a roi lour seignur de son dit pardoun et relees faire chartre a touz les dites contees d'Engleterre, citees et burghs et as touz generales persones qe les voderont demander ou pursuire, saunz fyn faire ou fee paier pur le seal. Et qe la forme du tieles chartres soient faitz et monstrees as prelatz, seignurs, communes, citiszeins et burgeaux avant lour departier du parlement. [X. Provision of copies of the general pardon.]
26. X. Also, your said commons petition: that it might please their lord the king to make a charter of his said pardon and release to all the said counties, cities and boroughs of England and to all general people who will request or pursue it, without making fine or paying a fee for the seal. And the form of such charters should be made and declared to the prelates, lords, commons, citizens and burgesses before their departure from parliament.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Ceux qe verront enjoier les dites graces et pardons des felonies, ent pursuent lours chartres en especial parentre cy et la Nativitee Seint Johan proschein; et paient les fees tantsoulement; et les eient par manere qe desus est dit. Those who will enjoy the said graces and pardons of felonies should pursue their charters thereon in particular between now and the Nativity of St John next; and they should pay the fees only; and they should have them in the aforesaid manner.
27. XI. Item, qe ceux qe deivont dette au roi d'aprest, ou en autre manere, et veullent de ce acompter ovesqe le roi nostre seignur, qe meisme la somme d'aprest, ou autre somme a lui due, ou a son auncestre qi heir il est, lui soit alloue en son acompte et sur eux charge come chose resceuz par voz mayns, nient contre esteant ascun estatut fait en contrarie. [XI. Debts owed to the crown.]
27. XI. Also, concerning those who owe debts to the king for loans, or in other manner, and wish to render account of this with our lord the king, the same amount of the loan, or other amount due from him or from his ancestor whose heir he is, should be allowed him in his account and charged to him as a thing received by your hands, notwithstanding any statute made to the contrary.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roy voet qe les tresorer et barons de l'escheqer facent droit et reson en ce cas, issint qe de ce q'est cleer dette due allouance se face. The king wills that the treasurer and barons of the exchequer should do justice and reason in this case, so that due allowance should be made of what is a clear debt.
28. XII. Item, suppliont les dites communes a roy lour seignur: qe nul seignur ne autre homme ne cites ne burghs de vostre roialme d'Engleterre qe ount franchises, ne soient mys a respondre de lour franchises queux ils cleymont par title de prescripcion, sinoun come auncienement ad estee use. Et la ou ils sont tenuz, de mettre cleym, et de ce estre mys en responce par brief de quo waranto, et q'il soit aferme pur suffissant title a ceste present parlement q'ils poent cleymer et user lour franchises come adire, qe eaux, lour auncestres, et ceaux quel estat ils ont, ont ewe et use tieles franchises dount memorie ne court. Et ce sibien des franchises de cites et burghs come d'autres seignuries, issint q'ils poent user et enjoier touz lour franchises et usages, sibien grantez et confermez par vous et par voz nobles progenitours, come usez par title de prescripcion, nient contreesteant ascun estatut fait al encontre. Et qe title de prescripcion soit limite en certein; c'estassavoir, del coronement Edward, ayel a nostre seignur le roy q'ore est. [XII. Title of prescription.]
28. XII. Also, the said commons petition their lord the king: that no lord or other man, or the cities or boroughs of your realm of England which have franchises, should be brought to answer concerning their franchises which they claim by title of prescription, except as has been done formerly. And whereas they are bound to lay claim and to be brought to answer by a writ of quo warranto, it should be affirmed for sufficient title in this present parliament that they can claim and use their franchise in the manner that they, their ancestors and those whose estate they are, have had and used such franchises since time out of mind. And this should be done concerning franchises of cities and boroughs as well as of other lordships, so that they can use and enjoy all their franchises and usages, granted and confirmed by you and by your noble progenitors as well as used by title of prescription, notwithstanding any statute made to the contrary. And title of prescription should be decided for certain; that is to say, from the coronation of Edward, grandfather to our present lord the king.
[memb. 6]
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Nostre seignur le roi, par l'advis de son conseil et auxint des seignurs de son roialme, ent ferra tielle ordenance come lour semblera mieltz qe doit estre fait en ce cas. Our lord the king, by the advice of his council and also of the lords of his realm, will make such ordinance thereon as he thinks best in this case.
[col. b]
29. XIII. Item, suppliont les ditz communes au roy lour seignur: qe nul justice de la pees ne face enquerres de riens qe serront justifiez en les courtz des seignurs q'ont viewe de francpleeg, ne de ce qe doit estre justifie en cites ne en burghs par lour franchises; ne q'ils ne mellent de plus si non de la save garde de la pees, et de la amendement des laborers. Et qe lour sessions soient quatre foitz en le an, en lieu plus a ease del people. [XIII. Jurisdiction of the justices of the peace, and the frequency of their sessions.]
29. XIII. Also, the said commons petition their lord the king: that no justice of the peace should inquire into anything which will be brought to justice in the courts of lords who have view of frankpledge, or into that which should be brought to justice in cities or boroughs by their franchises; so that they not concern themselves further except with the safekeeping of the peace and the correction of labourers. And their sessions should be held four times a year, in places most convenient for the people.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Les estatutz faitz devant ces heures ne purroient estre gardez si ceste peticion fust ottroie. The statutes made before this time could not be observed if this petition was granted.
30. XIIII. Item, suppliont les dites communes a lour tresredoute seignur le roy: pur commune profit de eaux, sibien come pur proffit de ses liges mair, aldermans et communes de sa citee de Londres, pur proffit de vous, trespuissant seignur, et des seignurs et autres repeirantz a la dite citee, qe come par plusours chartres de vous, tresredoute seignur, et voz nobles progenitours, soit grante a voz dites citiszeins les remoevementz des kidell et trymkes deins les < eawes > de Tamyse et de Medewey, ovesqe les punissementz d'icell, et des touz autres menuz reetz faites encontre droit assise, en destruccioun des fries du salmone et de toutz autres pessons nuriz en les eawes susdites; mes ore, par cause qe Reignald de la Chambre eit par especial patent la garde et survewe de meismes les eawes, par quele suffrance, pur singuler < profit > tieux kidell, trymkes et autres menuz reetz encontre l'assise sont usez, a grevouse damage de vous, trespuissant seignur, et de vostre people. [XIIII. Fishing in the Thames and Medway.]
30. XIIII. Also, the said commons petition their most dread lord the king: for their common profit, for the profit of his lieges, the mayor, aldermen and commons of his city of London, and for the profit of you, most powerful lord, and of the lords and others repairing to the said city, that whereas by many of your charters, most dread lord, and those of your noble progenitors, the removal of kiddles and trawl-nets in the water of the Thames and the Medway was granted to your said citizens, with the punishments of the same, and of all other small nets placed contrary to the right assize, to the detriment of the salmon fry and of all other fish spawned in the aforesaid waters; now, Reginald Chamber has the keeping and overseeing of the same waters by special patent, by whose sufferance, for his singular profit, such kiddles, trawl-nets and other small nets contrary to the assize are used, to the grievous damage of you, most powerful lord, and of your people.
Qe please a vostre treshautesce de repeller cel patent, et nul autre desormes granter, encontre la forme de voz chartres avantdites. Et qe voz ditz citiszeins puissent surveier et faire execucion des punissementz, selonc ce qe auncienement ad este usee. May it please your highness to repeal this patent, and henceforth to grant no other which is contrary to the form of your aforesaid charters. And your said citizens should oversee and execute the punishments, as has been practised formerly.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soit ceste bille mande en la chancellerie, et appellez ceux de Londres, et auxint le conestable de la Tour, et Reynald Neuport, et autres qi y sont a appellers, et monstrent lour evidences, et droit y ent soit fait et reson. (fn. ii-361-107-1) This bill should be sent into the chancery, and those of London called, and also the constable of the Tower, Reginald Neuport and others who are to be called, and they should show their evidence, and justice and reason should be done thereon. (fn. ii-361-107-1)
31. XV. Item, suppliont les ditz communes au roi lour seignur: pur proffit de lui sibien come pur commune proffit du roialme, par cause qe plusours pestours et autres vitaillers et faux overours de diverses mestres, communes mesfesours et felons, qi escheuent les punissementz de la citee, soi retreent et tapisont en la ville de Southwerk ou les ministres de la citee ne les poent arester ne punir; nomement pur la court de la < mareschalcye > qe sovent est illeoqes, queux ne suffrent qe les ditz ministres de la citee facent ascuns execucions ne punissementz illeoqes tant come lour boundes soi extendont a icell ville, nient contreesteant qe vous, tresredoute seignur, par vostre chartre eietz done et grante la dite ville as voz citiszeins de Londres, paiauntz annuelment pur icell certein ferme a vostre escheqer, dount avient sovent trop grantz meschief, sibien as repeirantz a la citee, come a eux meismes. [XV. Jurisdiction of the city of London in Southwark.]
31. XV. Also, the said commons petition their lord the king: for his profit as well as for the common profit of the realm, that because many bakers and other victuallers and false workers of various trades, common criminals and felons, who avoid the punishments of the city, withdraw and hide in the town of Southwark where the officials of the city cannot arrest or punish them, and especially because of the court of the marshalsea which is often there, which does not allow the said officials of the city to make any executions or punishments there when their bounds extend to the same town; notwithstanding that you, most dread lord, by your charter have given and granted the said town to your citizens of London, who pay a certain farm annually to your exchequer for the same, whereupon very great misfortunes have arisen, to those repairing to the said city as well as to themselves.
Qe please a vostre treshautesce puissance, pur Dieu et maintiegnance de vostre < paix > et pur destrure grant multitude de fauxines, de faire renoveler meisme celle chartre; ajustant a icell par expresses paroles qe les ministres de la citee puissent faire duez execuciouns et punissementz sur les mesfesours deinz celle ville, selonc les leyes et usages de la citee, si avant come ils font deinz la citee et les suburbes d'icell. Et qe nul ministre de la marshalsie n'autre vostre ministre queconqe, de quele condicion qe soit, fors voz ministres de la citee, facent en la dite ville, c'estassavoir en cel partie q'est appelle gildable, acuns attachementz ou autres execucions quequonqes; mes qe celle parcelle de la ville demurge perpetuelment annex al juridiccion de la citee, en manere come sont autres suburbes de meisme la citee; savant as touz autres seignuries lour dues franchises en meisme la ville. [XV. Jurisdiction of the city of London in Southwark.]
May it please your most powerful highness, for God, in maintenance of your peace and in destruction of a great multitude of deceits, to cause this same charter to be renewed; adding to the same by express words that the officials of the city might make due executions and punishments on the criminals in this town, according to the laws and customs of the city, as completely as they do in the city and the suburbs of the same. And that no official of the marshalsea or any other of your officials whatsoever, of whatever condition he may be, except your officials of the city, should make any attachments or other executions whatsoever in the part of the said town which is called geldable; but this part of the town should remain perpetually annexed to the jurisdiction of the city, in the manner other suburbs of the same city are; saving to all other lordships their due franchises in the same town.
[p. ii-367]
[col. a]
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roy vorra faire pur la citee de Londres quanqe il purra faire bonement. mais ce ne poet il faire sanz emblemissement d'autry estat. The king will do for the city of London whatever he properly can. But he cannot do this without impairing another's estate.
32. XVI. Item, suppliont les dites communes au roy lour seignur: qe la patente qe feust nadgairs grante par le grant conseil as mair, auldermans et communes de la citee de Londres sur cele article, qe nul estrange marchant duisse vendre a autre estrange ascune marchandie pur revendre, en manere come en meisme la patente est plus pleinement contenuz, soit renovelez et grantez sibien as touz autres citees et burghs come a eaux; et ent faite chartre ove clause de confermement. De quel patent la copie ensuit: [XVI. Restriction on aliens trading in London.]
32. XVI. Also, the said commons petition their lord the king: that the patent which was formerly granted by the great council to the mayor, aldermen and commons of the city of London on this article, that no foreign merchant should sell any merchandise to another foreign merchant for resale, in the manner more fully contained in the same patent, should be renewed and granted to all other cities and boroughs as well as to them; and a charter should be made thereon with a clause of confirmation. The copy of this patent follows:
Copia patentis. Copy of the patent.
33. Edwardus, Dei gracia, rex Anglie et Francie et dominus Hibernie, omnibus ad quos presentes littere pervenerint, salutem. Supplicarunt nobis dilecti et fideles nostri major, aldermani et ceteri cives civitatis nostre London' per peticionem suam coram nobis et magno consilio nostro nuper exhibitam, inter cetera continentem, quod pro eo quod omnes extranei mercimonia quecumque infra libertatem civitatis predicte ita libere vendunt aliis extraneis ad ea revendenda sicut cives civitatis predicte, ubi hujusmodi extranei propter libertatem civitatis predicte ibidem antiquitus optentam sic facere minime debuerunt nec potuerunt, tam iidem cives magis solito depauperantur et deteriorantur, quam eciam mercimonia supradicta in multo magis sunt cariora, ac plura incomoda < etc. > ad eorumdem civium maximum relevamen et commune commodum populi nostri sub gravi forisfactura nostra totaliter restringi jubere. Nos supplicacioni predicte favorabiliter inclinati, volumus et concedimus quod nullus extraneus infra libertatem civitatis predicte aliqua hujusmodi mercimonia alteri extraneo vendat, vel aliqualiter vendere presumat ad ea ulterius revendenda, quousque per proceres et magnates regni nostri Anglie in proximo parliamento nostro debite discussum fuerit, utrum ad incomodum vel commune commodum populi nostri presens concessio nostra infuturum poterit redundare; salvis semper dominis regni nostri predicti, et omnibus aliis, quod ipsi hujusmodi mercimonia omnia ibidem in usum proprium ab omnibus in grosso emere possint; et salvis eciam mercatoribus de Hansa Aleman' libertatibus suis sibi per nos et progenitores nostros concessis et confirmatis. In cujus rei testimonium has litteras fieri fecimus patentes. Teste meipso apud Westm' quarto die Novembris anno regni nostri Anglie quinquagesimo, regni vero nostri Francie tricesimo septimo. (fn. ii-361-118-1) 33. Edward, by the grace of God king of England and France and lord of Ireland, to all those to whom these present letters come, greeting. Our beloved and faithful mayor, aldermen and other citizens of our city of London petition us by their petition formerly exhibited before us and our great council, containing among other things that because all foreigners freely sell all merchandise whatsoever within the liberty of the aforesaid city to other foreigners to resell them as citizens of the aforesaid city, when, because of the liberty of the aforesaid city formerly obtained there, these foreigners ought and should not be able to do so, by which the same citizens are often greatly impoverished and destroyed and the aforesaid merchandise is also carried away in many ways, to the great disadvantage etc. of the same citizens, that we might order the greatest relief and common profit entirely to be restricted to our people under our strict forfeiture. We, being favourably inclined toward the aforesaid petition, will and grant that no foreigner within the liberty of the aforesaid city should sell any of this merchandise to any other foreigner, or presume to sell it for further resale in any way, until it is properly discussed by the leaders and magnates of our realm of England in our next parliament whether our present grant would extend to the disadvantage or to the common profit of our people; saving always to our aforesaid lord the king, and all others, that they can buy all the same merchandise there for their own use from all people in gross; and saving also to the German merchants of the Hanse their liberties granted and confirmed by us and by our progenitors. In witness of which we have caused these letters to be made patent. Witnessed by myself at Westminster on 4 November in the fiftieth year of our reign of England, and the thirty-seventh of our reign of France [1376]. (fn. ii-361-118-1)
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roy voet estre enforme. The king will be informed.
34. XVII. Item, suppliont les dites communes, mair, aldermans et communes de la citee de Londres au roy lour seignur: qe pur diverses meschiefs qe aviegnont sovent foitz en la dite citee, par cause qe le coroner n'est pas justisable par mair, auldermans ne par autres ministres d'icell, q'ils puissent eslire coroner de eaux meismes, et remower quant leur pleest, come plusours cites et villes font deins la terre, respoignant au roy en manere q'appent a celle office. [XVII. Coroner of the city of London.]
34. XVII. Also, the said commons, the mayor, aldermen and commons of the city of London, petition their lord the king: that because various misfortunes often occur in the said city because the coroner is not subject to the mayor, aldermen or other officials of the same, they might choose the coroner themselves, and remove him when they please, as many cities and towns of the land do, answering to the king in the manner which belongs to this office.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roy n'y voet mye departir de son auncien droit. The king will not forsake his ancient right.
35. XVIII. Item, suppliont les dites communes a roy lour seignur: qe < pur > plusours de causes queux sont bien conuz a vostre secret conseil come a voz communes, qe proffit < al > roialme serroit, qe toutes maneres alyenes feussent comandez hors de vostre roialme durantz les guerres, si noun marchant ou artificer qe ne sont a erdantz a voz adversaries et unqore qe lour demoere fuisse proffit du roialme. [XVIII. Expulsion of aliens.]
35. XVIII. Also, the said commons petition their lord king: that for many reasons which are known well both to your privy council and to your commonalty, it would be to the profit of the realm for all manner of aliens to be sent out of your realm during the wars, except merchants or artisans who are not adherents of your enemies and whose stay would be to the profit of the realm.
Et purce qe vous estez nostre seignur lige, et avez justicement du droit de vostre coroune de toutz choses temporeles deinz vostre roialme, et nous ne avons obbeisance de chose temporale a nully si noun a vous come a nostre roy; seignur lige, qe vous please ordener [col. b] et comander qe null de voz liges ne soit fermer ne servant a nully de riens q'il ad deins vostre roialme d'Engleterre durant voz guerres, si il ne soit a tieux qe demurront deinz vostre dite roialme, ou q'ils sont de vostre ligeance et demorantz hors du roialme par vostre especial conge. Et qe vous please comander vostre sage conseil de plus adder a ceste matire qe busoigne en amendement et proffit de vostre dit roialme. Et nous touz voz ditz communes faceons protestacions devant Dieux, et devaunt vous, et devant touz les prelates et clercs qe sont a ceste present parlement, qe nostre entente et volentee est qe le droit estat de seint esglise ne soit par nous en nulle poynt blemy, mes outrement savez et gardez a nostre voloir. And because you are our liege lord, and have authority of the right of your crown concerning all things temporal within your realm, and concerning temporal things we owe obedience to no-one except you as our king, may it please you, liege lord, to ordain [col. b] and command that none of your lieges should be a farmer or servant to anyone of anything which he has in your realm of England during your wars, unless it is to those who remain in your said realm, or who are of your allegiance and living outside the realm by your special licence. And may it please you to order your wise council further to add what is needed to this matter in amendment and profit of your said realm. And your said commons all make protestations before God, and before you, and before all the prelates and clerks who are at this present parliament, that our intent and will is that the proper estate of holy Church should not be impaired by us in any point, but further protected and preserved at our will.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roy et les grantz de la terre s'adviseront, et ent ordeneront qe mielz y soit affaire. The king and the great men of the land will consider this further, and ordain thereon what should best be done.
36. XIX. Item, suppliont les dites communes au roy lour seignur: qe come plusours de ses liges y soient presentez as diverses benefices de seinte esglise par les verrois patrons deinz le roialme, as queux benefices diverses gentz, auxibien de ses liges come autres, soventfoitz sont purveuz par l'appostoille, les queux provisours par subtilite font faire accions devers tieux presentes, lour procuratours, conseillours et autres amys a Bruges en Flaundres, par escrowettes fiches en les heus de l'esglises illoeqes, et ascuns de eaux par escrowettes fiches en les heus de la eglise Seint Pool a Londres, coment les parties y soient en le plus forein conte d'Engleterre, qe conissance de ceo avoir ne purront. Par qi sovent foitz plusours de yceux sont mys a tiel meschief qe les presentes susrendront lour benefices a tieux provisours, ou autrement ils, lour procuratours, conseillours et amys y serront, et soventfoitz sont, escomengiz et mys a tiel durete, q'ils ne sachent par nulle ley coment estre eidez ne restores a lour estat, sanz rendre les benefices et faire fyn et raunson a la voluntee des dites provisours. [XIX. Papal provisors.]
36. XIX. Also, the said commons petition their lord king: that whereas many of his lieges should be presented to various benefices of holy Church by the true patrons within the realm, to which benefices various people, his lieges as well as others, are often provided by the pope, which provisors by trickery cause actions to be made against such presentees, their proctors, counsellors and other friends at Bruges in Flanders, by fastening scrolls to the doors of the churches there, and some of them by fastening scrolls to the church door of St Paul's, London, even though the parties were in the furthest county of England and could have no knowledge of this. Whereby many of them are often put to such misfortune that the presentees surrender their benefices to such provisors, lest they, their proctors, counsellors and friends might be, as they often are, excommunicated and put to such hardship, since they are unaware of any law which would help them or restore them to their estate without returning the benefices and making fine and ransom at the will of the said provisors.
Sur qoi please a nostre seignur le roy et a soun bon et sage conseil en ceste present parlement ordener de touz provisours et lour executours de bussoignes avantditz qe font par la manere, y soient mys hors de la proteccioun nostre seignur le roy, ou ordener autre remedie covenable des ses liges, pur Dieu et en oevre de charitee. Wherefore may it please our lord the king and his good and wise council in this present parliament that all provisors and their executors of the aforesaid business who act in this manner should be put outside the protection of our lord the king, or to ordain another suitable remedy for his lieges, for God and in way of charity.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le seint pere et le roy sont en tretie de ceste article, et le seint pere ent ad fait bon promesse; (fn. ii-361-136-1) et en cas q'il ne tiegne sa dit promesse, les estatutz ent faitz devant suffisent, (fn. ii-361-136-2) les queux adonqes le roy voet q'estoisent en lour force. The holy father and the king are in negotiation concerning this article, and the holy father has made a good promise thereon; (fn. ii-361-136-1) and if he does not uphold his said promise, the statutes previously made thereon will suffice, (fn. ii-361-136-2) which the king would then will should remain in their force.
37. XX. Item, suppliont les dites communes au roy lour seignur: coment les foresters ont acrochez malement plusours boys et pastures pres de les forestes et les puralees, et attachent gentz illeoqes come s'ils feussent deinz les boundes, pur lour singuler proffit et pur tener la pais en daungier, en oppression del dit commune. [XX. Perambulation of the forests.]
37. XX. Also, the said commons petition their lord king: that the foresters have wickedly seized many woodlands and pastures near the forests and their purlieus, and they attach people there as if they were within the boundaries, for their singular profit and to hold the region in their power, in oppression of the said commonalty.
Par qoi suppliont la dite commune a lour dit roy qe lui please mander briefs as touz viscontes de faire chivacher de novel voz forestes en touz les countes d'Engleterre, selonc les metes et boundes contenuz en les chartres qe les contees ont de bounde de lour forest. Et qe ceo soit chivache par les plusages et plus vainetz des contees, paront les communes qe ore sont ou purront le mieltz saver et conustre les metes et les boundes, et qe purront meismes le mieltz garder hors de daungier. Et si null forester face attachement hors des ditz boundes, qe celui qe se sente greve purra avoir son recoverer devers le forester, par brief de faux enprisonement ou de trespas, selonc son cas. Et si le forester n'ad de qei faire les amendes, face son sovereigne les amendes pur lui. [XX. Perambulation of the forests.]
Wherefore the said commons petition their said king that it might please him to send writs to all sheriffs to cause your forests to be newly perambulated in all the counties of England, according to the limits and bounds contained in the charters which the counties have of the limits of their forest. And they should be perambulated by the wisest and most respected men of the counties, whereby the current and future commonalty would have better knowledge and cognisance of the limits and bounds, and could better protect the same without interference. And if any forester makes an attachment outside the said bounds, he who feels himself aggrieved should have his recovery against the forester by writ of false imprisonment or trespass, according to his case. And if the forester cannot make amends, his sovereign should make amends for him.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi est enformez, qe plusours gentz des contes < ne > se font pleindre ne se sentent derienz grevez en celle partie. mais ceux qi se sentent grevez en especial [p. ii-368][col. a] pursuent al roy nostre seignur et son conseil, et droit lour < ent > serra fait et reson. The king is informed that many people from the counties do not complain or feel at all aggrieved in this matter. But those who feel especially aggrieved should [p. ii-368][col. a] sue to our lord the king and his council, and justice and reason will be done to them.
[memb. 5]
38. XXI. Item, monstrent les dites communes au roy lour seignur: qe come les officers de la marschalsie enparnount sur eux conissance de diverses et plusours plees, plus largement qe unqes feust fait einz ces heures, en grant enpoveressement du poeple, et en desheritisoun de seignurs de fraunchises, en cleymantz waifs, estrayes et autres diverses profitz queux eaux, lour auncestres et ceaux qi estat ils ont, ont ewe et use de temps dont memorie ne court, le quele chose allegge ils ne veullent allouer pur title. Et en auncien temps, ils ne solient avoir la conissance du plees de felonie et trespas faites encontre la pees et deinz la verge et puis lour venue et contract et covenant du dette due ou fait entre la meine le roy et ceux qe pursuent la courte. [XXI. Court of the verge.]
38. XXI. Also, the said commons declare to their lord the king: that whereas the officers of the marshalsea themselves take cognisance of many and divers pleas, more generally than ever was done before this time, in great impoverishment of the people and in disinheritance of lords of franchises, in claiming waifs, strays and other various profits which they, their ancestors and those whose estate they have, have had and used from time out of mind, which alleged thing they will not allow for a title. And in ancient times, they were not accustomed to have the cognisance of pleas of felony and trespass committed against the peace, either within the verge or since their coming, or of contract and agreement of debt due or made between the king's hand and those whom the court pursues.
Pur qoi priont les dites communes q'il soit declare en ceste present parlement, de quele manere plee ils averont conissance; et qe de nul autre ils se ne mellent. Et qe tiel title de temps dont memorie ne court soit adjuge pur title, devant eaux sibien come devaunt voz autres justices. Wherefore the said commons pray that it should be explained in this present parliament of what manner of plea they have cognisance; and that they should concern themselves with no other. And such title of time out of mind should be adjudged for a title, before them as well as before your other justices.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soit usee come aunciement ad este usee resonablement en temps des progenitours nostre seignur le roy, et en temps des auncestres des seignurs du roialme. It should be reasonably observed as it has been formerly in the times of the progenitors of our lord the king, and in the times of the ancestors of the lords of the realm.
39. XXII. Item, suppliont les prelatz, seignurs et communes au roy lour seignur: qe nul homme soit empeche ne greve en temps avener, par cause q'il ad chace ou chacera dedeinz le poralee, ou aillours hors de le bounde du forest; ne nulle rente leve d'ascun assart arente, sinoun de mesme l'assart arente, et nemye aillours etc. [XXII. Liability within the boundaries of the forests.]
39. XXII. Also, the prelates, lords and commons petition their lord king: that no man should be impeached or aggrieved in times to come, because he has hunted or will hunt within the purlieus, or elsewhere outside the bounds of the forest; and that no rent should be levied from any arrented assart, except of the same arrented assart, and not elsewhere etc.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Se tiegne la chartre de la forest. Et touche l'assart, il semble qe la demande n'est mye resonable. The Charter of the Forest should be upheld. And concerning the assart, the request seems unreasonable.
40. XXIII. Item, suppliont les dites communes a roy lour seignur: qe les prestres qe preignent trop outrageouse lower et ceux qe leur doignent trop outrageouse lower, qe l'un et l'autre soient chastiez par voz justices, car il est lay contract et en vostre court attient d'estre justifie et redresse, et nemye allours. Et qe le roy eit le double sibien de donour come de parnour, qar le chasticement autre foitz en ce cas ordene n'est pas tenuz. [XXIII. Punishment of priests for bribery.]
40. XXIII. Also, the said commons petition their lord king: that the priests who take over-excessive bribes and those who give them over-excessive bribes should both be punished by your justices, since this is a lay contract and should be punished and redressed in your court, and not elsewhere. And the king should have double from the giver as well as from the receiver, since the punishment previously ordained in this case is not upheld.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soit l'estatut ent fait mys en due execucioun. (fn. ii-361-156-1) The statute made thereon should be duly executed. (fn. ii-361-156-1)
41. XXIIII. Item, les dites communes suppliont au roy lour seignur: qe les amys as heirs qi sont ou serront deinz age, et les terres < en > voz mayns par cause de noun age, q'ils les puissent avoir a ferme devaunt nulle, qar par malfait d'estraunges fermers les heirs sont trop en meschief a lour pleine age. [XXIIII. Wardship of tenants in chief.]
41. XXIIII. Also, the said commons petition their lord king: that the kinsmen of heirs who are or will be underage, and whose lands are in your hands because of non-age, might have them at farm before anyone else, since as a result of the misdeeds of foreign farmers the heirs are in very great misfortune at their full age.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Il a estatut fait en ce cas. (fn. ii-361-161-1) There is a statute made in this case. (fn. ii-361-161-1)
42. XXV. Item, suppliont les dites communes au roy lour seignur: qe null grant officer en l'escheqer le roi ne meintiegne nulle querelle en pais, sur peyne de perdre son office et de gree faire a double a celui qe soi sente greve, qar les viscontes sont tant en lour daungier, q'ils ne osent faire encontre eux en tiels querell. Et qe meisme le peyne soit ordene sur touz les autres officers du roy. [XXV. Officers of the exchequer.]
42. XXV. Also, the said commons petition their lord king: that no great officer in the king's exchequer should maintain any quarrel in the localities, on penalty of losing his office and of making double satisfaction to him who feels himself aggrieved, since the sheriffs are so much in their power that they dare not act against them in such quarrel. And the same penalty should be ordained on all the king's other officers.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi defendra ses ministres q'ils ne facent come autre foitz ad este fait. Et si nul se sente grevez et se pleigne en especial, droit luy ent serra fait. The king will forbid his officials to act as has been done previously. And if anyone should feel aggrieved and complain especially, justice will be done to him.
43. XXVI. Item, porce qe les religeouses purchacent terre et font autres de ceo estre enfeffez, et les dites religeouses parnont les proffitz, et auxi terre lour est done et autres persones enfeffes d'icell, et les dites religeouses de ce parnount les profitz; qe en cel cas, et en touz autres qe purront estre ymaginez, q'ils puissent [col. b] estre adjugez en cas de statut de religiosis, ent fait. Et qe le roy et autres seignurs eiont l'avauntage en cel cas, come est ordene en le dit estatut. (fn. ii-361-168-1) [XXVI. Alienation of lands held by the Church.]
43. XXVI. Also, because the religious purchase land and enfeoff others in it, and the said religious take the profits, and land is also given to them and other people enfeoffed in the same, and the said religious take the profits from this; in this case, and in all others which can be conceived, they should [col. b] be adjudged according to the statute of religious made thereon. And the king and other lords should have the advantage in this case, as is ordained in the said statute. (fn. ii-361-168-1)
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
< Le roy n'entende mye > de chaunger la loy devant usee. The king does not intend to change the law previously observed.
44. XXVII. Item, suppliont les dites communes a roy lour seignur: qe les estatutz faitz et affairs en parlement ne soient anullez s'il ne soit en parlement, et ceo de commune assent du parlement. Et qe les estatutz des purveours soient tenuz en touz poyntz. [XXVII. Statutes not to be annulled without the consent of parliament; purveyance.]
44. XXVII. Also, the said commons petition their lord king: that the statutes made and to be made in parliament should not be annulled except in parliament, and this with the common assent of parliament. And the statutes of purveyors should be upheld in all points.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Ils ne purroient estre repellez sanz assent du parlement. Et quant a ce qe touche les purveiours, nostre seignur le roy voet qe les estatutz ent faitz soient tenuz et gardez. (fn. ii-361-176-1) They cannot be repealed without the assent of parliament. And as regards those which concern purveyors, our lord the king wills that the statutes made thereon should be upheld and observed. (fn. ii-361-176-1)
45. XXVIII. Item, porce qe de commune droit du roialme, de chescun contee d'Engleterre sont et serront elleuz deux persones d'estre a parlement pur la commune des dites contees, save pur prelatz, dukes, contes, barons et tieles qe tiegnent par baronie, et queux sont et serront somonez par brief de vener a parlement, forspris cites, burghs, qi deivont eslire de eaux meismes tieles qi deivont respondre pur eux; les queux esluz pur les communes des ditz contees averont lour despense acustumez pur le temps de lour demoere, et de ce ount brief a visconte de les lever. [XXVIII. Liability to contribute to the expenses of the knights of the shires.]
45. XXVIII. Also, because it is the common right of the realm that two people from each county of England are and will be chosen to be at parliament for the commonalty of the said counties, except for prelates, dukes, earls, barons and those who hold by barony, and who are and will be summoned by writ to come to parliament, and except cities and boroughs, who should choose from themselves such as should answer for them; and that those chosen for the commonalty of the said counties should have their usual expenses for the time of the stay, and should have a writ to the sheriff to levy them.
Qe please au roi nostre seignur qe soit ordene a ceste present parlement qe les dites despense soient levez de touz les communes des dites countees, sibien deinz fraunchises come dehors, forspris de la franchises des citees et burghs, et forspris de ceux qe viegnent issi par brief a parlement par somons, et de lour tenantz qe tiegnent en bondage. Wherefore may it please our lord king that it should be ordained at this present parliament that the said expenses should be levied from all the commonalty of the said counties, inside as well as outside franchises, with the exception of the franchises of cities and boroughs, and of those who thus come by writ to parliament by summons, and of their tenants who hold in bondage.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soit fait come devant ad este use en ce cas. It should be done as previously has been observed in this case.
46. XXIX. Item, suppliont les dites communes au roi lour seignur: qe null estatut ne ordenance soit fait ne grante au peticion du clergie si ne soit par assent de voz communes; ne qe voz dites communes ne soient obligez par nulles constitucions q'ils font pur lour avantage sanz assent de voz dites communes; car eux ne veullent estre obligez a null de voz estatutz ne ordenances faitz sanz lour assent. [XXIX. Statutes and constitutions requested and made by the clergy.]
46. XXIX. Also, the said commons petition their lord king: that no statute or ordinance should be made or granted at the petition of clergy unless by the assent of your commons; and that your said commons should not be obliged by any constitutions which they make for their advantage without the assent of the commons; since they will not be obliged to any of your statutes or ordinances made without their assent.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soit ceste matire declaree en especial. This matter should be explained in detail.
47. XXX. Item, suppliont voz dites communes: qe les seignurs qi ont letes et vewe de franc plegge, qe facent due punissement as taverners des vyns, si avant come des autres malefaitz faitz deinz le purseute de lour letes etc. [XXX. Regulation of taverners.]
47. XXX. Also, your said commons petition: that the lords who have leets and view of frankpledge should duly punish taverners concerning wine, as completely as other misdeeds done within the pursuit of their leets etc.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Il n'est mye article de vewe de franc plegge. This is not an article concerning view of frankpledge.
48. XXXI. Item, suppliont voz dites communes assemblez a ceste present parlement: qe nul de eux soit ordene ne fait quillour ne collectour de ce qe vous serra grante a ceste present parlement. [XXXI. Collectors of the lay subsidy.]
48. XXXI. Also, your said commons assembled at this present parliament petition: that none of them should be appointed or made a receiver or collector of what you will be granted at this present parliament.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roy le voet. The king wills it.
49. XXXII. Item, porce qe plusours qe tiegnent diverses terres et tenementz, a tort, et a cause a delaier le demandant de son droit, font lour demoere a Caleys, et aillours en les garnisones du roy celle partie de Pikardye, et ont proteccions du roy, a grant disheritisson de diverses gentz de voz communes. [XXXII. Protections sued by those living in Calais.]
49. XXXII. Also, since many people who wrongly hold various lands and tenements make their residence at Calais, and elsewhere in the king's garrisons in this part of Picardy, in order to delay the demandant in pursuit of his right, and have the king's protections, to the great disinheritance of various people of your commonalty.
Par qoi please en cest present parlement ordener qe tieles proteccions ne soient desormes grantez, et ceux qe sont grantez repelletz. Mes q'ils facent lour attourne a respondre pur eux, car lour demoere continuel est si prees, qe puissent assetz sovent foitz vener d'enformer lour conseil de lour cas; issint qe chescuny droit puisse estre save, ou autrement grant partie de voz communes serront [p. ii-369][col. a] disheritez. Et n'est pas l'entente de voz communes qe ceux qe aillent en plus longtisme lieux en voz guerres qe serront barrez de proteccions. Wherefore may it please you to ordain in this present parliament that henceforth such protections should not be granted, and those which are granted should be repealed. Instead they should make their attorneys answer for them, since their place of continual residence is sufficiently close by that they might come often enough to inform their counsel of their case; provided that the right of each person is saved, or otherwise a great part of your commonalty will be [p. ii-369][col. a] disinherited. And it is not the intent of your commons that those who go to very distant places in your wars will be barred from protections.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soit le roi et son conseil enforme de la fraude, si nul y soit, sibien devant la proteccioun grante come apres, et due remedie [...] ent serra fait. The king and his council should be informed of the fraud, if there is any, before the protection is granted as well as afterwards, and due remedy will be made thereon.
50. XXXIII. Item, suppliont voz ditz communes: qe come en plusours lieux deinz vostre dite roialme, en crekys et havenes de la mier, ou soleyt devant ces heures bone et plenteuouse pecherie estre, a grant proffit de la roialme, la quele en poy est destruit et nientys pur long temps avenir, par ascuns peschours qi ont a ore a sept ans passez de novel sutielment controve une manere de instrument qe entre eux est appelle wondyrchoun, faite en la manere d'une drag pur oistres, le quele est outre mesure long, sur quel instrument est attache une ree, si espesse qe nulle manere de pesson, ja soit si petit noun, qe entre dedeins ne poet outre passer, einz covient demurrer et estre pris. Et outre ce, le feer grant et long du dit wondyrchoun voet si owelment et durement desur la terre ent peschant, q'il destruit la slym crascete et flurs de la terre desouz la eawe illeoqes, et auxint l'espat des oistres, musklys et d'autres pessons, parount les [...] grantz pessons soleient vivere et illeoqes estre nurriz. Par les queles instrumentz appellez wondirchouns en plusours lieux susditz ent parnount les susditz peschours si grant plente des petitz pessons susditz, q'ils ne savent de ce qe faire, mes de ce annuelment pascent lour porcs, et les encrascent tut outre, a grant damage de tout la commune de roialme et en destruccion des pescheries en lieux semblables. Dont ils priont remedie. [XXXIII. Fishing in coastal waters.]
50. XXXIII. Also, your said commons petition: that whereas in many places within your said realm, in creeks and harbours of the sea, where there used to be good and plentiful fishing before this time, to the great profit of the realm, which is almost destroyed and ruined for a long time to come, some fishers for seven years now past have cunningly invented a type of instrument which they called a 'wondyrchoun', made in the manner of a drag for oysters, which is immeasurably long, to which a net is attached which is so thick that no manner of fish which enters can escape, however small it may be, but is forced to stay and be caught. And further, the great and long iron of the said wondyrchoun lands so evenly and forcefully on the river-bottom, that it destroys the slime growing and flourishing on the land above the water there, and also the spawn of oysters, mussels and other fish, on which the great fish usually live and are nourished there. Using these instruments called wondyrchouns the aforesaid fishers catch so many of the aforesaid small fish in many of the aforesaid places that they do not know what to do with them, but annually feed their pigs with them, and fatten them right through; to the great damage of the whole commonalty of the realm and to the detriment of fishing in similar places. Wherefore they pray remedy.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soit commission fait as certeins suffisantz gentz d'enquere et certifier de la verite du fait; et sur ceo ent soit droit fait en la chancellerie. (fn. ii-361-206-1) A commission should be made to certain sufficient people to inquire into and certify the truth of the matter; and justice should be done thereon in the chancery. (fn. ii-361-206-1)
51. XXXIIII. Item, suppliont voz dites communes: qe come diverses gentz, sibien enheritez de diverses tenementz come autres, creaunsont diverses biens, sibien en mone come en marchandise, des plusours gentz du roialme; et puis donont toutz lour tenementz et chateux a lour amys, par collusion d'avoir ent les profitz a lour volunte, et puis s'ensuent a Westmonster, Seint Martyn ou autres tiels places privilegeez, et illeoqes < vivent > long temps a grande contenance d'autry biens en la manere avantdite, tanqe les dites creaunsours serront moult leez de prendre une petit parcelle de lour dette et relesser le remenant. Et puis les ditz dettours returnent a lour meson, et ont lour tenementz, biens et chateux a lour voluntee par l'assent de lour ditz amys. Et par cause de tieux fraudes et collusions plusours gentz du roialme sont molt durement grevez, et ascuns de tout destruyt. [XXXIIII. Liability for debts.]
51. XXXIIII. Also, your said commons petition: whereas various people, those possessed through inheritance of various tenements as well as others, borrow various goods, in money as well as in merchandise, from many people of the realm; they then give all their tenements and chattels to their friends, by collusion of having the profits from the same at their will, and then proceed to Westminster, St Martin or other such privileged places, and live there for a long time sustained by another's goods in the aforesaid manner, until the said creditors are very happy to take a small part of their debt and to release the rest. And then the said debtors return to their house, and have their tenements, goods and chattels at their will by the assent of their said friends. And as a result of such frauds and collusions many people of the realm are very harshly aggrieved, and some completely destroyed.
Par qoi la dite commune prie remedie, qe homme purra avoir brief de dette vers tieux occupeours des tieux tenementz et chateux en le cas avantdit, ou autre remedie covenable. Wherefore the said commonalty prays remedy, that a man can have a writ of debt against such occupiers of such tenements and chattels in the aforesaid case, or other suitable remedy.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roy voet qe si purra estre trovez qe tieux enfeffementz soient faitz par collusion, eient le creditours execucion as dites terres auxi avant come < nulle tiel > feffement ne eust este fait. (fn. ii-361-211-1) The king wills that, if it can be found that such enfeoffments were made by collusion, the creditors should have execution of the said lands as fully as if no such enfeoffment had been made. (fn. ii-361-211-1)
52. XXXV. Item, suppliont voz dites communes et les gentz de les portz et des coustes sur la mier: qe come avant ces heures ascuns de voz liges ont pris et robbez gentz desur la meer et murdrez; qe please a vostre tresgraciouse seignurie, ore en vostre an jubile, de granter chartre de pardoun sibien de trespas come felonies tanqe a cest present parlement, forspris ceaux qe sont enpeschez, ou enpechables, de la mort Monsir Henri del Haye, et ceux queux sont enditez a seute de partie. [XXXV. Pardon for offences at sea.]
52. XXXV. Also, your said commons and the people of the ports and coasts of the sea petition: that whereas before this time some of your lieges have taken, robbed and murdered people on the sea; that it might please your most gracious lordship, now in your jubilee year, to grant a charter of pardon of trespass as well as of felonies up to this present parliament, excepting those who are impeached or impeachable of the death of Sir Henry Hay, and those who are indicted at the suit of the party.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roy ent ferra grace ou luy semble qe soit affaire. The king will do grace thereon where it seems best.
[col. b]
53. XXXVI. Item, suppliont les dites communes: qe la ou nostre tresredoute seignur le roy et ses progenitours ont grantez par lour chartres et confermez qe diverses citees, burghs, tenuz du roy a fee ferme, eient celles franchises par expresses paroles, qe nul seneschal ne mareschal ne clerc de market, soi entremettent de nulles choses faitz deinz les franchises susditz; et nient contreesteant tieux franchises, les avantdites officers soi entremellent des choses faitz dedeinz les dites citees et burghs, encontre le tenour de lour dites chartres, par cause qe n'est pas expressement parle en les chartres, 'Tam in presencia nostra quam alibi.' [XXXVI. Franchises of cities and boroughs.]
53. XXXVI. Also, the said commons petition: that whereas our most dread lord the king and his progenitors have granted and confirmed by their charters that various cities and boroughs held of the king at fee farm should have these franchises by express words, so that no steward, marshal or clerk of the market should concern himself with any of the things done inside the aforesaid franchises; notwithstanding such franchises, the aforesaid officers concern themselves with things done inside the said cities and boroughs, contrary to the tenor of their said charters, because it is not expressly stated in the charters, 'In our presence as well as elsewhere'.
Pur qoi ils priont q'il soit ordene et comande en cest present parlement, sur grevouse peyne ordene par avys del tresage conseil nostre tresredoute seignur le roy, qe les avauntditz officers, ne null de tieux, ne soi desore enavant plus entremellent encontre le dite tenour de lour chartres avantditz, ou autrement ils ne poent paier lour ferme. Wherefore they pray that it should be ordained and ordered in this present parliament, on grievous penalty ordained by the advice of the wisest counsel of our most dread lord the king, that the aforesaid officers, or any of them, henceforth should not further concern themselves contrary to the said tenor of their aforesaid charters, or otherwise they will not be able to pay their farms.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Il plest au roy qe tieles chartres soient allouez, selonc ley et reson, et come ent ad este fait devant ces heures. It pleases the king that such charters should be allowed, according to law and reason, and as has been done thereon before this time.
[memb. 4]
54. XXXVII. Item, suppliont les dites communes: porce qe grandz meschiefs ont eschuz as plusours de la terre devant ces heures, a cause qe par la mort de lour auncestres, < qe tiendront > de nostre seignur le roy en chief, lour heritages furent seisiz en la mayn le roy par ses eschetours, par vertue des briefs de Diem clausit extremum ou en autre manere; et dentur les ditz eschetours par lour enquestes de office fuist trove qe les ditz heritages furent tenuz en chief du roy par certeins services, la ou en verite les dites heritages, ou parcelle d'icell, feuront tenuz du roy par autres services, ou parcell fuist tenuz d'autres seignurs et nemye du roy, come suppose fuist par les dites enquestes de office; et lour heirs adonqes esteantz de plein age sueront livere de lour dites heritages hors de la mayn du roy en la chancellerie acordant as dites offices, saunz traverse doner a ycell en partie ou en tout, et ceo par cause qe ascuns des ditz heirs feuront mesconuz de la ley, et ascuns nient aprise de qi, ne par quel service, lour heritage feust tenuz. Par quele cause les ditz heirs apres ont estee sovent greve vers le roy en son escheqer, et aillours, ascuns a faire relief acordant ad dites offices la ou unqes nul de lour auncestres fuist charge de tiel relief, et ascuns d'acompter des issues et profitz de tout < ou > de parcelle de lour heritage du temps de lour auncestres, pur ce qe ne fuist pas trove en la court le roy, qe lour auncestres avoient conuz devant lour heritage en parcelle ou en tout estre tenuz du roy acordant as dites offices. [XXXVII. Inquests by escheators.]
54. XXXVII. Also, the said commons petition: whereas great misfortunes have occurred to many people of the land before this time, because, due to the death of their ancestors who held of our lord the king in chief, their inheritances were seized into the king's hands by his escheators, by virtue of writs of diem clausit extremum or in other manner; and before the said escheators by their inquests taken of office, it was found that the said inheritances were held in chief of the king by certain services, when in truth the said inheritances, or part of the same, were held of the king by other services, or part was held of other lords and not of the king, as was supposed by the said inquests of office; and their heirs, then being of full age, sued for delivery of their said inheritances out of the king's hands in the chancery, according to the said offices, without challenging the same in part or in whole, because some of the said heirs were ignorant of the law, and some were not apprised of whom or by which service their inheritances were held; for this reason the said heirs afterwards have often been aggrieved by the king in his exchequer and elsewhere, some to make relief according to the said offices, when none of their ancestors was ever charged of such relief, and others to account for the issues and profits of all or part of their inheritance from the time of their ancestors, because it was not found in the king's court that the ancestors had known before that their inheritance in part or in whole was held of the king, according to the said offices.
Qe vous please ordener qe chescun homme en queconqe court le roi purra estre resceuz d'averer, de qi, et par quel service, son heritage tout ou parcelle est tenuz en chief, sanz estre estope ou destruwe par cause des dites enquestes d'offices, ou des dites seutes de livere sur ce faites, come desuz est dit, ou des semblables enquestes et suites de livere faitz et affaire sibien du temps passe come de temps avenir. May it please you to ordain that, in any of the king's courts, each man could be received to aver of whom and by which service all or part of his inheritance is held in chief, without being estopped or disturbed because of the said inquests of offices or the said suits of delivery made thereon, as is aforesaid, or similar inquests and suits of delivery made in times past and to be made in times to come.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Nul tenant doit estre resceuz a contrepleder sa conissance demesne. No tenant should be received to counterplead his own cognisance.
55. XXXVIII. Item, suppliont les dites communes: qe come estoit grante par les seignurs et communes, l'an du regne nostre seignur le roy qe Dieux lui save .xliiij., une certeine custume de draps a profit nostre seignur le roy, c'estassavoir, de chescun tier drape .iiij. d. et de chescun demi drape .ij. d. et de chescun drape de demy greine .v. d. et chescun drape de scarlet .vi. d.; et sur ce nostre dit tresredoute seignur le roy ad ordene en chescun countee d'Engleterre certains deputes deprendre l'avantdite custume sur la forme susdit, (fn. ii-361-228-1) plusors des dites deputes pur lour singuler profit preignont de chescun drape .iiij. d. et demi drape .ij. d. nient fullez. Et outre ceo, quant les dites draps sont fullez autre foitz .iiij. d. [p. ii-370][col. a] et pur demi drape .iij. d., a grande damage et povertee de people de la roialme, et purce qe ne fuist termine devaunt ces heures mes de chescun drape come desus est dit. [XXXVIII. Alnage of fulled cloth.]
55. XXXVIII. Also, the said commons petition: that whereas a certain custom of cloth was granted by the lords and commons in the forty-fourth year of the reign of our lord the king, whom God protect, to the profit of our lord the king, that is to say, 4d. on each whole cloth, 2d. on each half cloth, 5d. on each cloth of half grain and 6d. on each cloth of scarlet, and our said most dread lord the king appointed certain deputies in every county of England to take the aforesaid custom in the aforesaid form; (fn. ii-361-228-1) many of the said deputies for their singular profit take 4d. for every cloth and 2d. for every half cloth which has not been fulled. And further, when the said cloths are fulled they sometimes take 4d. [p. ii-370][col. a] and 3d. for a half cloth, to the great damage and poverty of the people of the realm, because nothing was decided before this time except on each cloth as is aforesaid.
Par qoi priont les dites communes qe soit ordene en ceste present parlement qe les dites deputes ne preignent riens sinoun des draps fullez, en manere come il fuist einz ces heures grantez. Wherefore the said commons pray that it should be ordained in this present parliament that the said deputies should take nothing except from fulled cloth in the manner granted before this time.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi defende qe nuls drapes de leyne soient amesnez null part hors de le roialme d'Engleterre devant q'ils soient fullez, ne qe nul subside ent soit demandez ou paie devaunt ce q'ils soient fullez. (fn. ii-361-231-1) The king forbids any woollen cloth to be taken anywhere outside the realm of England before it has been fulled, and no subsidy should be required or paid thereon before it has been fulled. (fn. ii-361-231-1)
56. XXXIX. Item, suppliont les dites communes au roi lour seignur: qe come plusours de diverses citees et burghs et autres villes de son roialme aprestiront al oeps lour tresredoute seignur liges, certeins sommes d'argent en temps qe reverent pier en Dieux Thomas de Brantyngham, evesqe de Excestre, estoit tresorer d'Engleterre, des quell sommes ascuns des ditz communes ne sont unqore de rien paiez, si qe par le desport de lour dit argent ascuns de eux sont grandement anientuz. [XXXIX. Loans to the crown from cities and towns.]
56. XXXIX. Also, the said commons petition their lord king: that whereas many various cities, boroughs and other towns of his realm lent certain sums of money to their most dread liege lord during the time that the reverend father in God Thomas Brantingham, bishop of Exeter, was treasurer of England; some of the said commonalty have not yet been paid for these sums, so that for lack of their said money some of them are greatly ruined.
Qe please a lour dit seignur lige granter qe voz ditz poevres communes puissent en brief estre paiez de lour dites aprestez, en oevre de charite et en relevement de lour estat. (fn. ii-361-233a-1) May it please their said liege lord to grant that your said poor commonalty might shortly be paid their aforesaid loans, in way of charity and in relief of their estate. (fn. ii-361-233a-1)
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Nostre seignur le roy comandra son tresorer de lour faire paiement, sitost come il purra bonement, salvant son estat. Our lord the king will order his treasurer to pay them as soon as he can, saving his estate.
57. XL. Item, suppliont les dites communes: qe come en diverses parties deinz la roialme d'Engleterre sont diverses miners des carbons, dont les communes du dit partie ont lour sustenantz en grande partie; de queux carbons puis q'ils ont unfoitz fowes jammes ne vient novel encres ne profit. [XL. Coal mining.]
57. XL. Also, the said commons petition: that whereas in various regions of the realm of England there are various coal mines, from which the commonalty of the said regions in large part have their livelihood; yet they can have no further benefit or profit from such coal once it is dug.
Sur qei priont les dites communes qe estatut soit fait a ceste present parlement des dites carbons, en meisme la nature come est fait de cheynes et autres grosses arbres, puis q'ils sont en cas semblable. Wherefore the said commons pray that a statute should be made at this present parliament concerning the said coal, in the same way as was done concerning oaks and other large trees, since they are in a similar situation.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Ent soit fait decy enavant come devant ad este usee. It should be done henceforth as has been observed previously.
58. XLI. Item, suppliont les dites communes: qe nul fyn soit pris pur briefs de assises ne pur null autres briefs a purchacer, mes ceo qe homme paie pur lour brief, come < ordene est > par la grande chartre qe, 'Nully negamus nully vendemus rectum aut justiciam.' (fn. ii-361-243-1) [XLI. Fines for writs.]
58. XLI. Also, the said commons petition: that no fine should be taken for writs of assizes or any other writs to be purchased, except that men should pay for their writs, as it was ordained by the Great Charter that, 'To no-one will we refuse or sell right or justice.' (fn. ii-361-243-1)
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soit fait en ce cas, par discrecion de chanceller pur le temps esteant, come ad este usee devant. It should be done in this matter, by the discretion of the current chancellor, as has previously been observed.
59. XLII. Item, suppliont les dites communes au roi lour seignur: qe lui please de sa especiale grace granter qe nul chivaler, esquier ne autre de voz communes de la terre soient chargez de office de visconte, eschetour, coroner ne coillour ne en null autre office queqonqe apres lour age de cessantz anz passez, eiant regard qe pur la frealte du secle q'ore est, et pur le travail qe ad estee dedeins cessant anz passez, qe temps serront apres le age susdit de vivere en repoos et service de Dieux. [XLII. Exemption from office of those over sixty.]
59. XLII. Also, the said commons petition their lord king: that it might please him of his special grace to grant that no knight, esquire or other of your commonalty of the land should be burdened with the office of sheriff, escheator, coroner or collector or any other office whatsoever after the age of sixty years; having regard for the frailty of the current generation, and for the work done during the past sixty years, so that the time after the aforesaid age will be for living in rest and the service of God.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le < roy desportera del faire > la ou lui semble qe doit estre fait. The king will refrain from doing this whenever it seems it should be so.
60. XLIII. Item, suppliont les dites communes: qe toutes maners chartres de roys avaunt ces heures grantez soient allowes devaunt justices de assises, et autres justices quequnqes, et de novel confermez, coment < lour > franchises unqes n'estoit allowe. [XLIII. Charters allowable at law.]
60. XLIII. Also, the said commons petition: that all manner of charters of kings granted before this time should be allowed before justices of assizes, and other justices whatsoever, and newly confirmed, or otherwise their franchises will never be allowed.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi voet q'ils eient allouances selonc ce qe ad este duement usee devant. The king wills that they should have allowances as has duly been observed previously.
61. XLIIII. Item, suppliont les dites communes au lour seignur le roy pur les communes des countees d'Essex et [col. b] de Hertford: qe come le viscont des ditz contees soit charge annuelment de lever .cclvij.li. et .xvij. s. de fermes, sergeanties, purprestures et des meismes fermes des dites contees, come piert en la pipe del escheqer, dont chescun viscont perdy devaunt ceste derrain pestilence .c.li. par an; et ore, par cause del derrain pestilence est la perde plus grande, purceo qe les profitz des dites contees ne puissent en nulle manere estre levez, et coment qe nostre seignur le roy lour pardone ascun foitz .c. marcs par an, voz ditz ministres sont anientuz et destrutz. [XLIIII. Sheriff's farm for Essex and Hertfordshire.]
61. XLIIII. Also, the said commons petition their lord the king on behalf of the commonalty of the counties of Essex and [col. b] Hertfordshire: that whereas the sheriff of the said counties is charged annually to levy £257 and 17s. from farms, serjeanties, purprestures and from the same farms of the said counties, as appears in the pipe of the exchequer, whereupon every sheriff lost £100 yearly before this last pestilence; now, due to the last pestilence, the loss is greater because the profits from the said counties cannot be levied in any manner, and although our lord the king previously pardoned them 100 marks yearly, your said officials are ruined and destroyed.
Par qei vous please, en oevre de charitee et pur les almes de voz progenitours, mettre la dite pardoune en certain, adurer perpetuelment, ou d'abregger la somme des dites fermes de tant ou qe voz ditz viscontes soient approwours de ce, respoignantz a l'escheqer, et illeoqes soient chargez de ceo lour acompte de quanqe q'ils ont de ce resceuz par leur serment, et de nient plus; nient contreesteant ascun course de l'escheqer en < ce cas eins > ces heures autrement usez. Wherefore may it please you, in way of charity and for the souls of your progenitors, to establish the said pardon to last forever, or to reduce the sum of the said farms by as much as your said sheriffs are allowed when answering to the exchequer, and they should be charged of this on their account of whatever they have received from this by their oath, and of nothing more; notwithstanding any process of the exchequer otherwise observed in this case at this time.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Nostre seignur le roy lour ent fist grace al derrain parlement, (fn. ii-361-261-1) et encores voet faire quant ent busoignera. Our lord the king made them grace thereon at the last parliament, (fn. ii-361-261-1) and still will do so when necessary.
62. XLV. Item, suppliont les dites communes au roy lour seignur: qe come il a sovent avenuz en temps passe, et ore avient de jour en jour plus communement qe ce ne soleit, qe diversez persones qe ont entreez et entrent religion en diverses lieux esteantz de tendre age, et qe sont professes, et demoerent et se agreent en et de l'abit et reule de profession tanqe ils soient del age de quinsze ans et plus; se disagreent apres, par procurement, covetise ou par charnel delit, et reneient lour dit profession, et < surceo > ascun foitz par sugescion feynte faite a seint pier le pape, ils ont dispensacion de retourner a seculerite non obstante lour dite profession, et impetrent du dit seint pier mandementz as evesqes, ensi q'ils font ascun foitz pur les ditz reneiantz certificacion a la court du roi, tesmoignantz favorablement la profession estre induement fait. La quele chose ad en temps passe tournez, et purroit tourner disore enavant en prejudice et disheritisoun de diverses seignurs, et d'autres persones seculers du roialme, si de remedie ne soit purveuz. [XLV. Renunciation of orders by professed religious.]
62. XLV. Also, the said commons petition their lord king: that whereas it has often occurred in times past, and now occurs from day to day more commonly than it used to, that various people of tender age who have entered and enter religion in various places, and are professed, and remain and agree to the habit and rule of the profession until they are of the age of fifteen years and more; afterwards they refuse, by procurement, covetousness or by carnal delight, and renounce their said profession, and sometimes, due to false accusations made to the holy father the pope, they receive dispensation to return to secular life, notwithstanding their said profession, and they obtain from the said holy father orders to bishops, so that they sometimes make certification for the said renouncement at the king's court, gladly testifying that their profession was unduly made. Which thing has in times past turned, and henceforth could turn, in prejudice and disinheritance of various lords and of other secular people of the realm, if remedy is not provided.
Il vous please, tant en meintenance de seint religion come pur eschuir les inconvenienz, disheritisons, qe ent purroient < ensuir > en tiel cas en temps avenir, ordener en ceste present parlement par estatut qe chescune persone, de quele sexe qe se soit, qi entre religion et soit profes, s'il puisse estre prove en la dite court du roi par enqueste suffisante, qe la persone eit este profes, et eit demurrez portant greablement l'abit de religion en la age de quinsze ans et apres; qe chescun tiel persone soit forsbarre de heritage par la ley de la terre, tout soit ensi qe meisme la persone soit profes en tendre age. May it please you, as much in maintenance of holy religion as to avoid the inconveniences and disinheritances which could ensue in such cases in times to come, to ordain by statute in this present parliament that each person, of whatever sex they may be, who enters religion and is professed, and has continued to consent to wearing the habit of religion at the age of fifteen years and after, should be forbidden inheritance by the law of the land, even if the same person was professed at a tender age.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roy et les seignurs de la terre ent ferront due ordenance et remede. The king and the lords of the land will provide due ordinance and remedy thereon.
Harang. [XLVI] Herring.
63. XLVI. Item, suppliont les dites communes: qe come en le derrain parlement sugescion fuist fait qe harang fuist grandement encheri pur ce qe les peschours ne poent vendre le dit harang fraunchement a lour volunte, et qe certains gentz achateront tout le dit harang de les peschours pur lour singuler profit, a grant meschief de tout le roialme, sur qoi certeins ordenances furent faitz, come appiert par record de meisme le parlement; (fn. ii-361-269-1) et ore harang est plus chier, et plus feble de currai q'il n'estoit unqes devaunt ces heures, a grant meschief de tout le roialme si due remedie ne soit ordene. 63. XLVI. Also, the said commons petition: that whereas in the last parliament it was suggested that herring was much more expensive because the fishers cannot sell the said herring freely at their will, and that certain people buy all the said herring from the fishers for their singular profit, to the great misfortune of the whole realm, whereupon certain ordinances were made, as appears by record of the same parliament; (fn. ii-361-269-1) now herring is even more expensive and less abundant than ever before, to the great misfortune of the whole realm if due remedy is not ordained.
Qe please a nostre seignur le roy et son bon conseill de faire diligente examinement des marchantz, et en autre manere, coment le dit meschief purra estre amende, et surceo de ordener tiel remedye qe purra estre a commune profit de tout le roialme. May it please our lord the king and his good council diligently to examine merchants, and in other manner, as to how the said misfortune could be corrected, and to ordain such remedy thereon which could be to the common profit of the whole realm.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soient certains suffisantz gentz indifferentz assignez par commission, de lour enformer diligentment sibien [p. ii-371][col. a] par inspeccion del lieu come autrement, pur enquerre et de certifier la plaine verite. Et sur celle certificacion le roy ferra ce qe luy semblera qe mieltz y soit affaire pur commune profit du roialme. Certain sufficient impartial people should be assigned by commission, diligently to inform themselves [p. ii-371][col. a] by inspection of the place as well as otherwise, to inquire into and certify the full truth. And on this certification the king will do what seems best to do for the common profit of the realm.
64. XLVII. A nostre seignur le roy et a son tresnoble conseil en cest present parlement; monstrent les communes del countee de Devens': coment en prochein parlement ils pursuerent pur declaracion avoir de la chartre de l'esteymerie el dit contee, pur diverses oppressiones et grevances qe les esteymours par colour de la dite chartre fesoient a la dite commune, quele declaracion en parcel estoit fait au dit parlement, come est entre de record; (fn. ii-361-274-1) et parcel de la dite chartre estoit nient declare, par cause qe avys feust en conseil adonqes q'il convenseit d'enquere de les custumes et usages de les ditz esteymours, come plus pleinement poet estre prove par record en la chancellarie. (fn. ii-361-274-1) Sur qoi commissions estient directez a Monsir Hugh de Courtenaye conte de Devens', Monsir Hugh de Segrave et a Monsir Robert Bealknapp' et as autres justices d'enquere de lour custumes et usages; les queux justices enquystrent de meismes les custumes et usages par le mieltz vanez chivalers et esquiers du dit contee, q'avoient enformacion de les plus aunciens mestres de l'estemerie jurez; quel enquerre si est retourne en la chancellerie nostre seignur le roy come la commission demande. [XLVII-XLIX. The stannaries.]
64. XLVII. To our lord the king and his noblest council in this present parliament; the commons of the county of Devon declare: how in the previous parliament they sued to have a clarification of the charter of the stannaries in the said county, due to the various oppressions and grievances which the tin-miners caused the said commonalty by pretext of the said charter, which clarification in part was made to the said parliament, as is entered on record; (fn. ii-361-274-1) and part of the said charter was not explained, because the opinion of the council was then that it would be fitting to inquire into the customs and usages of the said tin-miners, as can be more fully proved by record in the chancery. (fn. ii-361-274-2) Whereupon commissions were directed to Sir Hugh Courtenay, earl of Devon, Sir Hugh Segrave and Sir Robert Belknap and to other justices to inquire into their customs and usages; which justices inquired into the same customs and usages through the most respected knights and esquires of the said county, who had sworn information about the most ancient masters of the stannaries; which inquiry was returned in our lord the king's chancery as the commission required.
Sur qoi please a nostre seignur le roy et a son tresnoble conseil qe la dite enquerre ov la declaricioun ent faite tut ensemble y soit mys en record a cest present parlement, et qe une patente surceo y soit grante et faite a la dite commune, pur Dieux et en oevre de charitee. (fn. ii-361-274a-1) Wherefore may it please our lord the king and his noblest council that the said inquiry together with the clarification made thereon should be put on record at this present parliament, and that a patent thereon should be granted and made to the said commonalty, for God and in way of charity. (fn. ii-361-274a-1)
65. XLVIII. < A nostre seignur le roi; > monstre son humble filz, Richard, prince de Gales: coment la ou son seignur et pere Monsir Edward, nadgaires prince de Gales, qi Dieux assoill, estoit seisiz et en possession des estemeryes de Cornewaille et Deveneshire, ovesqe certeins franchises et libertees appurtenantz as ditz estemeryes, ascunes par chartre du roy et ascuns de commune droit, et ascuns par usage et custume usees de tut temps de memorie; nientmeyns, par peticion suiz par ascuns des dites contees en le parlement tenuz a Westm' darrien avant, (fn. ii-361-276-1) cest estoit fait declaracion de la dite chartre touchant les dites franchises, libertees et usages, sanz ce qe son dit seignur et pere, ne nul autre pur la partie de lui, ne du dit Richard, ne pur les ditz esteymours, estoient appellez ne oyez a la dite < declaracioun; > la quele est tournez et tourneroit a grande diffesance et destruccion des ditz esteymeryes, et en grand disheretisoun et damage du dit Richard, encontre loy et reson, si de remede n'y fuist purveuz. 65. XLVIII. To our lord the king; his humble son, Richard, prince of Wales, declares: that whereas our lord and father, my lord Edward, former prince of Wales, whom God absolve, was seized and in possession of the stannaries of Cornwall and Devon, with certain franchises and liberties belonging to the said stannaries, some by charter of the king and some of common right, and some by usage and custom observed since time out of mind; nevertheless, by petition sued by some of the said counties in the parliament held at Westminster last, (fn. ii-361-276-1) this clarification was made of the said charter touching the said franchises, liberties and usages, without his said lord and father, or any other on his behalf, or the said Richard, or any other for the said tin-miners, being called or hearing the said explanation; which has turned and will turn to the great defeasance and destruction of the said stannaries, and in great disinheritance and damage of the said Richard, contrary to law and reason, if remedy is not provided.
Sur qoi supplie le dit Richard q'il please a nostre dit seignur le roy en cest present parlement adnuller la dite declaracion, attendu qe elle estoit erroynousement faite, come desus est dit, et restituer le dit Richard en possession des ditz franchises, libertees et usages, par la manere qe son dit pere, et les autres seignurs des dites esteymeryes et les esteymours les ont tenuz et usez de tut temps, come dessus est dit. Wherefore the said Richard petitions that it might please our said lord the king to annul the said explanation in this present parliament, understanding that it was erroneously made, as is aforesaid, and to restore the said Richard into the possession of the said franchises, liberties and usages, in the manner that his said father and the other lords of the said stannaries and the tin-miners have held and used them for all time, as is aforesaid.
66. XLIX. Al conseil nostre seignur le roi; supplient ceux qe sont a cest present parlement pur la commune de Devens': qe come ils ont entenduz qe certeins gentz du dite countee ont enfourmez le dit conseil qe les gentz de la dit commune ore tard de lour malice ont destruit les seigneuries de nostre tresredoute seignur le prince el dite countee. Q'il please al dit conseil qe ceux q'ont fait la dit suggescion y soient fait venir a certeyn jour devant le dit conseil, et issint qe ceux qe sont pur le dit contee a cest parlement y puissent venir devant le dit conseil, de monstrer et a declarer qe la dite suggescion n'est pas verray, et outre coment les dites seignuries et les profitz [col. b] d'icelles avenantz y puissent droiturelement estre sauvez en temps avenir. 66. XLIX. To our lord the king's council; those who are at this present parliament for the commonalty of Devon petition: that whereas they have understood that certain people of the said county have informed the said council that the people of the said commonalty recently of their malice have destroyed the lordships of our most dread lord the prince in the said county; that is might please the said council that those who have made the said claim should be made to appear before the said council on a certain day, and that those who are at this parliament for the said county might come before the said council to declare and explain that the said claim is not true, and also how the said lordships and the profits [col. b] arising from the same might rightly be protected in times to come.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le proces ent serra veue et examinee par l'advis du conseil nostre seignur le roy et de monsir le prince, < et sur ce > droit et reson ent serra fait. (fn. ii-361-281-1) The process thereon will be viewed and examined by our lord the king's council and my lord the prince, and justice and reason will be done thereon. (fn. ii-361-281-1)
[memb. 3]
67. L. A nostre tresredoute seignur le roy et as honurables seignurs del parlement; supplient les communes des countees de Leycestre, Northampton, Huntyngdon et Bedeford: qe come le haut file del eawe entre Seint Ives et Huntyngdon est estope par .iij. molyns, qe les bateux et niefs ne puissent par eux passer ove lour vitailles et merchandises; par quele estopage des dites molyns, l'eawe les blees et prees southmergeont, c'estassavoir les villes de Bukeden, Brampton, Gormcestre et Hemyford et Huntyngdon et plusours autres qi demurront presde l'eawe, as damages des communes, countees et villes avauntditz de .cc.li. par an, et pluis. [L. Impediments to river traffic between St Ives and Huntingdon.]
67. L. To our most dread lord the king and the honourable lords of parliament; the commons of the counties of Leicestershire, Northamptonshire, Huntingdonshire and Bedfordshire petition: that whereas the main channel of water between St Ives and Huntingdon is blocked by three mills, which the boats and ships might not pass with their victuals and merchandises; as a result of this blockage of the said mills, the corn and cargo become submerged in water, to the damage of £200 yearly and more to the aforesaid commonalty, counties and towns, that is to say the towns of Buckden, Brampton, Godmanchester, Hemingford and Huntingdon and many others which are situated near the water.
De qi ils priont remedie estre ordene en cest plein parlement, pur Dieux et en oevre de charitee. Wherefore they pray that remedy should be ordained in this full parliament, for God and in way of charity.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Il a estatut en le cas, le quel soit mys en dieu execucion. (fn. ii-361-286-1) There is a statute in this case which should be duly executed. (fn. ii-361-286-1)
68. LI. A tresgraciouse et tresexcellent seignur nostre seignur le roy et son bone conseille; monstre la communalte del countee de Warr': qe come nostre dite seignur le roy ad un maisoun q'est appelle le Gaolhall deinz la ville de Warr', quel est ordene pur la sauf garde des felons, en ease del dite communalte et profit nostre dit seignur le roy; quele ceste jour devenuz si ruinouse q'il ne poet les rebealx et felonx retiner, en grante diseise et charge de visconte et communalte du dit contee et en damage nostre seignur le roy. [LI. The gaol of Warwick.]
68. LI. To the most gracious and most excellent lord our lord the king and his good council; the commonalty of the county of Warwickshire declares: that whereas our said lord the king has a house called the Gaolhall in the town of Warwick, which is ordained for the safekeeping of felons, in ease of the said commonalty and to the profit of our said lord the king; these days it has become so ruinous that it cannot hold the rebels and felons, to the great distress and burden of the sheriff and commonalty of the said county and to the damage of our lord the king.
Qe please a vostre tresgraciouse seignurie, pur Dieu et en oevre de charitee, graunter al dite communalte qe le dit Gaolhall purra estre faite ove les issues du dit contee apprendrez par les mains le viscont du dit countee, en seurtee del communalte et profit nostre seignur le roy; eiant regard as periles queux purront avenir deinz brief temps par la cause susdite. May it please your most gracious lordship, for God and in way of charity, to grant the said commonalty that the said Gaolhall may be rebuilt with the issues of the said counties to be taken by the hands of the sheriff of the said county, for the safekeeping of the commonalty and to the profit of our lord the king; having regard for the perils which could occur in a short time for the aforesaid reason.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Sue au tresorer et les autres du conseill le roy d'y mettre amendement. They should sue the treasurer and the others of the king's council to provide a solution.
69. LII. Item, qe nul homme qe passent leynes outre mier, ou qi ont leur niefs sur la mier, ne soient mys en office de custumers ne poisours de leynes en nul port d'Engleterre, pur l'avantage du roy et ease et profit des touz les marchantz du roialme et toute la commune. [LII. No exporter to be appointed as a customs official.]
69. LII. Also, that no man who exports wool overseas, or who has his ships on the sea, should have the office of customs official or weigher of wool in any port of England, for the king's advantage and the ease and profit of all the merchants and all the commonalty of the realm.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roy ordenera de tieux pur estre custumers come luy plerra. The king will appoint those who please him to be customs officials.
70. LIII. A nostre tresexcellent seignur le roy; supplient les heirs et terres tenantz de les chief taxours de la .xv. me en l'an nostre seignur le roy q'orest sisme: qe come meisme l'an chescun homme estoit taxez par sa test a cell temps, et chescun de les ditz taxours feust taxez par soi meisme par les barons del escheqer sur lour acompte; et ensi furent ils taxez a chescune .xv. e < long temps apres, > tanqe les heirs et terres tenantz de les ditz taxours pursuerent briefs severalment a les barons del escheqer, de lour taxer autrement chescun selonc ce q'il avoit et tenoit en les terres qe feurent as dites taxours; par quele manere ils ont estee taxez et allouez par vertue des ditz briefs et proces sur ce fait. Et maintenant ne veullent les ditz barons lour soeffrer estre ensi taxez selonc ce q'ils furent taxez par les ditz briefs et proces, sanz ce q'a chescune .xv. e ils lour portont novell briefs pur meisme la cause, a grant damage et enpoverissement des ditz heirs et terres tenantz. [LIII. Liability of taxers of the fifteenth and tenth of 1332.]
70. LIII. To our most excellent lord the king; the heirs and tenants of the chief tax collectors of the fifteenth in the sixth year of our present lord the king [1332] petition: that whereas in the same year every man was taxed individually for what he had at the time, and each of the said tax collectors was taxed by himself by the barons of the exchequer on their account; they were taxed thus at every fifteenth for a long time afterwards, until the heirs and landholders of the said tax collectors sued writs individually to the barons of the exchequer, to tax them instead each according to what he had and held in the lands which belonged to the said tax collectors; in this manner they have been taxed and allowed by virtue of the said writs and process made thereon. And now the said barons will not allow them to be taxed as they were taxed by the said writs and process, without bringing new writs at each fifteenth for the same reason, to the great damage and impoverishment of the said heirs and tenants.
Par qoi please a nostre dit tresexcellent seignur le roi lour mettre a tiele remedie, q'ils ne soient mie ensi travaillez ne chargez, ne mys a tiels custages de temps en temps, tant pur temps passez, [p. ii-372][col. a] qe pur le temps avenir quant les .xv. es serront levez, en oevre de charitee. Wherefore may it please our said most excellent lord the king to provide them such remedy so that they should not be thus troubled or burdened or put to such expense from time to time, for times past as well as [p. ii-372][col. a] for times to come when the fifteenths will be levied, in way of charity.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Si l'assession soit resonablement assis une foitz, il semble qe celle se doit perpetuelment tenir. If the assessment was reasonably assessed once, it seems that this should hold perpetually.
71. LIIII. A nostre seignur le roi et son conseil; monstrent diverses merchantz d'Engleterre: qe par la ou plusours marchauntz d'Engleterre, Gales et Irland sovent amesnent en Engleterre hors de la terre d'Irland, sibien draps Irreis appellez frysseware come leyne Irreise dont tieux draps sont faitz, es certeins villes en Engleterre, qe ne sont draps de colour ne de raye, ne continentz longure ne laeure come autres draps du raye et de colour font, et come autrefoitz ad este ordene en parlement des draps de raye et de colour; (fn. ii-361-303-1) et sont endamagez, travaillez et trublez as plusours foitz, et de jour en autre, par les coillours del subside des draps a nostre seignur le roy nadgairs grante, et auxint par coillours del aunage, encontre la forme et entent de dite grante et encontre bone foie, par la ou pur les ditz draps et leynes Irreises custumes et toutes autres choses dues sont paiez as custumers nostre seignur le roy en Irland, devaunt lour isser hors du dite terre d'Irland, come attient. [LIIII. Irish cloth.]
71. LIIII. To our lord the king and his council; various merchants of England declare: that whereas merchants from England, Wales and Ireland often bring into England, to certain English towns, from the land of Ireland, Irish cloth called friseware as well as the Irish wool from which such cloth is made, which is not cloth of colour or of ray, and does not contain the length and width which other cloth of ray and of colour does, and as has previously been ordained in parliament concerning cloth of ray and of colour; (fn. ii-361-303-1) they are damaged, harassed and troubled on many occasions, and from day to day, by the collectors of the subsidy of cloth formerly granted to our lord the king, and also by the collectors of the alnage, contrary to the form and intent of the said grant and contrary to good faith, since the customs and all other things due for the said Irish cloth and wool were paid to our lord the king's customs officials in Ireland, before they left the said land of Ireland, as is fitting.
Par qoi prient les ditz merchantz q'il soit ordene en ce present parlement qe nul subside ne aunage desore soient paiez des tieux draps et leynes Irreises; et q'il soit declarre en especial es lettres patentes a qi qe les veullent demander qe les ditz draps et leynes ne soient compris en les ditz estatutz. (fn. ii-361-303a-1) Wherefore the said merchants pray that it should be ordained in this present parliament that henceforth no subsidy or alnage should be paid on such Irish cloth and wool; and it should be explained in detail in letters patent to whoever will request it that the said cloth and wool should not be included in the said statutes. (fn. ii-361-303a-1)
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi voet qe nul subside ne aunage soient paiez, levez ne demandez des draps appellez fryseware queux sont faitz en Irland ou autrement en Engleterre des leynes Irroises amesnez deinz la roialme d'Engleterre, a cause qe celles draps ne contienent longure ne laeure ordenez par estatut, et par tant ne deivent estre comprises en les estatutz nadgairs faitz des draps de raye et de colour. (fn. ii-361-306-1) The king wills that no subsidy or alnage should be paid, levied or demanded on cloth called friseware which is made in Ireland or otherwise in England on Irish wool brought into the realm of England, because this cloth does not contain the length or width ordained by the statute and therefore should not be included in the statutes formerly made concerning cloth of ray and of colour. (fn. ii-361-306-1)
72. LV. A nostre seignur le roy et son sage conseil; suppliont les communes des countees de Bristuyt, Gloucestr', Wyrcestre, Hereford, Salop et autres countees adjoynantz al eawe de Severne entre Wircestre et Bristowe: qe come les gors en le dite eawe sont si estreitement affermes qe le cours del eawe ne poet bien passer, issint qe en diverses lieux les prees, et terres semes adjoynantz al dit eawe sont enoundes; et auxint les bateux ne poyont bien passer joust les ditz gors sanz grand peril, issint qe chescun an diverses gentz et bateux sont peris, a grande damage de people. [LV. River traffic on the Severn between Worcester and Bristol.]
72. LV. To our lord the king and his wise council; the commons of the counties of Bristol, Gloucestershire, Worcestershire, Herefordshire, Shropshire and other counties adjacent to the water of the Severn between Worcester and Bristol petition: that the gorces in the said water are so firmly fastened that the watercourse cannot pass properly, so that in various places the meadows and sown lands adjacent to the said water are flooded; and also, boats cannot pass properly near the said gorces without great peril, so that every year various people and boats perish, to the great damage of the people.
Qe please a nostre dit seignur le roy et a son conseil ordener de ce remedie, en oevre de charitee. Et auxint par le dit enounder femmes et lour enfantz en lour berces sont sovent foitz peris et mortz. May it please our said lord the king and his council to ordain remedy in this matter, in way of charity. And also, women and their children in their cradles often perish and are killed by the said flooding.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soient justices assignez sibien seignurs come autres d'enquere sur ceste matire et d'oier et terminer. (fn. ii-361-311-1) Justices should be assigned, lords as well as others, to inquire into, hear and determine this matter. (fn. ii-361-311-1)
73. LVI. Item, monstrount les communes a nostre tresredoute seignur le roy et a son conseil: qe come il ad un custume use parmy ceste roialme qe si ascun homme ou garsoun eschei hors de ascun nief, bateux ou autre vesseil en la meer, haven ou autre ewe, et soit perisce, le dit vesseil ad estee forffaite au roi ou a autres seignurs des fraunchises; par cause de quele custume plusours mariners et possessours des ditz vesseils einz ces heures ont estez grantement enpoveres et destruitz, a grant destruccion del navee d'Engleterre. A cause de quele meschief plusours gentz du roialme n'ont pas reparailes a tant de niefs come ils voidrent. [LVI. Deodand.]
73. LVI. Also, the commons declare to our most dread lord the king and his council: that whereas there is a custom practised throughout this realm that if any man or boy falls off any ship, boat or other vessel into the sea, harbour or other water, and perishes, the said vessel has been forfeited to the king or to other lords of franchises; because of this custom many mariners and owners of the said vessels before this time have been greatly impoverished and destroyed, to the great destruction of the English fleet. Because of which misfortune many people of the realm have not repaired their ships as often as they should.
Qe please a nostre dit tresgraciouse et tresdoute seignur le roi et son conseil d'ordener en ceste present parlement qe nule nief, batu ou autre vesseil soit forfitable desoremes par < le cause > avantdite, pur Dieu et en oevre de charitee, et en encresse de son dit navee. May it please our said most gracious and most dread lord the king and his council to ordain in this present parliament that no ship, boat or other vessel henceforth should be forfeited for the aforesaid reason, for God and in way of charity, and in increase of his said fleet.
[col. b]
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
En la meer ne doit pas deodande estre ajuggee; mais quant al eawe fresshe, le roy ent ferra sa grace ou luy plest. (fn. ii-361-316-1) Deodand should not be adjudged in the sea; but as regards fresh water, the king will make his grace where he pleases. (fn. ii-361-316-1)
74. LVII. A conseil nostre seignur le roy en cest present parlement; supplie la commune: qe come grandz meschiefs et perdes ont avenuz as plusours de la terre, qe ont estez en la garde nostre seignur le roy, sibien as grantz seignurs come as autres; par cause qe quant ils feuront de plein age ils ne feuront resceuz de lour age prover, ne livere avoir de lour heritage hors de mayn le roy, pur ce qe ne feust prove par les enquestes d'office pris devaunt les eschetours apres la mort lour auncestres par le Diem clausit extremum q'ils feuront de plein age. [LVII. Proofs of age of tenants in chief.]
74. LVII. To our lord the king's council in this present parliament; the commons petition: that great misfortunes and losses have occurred to many people of the land who have been in the wardship of our lord the king, to great lords as well as to others; because when they were of full age they were not received to prove their age or to have delivery of their inheritance from the king's hands, because it was not proved that they were of full age by the inquests of office taken before the escheators after the death of their predecessors by diem clausit extremum.
Qe vous please granter qe chescun homme soit resceu de son age prover, et livere avoir de son heritage, s'il purra prover ou par inspeccion de son corps ou par suffisantz proves q'il soit de plein age; nient contreesteant tieux enquestes d'office, ou usage fait al encontre. May it please you to grant that each man should be received to prove his age and to have delivery of his inheritance, if he can prove either by inspection of his body or by sufficient proofs that he is of full age; notwithstanding such inquests of office or usage done to the contrary.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le chanceller, par inspeccion des corps des tielx heirs et des offices retornez, ferra ce qe luy semblera qe soit affaire en ce cas. The chancellor, by the inspection of the bodies of such heirs and of the returned offices, will do what seems best in this case.
75. LVIII. Item, prient les communes a nostre dit seignur le roy et as nobles seignurs du parlement: qe come al derrain parlement, par meins vrai suggescioun et sanz due proces, le seignur de Latymer, q'est un des pieres del roialme et suffisant d'estre du conseil le roy, sibien pur ses guerres come autrement, estoit oustez de toutz offices et des privez conseilx entour le roy; (fn. ii-361-323-1) q'il soit ore par agard de ce present parlement restitut a son primer estat et degree, entendantz qe parmy ce faisant vous ferrez grant profit a vostre dit roialme, a ce q'ils entendent veritablement. [LVIII. For Lord Latimer.]
75. LVIII. Also, the commons pray our said lord the king and the noble lords of parliament: that whereas at the last parliament, by false accusation and without due process, Lord Latimer, who is one of the peers of the realm and sufficient to be of the king's council for his service in the wars as well as otherwise, was removed from all offices and from privy councils about the king; (fn. ii-361-323-1) he should now by award of this present parliament be restored to his first estate and degree, understanding that by this act you would bring great profit to your said realm, as they truly understand.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roy le voet, a la priere d'aucuns prelatz et seignurs de parlement et auxint a la priere de sa commune. The king wills it, at the request of some of the prelates and lords of parliament and also at the request of the commons.
76. LIX. A tresexcellent et tresredoute nostre seignur le roy; supplie humblement vostre loial servant Johan de Haukewod, chivaler: qe vous please lui granter une tiele chartre de pardoun come vous grantastes a Monsir Robert Knolles, pur Dieux et en oevre de charitee. [LIX-LX. Pardons.]
76. LIX. To our most excellent and most dread lord the king; your loyal servant John Hawkwood, knight, humbly petitions: that it might please you to grant him such a charter of pardon as you granted Sir Robert Knolles, for God and in way of charity.
77. LX. Item, supplie a vostre tresredoute seignurie vostre loial servant Johan de Clifford, chivaler: qe vous please lui granter sa chartre de pardoun tiele come vous grantastes a Monsir Robert Knolles, pur Dieux et en oevre de charitee. 77. LX. Also, you loyal servant John Clifford, knight, petitions your most dread lordship: that it might please you to grant him his charter of pardon such as you granted Sir Robert Knolles, for God and in way of charity.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roy est en volente del faire, et lour ferra sa grace quant luy plerra. (fn. ii-361-333-1) The king is willing to do this, and he will make them his grace when it pleases him. (fn. ii-361-333-1)
78. LXI. Item, prient le communes: qe les estatutz faites de provisours, sibien en temps de Sire Edward, nadgairs roy d'Engleterre, vostre aiel, come en vostre temps propre, soient fermement tenuz et gardez en toutz lour pointes; (fn. ii-361-335-1) adjoustant a ycelles en especial aucun due remede selonc voz nobles descrecion, pur resister a la malice ja novellement forgee et attemptee, en destruccion du roialme, de ce qe diverses cardinalx, qe sont notoirs enemys, ont purchacez graces de reservacion en la court de Rome, ove clause de anteferri, a toutes benefices vacantz en les provinces de Canterbirs et d'Everwyk tanqe al taxe de .xx. .m. ou .xxx. .m. escutz d'ore par an; et ont lour procuratours deinz le roialme, sibien aliens come denseinz, qe font de jour en autre accepter touz benefices vacantz de fait, et autres qe ne sont mie vacantz, et envoient les ditz acceptacions par lour lettres et instrumentz a la dite court. Dont touz les benefices du roialme serront deinz brief terme es mains d'aliens, et voideront delors en la dite [p. ii-373][col. a] courte, issint qe jammes ne retourneront as Engleys; entendantz qe si cest novellerie soit ore soeffiert, et resistence n'ent soit fait a comencement, qe grant meschief ent avendra, et plusours autres persones, enemys et autres d'estraunges paiis, serront hardiz et esbaudiz de purchacer autieles provisions, qe Dieu ne voille. [LXI. Alien provisors, papal agents and resident aliens.]
78. LXI. Also, the commons pray: that the statutes made concerning provisors in the time of lord Edward, former king of England, your grandfather, as well as in your own time, should be firmly upheld and observed in all their points; (fn. ii-361-335-1) adding especially to the same some due remedy, according to your noble discretion, for preventing the malice recently plotted and attempted to the detriment of the realm, because various cardinals, who are notorious enemies, have purchased graces of reservation in the court of Rome, with a clause of anteferri, to all vacant benefices in the provinces of Canterbury and York up to the tax of 20,000 or 30,000 gold florins yearly; and they have their proctors within the realm, aliens as well as denizens, who from day to day cause all vacant benefices to be accepted, and others which are not vacant, and send the said acceptances by their letters and instruments to the said court. Whereupon in a short time all the benefices of the realm will be in the hands of aliens, and thereafter will become vacant in the said [p. ii-373][col. a] court, so that they will never return to the English; understanding that if this novelty is now suffered, and resistance is not made at the start, great misfortune will occur, and many other people, enemies and others from foreign lands, will be encouraged and emboldened to purchase similar provisions, which God forbid.
Item, le collectour du pape soleit estre un prelat du roialme, ou autre persone Engleys; et ore y ad un collectour q'est auxi vroiement enemy come les Franceys sont, luy quelle demurt en Londres, et tient grant hostiel as costage de la clergie d'Engleterre, tanqe al somme de .ccc.li. par an, et envoiet outre meer chescun an grant somme de deniers, ala foitz .xx. .m. marcs, ala foitz .xx. .m. li.; et qe pys est, fait espier les privetes du roialme, et les vacacions de benefices, et ent envoiet la certeinte au dite court chescun jour. Et auxint le dit collectour fait ore lever al oeps de pape les primers fruitz de toutes dignitees et autres menuz benefices, sibien de communes graces come d'especials, et lour fait sermenter sur les paiementz affaires de la verrai value d'ycelles, lour constreignant du paier le verrai value si la value surmonte le taxe; ou tielle affaire n'estoit unqes devant usee. [LXI. Alien provisors, papal agents and resident aliens.]
Also, the pope's collector used to be a prelate of the realm, or other English person; and now there is a collector who is as true an enemy as the French are, who resides in London and holds a great house at the cost of the clergy of England, up to the value of £300 yearly, and each year sends a great sum of money overseas, sometimes 20,000 marks, sometimes £20,000; and what it worse, he finds out the secrets of the realm and the vacancies of benefices, and sends this information to the said court every day. And also, the said collector now causes the first fruits of all dignities and other small benefices to be levied to the use of the pope, from common as well as special graces, and causes them to swear on the payments to be made to the true value of the same, forcing them to pay the true value if the value is greater than the tax, when such practice was never before observed.
Dont y faut auxint a comencement mettre due remede, q'il soit restreint de les choses avauntditz, et d'autres ses malfais, dont y ad grant foisoun. Mes il est si endossez de prelatz et autres, qe remede n'ent ad este fait tanqe en cea. Wherefore due remedy should also be provided immediately, so that he is prevented from doing the aforesaid things, and from his other misdeeds, of which there is a great quantity. But he is so supported by prelates and others that remedy has not been provided heretofore.
79. Et pur general remede avoir des dites choses, et toutplein des autres nient comprises en ycestes, et pur estopper toutes reservacions, et autres tielles novelleries et prejudices au roialme, soit proclamacion fait parmy le roialme, qe toutes estraunges gentz, clercs et autres, forspris chivalers, esquiers et merchantz et artificers, hastivement voident le roialme. Et qe durante la guerre ils ne reentrent en ycelle sanz especial conge du roy meismes. Item, qe nul lige homme du roi n'autre, sur peyne de vie et de membre et forfaiture de ses terres et biens, soit procuratour, attourne, servant ne fermour de null tiel alien deinz la dit roialme, privement ne apartement, si noun q'il ent eit especiale congee de nostre dit seignur le roy meismes. Et apres tiele proclamacion faite, si null face la contrarie encourge la dite peyne, et soit fait de eux come des robbours ou larons, ou autrement soient mys hors de proteccion, et lour biens forfaitz au roi. Et ensement, qe estoit defens soit fait de novelle parmy le roialme d'apport de moneye hors du roialme, sur la forfaiture d'icelle durant la guerre avauntdite, sibien par eschaunge come autrement, al oeps des ditz aliens. 79. And in order to have general remedy concerning the said matters, and all others not contained in the same, and to stop all reservations and other such novelties and prejudices to the realm, a proclamation should be made throughout the realm that all foreign people, clerks and others, with the exception of knights, esquires and merchants and artisans, should quickly leave the realm. And they should not re-enter the same during the war without special licence from the king himself. Also, no liege man of the king or other, on penalty of life and limb and forfeiture of his lands and goods, should be a proctor, attorney, servant or farmer of any such alien in the said realm, secretly or openly, unless he has special licence from our said lord the king himself. And after such proclamation has been made, if anyone does the contrary he should incur the said penalty and be treated as a robber or thief, or otherwise should be put outside protection, and his goods should be forfeited to the king. And further, a prohibition should be newly made throughout the realm against carrying money out of the realm during the aforesaid war, on the forfeiture of the same, by exchange as well as otherwise, to the use of the said aliens.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Se tiegnent les estatutz et ordenances ent faites. The statutes and ordinances made thereon should be upheld.
[memb. 2]
80. A vostre tresexcellent reale magestee; supplient humblement et devoutement voz assiduels oratours et devotz prelatz et toute la clergie del province de Canterbirs: q'al honour de Dieu et la beneite Virgine Marie et l'esglise Engleise et la clergie, les peticions desouz escrites a les leies de seinte esglise accordantz, et a voz almes salvables, veulle vostre hautesse et reale magestee graciousement ottroier: [Petitions of the clergy.]
80. To your most excellent royal majesty; your assiduous petitioners and devoted prelates and all the clergy of the province of Canterbury humbly and devoutly petition: that, to the honour of God and the Blessed Virgin Mary and the English Church and clergy, your highness and royal majesty will graciously grant the petitions written below, which accord to the laws of holy Church and are beneficial to your soul:
En primes, mesqe les dismes de boys appellez silve cedue, de divine droit et de seinte esglise a Dieu et a seinte esglise sont apaieres, nientmeins la ou des tielx maners des dismes devant juges de seinte esglise proces pent, prohibicions roials as juges et parties sont directes, et consultacions dues et as loies de seinte esglise accordantz, come en les articles et peticions subsequentz plus pleinement est contenuz, ne sont grantez. [Tithes of wood.]
First, although the tithes of wood called cut wood are to be paid to God and to holy Church of divine law and that of holy Church, nevertheless when process is pending concerning such manner of tithes before judges of holy Church, writs of prohibition are sent to judges and parties, and due modifications according to the laws of holy Church are not granted, as is more fully contained in the subsequent articles and petitions.
Dont supplient les ditz prelatz et clergie q'en la cause des dismes des tielx maneres de silve cedue consultacions dues sont grantez sanz difficultee quecunqe. Wherefore the said prelates and clergy petition that in the case of tithes of such manner of cut wood due modifications should be granted without any difficulty whatsoever.
[col. b]
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soit la leie ent usee come avant ces heures en ad este resonablement. (fn. ii-361-349-1) The law should be applied as has previously been deemed reasonable. (fn. ii-361-349-1)
81. Item, qe chescun manere d'attachement, molestacion et inquietacion cesse en courte seculer apres la primere consultacion eue, et bien lise a chescun juge de seinte esglise apres mesme la consultacion, nientobstante prohibicion roiale en apres appurchacer, et saunz attendre autre consultacion qeconqe, oultre sur mesme la matire sanz damage ou offense de roiale magestee franchement proceder. [Jurisdiction after modifications.]
81. Also, every manner of attachment, molestation and harassment should cease in secular court after the first modification is had, and properly left to each judge of holy Church after the same modification, notwithstanding any writ of prohibition to be purchased afterwards, and without awaiting any other modification whatsoever, to proceed freely in future on the same matter without damage or offence of royal majesty.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Bien lise a chescun juge de seinte esglise apres une consultacion grante proceder avaunt en la cause, nientcontresteant autre prohibicion, si la matire ne se chaunge, ou soit enlargiz < ou engrassee, > pur ce qe tiel brief ne doit issir si la courte < ent feust > enformee. After a modification has been granted, it should be left to each judge of holy Church to proceed with the case, notwithstanding other prohibition, if the matter does not change, or is extended or amplified, because such writ should not be issued if the court was informed thereon.
82. Item, quant cause pent devant juge de seinte esglise de pension due de une esglise a autre esglise, ou d'un benefice de seinte esglise a autre benefice de seinte esglise, qe cesse tout outrement prohibicion reale; quele prohibicion, en cas q'il passe, soit consultacion en ce cas franchement grantez, et la conissance et decision d'ycele cause soient a juges de seinte esglise, et nemye seculer. [Jurisdiction over cases concerning pensions.]
82. Also, when a case is pending before a judge of holy Church concerning a pension due from one church to another, or from one benefice of holy Church to another, a writ of prohibition should completely cease; to which prohibition, if it passes, a modification should be freely granted in this case, and the cognisance and decision of the same should belong to judges of holy Church, and not to secular justices.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roy ferra sercher les recordz et evidences en son commune bank, tresorie et aillours, touchantz tiels pensions, et selonc ce qe serra trove droit et reson ent serra fait. The king will cause the records and evidences of such pensions, in his common bench, treasury and elsewhere, to be searched, and justice and reason will be done thereon according to what is found.
83. Item, qe si aucune consultacion condicionele ou modale en cause regardante a courte de seinte esglise soit grante par yceles paroles, 'Si sit ita, vel dumtamen', ou autres paroles semblables, q'adonqes le juge de seinte esglise devant qi la cause pent purra conustre de la verite del dit condicion ou manere, al effect del purificacion d'icele, et outre ce proceder en mesme la cause sanz destourbance de juge seculer. [Conditional modifications.]
83. Also, if any conditional or provisional modification should be granted in a case concerning the court of holy Church by these words, 'Si sit ita', or 'dumtamen', or other similar words, then the judge of holy Church before whom the case is pending should know the truth of the said condition or manner, to effect the purification of the same, and can also proceed in the same case without disturbance from secular justices.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roy ne poet mye departir de son droit, q'il ne face la loie a touz ses subgiz en lour peticion. The king cannot forsake his right, in order that he might provide justice to all his subjects on their request.
84. Item, qe soit establi qe nul clerk ou persone de seinte esglise nomement tanq'il entend as divins servicez es esglises, cimiters ou autres lieux a Dieu dedicatz, par auctorite reale ou autres seignurs temporels, soit pris ou arestuz, siqe par cele encheson divins servicz ne soient destourbez, ne ycel comencez par cas entrelessez. Et qe mesme ceo soit establi des prestres le corps nostre seignur Jhesu Crist as maladz apportantz, et semblablement de leur clercz si ovesqe eux aucuns en yent. (fn. ii-361-366-1) [Arrest of clergy during divine service.]
84. Also, it should be established that no clerk or person of holy Church, particularly those who attend to divine services in churches, cemeteries or other places dedicated to God, should be taken or arrested by royal authority or that of other temporal lords if divine services are disturbed for this reason, or if the same are abandoned for this reason after they have been begun. And the same should be established concerning priests carrying the body of our lord Jesus Christ to the sick, and similarly their clerks if any go with them. (fn. ii-361-366-1)
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roy n'entende my qe nul Cristien le vorroit faire issint qe ne soit fait par fraude ou collusion. The king does not think that any Christian would do this by fraud or collusion.
85. Item, quant al evesqe de Wyncestre, qe les choses dessouz escritz encontre luy attempteez purront duement estre refourmez; en primes, qe les temporaltees de sa esglise, sanz suffisant consent et assent de ceux as queux il attient en ce partie, et des queux l'assent appartenoit, sont pris es maynes du roy; et nientmeins, sur ce coment q'il n'avoit dont son test en les manoirs de sa esglise temporels poet decliner, defenduz lui feust come depar nostre seignur le roy l'en luy disoit sa demoere es plusours monstres, priories et autres lieux de sa diocise, fundacion et patronage. Par queles causes le dit evesqe soeffre grantz griefs, et la jurisdiccion de seinte esglise enblemys, et son office pasturel en meynt manere destourbez. [The bishop of Winchester.]
85. Also, as regards the bishop of Winchester, the things written below attempted against him should duly be restored; first, the temporalities of his church were taken into the king's hands, without sufficient consent and assent from those to whom it belongs in this matter and to whom the assent pertains; and nevertheless, although he can deny that he himself was in the temporal manors of his church, he was forbidden on behalf of our lord the king, as he was told, to stay in many monasteries, priories and other places of his diocese, foundation and patronage. For which reasons the said bishop suffers great grievances, and the jurisdiction of holy Church is impaired, and his pastoral office is disturbed in many ways.
Briefs et fin de parlement. Writs and the end of parliament.
86. Et toutes cestes peticions issint lues avec lours dites responces et entendues en dit parlement, dit fust as chivalers des contees, citeins des citees et burgeoys des burghs, y venuz par somonce de ce parlement, [p. ii-374][col. a] pursuassent pur briefs pur lours gaiges. Et issint < departist ce present > parlement. 86. And when all these petitions, with their said answers, thus had been read and heard in the said parliament, the knights of the shires, citizens of the cities and burgesses of the boroughs who had come there by summons of this parliament [p. ii-374][col. a] were told to sue for writs for their wages. And thus ended this present parliament.
[memb. 1]
Memorandum des autres billes nient responduz. Memorandum of other unanswered bills.
87. Fait a remembrer qe le < dit > derrain jour de < ce > parlement, apres ce qe les dites communes peticions y furont luez avec lour responces faites, come desus est dit, Monsir Thomas de Hungerford, chivaler, qi avoit les paroles pur les communes d'Engleterre en cest parlement, y dist devant les prelatz, seignurs et communes les paroles qe s'ensuent, c'estassavoir: 'qe pur ce qe plusours gentz, sibien hommes come femmes, estoient empeschez a derrain parlement, et sanz meins due proces y feussent juggiez a certaines paines, et forscloses de commune libertee dont chescun loial lige le roy doit user et enjoier; qe pleust a lour seignur lige, ore en cest son an jubilee, graciousement lour restorier entierement a lour primeraines estatz et degrees en toutes choses, nient contreesteantz meismes les jugementz.' Et tantost estoit demandez depar le roy, s'ils y feissent lour requeste pur touz tieux empeschez, ou pur partie de yceux empeschez. Et le dit Monsir Thomas respondist et dist qe ils y firent lour requeste pur touz les ditz empeschez. Et quant a celle requeste, lour fust dit q'ils declarrassent en escript distinctement, quoy, et pur queux ils priassent; et le roy ent feist sa grace a ceux qi luy pleust. Et sur ce, < tantost apres le dit jour, ils > ent baillerent a clerc du parlement < sept > billes, < dont les copies s'ensuent de mot a mot: > 87. Let it be remembered that on the said last day of this parliament, after the said common petitions had been read with their answers, as is aforesaid, Sir Thomas Hungerford, knight, who was the speaker for the commons of England in this parliament, said before the prelates, lords and commons the words that follow, that is to say: 'Because many people, men as well as women, were impeached at the last parliament, and without due process they were adjudged at certain penalties and deprived of the common liberty which every loyal liege of the king should have and enjoy; that it might please their liege lord, now in this his jubilee year, graciously to restore them entirely to their first estates and degrees in all things, notwithstanding the same judgments.' And it was immediately asked on behalf of the king whether they had made their request for all such impeached people, or only for some of those who were impeached. And the said Sir Thomas answered and said that they made their request for all the said impeached people. And as regards this request, they were told that they should explain distinctly in writing what and for whom they prayed; and the king would make his grace to them thereon if it pleased him. And then, immediately following the said day, they sent seven bills to the clerk of the parliament, the copies of which follow word for word:
88. A nostre tresdoute et tresnoble seignur nostre seignur le roy; priont les communes de vostre roialme: de ceo qe vostre lige Richard Lions, par hastive proces fuist ajugge a la Toure de Londres, d'attendre vostre grace, (fn. ii-361-379-1) qe please a vostre graciouse seignurie a luy granter vostre grace d'estre restitut a la ley, et ses biens et ses terres et tenementz; qar par la ley nulle cause de forfaiture en luy feust trove. (fn. ii-361-379-2) 88. To our most dread and noblest lord our lord the king; the commons of your realm pray: because your liege Richard Lyons was condemned by hasty process to the Tower of London, to await your grace; (fn. ii-361-379-1) that it might please your gracious lordship to grant him your grace to be restored at the law, and his goods and his lands and tenements; since by the law no reason for forfeiture was found in him. (fn. ii-361-379-2)
89. A son tresredoute et tresgracious seignur le roy et a son sage conseill en cest present parlement; supplient ses communes: qe come Alice Perriers, par meinz vrai suggescion et sanz due proces, estoit en le derrain parlement forsclose de commune libertee, qe chescune loial lige du roi, sibien hommes come femmes, deivent enjoier franchement et user, sinoun qe eux feussent duement convictz d'aucune mesfait pur quoy ils la duissent forfaire; (fn. ii-361-381-1) qe vous please, pur l'amour de Dieux, par droit justice, avoir due consideracion a ce qe la dite Alice ne fuist unqes present en parlement, n'autrement par manere due mys a sa responce de nul chose pur quoy ele estoit issint ajuggiz; et sur ce faire repeller le dit juggement, si nul y feust fait, et la faire restituer entierment a son primeraine estat, meisme le juggement ou aucun defens sur ce fait envers la dite Alice en meisme le parlement nientcontreesteantz. (fn. ii-361-381-2) 89. To his most dread and most gracious lord the king and his wise council in this present parliament; his commons petition: that whereas in the last parliament, by false accusation and without due process, Alice Perrers was deprived of the common liberty which each loyal liege of the king, men as well as women, should enjoy and have freely, unless they are duly convicted of some crime for which they should forfeit it; (fn. ii-361-381-1) that it might please you, for the love of God, by right justice, to have due consideration that the said Alice was never present at parliament, or otherwise by due manner brought to answer for anything for which she was thus convicted; and thereon to cause the said judgment to be repealed, if any was made, and to cause her to be entirely restored to her first estate, notwithstanding the same judgment or any prohibition made thereon against the said Alice in the same parliament. (fn. ii-361-381-2)
90. Item, prie le commune: qe Johan de Leycestre, qi feust torcenousement et par grante malice empeche al derrain parlement, a quinszein de Pasqe derrain passe, (fn. ii-361-383-1) puisse estre contenuz en la pardoun en cest present parlement grante, a [sic: read 'et'] luy et ses plegges outrement quites et descharges. 90. Also, the commons pray: that John Leicester, who was wrongly impeached by great malice at the last parliament, on the quinzaine of Easter last, (fn. ii-361-383-1) might be included in the pardon granted in this present parliament, and he and his pledges also quit and discharged.
91. Item, prie le comune: qe Adam de Bury qe fuist torcenousement et par grante malice empeche al derrain parlement, al .xv. de Pasqe derrain passe, (fn. ii-361-385-1) puisse estre contenuz en la pardoun en cest present parlement grante, et luy et ses plegges outrement quites et descharges. (fn. ii-361-385-2) 91. Also, the commons pray: that Adam Bury, who was wrongly impeached by great malice at the last parliament, on the quinzaine of Easter last, (fn. ii-361-385-1) might be included in the pardon granted in this present parliament, and he and his pledges also quit and discharged. (fn. ii-361-385-2)
[col. b]
92. Item, prie la commune: qe Wauter Sporier qi feust torcenousement et par grante malice empeche al derrain parlement, al .xv e de Pasqe derrain passe, (fn. ii-361-387-1) puisse estre contenuz en la pardoun en cest present parlement grante, et luy et ses plegges outrement quites et descharges. 92. Also, the commons pray: that Walter Sporier, who was wrongly impeached by great malice at the last parliament, on the quinzaine of Easter last, (fn. ii-361-387-1) might be included in the pardon granted in this present parliament, and he and his pledges also quit and discharged.
93. A nostre tresredoute seignur le roy et a ses tresnobles seignurs de son parlement; [supplie] vostre humble et lige Johan Pecche de Loundres: qe come grante fuist a lui par patente de vendre et faire son profit par lui et ses deputes de vyn douce en la citee et suburbes de Londres, del .xxx. e jour de Novembre l'an du regne nostre seignur le roi d'Engleterre .xlvij. e et de France .xxxiiij. te par .v. ans ensuantz, rendant a nostre seignur le roi .x. s. pur chescune pipe de vyn douce vendu, come piert par la dite patente; (fn. ii-361-389-1) et al derrain parlement il feust empeschez de ce, le quel Johan ne fust suffert d'avoir conseill coment q'il le pria; sur qoi il, en presence de touz les seignurs, pur ce q'il ne savoit les leys, pur defaute de conseil sur sa verite, les seignurs nient apris de ce qe luy duist eider, sanz avoir conseill il fust condempne et mys a prisone, a graunde meschief de lui et perde de ses biens. (fn. ii-361-389-2) 93. To our most dread lord the king and his noblest lords of his parliament; your humble liege John Pecche of London petitions: that whereas it was granted by patent that he and his deputies could sell and make their profit from sweet wine in the city and suburbs of London, from 30 November in the forty-seventh year of the reign of our lord the king of England and the thirty-fourth of France [1373] for five years following, rendering to our lord the king 10s. for each pipe of sweet wine sold, as appears by the said patent; (fn. ii-361-389-1) at the last parliament he was impeached of this, and the said John was not allowed to have counsel although he requested it; whereupon he, because he did not know the laws, for default of counsel in his defence, in the presence of all the lords, they being unaware of what might have helped him, was condemned and sentenced to prison without having counsel, to his great misfortune and the loss of his goods. (fn. ii-361-389-2)
Please a vostre treshaute seignurie, pur Dieux et en oevre de charitee, lui faire remede et grace, et lui suffrer par soun conseil declarrer ceo qe lui purroit avoir vale a ycelle heure, s'il le eust monstre; autrement il est defait as touz jours. (fn. ii-361-389a-1) May it please your highest lordship, for God and in way of charity, to provide him remedy and grace, and to allow him to explain by his own counsel what he could have said in his defence at this time, if he had declared it; for otherwise he is undone forever. (fn. ii-361-389a-1)
94. A nostre tresredoute seignur le roy et a son sage conseil; monstre William Elys, burgeys de Grant Jernemuth: qe come Johan Botild et William Coupere de Loistok de lour malice et faux covyne entre eux et plusours autres de lour acorde, en derrain parlement tenuz a Westm', se pleindront par lour pleintes et suggescions generals du dit William Elys, come piert par record devaunt vous et par lour billes especiales; (fn. ii-361-391-1) c'estassavoir le lundy proschein apres l'assencion nostre seignur, l'an du regne nostre seignur le roy q'ore est quarant et neofisme, si fuist chacez par tempest en Kyrkelerode un cog de Goteland en Pruse, dont le meistre avoit a noun Henry Luse, charge de diverses merchandises de Pruse; c'estassavoir, de cire, werk, feer et autres merchandises; et qe le dit jour William Savage, clerc et servant le dit William Elys, par comandement du dit William Elys, prist del dit cog pur les ditz merchandises riens deschargea illeoqes .xvi. nobles, et un last de osmod, pris de last .x.li. .xvi. s a Laistok devaunt il sengla hors de Kyrkelerod, a grant damage as ditz merchantz. Et pur cause qe William Elys savoit qe le dit Johan devoit venir a dit parlement, et monstrer cestes agrevances et autres en eide des marchantz, et ensement pur monstrer coment le grande chierte de harang purroit estre amende en eide de tout le roialme, le dit William Elys par son faux suggescion fist arrester le dit Johan, et mettre en prisone en le Tour, par .iij. semaignes. Les queux billes, ove autres lour pleintes et autres suggescions generalx, si furent mandez par breve nostre seignur le roy de la chancellerie al counte de Suff', a le seignur de Wilughby, a Sire Johan Cavendissh et a autres seignurs; queux seignurs avoient commission ent faite d'enquere de toutz maneres d'extorcion, oppressions, confederacies, champar entrealiance et autres faucines et tortes queconqes faites encontre la pees nostre seignur le roy en countes de Norff' et Suff', a oier et terminer, come en la dite commissioun pluis pleinement est contenuz. (fn. ii-361-391-2) Devant quels justice trove est, en presence de les ditz Johan Botild et William Coupere, qe le dit William Elys des les avauntditz billes especiales, ne de nul manere trespas general, si est de rien coupable. Et ce par diverses enquestes sibien del counte de Suff' come de Norff', come piert par record devaunt ditz justices. Et outre ce, le dit William Elys fuist acuse en especial en le dit parlement par l'avauntditz Johan Botild et [p. ii-375][col. a] William Coupere, q'il prist par extorcion d'un nief charge diverses merchandises en Kyrkelerode, d'un William Fauxhide et autres merchantz d'Escoce .xxxiij.li.; a cause q'il suist fermer de la petite custume, et depute de Richard Lyons de .vi. d. de la livre, et par colour de son office, a tort et nient duement. Et le dit William Elys present en le dit parlement allegeast et disoit, qe conust bien la resseite des dites deniers, mes nemy a tort, et qe brief luy vyent hors de la chancellerie d'ent faire plener restitucioun a la dit merchant. Et disoit, qe par vertue de meisme brief y fist restitucion a le dit William Fauxhide, attourne general pur les merchantz d'Escoce, et de luy prist acquitance generale, quele acquitance fust allege en le dit parlement par le dit William Elys. A qi feust dit par les avauntditz Johan Botild et William Coupere, qe les dites .xxxiij.li. ne nul d'icell ne furont repaiez, et qe la dite acquitance fuist faux et forge, et nemie enseale < de > le seal le dit William Fauxhide; le quele matire est bien tesmoigne et conuz par monsir de Percy, qi fuist a le jour de marche en Escoce qe les ditz .xxxiij.li. furont repaiez au William Fauxhyde, et qe la dite acquitance fuist bone et verroie. A cause de quels pleintes et suggescions le dit William Elys ad estee enprisone par .iij. moys et plus, et desouthe meinprise tanqe a cest present parlement, a grant damage et nienticement le dit William Elys. 94. To our most dread lord the king and his wise council; William Ellis, burgess of Great Yarmouth, declares: that whereas John Botild and William Cooper of Lowestoft, of their malice and false plotting between them and many others of their agreement, in the last parliament held at Westminster complained about the said William Ellis by their complaints and general accusations, as appears on record before you, and by their special bills; (fn. ii-361-391-1) that is to say, that on the Monday immediately following the Ascension of Our Lord in the forty-ninth year of the reign of our current lord the king [4 June 1375], a cog from Gotland in Prussia, laden with various merchandises from Prussia, that is to say, wax, handiwork, iron and other merchandises, the master of which was named Henry Luse, was chased by storm to Kirkley Roads; and that on the said day William Savage, clerk and servant of the said William Ellis, by order of the said William Ellis, took 16 nobles and one last of osmund worth £10 16s. from the said cog for the said merchandises not unloaded there at Lowestoft before it sailed from Kirkley Roads, to the great damage of the same merchant. And because William Ellis knew that the said John should come to the said parliament and declare these grievances and others in aid of the merchants, and also to show how the great scarcity of herring could be corrected in aid of all the realm, the said William Ellis by his false accusation caused the said John to be arrested and put in prison in the Tower for three weeks. These bills, with their other complaints and other general accusations, were sent by the writ of our lord the king from the chancery to the earl of Suffolk, Lord Willoughby, Sir John Cavendish and other lords; which lords had a commission made thereon to inquire into, hear and determine all manner of extortions, oppressions, confederacies, champerties, conspiracies and other deceits and wrongs whatsoever made against the peace of our lord the king in the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk, as is more fully contained in the said commission. (fn. ii-361-391-2) Before which justices it was found, in the presence of the said John Botild and William Cooper, that the said William Ellis was guilty of nothing concerning the aforesaid special bills or any manner of general trespass. And this was found by various inquests in the county of Suffolk as well as of Norfolk, as appears on record before the said justices. And further, the said William Ellis was accused especially in the said parliament by the aforesaid John Botild and [p. ii-375][col. a] William Cooper of taking £33 by extortion from a ship laden with various merchandises in Kirkley Roads, from one William Fauxhide and other Scottish merchants; because he wrongly and unduly sued the farmer of the little custom and the deputy of Richard Lyons for 6d. on the pound, by virtue of his office. And the said William Ellis, present in the said parliament, alleged and said that he did receive the said money, but not wrongly, and that a writ came to him from the chancery to make full restitution thereon to the said merchant. And he said that by virtue of the same writ restitution was made to the said William Fauxhide, attorney general for the Scottish merchants, and he took general acquittance from him, which acquittance was alleged in the said parliament by the said William Ellis. And they were told by the aforesaid John Botild and William Couper that neither the said £33 nor any of the same was repaid, and the said acquittance was false and forged, and not sealed with the seal of the said William Fauxhide; which matter is properly witnessed and known by Lord Percy, who was in Scotland on the day of March when the said £33 was repaid to William Fauxhide, and the said acquittance was good and true. Because of which complaints and accusations the said William Ellis has been imprisoned for over three months, and has been under mainprise until this present parliament, to the great damage and harm of the said William Ellis.
Par quoy please a nostre dit tresredoute seignur le roy et a son sage conseil de ceo faire remedie, en oevre de charite, en deliverance le dit William Elys, si come la ley demande. (fn. ii-361-391a-1) Wherefore may it please our said most dread lord the king and his wise council to provide remedy thereon, in way of charity, in deliverance of the said William Ellis, as the law requires. (fn. ii-361-391a-1)
95. Et fait a remembrer qe en cest parlement nulle responce estoit faite par les ditz seignurs a les dites sept billes cy dessus proscheinement escritz, nene poet estre, a cause qe le dit parlement s'estoit departiz et finiz a mesme le jour, devant qe rienz y fust pluis fait a ycelles. 95. And let it be remembered that in this parliament no answer was made, or could be made, by the said lords to the said seven bills written immediately above, because the said parliament concluded and finished on the same day, before anything further was done regarding the same.
Pur Hugh Fastolf. For Hugh Fastolf.
96. Item, les communes prierent as seignurs du parlement entendre coment Hugh Fastolf de Grant [col. b] Jernemuth estoit empeschez par malice et hayne d'aucuns de ses veisines, ses malveulliantz, sibien par diverses billes baillez avant, come par clamour fait sur < le fyn du darrein > parlement, (fn. ii-361-396-1) de diverses extorsions, mesprisions, champarties, maintenance et oppressions faitz < par luy > al roi nostre seignur et a son poeple, a lour grevouse damage, a ce q'estoit dit. En quelle parlement ent estoit adonqes ordenes, qe general enquerre se < ent > fist parmy les contees de Norff' et Suff'. < Et > issint estoient assignez par commission le conte de Suff', Monsir Johan de Cavendissh, chivaler, et plusours autres suffisantz persones, d'enquerre generalment par tout les ditz contees de toutz maners extorsions, oppressions, maintenances, champarties et autres mesprisions y faitz par quelconqes persones, et d'oier et terminer, sibien a la suite le roi come a la suite des parties. (fn. ii-361-396-2) Et en oultre furent les ditz justices chargez d'enquerre par especial del dit Hugh, et les copies des ditz billes < issint > baillez en parlement si furent envoiez a mesmes les justices souz le grant seal nostre seignur le roi, 'sub pede sigilli', avec un brief appertenant, devaunt les queux justices le dit Hugh ent est outrement acquitee par plusours solempnes enquestes; et ce vouchent a record les ditz communes as ditz conte de Suff' et Johan de Cavendissh illeoqes presentz pur y ent tesmoigner la plaine verite, empriantz humblement qe desicome il y estoit mains vraiement accusez au dit temps, en esclaundre et disfame de sa persone, q'il ent fust ore en cest parlement restorez a sa bone fame et bone loos par mesme la manere come il est trovez devant mesmes les justices. Et sur ce y fust demandez en parlement del dit Monsir Johan, luy quel avoit les recordz en garde del dit session touche mesme la matire come [...] toit fait al dit session: luy quel Monsir Johan respondist et dist qe le dit Hugh estoit acquitez devant le dit conte et luy, et lours autres compaignons en dit session d [...] z luy estoit surmys par les dites billes, et de toutes autres articles dessusditz outrement par .xvij. solempnes enquestes prises sibien del un contee come del autre, et de rienz y estoit devant eux trovez coupable. 96. Also, the commons pray the lords of parliament to understand how Hugh Fastolf of Great [col. b] Yarmouth was impeached by the malice and hatred of some of his neighbours, his evil-wishers, by various bills put forward and also by the clamour made at the end of the last parliament, (fn. ii-361-396-1) of various extortions, misdeeds, champerties, maintenances and oppressions done by him to our lord the king and his people, to their grievous damage, as was said. In which parliament it was then ordained that a general inquiry would be made thereon throughout the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk. And thus the earl of Suffolk, Sir John Cavendish, knight, and many other sufficient people were assigned by commission to inquire into, hear and determine, generally in all the said counties, all manner of extortions, oppressions, maintenances, champerties and other misdeeds committed by any people whatsoever, at the king's suit as well as at the suit of the parties. (fn. ii-361-396-2) And further, the said justices were charged to inquire especially into the said Hugh, and the copies of the said bills thus presented in parliament were sent to the same justices under the great seal of our lord the king, 'sub pede sigilli', with an appurtenant writ, before which justices the said Hugh was also acquitted by many solemn inquests; and this the said earl of Suffolk and John Cavendish, who were present there to discover the full truth of the same, have vouched to the said commons as of record; the commons praying humbly that, inasmuch as he was falsely accused at the said time, in slander and defamation of his person, he may now in this parliament be restored to his good reputation and good renown in the same manner as he was found before the same justices. And this was asked in parliament of the said Sir John, who had in his keeping the records of the said session concerning the same matter which were made at the said session; and the said Sir John answered and said that the said Hugh was acquitted before the said earl and him and their other companions in the said session, . . . was submitted by the said bills, and of all other aforesaid articles otherwise by seventeen solemn inquests taken in both counties, and he was found guilty of nothing before them.

Appendix January-March 1377

1

The general pardon granted in the parliament of January-March 1377 (50 Edw III c. 3: SR , I.396-7), in the form of letters patent. The document has some marginal annotations, but is very stained and faint. It may be a text intended for internal circulation within the government offices, or could be one of the copies of the general pardon made at the request of petitioners suing the king's grace of pardon.

Source : C 49/33/18.

2

Two common petitions, written on a single membrane. The first concerns the fees taken by the chirographers of the king's courts in accordance with the statute (13 Edw I, Statute of Westminster II, c. 44; SR , I.93); it refers to a petition made on the matter 'at the last parliament', which is evidently a reference to a common petition in the Good Parliament of 1376 (parliament roll of 1376, item 93, no. XIII); it states that nothing had been done and requests remedy. The second petition concerns the definition of the tithe of silva cedua and specifies the petition and statute on the matter in 1371 (parliament of 1371, item 23; 45 Edw III c. 3 [ SR , I.393]). The reply, given at the foot, reads 'as to the chirographer, the existing statute should be observed'. Since the references in the petitions are to parliaments of the current king, this document must date between the Good Parliament and the death of Edward III; if is has a parliamentary provenance, which seems overwhelmingly, likely, it must date from the parliament of January-March 1377.

Source : C 49/69/23.

3

Petition of the citizens of London concerning their right by charter to free traffic on the Thames and Medway, and the infringement of this franchise by a grant of a patent to Reginald Chamber as overseer of these waters. Endorsed: 'Let the charters be shown before the king's council and the parties be called there so that the matter can be shown ... and right will be done.' An unendorsed duplicate of this petition also exists. The contents are directly mirrored in one of the common petitions on the parliament roll of January-March 1377 (item 30, no. XIIII), though the text of this petition is different, and a different answer is given. It may be that the petition was dealt with among the private petitions in this parliament and then passed on to the king and council for a further judgment; alternatively, the petition may have been presented on an earlier occasion and was the template from which the Londoners drew up the petition they had adopted by the commons in 1377.

Sources : SC 8/120/5966; SC 8/57/2845 (duplicate).

4

Petition of the men of Devon concerning the stannaries, identical to that found on the parliament roll for January-March 1377 (item 64, no. XLVII); the endorsement is also identical to the response provided on the parliament roll at item 66, no. XLIX. This indicates that the petition is the original, 'avowed' by the commons and included in their common petitions presented to king and council. The men of Devon were to refer explicitly to the petition entered in the parliament of January-March 1377 in a later petition on the same matter. See also parliament of 1376, Appendix no. 17.

Sources : SC 8/14/656; SC 8/107/5324.

5

Two petitions from diverse merchants of England, the first touching merchants of Ireland and Wales, the second merchants of England, but otherwise identical, and concerning liability to the alnage of cloth. The first is endorsed with a note that the merchants are to declare the matter in chancery where right would be done to them; the second is not endorsed. Except for the address clause, both are identical in content with a common petition on the parliament roll of January-March 1377 (item 71, no. LIIII). A third extant petition, made in the name of merchants of England, Wales and Ireland, is also identical with that on the parliament roll with the exception that the final clause found in the enrolled version is lacking; this original is not endorsed. The petitions may have been entered as private petitions in the parliament of 1377 and referred up to king and council for a decision: the answer provided on the parliament roll suggests that the chancery would have been unable to supply the decision suggested in the endorsement to one of the petitions. Alternatively, the petitions could have been presented on other occasions and used as prototypes for the petition adopted by the commons in 1377.

Sources : SC 8/14/657-8; SC 8/127/6307.

6

Petition of the commonalties of Bristol, Gloucestershire, Worcestershire, Herefordshire, Shropshire and Staffordshire concerning impediments to river traffic on the River Severn. The petition is very similar in content to the related one from the same group (but excluding Staffordshire) enrolled among the common petition on the parliament roll of January-March 1377 (item 72, no. LV), but lacks the final flourish concerning the deaths of women and children, and the reply is also different: the unenrolled petition is endorsed: 'let the statutes made before this time be upheld'. This suggests that, while the petition could conceivably have been dealt with among the private petition in the parliament of January-March 1377 and then passed on as a 'common petition' for a new decision to be taken by king and council, it is perhaps more likely that the petition in fact dates from before this parliament and was the prototype from which the common petition was drafted.

Source : SC 8/14/659.

7

Petition of the commons concerning the custom of confiscating ships from which people have fallen to their deaths. This is identical (with minor orthographic variations) to one of the common petitions enrolled on the parliament roll of January-March 1377 (item 73, no. LVI); the response is also identical to that provided on the parliament roll, and is written on the face of the document below, and in the same hand as, the petition. This suggests that this document is a copy of the enrolled version rather than a model for it.

Source : SC 8/223/11127.

8

Two versions of the petition of William Ellis enrolled on the parliament roll for January-March 1377 (item 94); the first is not endorsed; the second is endorsed with a note that the John Botild and William Cooper should be summoned before the council at the quindene of Hilary. The version given on the parliament roll is more elaborate than either of these.

Sources : SC 8/14/660-1; CCR 1374-7 , 455; G. Holmes, The Good Parliament (Oxford, 1975), 117-18; A. Saul, 'Local politics and the Good Parliament', in A. Pollard, ed., Property and Politics: Essays in Later Medieval English History (Gloucester, 1984), 163 and n. 52.

9

Petition of John de la Pomery, knight, for seisin of the castle and manor of Trematon (Cornwall) with other appurtenances in Cornwall and Devon. Pomery later claimed (in another extant petition) to have petitioned on this matter in the last parliament of Edward III and the first parliament of Richard II; the first extant petition could therefore date from either of these parliaments.

Sources : SC 8/68/3368; SC 8/134/6676.

10

Petition of Joan, countess of Hereford, concerning her rights and those of her tenants with regard to charges on the bridge at Huntingdon; resulting writ dated 8 February 1377 and warranted 'by petition in parliament', whereby the king 'with the assent of the prelates, earls and barons' in parliament ordered the staying of process on the matter in the court of king's bench.

Sources : SC 8/18/886; CCR 1374-7 , 523.

11

Petition of Edmund, earl of March, on the same matter as in no. 10, above; resulting writ dated 16 February 1377 and warranted 'by petition in parliament', whereby the king 'with the assent of the prelates, earls and barons' in parliament ordered the staying of process on the matter in the court of king's bench.

Sources : SC 8/20/982; CCR 1374-7 , 532-3.

12

Petition (not extant) of Margaret Marshal, countess of Norfolk, on the same matter as in no. 10 above; resulting writ dated 16 February 1377 and warranted 'by petition in parliament', whereby the king 'with the assent of the prelates, earls and barons' in parliament ordered the staying of process on the matter in the court of king's bench.

Source : CCR 1374-7 , 533.

13

Petition of the cordwainers of London resulting in the issue of letters patent dated 27 March 1377 and warranted 'by petition in parliament'. The petition is endorsed with a note that it was agreed by the lords of parliament that the cordwainers should have their charter on the points contained in the petition and that the charter was drawn up by Thomas Newenham, clerk, who gave the petition to the keeper of the rolls of chancery. Newenham was a receiver of private petitions in the parliament: see item 14.

Sources : SC 8/209/10431; CPR 1374-7 , 440.

14

Petition of the burgesses of Beverley for confirmation of their charters, resulting in the issue of a charter dated 14 February 1377 and warranted 'by petition of parliament'.

Sources : SC 8/5/223; CChR, 1341-1417 , 232-3; see also CPR 1374-7 , 428.

15

Commission arising from the common petition enrolled on the parliament roll (item 50, no. XXXIII) appointing Walter Fitz Walter and others to inquire into the use of the 'wondyrchoun' in sea fishing undertaken off the coasts of Essex, dated 6 March 1377 and warranted 'by petition in parliament'. The commission provides evidence either that the common petition itself arose from a complaint from Essex 'avowed' by the commons as being of general concern to the realm, or that it was interested parties in Essex who specifically responded to the crown's offer of the appointment of commissions within the reply give to the common petition.

Source : CPR 1374-7 , 489-90.

16

Petition of the major, jurats and commonalty of the town of Bort in Aquitaine, presented in parliament, claiming their ancient privileges of trade. Endorsed that a commission be made to the seneschal of Aquitaine or his lieutenants to inquire into the matter and do right to the townsmen; the resulting writ, dated 26 February 1377, is unwarranted, but makes explicit reference to the petition having been made in parliament.

Sources : SC 8/290/14462; C 61/90, m. 2.

17

Petition of the poor commonalty of Lynn for repayment of 100 marks lent by them to the king during the treasurership of Thomas Brantingham. The petition has been related to the efforts made by the town of Lynn to encourage the representatives returned to the parliament of January-March 1377 to secure the repayment of debts.

Sources : SC 8/123/6118; M. McKisack, The Parliamentary Representation of the English Boroughs during the Middle Ages (Oxford, 1932), 134-5.

18

Grant to John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, of palatine powers in the duchy of Lancaster. The award is dated 28 February 1377 and warranted 'by the king with the assent of the whole parliament'.

Source : Feodera , III.ii.1073.

Footnotes

  • f1377aint-1. RDP , IV.669-71.
  • f1377aint-2. E 403/461, 12 December 1376.
  • f1377aint-3. J.E. Powell and K. Wallis, The House of Lords in the Middle Ages (London, 1968), 375-6.
  • f1377aint-4. Return of the Name of Every Member of the Lower House of Parliament 1213-1874 , 2 vols. (London, 1878), I.195-7; A.K. McHardy, 'The representation of the English lower clergy in parliament during the later fourteenth century', SCH 10 (1973), 100 (n. 13).
  • f1377aint-5. Chronicon Angliae , ed. E.M. Thompson (London, 1874), 112.
  • f1377aint-6. J.S. Roskell, Parliament and Politics in Late Medieval England , 3 vols (London, 1981), II.15-44.
  • f1377aint-7. H.G. Richardson, 'John of Gaunt and the parliamentary representation of Lancashire', BJRL 22 (1938), 201-5; G. Holmes, The Good Parliament (Oxford, 1975), 184; S.K. Walker, The Lancastrian Affinity 1361-1399 (Oxford, 1991), 239.
  • f1377aint-8. K.L. Wood-Legh, 'The knights' attendance in the parliaments of Edward III', EHR 47 (1932), 406. Note also the fact that 22 knights of the shire in the Good Parliament were elected to the parliament of October-December 1377, which has been seen as a conscious re-assertion of 'anti-Lancastrian or anti-court sympathies': Holmes, Good Parliament , 184-5.
  • f1377aint-9. E 403/461, 5 January 1377.
  • f1377aint-10. W.M. Ormrod, The Reign of Edward III (London, 1990), 37.
  • f1377aint-11. T.F. Tout, Chapters in the Administrative History of Mediaeval England , 6 vols. (Manchester, 1920-33), III.312-13; VI.15-16, 23.
  • f1377aint-12. Holmes, Good Parliament , 180-2.
  • f1377aint-14. For full details, see Holmes, Good Parliament , 159-65.
  • f1377aint-15. The Anonimalle Chronicle , ed. V.H. Galbraith (Manchester, 1927), 95.
  • f1377aint-16. Anonimalle Chronicle , 103, corroborated by evidence summarised in Anonimalle Chronicle , 185. For further details, see M. Bennett, 'Edward III's entail and the succession to the crown, 1376-1471', EHR 113 (1998), 580-609, esp. 583, 586-90.
  • f1377aint-17. As suggested by Ormrod, Reign of Edward III , 38.
  • f1377aint-18. Holmes, Good Parliament , 188 and n. 4; M. Jurkowski, C.L. Smith and D. Crook, Lay Taxes in England and Wales 1188-1688 (London, 1998), 56-7.
  • f1377aint-19. Chronicon Angliae , 112; Anonimalle Chronicle , 100-1.
  • f1377aint-20. For what follows, see W.M. Ormrod, 'The politics of pestilence: government in England after the Black Death', in The Black Death in England , ed. W.M. Ormrod and P.G. Lindley (Stamford, 1996), 163-5.
  • f1377aint-21. CFR 1368-77 , 386-91.
  • f1377aint-22. D. Rayner, 'The forms and machinery of the "commune petition" in the fourteenth century', EHR 56 (1941), 225-6.
  • f1377aint-23. 50 Edw III cc. 1-2: SR , I.396.
  • f1377aint-24. 50 Edw III c. 3: SR , I.396-7; and see Appendix no. 1.
  • f1377aint-25. For the background, see E.B. Fryde, Studies in Medieval Trade and Finance (London, 1983), chap. X.
  • f1377aint-26. The standard fee charged in chancery for a copy of a general pardon was 18s. 4d.: A. Musson and W.M. Ormrod, The Evolution of English Justice: Law, Politics and Society in the Fourteenth Century (Basingstoke, 1999), 82.
  • f1377aint-27. 50 Edw III cc. 6-8: SR , I.398.
  • f1377aint-28. Ormrod, Reign of Edward III , 67.
  • f1377aint-29. For the significance of this matter, see H.M. Cam, Liberties and Communities in Medieval England (London, 1963), 236-47. It is possible that the case referred to in parliament of 1376, Appendix no. 25, may have contributed to the discussion of this matter in 1377.
  • f1377aint-30. C. Given-Wilson, The Royal Household and the King's Affinity: Service, Politics and Finance in England 1360-1413 (London, 1986), 50-2.
  • f1377aint-31. Holmes, Good Parliament , 187-8.
  • f1377aint-32. Holmes, Good Parliament , 188 (n. 1).
  • f1377aint-33. Holmes, Good Parliament , 191.
  • f1377aint-34. 50 Edw III cc. 4-5: SR , I.398.
  • f1377aint-35. Holmes, Good Parliament , 191.
  • f1377aint-36. Tout, Chapters , III.318.
  • f1377aint-37. CCR 1374-7 , 535-7.
  • ii-361-8-1. CPR 1374-7 , 419
  • ii-361-12-1. II Corinthians xi.19
  • ii-361-14-1. Hebrews xii.6
  • ii-361-16-1. Galatians i.23
  • ii-361-16-2. Acts ix.15
  • ii-361-16-3. Psalms cxxvii.3-6
  • ii-361-20-1. I Corinthians xiii.3
  • ii-361-24-1. Matthew iii.17
  • ii-361-26-1. Luke ii.29-30
  • ii-361-26-2. I Peter ii.13
  • ii-361-26-3. Galatians vi.16
  • ii-361-54-1. SR , I.396 (cc. i-ii)
  • ii-361-67-1. SR , I.396-7 (c. iii)
  • ii-361-79-1. SR , I.291 (c. iv)
  • ii-361-82-1. SR , I.374 (c. xi)
  • ii-361-107-1. See Appendix no. 3
  • ii-361-118-1. CPR 1374-7 , 389; see Appendix no. 8
  • ii-361-136-1. The date of the compact was 15 February 1377: Foedera , III.ii.1072
  • ii-361-136-2. The most recent legislation was SR , I.385-7
  • ii-361-156-1. SR , I.209
  • ii-361-161-1. SR , I.285-6 (c. xiii)
  • ii-361-168-1. SR , I.91-2 (c. xli)
  • ii-361-176-1. The most recent and important legislation was SR , I.371-3 (cc. ii-vi)
  • ii-361-206-1. See Appendix no. 15
  • ii-361-211-1. SR , I.398 (c. vi)
  • ii-361-228-1. The reference is unclear: the arrangements for the administration of the alnage observed in 1377 were still those laid down by the legislation of 1353: SR , I.330-1 (c. iv). See also SR , I.395 (1373)
  • ii-361-231-1. SR , I.398 (c. vii)
  • ii-361-233a-1. For a related private petition, see Appendix no. 17
  • ii-361-243-1. SR , I.117 (c. xxix)
  • ii-361-261-1. Parliament of 1376, item 151, no. IIII XX XII, and parliament of 1376, Appendix no. 11
  • ii-361-269-1. Parliament of 1376, item 76, nos. XXV-XXVI; and see also parliament of 1376, item 31, and item 176, no. CXVII
  • ii-361-274-1. Parliament of 1376, item 130, no. LXXI
  • ii-361-274-2. Parliament of 1376, Appendix no. 17
  • ii-361-274a-1. See Appendix no. 4
  • ii-361-276-1. Parliament of 1376, item 130, no. LXXI, and item 131, no. LXXII
  • ii-361-281-1. See Appendix no. 4
  • ii-361-286-1. SR , I.315-16 (c. iv). For related private petitions, see Appendix nos. 10-12
  • ii-361-303-1. SR , I.395 (c. i)
  • ii-361-303a-1. See Appendix no. 5
  • ii-361-306-1. SR , I.398 (c. viii)
  • ii-361-311-1. See also Appendix no. 6
  • ii-361-316-1. See Appendix no. 7
  • ii-361-323-1. Parliament of 1376, items 20-30
  • ii-361-333-1. CPR 1374-7 , 435
  • ii-361-335-1. SR , I.150-2, 316-18, 329 (c. i), 385-7
  • ii-361-349-1. SR , I.398 (c. iv)
  • ii-361-366-1. SR , I.398 (c. v)
  • ii-361-379-1. Parliament of 1376, items 17-19
  • ii-361-379-2. A pardon was granted on 17 March 1377: CPR 1374-7 , 439-40, 444
  • ii-361-381-1. Parliament of 1376, item 45
  • ii-361-381-2. No subsequent action is recorded: Perrers had already received a general pardon on 22 October 1376: CPR 1374-7 , 364-5
  • ii-361-383-1. Not recorded on the parliament roll for 1376
  • ii-361-385-1. Parliament of 1376, item 47
  • ii-361-385-2. A pardon was granted on 20 April 1377: CPR 1374-7 , 453
  • ii-361-387-1. Not recorded on the parliament roll for 1376
  • ii-361-389-1. CFR 1368-77 , 225
  • ii-361-389-2. Parliament of 1376, item 33
  • ii-361-389a-1. A pardon was granted on 10 April 1377: CPR 1374-7 , 448-9
  • ii-361-391-1. Parliament of 1376, items 31-2. Botild and Cooper were summoned to appear before the council at the time of the parliament of January-March 1377: see Appendix no. 8
  • ii-361-391-2. CPR 1374-7 , 413: see parliament of 1376, Appendix no. 21
  • ii-361-391a-1. A pardon was granted on 20 April 1377: CPR 1374-7 , 455. See also Appendix no. 8
  • ii-361-396-1. Not recorded on the parliament roll for 1376
  • ii-361-396-2. CPR 1374-7 , 413: see parliament of 1376, Appendix no. 21