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Edward III: February 1371

Parliament Rolls of Medieval England. Originally published by Boydell, Woodbridge, 2005.

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Citation:

In this section

1371 February

Introduction 1371

Westminster

24 February - 29 March

(C 65/27. RP , II.303-308. SR , I.393)

The parliament roll for the assembly of 1373 is C 65/27. This consists of 6 membranes. Membranes 1 and 2, which record the business of the parliament, are separate, and have been sewn into the roll where membranes 4 and 5 are joined; the arrangement represents a separation between the roll of proceedings proper (membranes 1-2) and the list of common petitions (membranes 3-6), the latter being associated with the former by the headings added at the foot of membrane 2: 'Les peticions des communes, et les respons sur elles faites, sont en un roule attachez et consutes a cestes' and 'Les peticions de les communes Dengleterre'. Each membrane is approximately 345 mm. in width, and they have been sewn together in the chancery style. The condition of the roll is generally good, apart from the very top of membrane 3 which has been torn, causing certain words to be missing, and the bottom half of membrane 6 which is heavily stained with gallic acid, rendering sections illegible. The text, written in a small, clear chancery script, occupies the rectos of the membranes only. The dorses are blank, apart from the heading, 'Rotulus parliamenti de anno regni regis Edwardi tercii quadragesimo quinto', at the top of membrane 1 and the foot of membrane 6. There are no marginal headings. Arabic numerals throughout the roll are later. The roll does not appear to be incomplete. The clerk of parliament presumably responsible for the roll is mentioned in it, but not named (item 8). The arrangement of attaching the common petitions to the main roll, rather than transcribing them onto it (found also on the rolls for 1372, 1373 and 1376), raises the possibility that the common petitions are in draft, rather than final, form. Three vacated entries among the common petitions on the roll (two within item 24, the other between items 26 and 27) were omitted from the edition published in RP but were subsequently published in RPHI . They have been included in the text and translation provided here, but their appearance adds strength to the argument that the schedule of common petitions for 1371 exists in effect in draft form; under normal circumstances, such vacated entries would have been removed from the fair copy of the common petitions placed on the parliament rolls. (fn. f1371int-1)

The parliament of 1371 was summoned by writs dated 8 January, to convene at Westminster on 24 February. The list of those receiving personal summonses underwent some change from the previous assembly of 1369. The abbot of Battle was added to the ranks of the lords spiritual, a number of men omitted from the list of lords temporal in 1369 were re-introduced, and eight new names were added (some of them permanently, others only temporarily): William Aldeburgh, Aymer St Amand, William Aton, Ralph Basset, Adam Everingham, William Heron, Richard Scrope of Bolton and Richard Stafford. Nine royal clerks and lawyers were also instructed to attend. (fn. f1371int-2) The writs for election sent to the sheriffs specified that the representatives of the shires should be 'belted knights', a detail that had previously been included in parliamentary writs in 1340, 1355 and 1358 (and for the great council of 1353); its inclusion on this occasion may suggest, as in 1340 and 1355, that in a period of war, not to say of national emergency, it was advantageous for the crown to have the military community well represented in parliament. (fn. f1371int-3) The sheriffs' returns do not survive for this parliament. Although the names of 73 of the 74 shire knights can be recovered from the enrolled writs de expensis , this latter source provides identifications for only 36 citizens and burgesses. (fn. f1371int-4) Clearly there were more: the city records of Exeter, for example, yield the name of one of its representatives not mentioned in the writs de expensis . (fn. f1371int-5) Meanwhile, the names of eight of the proctors of the lower clergy elected to this parliament are also recoverable. (fn. f1371int-6)

No parliament had been held since June 1369, and the first thing to which the chancellor, William Wykeham, referred in his opening speech in the Painted Chamber on Monday 24 February was the consent that the earlier assembly had given to Edward III's resumption of the title of king of France and thus, in effect, to the re-opening of war with the French (item 1). Wykeham claimed that the French now had a three-point strategy: to overrun the Plantagenet possessions within France; to defeat and destroy the English fleet; and to invade England 'to destroy and conquer it'. This manner of representing the war amounted, in effect, to an assertion of the plea of necessity (though without an explicit statement of it): the state of the war meant not only that the king's rightful possessions overseas were jeopardised (a matter which itself had been seen as creating a state of necessity in the first phase of the war), but the country was also on the verge of invasion (an incontrovertible assertion of the urgent need to respond to requests for the defence of the realm). (fn. f1371int-7) The opening speech ended with a request that the lords and commons deliberate on the defence of the realm, and an invitation to private petitioners to submit their bills to the receivers of petitions by Wednesday 26 February (items 1-5).

The roll provides no further details of activity in parliament until Friday 28 March, when the lords and commons made a grant of a special subsidy of £50,000 (item 6). Clearly, there is much that we cannot know about what happened in the intervening five weeks. Two basic and important issues are, however, partly resolvable from the roll itself. First, it is evident that the lords and commons had lengthy discussions together (presumably through the procedure of intercommuning) about the nature and magnitude of the fiscal aid that ought to be granted to the king (item 6). Secondly, it appears that, as in 1369, the commons may have been denied the right to submit their common petitions and have answers to them until the tax was formally granted: the record of business on 28 March is not completely clear on the point, but the statement of the new chancellor, Sir Robert Thorp, that 'all the petitions given in parliament by the commons could not all be answered before [Easter]' rather suggests that the crown had only just received, and was still holding off in providing formal answers to, the common petitions (items 6, 8). Thorp announced that, since Holy Week and Easter were imminent (Palm Sunday fell on 30 March and Easter Day on 6 April), the clerk of parliament ought to read out the petitions that had already been answered, together with the responses, and that parliament should close; but that the king would also set up a tribunal of 'certain lords and others' to provide responses to the unanswered common petitions (items 8-9) This latter suggestion was presumably prompted by the common petition on the same matter (item 16), and was a clear response to the contemporary notion that parliament was a place in which the king's subjects were guaranteed a reply (albeit not always a positive reply) to their petitions. (fn. f1371int-8)

Fortunately a little more can be gleaned from sources beyond the parliament roll of the context in which the lords and commons debated fiscal and political issues in 1371. The fact that the parliament roll itself alerts us to a change of chancellor between 24 February and 28 March is an important clue to one aspect of this assembly's business. William Wykeham was deprived of the chancellorship on 24 March and replaced by Sir Robert Thorp on 26 March; on 27 March the treasurer, Thomas Brantingham, was succeeded by Sir Richard Scrope; and although the dates are uncertain, it seems that Peter Lacy, the keeper of the privy seal, also gave up his post at about the same time in favour of a new officer, Nicholas Carew. Wykeham (bishop of Winchester), Brantingham (bishop of Exeter) and Lacy (a clerk with previous long experience in the service of the Black Prince) were all ecclesiastics; their successors were all laymen. The second of the common petitions recorded on the parliament roll states that 'in this present parliament all the earls, barons and commons of England declared to our lord the king that the governance of the realm has been controlled for a long time by people of holy Church, who are not liable to the king's justice in all cases, whereby great misfortunes and damages have occurred in times past, and more might occur in times to come ...' and went on to request 'that henceforth lay people ..., and no other people, be made chancellor, treasurer, clerk of the privy seal, barons of the exchequer, chamberlains of the exchequer, controllers and all other great officers and ministers ...'. Although the petition could be read as itself provoking the dismissals of the clerical ministers, it seems more likely that Wykeham, Brantingham and Lacy were constrained to leave their posts as a result of the general debate to which the petition alludes, and that the petition itself was framed in the knowledge of their replacements by laymen and sought to guarantee and perpetuate this change of recruitment policy. Quite why the assembly should have launched such an attack has never been adequately explained. One possibility is that the lords and/or commons wished to create a scapegoat for their dissatisfaction with the state of domestic governance and/or the pursuit of the French war. The fact that some of the chroniclers identified the opposition ringleader as the young earl of Pembroke, who was active in the continental campaigns of this period, has generated a modern argument that a 'pro-war party' succeeded in confounding a more cautious programme of diplomacy associated with Wykeham and others. (fn. f1371int-9) It must be emphasised, however, that there is no real evidence that Wykeham and his associated favoured peace: (fn. f1371int-10) nor, for that matter, was there any attempt to take proceedings against him or the other dismissed ministers on allegations of misconduct along the lines of Archbishop Stratford's case in 1341. The survival of a set of articles submitted by two Austin friars to this parliament arguing the case for the deployment of the resources of the church in the service and defence of the realm has produced a counter-argument, to the effect that the dismissal of Wykeham, Brantingham and Lacy was the product of a general anticlerical movement in parliament. (fn. f1371int-11) Again, however, it should be stressed that the evidence is rather slim: the Austin friars' arguments were of most obvious relevance to the debate over the contribution that the church ought to make to the current fiscal burden of defence (see below), and it is by no means clear that their quite sophisticated arguments on the theory of dominion had much influence on the request of the lords and commons that the king should select only laymen as his ministers and thus prevent clerical officials from asserting their ecclesiastical immunity from prosecution in the royal courts. (fn. f1371int-12) Given the timing of the replacements, it may be most straightforward to argue that Wykeham, Brantingham and Lacy were removed simply as the price of the subsidy granted on 28 March, and that their dismissals had little to do with their own records as administrators and more to say about a general desire (provoked by various official scandals during the 1360s) to establish a proper culture of accountability in royal government.

No firm evidence survives to establish the content of the parliamentary debate on taxation, but it is possible to suggest a number of areas on which this is likely to have focused. (fn. f1371int-13) Ironically, but perhaps significantly in the light of Wykeham's opening speech, there is nothing to suggest that the lords and commons questioned the crown's right to expect financial aid. But there was evidently some serious consideration of the form that such financial aid might take. With the exception of a special levy authorised (but never fully collected) in 1360, there had been no direct taxation of the laity since the parliamentary fifteenth and tenth of 1357. (fn. f1371int-14) Not only did this represent the longest gap in the history of direct taxation since the start of Edward I's reign; it also seems to have generated the expectation that war could be adequately financed on the basis of indirect taxation and clerical tenths - the strategy pursued both for the 'coronation' campaign of 1359-60 and at the re-opening of the war in 1369. The idea evidently floated in 1371, that the income from these sources was alone insufficient to fund the war, must therefore have come as something of a shock. It is possible to argue that the crown actually made (or the lords and commons proposed) a statement of need that requested the raising of £100,000, and that it was the enormity of this sum that drove parliament to a realisation that the standard form of direct lay subsidy, the fifteenth and tenth (which yielded a fixed sum of approximately £38,000) was insufficient to the moment. In working out a solution to the problem, it would also appear that the lords and commons came rapidly to the view (prompted, or reinforced, by the articles presented by the Austin friars) that the clergy were not contributing their fair share of the costs of war. John Wyclif later referred to a speech made by an unnamed lord in parliament advocating the appropriation of clerical wealth for the general need: although this speech has also been connected with the assembly of January-March 1377, the balance of probability dates it to 1371 and it reinforces the argument for a lively debate about clerical contributions in this assembly. (fn. f1371int-15) When parliament agreed, on 28 March, to make a grant of £50,000, it therefore effectively committed the clergy to offering an equivalent amount, notwithstanding the fact that the two convocations had granted triennial tenths in the previous year which, under normal circumstances, would have immunised them from further demands and contributions in the interim. The two archbishops were ordered by writs dated 27 March to summon convocations of their provinces, which met after Easter. (fn. f1371int-16) The dating of the writs may represent a fictional device by the chancery to offset the suggestion that the clergy were cajoled into these meetings by a decision taken the following day in parliament; but it could also signify that this was another concession made to parliament on 27 March (along with the replacements of the clerical ministers) as a necessary condition to the grant by the lords and commons the following day.

The grant of the subsidy on 28 March and the reading out of those common petitions that had already received answers (not defined on the roll) marked the end of the assembly (items 6-9): writs de expensis were issued the following day. (fn. f1371int-17) On 27 April, however, writs were issued for the summons of a supplementary great council to convene at Winchester on 6 June. (fn. f1371int-18) Membership was to be selective: four bishops, four abbots, seven earls and only five barons received personal summonses; and the sheriffs were told to secure the attendance of one of the two knights of the shire and one of the two burgesses who had sat in the parliament of February-March. It might at first be thought that the assembly was summoned to hear the crown's responses to the unanswered common petitions left over from the previous parliament. But no statement had been given that a formal assembly would be used (or, indeed, was needed) for such a matter. Rather, as the writs to the sheriffs signified, the crown had encountered a major problem in the administration of the lay subsidy. The terms of the grant made on 28 March were that every parish in England would pay the sum of £1 2s. 3d., with wealthier communities helping to subsidise poorer ones (item 6). The collectors of this tax had been appointed under commissions of 28 March; on 3 April privy seal writs had been issued enjoining them to work speedily and efficiently. (fn. f1371int-19) The writs to the sheriffs of 27 April ordered them to inform the government by the opening day of the great council of the number of parishes within their jurisdiction; and on 13 May the bishops were asked to supply similar information. (fn. f1371int-20) The parliament roll of 1371 continues with an account of events at the assembly in Winchester, where the chancellor announced that the initial calculation as to the tax quota to be levied on each parish had been based on too generous an estimate of the number of parishes in the country; sufficient information having been supplied by this point via the sheriffs and bishops to make a new calculation, it was agreed by the lords and commons present that the parish quota be increased from £1 2s. 3d. to £5 16s., with the earlier condition that wealthy parishes should support poor ones (items 10-11). New commissions to tax collectors were therefore issued, originally dated 18 June but altered to 8 June (the date of opening of the great council) revising both the details of the amounts to be charged and the dates of delivery of the proceeds of the subsidy. (fn. f1371int-21) The initial miscalculation (which may be attributable to a contemporary fiction that there were some 40,000 parishes in England) (fn. f1371int-22) had thus been rectified (the new calculations signified an accurate approximation of 8,000 parishes) through swift administrative action by the crown, and the summoning of the Winchester great council had been necessitated by the need to revise the original form of the tax granted in parliament. (The willingness of the assembly to agree to the raising of the quotas for the lay subsidy may have been coloured by the knowledge that the clergy of Canterbury province had already conceded the parallel tax expected of them and had made it a condition that the northern clergy, who had yet to accept, should make an appropriate contribution.) (fn. f1371int-23) The great council also, however, acted as the formal occasion for the reading of the crown's responses to the common petitions left unanswered from the earlier parliament (item 12). There is no evidence that the king had appointed the special tribunal proposed in parliament to deal with this matter, and it would seem likely that the council had had more than sufficient time in the interim to consider its answers to the (undefined) group of common petitions left over at the end of the parliament.

The parliament roll of 1371 provides no further evidence as to business conducted in the Winchester great council: indeed, since it gives the impression that all the recorded business was completed on the opening day, 8 June, there is something of a mystery as to what happened between then and the date of the issue of the writs de expensis , 17 June. (fn. f1371int-24) There are, however, a few hints of additional business undertaken. It is not known when the crown decided the contents of the statute arising from this parliament or publicised it through writs of proclamation, but it would not be unreasonable to suggest that this matter too was deferred to the session of the great council. (fn. f1371int-25) The only direct evidence that has come to light for a private petition entered in parliament in 1371 is contained in a commission issued from Winchester on 18 June (Appendix no. 2): this suggests either that private bills were accepted at the great council or, more probably, that various pieces of private business raised in the parliament of February-March were deferred (like the answers to some of the common petitions) until June. In addition, there is an interesting writ on the Gascon roll for 1371, dated at Winchester on the opening day of the great council, ordering the Black Prince's chancellor and other officials at Bordeaux to receive appeals that had been sent to Edward III from his subjects in Aquitaine (Appendix no. 1): it may be that these 'appeals' had been entered in parliament as private petitions and had also been left undecided at the end of the assembly of February-March. There is also evidence to indicate that the crown took the opportunity of the great council to negotiate an extension of the subsidy of tunnage and poundage for a year from 1 November 1371; (fn. f1371int-26) although in this respect the assembly might be thought to have acting as a parliament, the subsidy was not at this stage within the range of taxes over which parliament had control, and the crown was in fact quite eager to ensure that it was negotiated outside parliament in merchant assemblies and great councils. (fn. f1371int-27) Finally, a common petition on the parliament roll of 1372 (item 41 no. XXVII) refers to a common petition concerning the practice of the church courts in imposing financial penalties for cases of sexual immorality and other offences made 'at the parliament held at Winchester', on which the crown had taken no action: if this is taken literally, it might suggest that the representatives of the shires and towns in the Winchester great council took advantage of the fiscal authority accorded them by the grant of tunnage and poundage to enter certain supplementary common petitions which may, or may not, have been answered.

The remainder of the parliament roll of 1371 consists of the quite lengthy list of common petitions with the royal answers appended to them (items 14-47): the final items are very badly stained and mostly illegible, but there is no reason to believe that the roll itself is incomplete. Only a very small number of the common petitions generated statutory responses: on the confirmation of Magna Carta and the Charter of the Forests (item 14), (fn. f1371int-28) on freedom of river traffic (item 18), (fn. f1371int-29) on the tithe of silva cedua (item 23), (fn. f1371int-30) and on the guarantee that no imposition be placed on exports of wool without the assent of parliament (item 42). (fn. f1371int-31) The issue of the definition to be attached to the church's right of tithes on cut wood ( silva cedua ) had been a recurrent theme in parliament in the period 1343-52 and had been picked up again since 1369; although the crown now chose to attempt a definition on the matter, the problem was to arise again in the very next parliament. (fn. f1371int-32) The legislation of 1371 guaranteeing parliamentary control of the wool subsidy represented a confirmation of a statute already granted in 1362; (fn. f1371int-33) indeed, it is possible to read the crown's response to the common petition of 1371 on this matter as referring back to the statute of 1362 ('... if any has been set since the statute [of 1362], it shall be repealed ...'), though the translation preferred here accords the status of 'the statute' in question to the new legislation of 1371. Reference back to earlier legislation was indeed a very common theme in the common petitions of 1371 (items 20, 25, 27, 29, 30, 38, 39, 41), symptomatic of the growing assertiveness of parliament in calling the crown to account on the enforcement of its own statutes. The commons twice cited the general pardon of 1362 as a means of asserting liability to various legal actions associated with the wool export trade (items 29, 33), and asked - successfully - that the crown guarantee cessation of the eyre for the duration of the war (item 22). (This latter was an extension of the strategy developed during the 1350s and 1360s of buying off the threat of the eyre, or its penalties, with grants of taxation.) (fn. f1371int-34) They were also, at times, somewhat creative with the details of former legislation. The request that sheriffs and escheators be replaced each year and that they should have a landed qualification of £20 in the county where they held office (item 39) was in fact a reference to various earlier statutes dealing with the two offices quite separately: strictly, it should be remarked that the earlier legislation necessitated only that sheriffs should be appointed annually and only that escheators should have £20 of land. It seems that this glossing of earlier legislation, rather than representing confusion, may well have been an artful device to draw the crown into a more coherent statement of the qualifications and terms of the two offices - which, after all, were not infrequently held in tandem. The crown's reaction is interesting: it promised to uphold the existing statutes; and it immediately instituted a programme of annual replacements for sheriffs which, by and large, continued for the rest of the Middle Ages. This scheme was not, however, followed in the case of the escheatorships, which continued to be held at the king's pleasure. (fn. f1371int-35) Such selectivity is an interesting example of the discretion exercised by the crown in the observation and implementation of the promises it made in parliament.

A number of other common petitions of 1371, and the responses to them, are worthy of note. The request that everyone be entitled to fortify his own residence, and that the towns and cities be permitted to raise defences around their perimeters (item 34), was presumably a reaction to rumours of French (and, for that matter, Scottish) invasion and represented a sense that, in such a state of emergency, the usual rules of gaining licences and permissions from the crown for defensive structures 'with walls and towers with crenellations and battlements' ought not to apply. The commons also made representations in their ongoing campaign to secure payment for those serving the crown on judicial commissions in the counties (presumably, though only implicitly, the justices of the peace) (item 36); although the crown responded favourably on this matter, nothing was actually done. (fn. f1371int-36) The commons also returned to a matter that had caused a flurry of interest in 1348 and 1352 concerning exception of villeinage, the device by which lords aimed to prove the villein status of certain of their opponents in legal cases and thus deny the latter the right to proceed in the king's courts (item 37) (see Introductions to parliaments of January-February 1348 and 1352). The commons also included within their petitions a number of requests about the operation of the subsidy granted in parliament (an indication that the petitions had been in formulation during the period of discussion of the tax grant): that it be placed in a special war fund administered by a special committee delegated responsibility for ensuring that its proceeds were spent on military expenditure, and nothing else (item 24); that no other levy (specifically, the costs of troops arrayed ain the shires for the king's service overseas) be set upon the commonalty during the course of the current subsidy (item 24); and that none of those elected to this parliament should be liable to serve as a collector of the new tax (item 43). The request for the establishment of special treasurers of war represents the first such attempt made by parliament to create an administrative system guaranteeing the appropriate allocation of subsidies requested and paid for the purpose of defence and foreign warfare; the matter was to be picked up again by parliament from 1377. (fn. f1371int-37) The idea that the grant of a subsidy ought to immunise the realm from further burdens was commonplace, but the specific reference to release from liability to the costs of array harks back to the debates of the 1340s and 1350s on the attempts by the crown to devolve responsibility for county levies onto local communities. (fn. f1371int-38) On neither of these points, however, did the commons of 1371 get an answer: indeed, the entries on the roll are annotated 'It was not read' to indicate that the petitions were effectively cancelled, presumably before parliament was dissolved on 28 March. (It is for this reason that they were excluded by the editors of RP .) The request for the immunity of commons' members from appointment as collectors of the new subsidy (itself a strategy already attempted in 1352 and to which the commons would return later in the 1370s), (fn. f1371int-39) by contrast, was heard, answered and read, but the royal response was an evasive one: the king retained the right to appoint whom he wished as collectors of his subsidies.

Finally, it may be noted that a number of the royal answers to the common petitions provide important hints of the nature and extent of the business conducted in the parliament of 1371. On the issue of the charges made by the church for probate, the crown responded with the somewhat puzzling answer 'This matter shall await the arrival of the commons' (item 24). This could suggest that the council felt it was important to hold supplementary discussions with the commons, and perhaps indicates that the matter was intended to be deferred to the great council at Winchester - though this leaves unresolved the question of why no more definitive solution to the issue might have been found on that occasion. It might also be an alternative means of expressing the answer found to no fewer than four of the petitions on the roll, that the matter would be deferred for discussion 'in the next parliament' (items 24 [ bis ], 37, 40). Although there is some ambiguity both in the Public Records and in the chronicles as to the status of the assembly at Winchester in June, the fact that the writs of summons themselves stated that the calling of another parliament would be onerous is effective proof that this meeting was indeed a great council, not a parliament; (fn. f1371int-40) the replies to the common petitions, whether given at Westminster in March or at Winchester in June, can only therefore mean that the crown was deferring indefinitely a decision on these matters - and, in effect, consigning them to oblivion unless the commons in the next parliament remembered to pick up the issues once again. The business covered in these petitions could be considered to have been emotive. The allegiance of Frenchmen living as servants in England (item 40) was likely to generate a lively debate on points of law and nationality; (fn. f1371int-41) the collection of estreats by the sheriffs was always a contentious issue in the shires (item 24); (fn. f1371int-42) and exception of villeinage (item 37) was likely to raise concerns among the landed classes represented in parliament. (fn. f1371int-43) But it is only really on the matter of the removal of the separation of hundreds and other liberties from the communal liability to the farms of the counties - a matter that challenged the crown's rights of patronage and was to escalate into a major dispute in the Good Parliament of 1376 - that it could genuinely be said that deferral to the next parliament might have been a device to offset political opposition. (fn. f1371int-44) It therefore appears that the short period of time that lapsed between the delivery of the common petitions and the end of the Westminster parliament, together with the loss of political momentum that resulted from the dismissal of parliament and the subsequent summons of the Winchester great council, had the effect of allowing the crown to take a selective, not to say sometimes dismissive, attitude to the answering of the common petitions. For all the (hidden) activity involving the dismissals of the officers of state in this parliament, the record of the assembly provides little indication of any coherent or concerted opposition to royal policy at this particular stage of the reign of Edward III. (fn. f1371int-45)

Text and translation

[p. ii-303]
[col. a]
[memb. 1]
ROTULUS PARLIAMENTI DE ANNO REGNI REGIS EDWARDI TERCII QUADRAGESIMO QUINTO. THE ROLL OF THE PARLIAMENT OF THE FORTY-FIFTH YEAR OF THE REIGN OF KING EDWARD THE THIRD.
Au parlement tenuz a Westm' lundy en la primer semaigne de karesme, l'an du regne le roi Edward tierce quarant cynk, a deprimes estoit crie fait en la sale de Westm' qe ceux qe furent venuz par comandement se treisent en la chambre Depeinte. Et mesme le jour, le roi, prelatz, grantz et communes illeoqes assemblez, l'evesqe de Wyncestre, chaunceller, monstra a eux la cause du parlement, come ensuit: [Opening of parliament.]
At the parliament held at Westminster on the Monday in the first week of Lent in the forty-fifth year of the reign of King Edward the third, an announcement was first made in Westminster Hall that all those who had come by summons should proceed into the Painted Chamber. And on the same day, with the king, prelates, great men and commons assembled there, the bishop of Winchester, chancellor, declared to them the reason for the parliament, as follows:
'Sires, vous savez bien coment au darrein parlement le roi de vostre assent resprit le noun du roi de France, a cause qe son adversari avoit enfreint la pees autrefoitz afferme entre eux, et usa le resort quele par la dite pees deveroit demurer et aperteiner au roi; et par cele cause et autres ad fait grantz custages, et mandez ascuns des grantz et autres outre meer a grant nombre, pur son droit avoir et conquere. Et ore le roi ad certeines novelles par ses amys et alliez, qe son dit adversair se fait plus fort qil n'ad fait devant, et ad ordeine un si grant nombre de gentz qe lui semble doit suffire de hoster le roi cest an hors de sa possession de toutes les terres et < pays > queux il ad totes partz de la la meer, sibien en Gascoigne come a Caleys, Gynes, Pounteu et autres ses chasteux et lieux illeoqes. Et ovesqe ce ad prest tantz de galeyes, flunes, lynes et autres niefs de Tour qe lui semble doient suffire a destrure toute la navie d'Engleterre. Et auxi se afforce et bie d'envoier un grant poair des gentz d'armes et autres en ceste terre, pur la destrure et conquere a son poair. Par qoi le roi requert et charge les grantz et communes cy assemblez qe ils se voillent sur les pointz susditz aviser, et lui conseiller coment son roialme poesse estre sauvement garde, et la navie sauve et maintene contre la malice des ditz enemys, et pur la sauve garde des terres le roi pardela, et pur maintenir la guerre es ditz parties et la conquest d'ycelles'. Et comanda outre qe ces qe voillent mettre avant lour peticions, q'ils les baillent as clercs a ce assignez et ils serront bonement responduz; les nouns des queux ensuent, et auxi des triours d'iceles: 'Lords, you know well how at the last parliament the king, with your assent, resumed the title of king of France, because his enemy had broken the peace previously established between them, and exercised the resort which by the said peace should have remained and belonged to the king; and for this reason and others he has made great expenditures, and sent some of the great men and others overseas in large numbers, to assert and conquer his right. And now the king has certain news from his friends and allies that his said enemy has become stronger than he had been before, and has ordained as great a number of men as seems to him should be sufficient for removing the king, this year, from his possession of all the lands and regions which he has everywhere overseas, in Gascony as well as in Calais, Guînes, Ponthieu and his other castles and places there. And in addition to this, he has readied as many galleys, flunes, lines and other ships of Tours as seem to him should be sufficient to destroy the whole English navy. And also he strives and aims to send a great army of men-at-arms and others into this land to destroy and conquer it to his power. Wherefore the king asks and charges the great men and commons assembled here to advise him on the aforesaid points, and counsel him as to how his realm can be safely protected and the navy preserved and maintained against the malice of the said enemies, both for the safekeeping of the king's lands overseas and for maintaining the war in the said parts and the conquest of the same.' And he further ordered that those who would put forward their petitions deliver them to the clerks assigned to this, and they would be properly answered; the names of which clerks follow, and also the names of the triers:
2. Resceivers des peticions d'Engleterre, Irland, Gales et Escoce:

  • Sire Richard de Ravenser
  • Sire Wauter Power
  • Sire Nichol Spaigne
  • Sire Thomas de Neuenham.
[Receivers and triers of private petitions.]
2. Receivers of the petitions from England, Ireland, Wales and Scotland:

  • Sir Richard Ravenser
  • Sir Walter Power
  • Sir Nicholas Spaigne
  • Sir Thomas Newenham.
3. Item pur les peticions de Gyenne et autres terres et paiis par dela la meer et les Isles:

  • Maistre Johan de Branketre
  • Maistre Robert de Wykford
  • Sire William de Mirfeld.
3. Also, for the petitions from Aquitaine and other lands and regions overseas and the Channel Islands:

  • Master John Branketre
  • Master Robert Wickford
  • Sir William Mirfield.
Et ces qe voillent liverer billes les liverent entre cy et meskerdi, le jour acompte. And those who would deliver bills should deliver them between that day and Wednesday, the day assigned.
[col. b]
4. Et sont assignez triours des peticions d'Engleterre, Irland, Gales et Escoce:

  • L'ercevesqe de Caunterbirs
  • L'evesqe de Loundres
  • L'evesqe de Nichole
  • L'evesqe de Salesbirs
  • L'evesqe de Ely
  • L'evesqe de Wyncestre
  • L'abbe de Westm'
  • L'abbe de Waltham
  • L'abbe Seint Austyn de Canterburs
  • Le counte de Hereford
  • Le counte de Arundell
  • Le counte de Pembrok
  • Le counte de la Marche
  • Le counte de Salesbirs
  • Le Sire de Latymer
  • Monsir John de Nevill
  • Monsir Guy Brian
  • Monsir Roger Beauchamp'
  • Monsir Johan Knyvet
  • Monsir Robert de Thorp'
  • Monsir Thomas Lodelowe
  • Monsir William de Fyncheden'
4. And the following are assigned triers of petitions from England, Ireland, Wales and Scotland:

  • The archbishop of Canterbury
  • The bishop of London
  • The bishop of Lincoln
  • The bishop of Salisbury
  • The bishop of Ely
  • The bishop of Winchester
  • The abbot of Westminster
  • The abbot of Waltham
  • The abbot of Saint Augustine's, Canterbury
  • The earl of Hereford
  • The earl of Arundel
  • The earl of Pembroke
  • The earl of March
  • The earl of Salisbury
  • Lord Latimer
  • Sir John Nevill
  • Sir Guy Brian
  • Sir Roger Beauchamp
  • Sir John Knyvet
  • Sir Robert Thorp
  • Sir Thomas Ludlow
  • Sir William Finchden
- appellez a eux chaunceller, tresorer, seneschal et chaumberlayn quant mestir serra, et ils purront entendre; et auxint les serjantz le roi s'il busoigne. Et tendront lour places en la chambre de chamberlein pres la chambre Depeinte. - consulting with the chancellor, treasurer, steward and chamberlain when necessary, and when they are able to attend; and also the king's serjeants when necessary. And they shall hold their session in the Chamberlain's Chamber near the Painted Chamber.
5. Et sont assignez triours de peticions de Guyenne et autres terres et paiis dela la meer et les Isles:

  • L'evesqe de Duresme
  • L'evesqe de Baa et Welles
  • L'evesqe de Seint Davy
  • L'evesqe de Cicestre
  • L'abbe de Seint Albon
  • L'abbe de Burgh Seint Pere
  • L'abbe de Evesham
  • Le counte de Stafford
  • Le counte de Warrewyk
  • Le counte de Devenshire
  • Le counte de Angos
  • Le counte de Suff'
  • Monsir Wauter de Manny
  • Monsir Rauf Basset de Drayton
  • Monsir Johan de Moubray
  • Monsir Thomas de Ingelby
  • Monsir William de Wychingham
5. And the following are assigned triers of petitions from Aquitaine and other lands and regions overseas and the Channel Islands:

  • The bishop of Durham
  • The bishop of Bath and Wells
  • The bishop of Saint Davids
  • The bishop of Chichester
  • The abbot of Saint Albans
  • The abbot of Peterborough
  • The abbot of Evesham
  • The earl of Stafford
  • The earl of Warwick
  • The earl of Devon
  • The earl of Angus
  • The earl of Suffolk
  • Sir Walter de Mauny
  • Sir Ralph Basset of Drayton
  • Sir John Mowbray
  • Sir Thomas Ingelby
  • Sir William Wichingham
- appellez a eux chaunceller, tresorer, seneschal et chamberleyn quant mestir serra, et ils purront entendre; et auxint les serjantz le roi s'il busoigne. Et tendront lour place en la chambre Marcolf. - consulting with the chancellor, treasurer, steward and chamberlain when necessary, and when they are able to attend; and also the king's serjeants when necessary. And they shall hold their session in the Marcolf Chamber.
[memb. 2]
6. Et puis sur les causes a devant proposes, et plusours voies de eide touchez, tretez, parlez et debatuz parentre les grantz et communes, en consideracion as grantz custages et despens qe le roi covient faire et mettre par les causes susdites, mesmes les grantz et communes, le .xxviij. jour de Marcz, granteront au roi un subside de cynquant mille livres, a prendre et levir en la fourme q'ensuyt; c'estassavoir, de chescun [p. ii-304][col. a] paroche parmy la terre, un plus autre meyns, .xxij. s. .iij. d. issint qe chescune paroche de greindre value soit eidant ratement a une autre paroche de meindre value; et qe endentures soient touz jours faites sur la coillet parentre les coillours et les parochiens de chescune paroche, continant la summe coille. [Grant of subsidy.]
6. And then, for the reasons previously specified, and many kinds of aid having been noted, discussed, talk over and debated among the great men and commons, in consideration of the great expenditures and outlays which the king was required to undertake for the aforesaid reasons, the same great men and commons, on 28 March, granted to the king a subsidy of £50,000 to be taken and levied in the form that follows; that is to say, from every [p. ii-304][col. a] parish throughout the land, great and small, 22s. 3d., on condition that every parish of greater value should assist proportionately another parish of lesser value; and that indentures should always be made upon the collection between the collectors and the parishioners of each parish, containing the amount collected.
7. Et mesme le jour en parlement estoit acorde et assentu qe un estaple soit mys et tenue a la ville de Melcombe. [Staple at Melcombe.]
7. And on the same day in parliament it was agreed and assented that a staple shall be set up and maintained at the town of Melcombe.
8. Et apres dit Monsir Robert de Thorp', adonqe chaunceller, as grantz et communes coment la feste de Pasqe et le seintisme temps estoit bien pres, et qe touz les peticions donez en parlement par les comunes ne poaient estre touz responduz devant la dite feste, mes le roi voleit ordeiner certeins seignurs et autres apres la Pasqe, qe serroient sur les pointz de lour peticions nient responduz a ore, et lour ferront tiel respons qe lour doit suffire et agreer de reson; et les autres qe sont ore responduz, le clerc du parlement les vous lirra et les respons auxi. [Close of parliament.]
8. And afterwards, Sir Robert Thorp, then chancellor, told the great men and commons that the feast of Easter and the most holy time was very near, and that all the petitions given in parliament by the commons could not all be answered before the said feast, but the king would ordain certain lords and others after Easter who should attend to the points of their petitions as yet unanswered, and who would make such answer to them as should properly satisfy and please them; and the others that were already answered, would be read out by the clerk of the parliament, along with the answers to them.
9. Queles peticions et les respons issint lues, le roi mercia as grantz et communes de lour eide q'ils lui avoient fait, et lour dona conge a departir; et issint finy le parlement. 9. The petitions and their answers thus having been read, the king thanked the great men and commons for the aid which they had made to him, and gave them licence to depart; and so finished the parliament.
10. Et puis au grant conseil somons et tenuz a Wyncestre, as oettaves de la trinite prochein ensuant, fust monstre par le chaunceller as grantz et communes illeoqes assemblez coment le grant de .xxij. s. .iij. d. q'ils avoient fait a roi de chescune paroche d'Engleterre ne se poait extendre ne suffire de paier la summe [col. b] de cynquant mille livres grantez au roi par eux en parlement, pur tant q'il n'y ad tantz des paroches en la terre come ils supposeient, et ce poent ils veer et conustre par les certificacions des touz les ercevesqes, evesqes et viscountz de toute la terre d'Engleterre, faites et retournez en chauncellerie par garant et comandement du roi. [Record of business at the great council of Winchester.]
10. And then, at the great council summoned and held at Winchester on the octave of the Trinity immediately following, the chancellor declared to the great men and commons assembled there how the grant of 22s. 3d. which they had made to the king from every parish of England could not stretch or suffice to pay the sum [col. b] of £50,000 granted by them to the king in parliament, because there are not as many parishes in the land as they supposed, and this they could see and know by the certifications of all the archbishops, bishops and sheriffs of the whole land of England, made and returned in the chancery by warrant and order of the king.
11. Queles certificacions veues et examinez, et sur ce plusours tretes et parlances eues, au darrein, en plein accomplisement de la dite summe de cynquant mille livres suisditz, les ditz grantz et communes granteront au roi de chescun des paroches assis deinz le roialme d'Engleterre .cxvi. s. compris et acompte en ycelle summe les .xxij. s. .iij. d. au roi primerement grantez, come desus est dit. Forspris en ceste grant la counte de Cestre, et les terres et possessions de seinte eglise du roialme amortizez devant l'an .xx. le roi l'aiel, et taxez ove la clergie a la disme. Issint totefoitz qe les parocheins de chescune paroche de greindre value soient eidantz et contributoirs as parochiens des paroches de meindre value. 11. These certifications having been viewed and examined, and many discussions and talks had thereon, finally, in full recompense of the aforesaid sum of £50,000, the said great men and commons granted to the king 116s. from every parish assessed in the realm of England, with the 22s. 3s. first granted to the king, as is aforesaid, included and counted in the same sum. Excepting from this grant the county of Chester, and the lands and possessions of the holy Church of the realm amortised before the twentieth year of the king's grandfather, and taxed with the clergy for the tenth. And still on condition that the parishioners of each parish of greater value should assist and contribute to the parishioners of the parishes of lesser value.
12. Et fust la note de la commission du grant avantdit lue et acorde devant le roi, grantz et communes, et les nouns des coillours liverez par les chivalers des countees illeoqes assemblez, et auxi les nouns des seignurs et autres qe serroient assignez de surver qe la dite coillet soit bien et resonablement assis et leve. 12. And the abstract of the commission of the aforesaid grant was read and agreed before the king, great men and commons, as well as the names of the collectors delivered by the knights of the shires assembled there, and the names of the lords and others who would be assigned to oversee that the said collection be properly and reasonably assessed and levied.
13. Et puis les peticions qe n'estoient responduz en dit parlement, illeoqes responduz et luez devant le roi, grantz et communes, le roi dona conge as ditz grantz et communes a departir. Et issint finy cel conseil. 13. And then, with the petitions which had not been answered in the said parliament having been answered and read there before the king, great men and commons, the king gave permission for the said great men and commons to depart. And so ended this council.
< LES PETICIONS DES COMMUNES, ET LES RESPONS SUR ELLES FAITES, SONT EN UN ROULE ATTACHEZ ET > CONSUTES A CESTES. THE PETITIONS OF THE COMMONS AND THE ANSWERS MADE UPON THEM ARE IN A ROLL ATTACHED AND SEWN TO THIS.
LES PETICIONS DE LES COMMUNES D'ENGLETERRE. THE PETITIONS OF THE COMMONS OF ENGLAND.
[col. a]
[memb. 3]
14. A lour tresredoutez seignur le roi et son tressage et [...] voz liges communes d'Engleterre: qe vous plese de vostre grace et roiale mageste commander, charger et ordeiner qe la grante chartre et la chartre de la foreste soient gardez et tenuz en touz pointz; et qe les franchises, custumes et libertes devant ces heures usees soient tenuz et gardiz en la forme q'eles furent granteez ou usees. [Confirmation of the Charters.]
14. To their most dread lord the king and his most wise and [...] your liege commons of England: that it may please you of your good grace and royal majesty to command, charge and ordain that the Great Charter and the Charter of the Forest shall be observed and upheld in all points; and that the franchises, customs and liberties previously observed shall be upheld and observed in the form in which they were granted or observed.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi le voet. (fn. ii-303-48-1) The king wills it. (fn. ii-303-48-1)
15. Et purce qe en cest present parlement fu monstre a nostre seignur le roi par touz les contes, barons et communes d'Engleterre qe la gouvernement du roialme ad longement este faite par gentz de seinte esglise, queux ne sont mye justiciables en touz cas, parount grantz meschiefs et damages sont ent avenuz en temps passe, et plus purront escheir en temps avenir, en deseritesoun de la coroune et grant prejudice du dit roialme, par diverses causes qe l'en purroit declarer; qe plese a nostre dit seignur le roi, qe lays gentz de mesme le roialme sufficeauns et ables de estat a ce esluz, et nulles autres persones soient desore enavant faitz chanceller, tresorier, clerk du prive seal, barouns del escheqer, chamberleyns del escheqer, countrerollour et touz autres grantz officers et governours du dit roialme; et qe cest chose soit ore en tiel manere [col. b] establi en la fourme suisdite, qe par nulle voie < ore > soit defait, ne riens faite au contrarie en nul temps avener. Sauvant toutdys al roi nostre seignur le eleccion et le remuer de tieux officers, mais qe toutes voies < ils > soient gentz lays tieux come desus est dit. [Appointment of lay ministers.]
15. And because in this present parliament all the earls, barons and commons of England declared to our lord the king that the governance of the realm has been controlled for a long time by people of holy Church, who are not liable to the king's justice in all cases, whereby great misfortunes and damages have occurred in times past, and more might occur in times to come, for various reasons which can be declared, in disinheritance of the crown and great prejudice of the said realm; may it please our said lord the king that henceforth lay people of the same realm, sufficient and of suitable rank to be chosen for this, and no other people, be made chancellor, treasurer, clerk of the privy seal, barons of the exchequer, chamberlains of the exchequer, controllers and all other great officers and ministers of the said realm; and that this matter shall now in such manner [col. b] be established in the aforesaid form, that it shall in no way now be undone, nor should anything be done to the contrary in any time to come. Saving always to our lord the king the choice and removal of such officers, but still that they shall be lay people such as is aforesaid.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi ordeinera surceo point sicome lui semblera meltz, par avis de son bon conseil. The king will ordain on this point as seems best to him, with the advice of his good council.
16. Item, priont les communes: qe toutes leurs billes yci comprises, et toutes autres mises devant nostre seignur le roi, sibien celles qe sont pur severalles persones, villes ou contees, come celle qe sont pur les communes suisdites de lour grevances en cest present parlement, soient baillez as aucuns seignurs en mesme le parlement, de les oier et mettre en due execucion; desicome en leur cas lour semble, q'en parlement mieltz qe aillours droit leur purra estre faite. [Answering of common petitions.]
16. Also, the commons pray: that all their bills included here, and all others put before our lord the king, those that are for several people, towns or counties as well as those that are for the aforesaid commons concerning their grievances in this present parliament, shall be delivered to some of the lords in the same parliament, to be heard and duly executed; since in their cases it seems to them that justice may better be done to them in parliament than elsewhere.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Il plest au roi. It pleases the king.
17. Item, priont les communes: qe come certeins tenementz en le roialme soient tenuz en chief du roi, qe ne poent estre lessees au ferme pur terme de vie sanz licence, a grant damage des dites communes par moultes des causes; qe plese a nostre dit seignur de sa grace especial granter a son dit commune qe tieux tenementz puissent estre lesses a ferme pur terme de vie desore enavant sanz licence demander, et pardoner du temps passee les alienacions des tieux tenementz sanz [p. ii-305][col. a] licence alienez et touz les issues et fyns qea lui appertenont pur entrees faitz de tiel tenur sanz due proces. [Leasing of lands held in chief.]
17. Also, the commons pray: that whereas certain tenements in the realm are held of the king in chief, so that they cannot be leased to farm for a term of life without licence, to the great damage of the said commons for many reasons; may it please our said lord, of his special grace, to grant to his said commons that such tenements henceforth may be leased to farm for a term of life without requiring licence, and to pardon the alienations of such tenements without [p. ii-305][col. a] licence to alienate and all the issues and fines which belong to him for entries made of such tenure without due process.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi voet estre avise sur ceo point par bone deliberacion. The king will be advised on this point by good deliberation.
18. Item, priont les communes: qe touz les rivers de la terre par queux les vitailles de paiis poent estre cariez, et sont estopez par molyns, gortz ou pescheries, a grant desaise de la commune; et < coment > qe commissions eiont issuz avant ces heures en amendement d'ycelle, nientmains ils demorent unqore en plusours places nient redrescez. Qe plese establir en ceste presente parlement qe chescun de quelqe condicion q'il soit, qe eit molyn, gort, pescherie ou autre chose queconqe par quoi le franc passage parmy les ditz rivers soit destourbe, q'il les face remover deinz certein terme, ou autrement qe les commissioners eiont power de ceux arracier, et de tout oustier et abatre; et si aucun destourbe lour execucion, q'il soit grifement puny pur le contempt. Et outre ceo, qe grief punissement soit ordeigne et execuit envers touz ceulx qe serront apres ces heures ateinz de destruccion des salmounes ou fry des autres pessons par trop mesnutz reitz, ou autrement covenables engyns mesment en rivers ou salmounes sont communement nurritz; et qe sur cel soient fait dewes enqueries et reddes execucions solonc l'estatut et ordenances avant ces heures faitz. [Free passage on rivers.]
18. Also, the commons pray: that all the rivers of the land by which the victuals of the country can be carried are blocked by mills, weirs or fisheries, to the great distress of the commonalty; and although commissions have been issued before this time in amendment of the same, nevertheless they still remain unredressed in may places. May it please him to establish in this present parliament that each person, of whatever condition he may be, who has a mill, weir, fishery or any other thing whatsoever by which the free passage along the said rivers might be disturbed, shall cause them to be removed within a certain term, or otherwise that the commissioners shall have power to tear out and completely remove and cut down the same; and if anyone disturbs their execution, he shall be severely punished for the contempt. And further, that severe punishment shall be ordained and executed against all those who will be attainted after this time of the destruction of salmon or fry of other fish by overly small nets, or who otherwise bring implements for such purposes into rivers where salmon commonly feed; and that due inquiries and ready executions shall be made thereon according to the statute and ordinances previously made.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Estoisent les estatuz ent faitz avant ces heures en lour force et vertu; ajoustant a yceles, si nule anusance soit abatu par due proces, celui qe fra relever la dite anusance, et de ceo soit atteint, encourge la peyne de cent mars devers le roi, a lever par estrete en l'escheqer. Autiel ley se tiegne de anusance fait sibien par enhancer come par novel lever. (fn. ii-303-68-1) The statutes previously made thereon shall stand in their force and power; adding to the same, that if any such impediment is pulled down by due process, he who rebuilds the impediment, and is attainted of this, shall incur the penalty of 100 marks to the king, to be levied by estreat in the exchequer. The same law shall be upheld concerning impediments made by enhancing as well as by new building. (fn. ii-303-68-1)
19. Item, priont les communes: qe les [...] fyns qe sont pris en la chancellerie pur briefs soient desormes relessez, forspris le commun fee du seal, et le travail des clers. [Fines in chancery.]
19. Also, the commons pray: that the fines which are taken in the chancery for writs henceforth shall be remitted, except the common fee for sealing and the labour of the clerks.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi usera sicome il et ses auncestres ount fait avant ces heures; et chargera son chaunceller qe les fyns soient resonables solonc l'estat des persones. The king will do as he and his ancestors have done before this time; and he will order his chancellor that the fines be reasonable according to the estate of the persons concerned.
20. Item, qe prises des bledz ne des autres vitailles quelconqes ne soient faitz contre l'estatut ent fait, sanz prest paiement en poin, et par le bon gree et accord des vendours come autre foitz ad este ordene et grantee. Et si aucuns soient prises par les ministres nostre seignur le roi a paier en poin, soient pris par mesme la mesure come marchantz les vendront au marchee, sanz plus mesure prendre. Et qe l'estatut de ordinance de punissement des purveiours soit compris en leurs commissions et gardez en touz pointz. [Purveyance.]
20. Also, that prises of corn and any other victuals whatsoever shall not be made contrary to the statute made thereon, without ready payment in hand, and by the free will and agreement of the sellers, as has previously been ordained and granted. And if anything is taken by the officers of our lord the king to be paid in hand, it shall be taken by the same measure as merchants sell it at market, without taking further measure. And that the statutory form of punishment for purveyors shall be included in their commissions and observed in all points.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi voet qe l'estatut fait en ce cas estoise en sa force et soit duement execut. (fn. ii-303-78-1) The king wills that the statute made in this case shall remain in force and be duly executed. (fn. ii-303-78-1)
21. Item, priont les communes au roi leur seignur: q'il ne grante en nulle partie du roialme eire ne trailbaston durante la guerre, par queux les communes purront estre troblez ne empoveres, fors qe en horible cas. [Remissions from eyres and trailbastons.]
21. Also, the commons pray to their lord king: that he will not appoint an eyre or trailbaston in any part of the realm during the war, by which the commons might be troubled or impoverished, except in extreme cases.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi le voet. The king wills it.
22. Item, qe chescun soit a la commune leye, sanz estre restreint par nulle ordinance faite a l'encountre de vendre ou achater tote manere des bledz et toutes autres maners de vitailles et biens qiconqes deinz le roialme, come avant ces heures ont fait, sanz empeschement ou d'estre restreint par nulle commission nostre seignur le roi. [Royal commissioners to be liable under the common law.]
22. Also, that every person shall be within the common law, without being restricted by any ordinance made to the contrary concerning selling or buying all manner of corn and all other manner of victuals and goods whatsoever in the realm, as has been made before this time, and without impediment or restriction by any commission of our lord the king.
[memb. 4]
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Il plest au roi. It pleases the king.
[col. b]
23. Item, se pleinont countes, barouns, chivalers et autres de la commune: qe come ils vendont lours grosses bois d'age de .xx. anz, .xxx. anz, .xl. anz ou de greindre age as marchantz, au profit de eux mesmes et en eide du roi en sa guerre; persones et vikers de seinte esglise les ditz marchauntz empledont et travaillont en courte Cristiene pur les dismes du dit boys, < el > noun de ceste parole, 'silve cedue'. Par quoi ils ne pont vendre lour boys a verreye pris, a grant damage de eux et du roialme. Dount ils priont au roi et a son conseil q'ils veullent de ce mettre covenable remedye, et declarer et entrepreter overtement celles paroles 'silva cedua', come a la entente du communalte subboys est compris en ces paroles 'silva cedua', et nemy arbres de tielle age. [Tithe of wood.]
23. Also, the earls, barons, knights and others of the commons complain: that whereas they sell their great wood of the age of 20 years, 30 years, 40 years or greater age to merchants, to their own profit and in aid of the king in his war; parsons and vicars of holy Church implead and harass the said merchants in court Christian for the tithes of the said wood, under the name of 'silva cedua'. As a result of which they cannot sell their wood at the true value, to the great damage of them and of the realm. Wherefore they pray that the king and his council will provide suitable remedy thereon, and declare and interpret clearly these words 'silva cedua', since it is the opinion of the commonalty that only underwood is included in this term 'silva cedua', and not trees of such age.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soit prohibicion grante et sur ce attachement come ad este use avant ces heures. (fn. ii-303-93-1) A prohibition shall be granted and an attachment thereon, as has been observed before this time. (fn. ii-303-93-1)
24. Item, monstrent les communes: qe par la ou les resceivours des viscountees levont issues et amercimentz de la verte cyre, et purce qe nulle cause est mys en les extretes ils levent les dites sommes deux foitz, ou trois, au graunt meschief del poeple. Par quoi ils suppliont a nostre seignur le roi et son conseil qe lour pleise ordeigner qe la cause soit overtement mys en extrete; c'estassavoir, a qi seute les issues et amercimentz serront forfaitz, a quel terme, et en quel plee, et auxint entre quelles parties les jurours qe pardent issues et amercimentz furent enpanellez, et en quel plee, et quel terme ils feurent forfaitz. Et aussint de fynes, qe overtement soit mys pur quelle cause le fyn feust fait, et quel terme. [Levying of estreats.]
24. Also, the commons declare: that whereas the receivers of the sheriffdoms levy issues and amercements of the green wax, and because no reason is stated in the estreats they levy the said sums twice, or three times, to the great misfortune of the people. Wherefore they petition our lord the king and his council that it may please them to ordain that the reason shall be stated openly in the estreat; that is to say, at whose suit the issues and amercements will be taken, at what term and in what plea, and also between which parties the jurors who impose issues and amercements were empanelled, and in what plea, and at what term they were taken. And also concerning fines, the reason for which the fine was made and the term shall be stated openly.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soit par commune avys remedie ordeine a proschein parlement. Remedy shall be ordained by general opinion at the next parliament.
[...] [Reservation of subsidies.] [...]
[[The following text has been deleted:
Item, prient les communes: qe toutes les subsides en deners ou en darres grauntez a nostre seignur le roi en aide de sa guerre en cest present parlement ou qe serront grauntez en temps avenir soient assignes et liverez a ascun seignur ou seig ra de la terre pur les despendre par comaundement du roi soulement en la guerre et nul part aillours, et qe de ce soit acomptable au roi. ]]
[[The following text has been deleted:
Also, the commons pray: that all the subsidies in money or in goods granted to our lord the king in aid of his war in this present parliament or that will be granted in times to come shall be assigned and delivered to some lord or lords of the land to be spent, at the king's command, only on the war and on nothing else, and that they shall be accountable for this to the king. ]]
Item, priont les communes remedye de diverses meschiefs qe viegnent communement des viscontz et autres ministres des fraunchises, qe arestont larouns ove lour larcyns, et les soeffront aler a large pur quere lour garant, et detiegnont les biens devers eux come chatal wayve; issint sont les felons despunys, et gentz sanz recoverer de lour biens. Qe en tiel cas soient les viscountz et autres ministres chargez des ditz bienz a cesti a qi ils feurent, et punys devers le roi. [Return of stolen goods upon arrest of robbers.]
Also, the commons pray remedy for various misfortunes which commonly arise concerning sheriffs and other officers of franchises, who arrest robbers with their stolen goods and allow them to go free to seek their guarantors, and keep the goods for themselves as abandoned chattels; so that the felons are unpunished, and people are unable to recover their goods. That is such cases the sheriffs and other officers shall hand over the said goods to those to whom they belong, and be punished by the king.
Non fuit lecta. [Costs of defence to be met by the crown.] It was not read.
[[The following text has been deleted:
Item, monstrent les communes del roialme d'Engleterre: qe par la ou nostre seignur le roi demande des dites communes une certeine somme des deniers en eide de sa guerre; supplient les ditz communes a nostre seignur le roi et a son conseil qe apres ce qe nul somme des deniers soit grante a nostre dit seignur le roi par les ditz communes pur la cause susdite qe si nulles gentz d'armes, hobelers et archers par commissions directes as viscountz ou autres gentz soient esluez en diverses paiis qe mesmes ceux gentz d'armes, hobelers et archers puissent estre arraiez a les coustages, mises et despenses nostre dit seignur le roi et amesnes tanqe al port du mier ou aillours deinz le dit roialme issint qe les ditz communes plus entre ne soient grevez ne chargez durant celle aide et graunt susdit.]]
[[The following text has been deleted:
Also, the commons of the realm of England declare: whereas our lord the king demanded a certain sum of money from the commonalty in aid of his war; the said commons petition our lord the king and his council that no further sum of money shall henceforth be granted to our said lord the king by the said commons for the aforesaid cause, with the consequence that, if any armed men, hobelars and archers are selected in various regions by commissions sent to sheriffs or other people, these same armed men, hobelars and archers are arrayed and led to sea ports or elsewhere in the said realm at the cost, outlay and expense of our said lord the king, and thus the said commonalty henceforth shall not be aggrieved or charged during this aforesaid aid and grant.]]
Item, priont les ditz communes: qe pur les grantz extorsions qe les ordiners et lour ministres font au poeple pur prove de testament, pernantz a la foitz cent souldz, a la foitz pluis, a la foitz meyns, dont remedye ad este sovent promys par les ordeiners, et nul amendement n'ad este fait; qe desormes ils ne preignont qe deux souldz a tout le pluis, et meyns ou usage du paiis est a meyns prendre, et solonc la quantite des biens le testatour; et q'ils ne fasont nul acquitance as executours de les descharges d'acompt tanqe de l'inventorie plein acompte soit a eux renduz, pernantz pur l'acquitance atant, et en maner come dessus est dit pur le prove du testament. Et s'ils pregnount pluis, et de ce soient atteintz a la pursuit de ceux qe l'ont paie ou de lour executours ou d'autre qi vodra suir pur le roi et pur lui mesmes, qe soit a ce resceu, paie diz foitz atant come ils averont issint rescieu, dount la moite en touz les ditz cas soit au roi, et l'autre moite a ceux qi font la suite. Et q'ils facent restitucion des sealx et chenes des testatours, apres ce qe les sealx serront en lour presence defaites, a lours executours. Et d'autrepart, q'ils ne justicent desore enavant nulles trespassours par peines pecunieres, mais soulement par peines corporeles, sur la peine avantdite. [Proving of wills.]
Also, the said commons pray: because of the great extortions which the ordinaries and their officers make upon people for proving wills, taking sometimes 100s., sometimes more and sometimes less, for which remedy has often been promised by the ordinaries, and yet no amendment has been made; that henceforth they shall take no more than 2s. at most, and less where the custom of the area is to take less, and according to the quantity of the testator's goods; and that they shall not make any acquittance to executors to discharge the account until the inventory is drawn up in full and returned to them, taking for the acquittance as much as and in the same manner as aforesaid for proving the will. And if they take more, and shall be attainted of this at the suit of those who have paid it or of the executors or of others who will sue for the king and for themselves, payment of ten times as much as they will have thus received shall be accepted for this, one half of which shall go to the king in all the said cases and the other half to those who make the suit. And they shall restore to the executors the seals and sealing-cords of the testators after the seals have been defaced in their presence. And moreover, that they shall not henceforth punish any trespassers by pecuniary penalties, but only by corporal penalties, upon the aforesaid penalty.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Attende la venue des communes. This matter shall await the arrival of the commons.
25. Item, monstrent les communes: qe come touz les countees d'Engleterre auncienment furent assis a [p. ii-306][col. a] certeine ferme, et adonqes furent touz les hundrez, wapentakes, letes, serjancies et fraunchises en les mains des viscountz apporcionez a celle ferme. Et puis, purce qe les rois qe pur le temps ount estee granterent et donerent en diverses temps a diverses persones parties des ditz hundrez, wapentakes, letes, serjanties et fraunchises, et par tieux dounes et grauntz mesmes les hundrez et wapentakes etc. feurent severes des ditz countees; et nient contreesteant tieles severances faitz, les viscontz des ditz countees sont chargez del entier ferme rendre pur les ditz countees si avant come devant la dite severance ensi faite, a tresgrant damage et desheritance des viscontz et lour heirs, et en occasion et meintenance des extorcions faire par les ditz viscontz et lour ministres entour le lever de tielles entiers fermes. Sur qoi, a la request des ditz communes, l'an du regne < nostre > seignur le roi < q'orest > seconde, feust ordeine par estatut qe touz tieux hundrez et wapentakes etc. lessez par nostre seignur le roi q'orest serroient rejointz as ditz countees; (fn. ii-303-113-1) quelle estatut prie la dite commune qe soit mys en effect et conferme, et qe chescun viscont eit allouance en son acompte par rebatement del surpluis de tieux hundrez et wapentakes etc. issint severez des countees par grant le roi q'orest ou de ses progenitours, solonc ce qe purra en l'escheqer par recordes estre trove ou serment des ministres ou par enquestes aprendre par le mielutz vanetz de counte, si mester soit, pur eschuier meschiefs et desheritesons et les extorcions susdites; qar plusours hundrez, wapentakes, etc. qe valerent .x. marcz ou .x.li. ne feurent estenduz qant le roi le dona forsqe a demy marc ou .x. souldz. [Sheriffs' farms.]
25. Also, the commons declare: that whereas all the counties of England were formerly assessed at a [p. ii-306][col. a] certain farm, and at that time all the hundreds, wapentakes, leets, sergeants and franchises in the hands of sheriffs were assessed to this farm. And then, because the kings of that time granted and gave parts of the said hundreds, wapentakes, leets, sergeanties and franchises to various people at various times, by such gifts and grants the same hundreds and wapentakes etc. were separated from the said counties; and notwithstanding such separations, the sheriffs of the said counties are charged to render the whole farm for the said counties as completely as before the said separations were thus made, to the very great damage and disinheritance of the sheriffs and their heirs, and occasioning and perpetuating the extortions made by the said sheriffs and their officers in relation to the levy of such whole farms. Whereupon, at the request of the said commons in the second year of the reign of the present lord king [1328], it was ordained by statute that all such hundreds and wapentakes etc. leased by our present lord the king should be rejoined to the said counties; (fn. ii-303-113-1) which statute the said commons pray shall be put in effect and confirmed, and that each sheriff shall have allowance on his account by rebate of the remainder of such hundreds and wapentakes etc. thus separated from the counties by grant of the present king or of his progenitors, according as can be found in the exchequer by records, the oath of officers or by inquests to be taken by the most respected men of the county, if necessary, in order to avoid misfortunes, disinheritance and the aforesaid extortions. For many hundreds, wapentakes, etc. worth 10 marks or £10 were only assessed at a ½ mark or 10s when the king gave them away.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Attende tantqe au preschein parlement. This matter shall wait until the next parliament.
26. < Item, a > nostre seignur le roi et a son bon conseil; monstrent sez poveres communes: qe par la ou heritage descende a un homme en diverses countees, et autre mette cleyme et debat sur mesme l'eritage, celui qe se vorra pleindre accrochera a lui les viscontz et autres ministres et touz les meintenours del un countee; et adonqe il portera son brief en mesme le countee, entendant de atteindre a son purpos par l'eide de ses meintenours issint procurez. Et si en pledant issue soit pris le quele le tenant soit filz et heir a celui par my qi il cleyme le heritage ou noun, homme ad usee del trier par gentz del countee ou le brief est porte, coment qe le dit tenant estoit nee en autre counte; paront homme purra de leger estre desherite purce qe les gentz del countee ou le brief est portee ne purront savoir de son nestre. [Inquests to determine inheritance of landed estates spread over two or more counties.]
26. Also, to our lord the king and his good council; his poor commons declare: that when an inheritance spread over various counties falls to a man, and another lays claim to and disputes the same inheritance, the latter gathers to himself the sheriffs and other officers and all the maintainers of one county and then brings his writ in the same county, intending to accomplish his purpose by the aid of his maintainers thus procured. And if, in the pleading, issue is taken as to whether or not the tenant is the son and heir of him through whom he claims the inheritance or title, it has been customary to try the case by people of the county where the writ is brought, although the said tenant was born in another county; whereby one can easily be disinherited, because the people of the county where the writ is brought cannot know the details of one's birth.
Par qoi suppliont les ditz communes a nostre seignur le roi et a son bone conseil qe lour plese, en oever de charite et pur amendement de son poeple, ordeigner par estatut en cest present parlement qe tielle issue soit desoremes trie, sibien par gentz del countee ou le tenant estoit nee et ou il allege son nestre, come par gentz del countee ou le brief est porte. Eiant regard, qe par celle issue coment qe brief ne soit porte forsqe en un countee, uncore toute la heritage serra recovery en diverses countees. Wherefore the said commons petition our lord the king and his good council that it may please them, as a work of charity and for the profit of his people, to ordain by statute in this present parliament that such an issue shall henceforth be tried by people of the county where the tenant was born and where he claims his birth as well as by people of the county where the writ is brought; for otherwise, if the writ is only brought in one county on this issue, the whole inheritance will still be recovered in the various counties.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Estoise la loy auncienement use en cas. The law formerly observed in this case will stand.
Vacas quia non fuit lecta. [Pleas in chancery.] Void because it was not read.
[[The following text has been deleted:
Item, prie la commune: qe plese a nostre seignur le roi et son bone conseil granter qe nulle manere de plee soit desore pledee en la chancellerie sinoun qe le roi soit proprement partie au dit plee, ou qe les plees touchent l'office de la chancellerie, et qe toutes maneres autres plees qe y sont encores tenuz ou pendantz en mesme la chancellerie soient mises a la commune ley. Et qe nulles rentz qi pursueront illoeqes ou al conseil par bille soient desoremes delaiez de convenable responce come ils ont este tresgrevousement avant ces heures.]]
[[The following text has been deleted:
Also, the commons pray: that it may please our lord the king and his good council to grant that no manner of plea henceforth shall be pleaded in the chancery unless the king is personally party to the said plea or the pleas concern the office of the chancery, and that all manner of other pleas that are still held there or pending in the same chancery shall be put to the common law. And that no returns pursued there or before the council by bill henceforth shall be delayed for want of a suitable answer, as they have been most grievously before this time.]]
[memb. 5]
27. Item, priont les communes: qe nul mair ou baillif soit vitailler, hostelier ne taverner, ne nul des soens durant son office, sur forfaiture de .xx.li. au roi nostre seignur; eiantz regard a l'estatut sur ce fait avant ces heures, quiel n'est pas garde, a grant damage de la dite commune. [Mayors and bailiffs not to be involved in victualing during their terms of office.]
27. Also, the commons pray: that no mayor or bailiff or any of his men shall be a victualler, innkeeper or taverner during his office, upon forfeiture of £20 to our lord the king; considering the statute made thereon before this time, which is not observed, to the great damage of the said commonalty.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Il y ad ley ordeine en < ceo > cas. (fn. ii-303-129-1) There is a law ordained in this case. (fn. ii-303-129-1)
28. Item, priont les communes: qe come plusours marchantz de la terre travaillant d'an en an devers les parties de Scone pur achater harangs illoeqes; et coment qe par proclamacion fait en diverses terres chescun marchant doit reparir a cel faire et user ses affaires illoeqes franchement, nientmains, les marchantz qe sont [col. b] nomez Esterling desvoient as marchantz Engleis et as nulles autres lour francs acatz et autres devoirs qe apperteignent a cele viage; et en despitouse manere le seison darrein passe lour tolerent lour biens et les batirent et emprisonerent, et ceo soulment par cause qe les Engleys amesneront illoeqes la quantite de lour acatz en draperie et nemye en monoye. [English rights to trade in the Baltic.]
28. Also, the commons pray: that whereas many merchants of the land travel from year to year to parts of Skania to buy herrings there; and although, by a proclamation made in various lands, every merchant has the right to go there to do this and practise his business there freely, nevertheless the merchants who are [col. b] called Esterlings refuse English merchants (but no others) their free purchases and other goods for which purpose they make the journey; and in a contemptuous manner in the last season they seized their goods and beat and imprisoned them, and this only because the English took there the value of their purchases in cloth rather than in money.
Qe plese a vostre tresredoute seignurie, issint come greindre profit soit au roialme d'amesner en terres estranges marchandise qe monoye, defaire venir devant vous les Esterlinggs qe demourent en ceste pais, au fyn q'ils trovent seuretee de resceivre et treter voz lieges repareirantz en lour parties si peisiblement et resonablement come ils sont resceuz et tretez en vostre seignurie. May it please your most dread lordship, because greater profit shall come to the realm from taking merchandise rather than money into foreign lands, to cause the Esterlings who live in this country to come before you, in order that they should find security to receive and treat your liegemen going to their parts as peacefully and reasonably as they are received and treated in your dominion.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Il ad este faite, et serra fait quant mestir serra. It has been done, and shall be done whenever necessary.
29. Item, monstrent les communes: qe come par estatut nadgairs faite fuist ordeine qe nul homme de la ligeaunce passeroit ove leyns hors du roialme, sur peine de forfaiture de vie et de membre, terres, tenementz, biens et chateux; (fn. ii-303-136-1) et puis par un autre estatut fuist repelle la forfaiture de vie et membre; (fn. ii-303-136-2) et del temps qe les estranges passoient ove leyns et nuls autres, aucuns denzeins sont empeschez du passage des leyns souz coverture des estranges; et par la chartre de pardoun par estatut grante l'an .xxxvi. nul homme serroit mys a respoundre de article de eire ou de quelconqes autres choses, qe purront estre terminez par enprisonement, fyn et raunson, ou peyne peccunier. (fn. ii-303-136-3) Et pur la grant meschief du passage soulment des ditz estranges sibien au roi come a ses communes, ordine fuist la passage de denzeins, en encrees du pris des dites leyns come trove est a commune profit. [Removal of penalties for exporting wool.]
29. Also, the commons declare: that whereas by a statute formerly made it was ordained that no man of the king's allegiance should leave the realm with wool, upon penalty of forfeiture of life and limb, lands, tenements, goods and chattels; (fn. ii-303-136-1) and then by another statute the forfeiture of life and limb was repealed; (fn. ii-303-136-2) and during the time when only aliens were permitted to export wool, some denizens were impeached for exporting wool under the guise of aliens; and by the charter of pardon by the statute granted in the thirty-sixth year [1362] no man should be put to answer concerning an article of the eyre or concerning any other things whatsoever which can be punished by imprisonment, fine and ransom or money penalty. (fn. ii-303-136-3) And because of the great harm caused by the alien monopoly on exports, to the king as well as to his commonalty, the right of denizens to export was ordained, in increase of the price of the said wool, as it is found to be to the common profit.
Sur quoi priont les dites communes, qe nulle tielle ordinance a commune damage du roialme soit faite desore enavant, et qe les empeschementz du passage souz covertour des estraunges soient oustez et anullez, l'estatut et forfaiture ent faitz et ordeinez repellez et pardonez, sibien de temps passe come de temps avenir. Wherefore the said commons pray that no such ordinance to the general detriment of the realm henceforth shall be made, and that the impeachments for exporting under the guise of aliens shall be removed and annulled, and the statute and forfeiture made and ordained thereon be repealed and pardoned, for times past as well as for times to come.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Estoise sur avisement. It shall wait upon counsel.
30. Item, monstrent les dites communes: qe come par une estatut fuist ordine qe nul marchant Engleys passeroit vers les parties de Gascoigne pur vins achater illoqes, (fn. ii-303-141-1) et puis par un autre estatut fuist ordine qe nul tiel marchant passeroit vers mesmes les parties pur tielle cause, sinoun q'il trovasse seurte pur achater au meyns .c. toun de vin; (fn. ii-303-141-2) et trove est qe les dites ordenances ont fait grante damage au dit roialme, sibien en cherte des vins come arerissement de la navie; sur qoi priont les dites communes qe les ditz estatutz soient repellez et adnullez, et la forfaiture en faite pardone, sibien du temps passe come du temps avenir. [Wine trade with Gascony.]
30. Also, the said commons declare: that whereas it was ordained by a statute that no English merchant should cross to parts of Gascony to buy wine there, (fn. ii-303-141-1) and then it was ordained by another statute that no such merchant should cross to the same parts for such reason unless he had found security to buy at least 100 tuns of wine, (fn. ii-303-141-2) and it is found that the said ordinances have caused great damage to the said realm, in the scarcity of wine as well as to the prejudice of the fleet; wherefore the said commons pray that the said statutes shall be repealed and annulled, and the forfeiture thus made pardoned, for times past as well as for times to come.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Estoise l'estatut sur ceo fait. The statute made on this matter shall stand.
31. Item, monstrent les communes: pur l'estat de touz les citez, portz et burghs, et pur toute la navie du roialme, qe long temps ont suffertz grantz meschiefs nient conuz a nostre dit seignur le roi et a son conseil, a grant anientisment de touz les dites villes et de tout la navie, et grant desasseurance de tout le dit roialme, si en busoigne aveigne; qe la ou toutes les dites bons citez, portz et burghs soloient a lour comencement et toutdys depuis forsqe eins poy de temps avoir et rejoier lours franchises et bons usages par les bons progenitours de nostre avantdit seignur et par luy par lour chartres a eulx grantez et confermez; queux franchises lour estoient grantez par bone discrecione de noz nobles seignurs suisditz et de lour conseil, a cause q'ils n'avoient dont vivre de terre pardehors lour boundes, fors toutsoulment par talent de lour franchise a laborer et travailler par tout la monde en gainant pur enheriter les dites citez, portz et burghs, et tout la navie du roialme sustenir par lour occupacion, et les bones villes encloser des meurs et tours en force de toute [p. ii-307][col. a] le paiis si mestir estoit. Par quel talent de leur franchise ils sustenoient lour mesons, lour navie et lour mesmes, et bon estat et grant honour et seurte de lour seigneur et de tout son poeple, et en grant doute de touz estranges pais pur la puissance de touz les marchantz et la navie de ceste roialme. Et ore depuis qe lour dites franchises lour ont este tolluz par aucune enformacion nient bien considerez, la tierce partie de touz les < dites > bons villes, portz et burghs sont pres desolatz sanz habitacion, les meures des dites villes enclosez, rumpuz et abatuz, et la navie bien pres anientiz, sanz puissance de ceux refaire, les marchantz en povre estat par tout le roialme, qe au payne ils lour poent sustenir en vivre. Et nientmeyns ont porte leur charges toutdys quant busoigne ad este ovesqe lour autres vesyns; les queux meschiefs bien conceuz sont a grant poverte de tout le roialme et desasseurance a nostre seignur quant busoigne serra de lour aide. [Franchises of towns.]
31. Also, the commons declare: for the estate of all the cities, ports and boroughs and for all the fleet of the realm, which for a long time have suffered great misfortunes unknown to our said lord the king and his council, to the great destruction of all the said towns and all the fleet, and ultimately to the great disquiet of all the said realm; that whereas all the said good cities, ports and boroughs were accustomed, from their origins and ever since, though not recently, to have and enjoy their franchises and good customs by the good progenitors of our aforesaid lord and by him by charters granted to them and confirmed; which franchises were granted to them by the good discretion of our aforesaid noble lords and their councils, because they did not have the means to live by the land outside their boundaries, but had only the benefit of their franchise to labour and work all together in striving for the rights of the said cities, ports and boroughs and to maintain all the fleet of the realm by their activity, and to enclose the good towns with walls and towers for the defence of all [p. ii-307][col. a] the country if need arose. By the benefit of their franchise they kept up their houses, their fleet and themselves, and the good estate and great honour and security of their lord and all his people, to the great dread of all foreign countries as a result of the power of all the merchants and the fleet of this realm. And recently their said franchises have been impaired by certain improperly considered information, with the result that one third of all the said good towns, ports and boroughs are almost desolate without habitation, the walls of the said enclosed towns are broken and knocked down and the fleet well near destroyed, without the resources to rebuild them, and the merchants are in poor estate throughout the realm, so that they find it difficult to live. And nevertheless they have always borne their charges with their other neighbours when there has been need; which well-known misfortunes are to the great poverty of all the realm and the disquiet of our lord when he has need of their aid.
Sur quelle matere plese a nostre avantdit seignur et a son bon conseil, en relevacion de touz les dites citez, portz et burghs et en encrees de ses liges marchantz et de la dite navie, renoveller et confermer touz leurs aunciens franchises par luy et ses nobles progenitours adevant grantez, et les soeffrer rejoier continuelment desore < enapres, > nient < contresteante > aucune ordinance faite a contraire, issint qe quant busoigne serra de lour aide ils enpuissent faire bone service a leur seignur, en descomfort de ses enemys, et plesance et profit de tout le poeple de ceste roialme susdit. On which matter may it please our aforesaid lord and his good council, in relief of all the said cities, ports and boroughs and in increase of his liege merchants and of the said fleet, to renew and confirm all their ancient franchises previously granted by him and his noble progenitors, and to allow them to enjoy them continually henceforth, notwithstanding any ordinance made to the contrary, so that when he has need of their aid, they may do good service to their lord, in discomfort of his enemies and to the satisfaction and profit of all the people of this aforesaid realm.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Monstrent lour grevantz en especial, et serront bonement responduz. They shall declare their grievances individually, and these will be properly answered.
32. Item, monstrent les communes: qe si plese a nostre seignur le roi de savoir les principals causes par queux la navie est si preis destruite: [Deterioration of the fleet.]
32. Also, the commons declare: that it may please our lord the king to know the principal reasons why the fleet is so nearly destroyed:
Primerment, les arestes qe ont souvent este faitz de eux par long temps devant qe nostre seignur le roi en avoit affaire de eux mettre en oevre; par quel temps ceux qe les devoient ont touz jours ewez les charges d'ycelles a lours coustages propres en quantqe a mesmes les niefs appertenoit, sibien des mariners come de toutes autres appertenances, sanz aucun profit faire en le mesme temps; par ount plusours de eux ont este si enpoveriz q'ils ont par noun suffisantie lessez cel mestier, et lour niefs purrir et gaster. [Deterioration of the fleet.]
First, ships have often been arrested a long time before our lord the king needed them to be put into action; during which time those who own them have still had charge of the same at their own expenses (inasmuch as the same ships belong to them), as well as of mariners and all other related things, without being able to make any profit in the meantime; wherefore many of them have been so impoverished that for lack of means they have left this business and abandoned their ships to rot and waste.
D'autrepart, les marchantz de la terre, des queux la sustenance du navie covient surdoir, ont este par diverses ordeignances restreintz de lour passages et autres affairs, par qoi ils ne ount riens ewe affaire de navie. Et pur ceo les mariners en grante partie ont lesse cel labour et purquis lour vivres en autre manere, et les niefs mys sus a terre au poureture. Et auxint les mestres des niefs a nostre seignur le roi, as toutes heurs q'ils ont este garniz sur aucun viage, ils ount, par colour de lour offices, pris pur eux servir < les > mestres d'autres niefs, et les autres plus sufficeantz deynz celles; par quoi les niefs d'autry ont demorez sanz governail, et purceo plusours d'iceux peritz, et ceux qe les devoient anientz. [Deterioration of the fleet.]
Moreover, the merchants of the land, who ought to provide for the upkeep of the fleet, have been restricted by various ordinances from their voyages and other business, whereby they have not had any need of a fleet. And therefore mariners in great number have left this work and sought out their livings in other ways, and ships have been put aground to decay. And also whenever the masters of the ships of our lord the king have been preparing for an expedition, by colour of their offices they have taken masters of other ships to serve them, and others well qualified in the same business; as a result of which the ships of others have remained without command, and therefore many of the same are destroyed, and those who own them are ruined.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi mettra remedi par avis de son bon conseil. The king will provide remedy by the advice of his good council.
33. Item, priont les communes: qe come nostre seignur le roi granta et a ferme lessa a Walter de Chirington' et a ses compaignouns touz les custumes et subsides de leyns d'Engleterre a terme de deux ans, rendauntz a nostre dit seignur une certein somme; et granta oultre qe coustomers et troners et touz aultres ministres serroint mys et remuez par eux, et attendantz et acomptables a eux et nemye au roi; deinz quel temps les marchauntz amesneront lour leyns as portz, et illoeqes feurent poisez par lour ministres, pernantz le seal le roi appelle coket en tesmoignance q'ils avoient loialment paiez [col. b] lours custume et subside; les queux marchantz, lour heirs, executours et terres tenauntz sont empeschez par un soul accusour, plus desirant son profit demesne qe profit nostre seignur le roi, de mesmes les leyns come de leins nient custumez, surmettant a eux q'ils passerent en < lours sarpleres > < plus > de leine qe fuist trove ou mys en la coket qe est de record. Et sur ceo les barouns de < l'eschequer > ajuggerent forfaiture devers aucuns < gentz > de les leins issint poisez et cokettez. Et par la chartre de pardon est grante qe nul homme soit empesche de trespas, mesprisions, necligence ne ignorance ne article de eire ne de quelconqes autres choses qe demaunde fyn ou raunson ou enprisonement ou autre peyne pecuniere faitz ou eschuez devant le dit pardoun, ne qe nul homme de yceux soit mys arespoundre. (fn. ii-303-158-1) Nientmains mesqe les ditz marchantz soient de rienz coupables, pur aler a pluis hasti issue ont alegge la dite pardoune, et ne pount ent aver alevance, a grant damage et enpoverissement des ditz marchantz, queux sont ensi travaillez. Par quoi plese a vostre tresgraciouse seignurie regarder les grantz charges qe ils ont seoffrez, et suffront durante [...] vostre guerre, et auxi lour simplesse, et granter q'ils soient de celle empeschement quitez et deschargez. [Liability to prosecution concerning wool exports.]
33. Also, the commons pray: that whereas our lord the king granted and leased to farm to Walter Chiriton and his companions all the customs and subsidies of English wool for a term of two years, rendering to our said lord a certain sum; and he further granted that customs officers, tronagers and all other officers should be appointed and removed by them, and be attendant and accountable to them and not to the king; during which time the merchants brought their wool to the ports, where they were weighed by their officers, taking the king's seal called cocket in witness that they had lawfully paid [col. b] their custom and subsidy; which merchants, their heirs, executors and land tenants have been impleaded in relation to the same wool, as of wool that has not been customed, by a single accuser who desires his own profit more than the profit of our lord the king and claims that they exported in their sarplers more wool than was found or put in the cocket which is on record. And thereupon the barons of the exchequer pronounce forfeiture of the wool thus weighed and cocketed against some people. And by the charter of pardon it is granted that no man should be impeached of trespasses, crimes, negligence or ignorance or article of the eyre or any other things whatsoever that are liable to fine, ransom, imprisonment or other money penalty made or having taken place before the said pardon, and that no man should be put to answer concerning the same. (fn. ii-303-158-1) Nevertheless, although the said merchants are guilty of nothing, they have cited the said pardon in order to proceed towards a swifter outcome, but they cannot have relief thereon, to the great damage and impoverishment of the said merchants, who are thus unfairly treated. Wherefore may it please your most gracious lordship to have consideration for the great charges which they have sustained, and continue to suffer during your war, and also their innocence, and to grant that they shall be quit and discharged of this impeachment.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Qi se sente greve viegne devant le conseil, et monstre sa grevance en especial, et droit lui serra fait. He who shall feel himself aggrieved shall come before the council and declare his grievance individually, and justice will be done to him.
[memb. 6]
34. Item, plese a nostre seignur le roi et a son bon conseil, et en salvacion et en defense de son roialme, granter et establir a cest present parlement qe chescun home par tout Engleterre puisse faire fort, ou forteresce, et murs et tours kernelles ou batailles, a sa fraunche volounte; et qe touz les burgeis et citeseins des villes parmy le dite terre peussent enclore et enforcer lour ditz villes des fosses, murs et pale a leur fraunche volounte, nient countre esteant ascun estatut faite au contraire < avant > ces heures. [Building of fortifications.]
34. Also, may it please our lord the king and his good council, both in salvation and in defence of his realm, to grant and establish at this present parliament that every man throughout England may build a fort or fortress and walls and towers with crenellations and battlements, at his free will; and that all the burgesses and citizens of towns throughout the said land may enclose and fortify their said towns with ditches, walls and peels at their free will, notwithstanding any statute previously made to the contrary.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Quant as chasteux et fortresces, estoisent ces qe ore sont; et quant as cites et burghs enclore de novel, le roi se voet aviser. As regards castles and fortresses, those that now exist shall stand; and as regards cities and boroughs to be newly enclosed, the king will consider this further.
35. Item, prient les communes: qe desicome la commune est moult greve de ceo q'ils paient pur deux briefs en assise, qe desormes la patente soit suspendu, et qe homme n'eyt mes busoigne a nulle patente avoir, desicome la commission des justices purra suffire a touz les assises prendre. [Special commissions of assize.]
35. Also, the commons pray: since the commonalty is much aggrieved concerning what they pay for two writs in assize, that the patent henceforth shall be suspended, and that no man shall have need to have any patent, inasmuch as the commission to the justices can suffice to take all the assizes.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soit come ad este use avant ces hures. It shall be as it has been observed before this time.
36. Item, supplient les communes: qe come pluseurs de eulx soient < pluseurs > foitz assignez et chargez en diverses contees parmy le roialme, par commissions < et autres pluseurs mandementz, pur diverses busoignes et offices affaire pur profit nostre dit seignur le roi et governement de son dit roialme; qe luy plese ordeigner et granter a yceulx issint chargez et assignez resonables gages des issues de leurs sessions, > pur leur travaulx et despens faitz par cause des assignementz suisditz, issint q'ils n'aient matire ou cause de surcharger le remenant de la povre commune. [Wages for serving on royal commissions.]
36. Also, the commons petition: that whereas many of them are often assigned and charged in various counties throughout the realm, by commissions and many other orders, to undertake various matters and offices for the profit of our said lord the king and the government of his said realm; that it may please him to ordain and grant to those thus charged and appointed reasonable wages from the issues of their sessions for the labour and expense incurred as a result of the aforesaid appointments, so that they shall have no cause or reason to overburden the remainder of the poor commonalty.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi leur ordeinera regard par avis de son bon conseil. The king will ordain payment for them by the advice of his good council.
37. Item, priont les communes: qe ou le excepcion de vilinage est alegge en la persone de pleintif, come regardant au manoir ou luy et ses auncestres ont este neifs et demourrantz tout temps illoeqes, qe de visnee ou le manoir est le excepcion de vilinage purra estre trie, nient contresteant qe la suite soit pris ou feynt en autre contee qe le dit manoir est. [Exception of villeinage.]
37. Also, the commons pray: that when the exception of villeinage is claimed in the person of the plaintiff, with reference to the manor where he and his ancestors have been villeins and have always lived, the exception of villeinage can be tried from the neighbourhood where the manor is, notwithstanding that the suit is taken or made in a county other than where the said manor is.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Attende tanqe au proschein parlement, car il ne poet estre fait a ore. This shall wait until the next parliament, since it cannot be done now.
[p. ii-308]
[col. a]
38. Item, prient les communes: qe nul homme soit ouste de sa possession par enquest d'office pris par l'eschetour ou autre justise par commission, tanqe le droit soit termine par scire facias; et si nul soit oustez par tiel office sanz scire facias, et livere ent faite a autre, qe les tenementz soient reseises et liverez a celluy qe fust oustez, trovant surte suffisant de respoundre au roi ou a autre de ceo qe adroit appertient, solonc les ordenances autre foitz faitz en ce cas. [Due process for disseisin.]
38. Also, the commons pray: that no man shall be removed from his possession by an inquest taken ex officio by the escheator or other justice by commission, until the right shall be determined by scire facias; and if anyone shall be removed by such an inquest without scire facias, and delivery is made to another, the tenements shall be re-seised and delivered to him who was removed, finding sufficient security to answer to the king or another to whom this right belongs, according to the ordinances previously made in this case.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Estoise l'estatut, qe est assetz suffisant en ce cas. (fn. ii-303-186-1) The statute, which is sufficient enough in this case, shall stand. (fn. ii-303-186-1)
39. Item, plese ordeigner qe nul viscont ne eschetour demourge en son office oultre un an, come autre foitz ad este ordeignez en parlement par estatut avant ces heures; et si autrement soit faite, soit brief grante de les remover; et qe tiels viscontz et eschetours < soient enheritez > < de .xx. > livrees de terre au mayns en mesme le countee ou ils soient esluz ou officers. [Offices of sheriff and escheator.]
39. Also, may it please him to ordain that no sheriff or escheator shall remain in his office beyond one year, as previously has been ordained in parliament by statute before this time; and if it is done otherwise, a writ shall be granted to remove them; and that such sheriffs and escheators shall hold £20 of land at hand in the same county where they shall be appointed to office.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Estoise l'estatuyt ent fait, et voet le roi qe yl soit execut solonc le purport d'icel. (fn. ii-303-191-1) The statute made thereon shall stand; and the king wills that it shall be executed according to the tenor of the same. (fn. ii-303-191-1)
40. Item, suppliont les communes: qe plese ordeigner et declarer en cest parlement coment et en quel manere les garseons et valletz de France et des autres estranges paiis, qi ont este amesnez deinz le roialme d'Engleterre devant ces heures et plusours foitz come prisoners et autrement, et y demorent encores en le service de diverses gentz, et aucuns de eulx sont mariez, serront desmesnez et gardez en temps avenir; c'estassavoir, ou en manere de prisoners, ou come neifs a lours maistres. [Status of French servants residing in England.]
40. Also, the commons petition: that it may please him to ordain and declare in this parliament how and in what manner the grooms and servants from France and from other foreign countries who have been brought into the realm of England before this time, often as prisoners and otherwise, and remain here still in the service of various people, and some of whom are married, will be treated and protected in times to come; that is to say, like prisoners or as bondsmen to their masters.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Attende tanqe a preschein parlement. This shall wait until the next parliament.
41. Item, priont les communes: qe come par estatut nadgairs fait estoit ordeigne qe nul justise par mandement de grant ou prive seal ne lessera de faire commune ley et droit as parties; (fn. ii-303-198-1) qe ceste estatut soit firmement tenu, ajouste a ceo, 'qe par comandement du roi, ne prier des gentz prives, n'autres, la commune ley ne soit delaie ne bestourne'. Et qe les justises de l'un bank et l'autre et d'assise, et les barons de l'escheqer, soient en cest present parlement chargez a ceo droiturelment parfourner. [No interference in the due course of justice.]
41. Also, the commons pray: that whereas it was ordained by a statute formerly made that no justice by order of the great or privy seal will desist from doing common law and justice to all parties; (fn. ii-303-198-1) that this statute shall be firmly upheld, adding to this, 'that neither by order of the king, nor at the request of private individuals or others, shall the common law be delayed or diverted'. And that the justices of both benches and of assize and the barons of the exchequer shall be charged in this present parliament to execute this properly.
Item, priont les comunes: qe come en les estatuz faitz en darrein parlement fuist ordene qe nul homme soit mys a respoundre sanz presentement devant justice ou chose de record ou due proces < par > brief original, solonc l'auncienes leys de la terre; (fn. ii-303-200-1) nientmains pluseurs gentz depuis les ditz estatuz faitz en diverses places du roi ont este mys et constreintz par diverses maneres de respoundre a singulers persones autrement qe par cours de commune ley, countre la fourme del ditz [col. b] estatuz. Par qoi prie la dite commune qe le dit article soit recitee et confermee en cest present parlement, et comande q'il soit pleinerment tenuz desore enavant en toutes les places le roi, et riens fait ou attempte al encountre. [No-one to be put to answer without due process of law.]
Also, the commons pray: that whereas in the statutes made in the late parliament it was ordained that no man shall be put to answer without presentment before justices, or a matter of record, or by due process by original writ, according to the ancient law of the land; (fn. ii-303-200-1) nevertheless since the said statute was made many people in various courts of the king have been brought and forced in various ways to answer to individual people otherwise than by the course of common law, contrary to the form of the said [col. b] statute. Wherefore the said commons pray that the said article shall be repeated and confirmed in this present parliament, and ordered to be fully upheld henceforth in all the king's courts, with nothing being done or attempted to the contrary.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Celui qi se sente greve veigne et monstre sa grevance en especial, et droit lui serra fait en manere q'ad este ordeine avant ces heures. He who shall feel himself aggrieved shall come and declare his particular grievance, and justice will be done to him in the manner that previously has been ordained.
42. Item, priont les communes: qe nulle imposicion ou charge soit mys sur les leynes, < pealx lanuz ou quirs, > autre qe la custume et subside grantez au roi, nulle part sanz assent de parlement. [No additional imposition on wool exports.]
42. Also, the commons pray: that no imposition or charge shall be set upon wool, woolfells or leather, other than the custom and subsidy granted to the king, in any manner without the assent of parliament.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi le voet, et si nul soit mys puys l'estatuyt, soit repelle. (fn. ii-303-208-1) The king wills it; and if any shall be set after the statute, it shall be repealed. (fn. ii-303-208-1)
43. Item, priont les dites communes: qe come ils soient grantment occupiez en cest present parlement pur les busoignes nostre seignur le roi et la defens du roialme, qe plese a nostre tresgracious seignur le roi et a les seignurs ordeigner qe commissions soient faites a les mieultz vanez des contees qi ne sont pas ycy depresent de lever le subside ore grantee, et les chivalers qi sont apresent en le dit parlement desportez par l'encheson suisdite. [Exemption of commons from appointment as collectors of the subsidy.]
43. Also, the said commons pray: that whereas they were greatly occupied in this present parliament by the business of our lord the king and the defence of the realm, may it please our most gracious lord the king and the lords to ordain that commissions shall be made to the most respected men of the counties who are not present here to levy the subsidy now granted, and to exempt the knights who are present in the said parliament for the aforesaid reason.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi assignera tieux qe lui semblera covenables par avis de son bon conseil. The king will assign such as seem suitable to him by the advice of his good council.
44. Item, prie la commune: qe toutes les gentz qi demurront par comandement nostre seignur le roi sur les costeres du meer eient proteccion ove clause volumus, pur le temps de leur demoure illoeqes pur le sauvetie del roialme. [Protections for those guarding the coasts.]
44. Also, the commons pray: that all the people who by order of our lord the king remain on the sea coasts shall have protection with the clause volumus during the time of their stay there, for the safety of the realm.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Ceo est overtement en prejudice de la commune. This is clearly prejudicial to the commonalty.
45. Item, prie la commune: qe si aucun soit desoremes par due proces enditez et atteintz q'il ait contrefait le seal d'autri, et mys ycel seal a ascun fait qe purra tournir en disheritance d'ascune persone, q'il soit puniz par perpetuele prisone sanz reles avoir de la peine. [Punishment for forgery of another's seal.]
45. Also, the commons pray: that henceforth if anyone by due process shall be indicted and attainted because he has counterfeited the seal of another, and put the same seal to any deed which can result in the disinheritance of any person, he shall be punished by permanent imprisonment, with no relaxation of the penalty.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Estoisent les estatutz et la comune ley use en ceo cas. The statutes and the common law observed in this case shall stand.
46. Item, prie la commune: qe chescun qi eit monoie d'Escoce, q'il la porte al change du roi parentre cy et la nativite de Seint Johan, sanz plus delay; et si aucune tielle monoie d'Escoce soit trove deinz le roialme apres la dite feste hors del dit eschaunge, qe soit forfait au roi de celluy qi [...] avera la moite. Il el del son et serra [...] soit [...] pur son [...] et soit [...] . [Scottish money.]
46. Also, the commons pray: that every person who has Scottish money shall bring it to the king's exchange between now and the Nativity of Saint John, without further delay; and if any such Scottish money shall be found in the realm outside the said exchange after the said feast, it shall be forfeited to the king from him who [...] had the half..... [...] shall be [...] for his [...] and shall be [...] .
47. Item, prie la dite commune: qe l'estatut [...] prestree fait del assent de la clergie du roialme soit tenu [...] , mais qe la pe [...] le donour soit [...] llee. [Uncertain content.]
47. Also, the said commons pray: that the statute [...] ....made with the assent of the clergy of the realm shall be upheld [...] , but that the [...] the giver shall be [...] .
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
[...] [...]

Appendix 1371

1

Writ to the chancellor of Edward, Prince of Aquitaine and Wales, and other officials at Bordeaux, sending them appeals made to the king 'as to the king of France and England' from various named individuals, and instructing them to deal with these matters. Dated at Winchester, 8 June 1371.

Source : C 61/84, m. 3.

2

Petition of John de Montacute, resulting in the appointment under the great seal of a commission of inquiry dated 18 June 1371 at Winchester, and warranted 'by petition of parliament'.

Sources : CIM, 1348-77 , no. 800; CPR 1370-4 , 111.

3

Excuse by Llewelyn ap Madoc ab Ellis, bishop of St Asaph, for non-attendance at the great council held by the king at Winchester: lack of time to observe the summons. Dated 3 November (sic) 1371.

Source : SC 1/38/92, summarized in Calendar of Ancient Correspondence Concerning Wales , ed. J.G. Edwards (Cardiff, 1935), 187-8.

Footnotes

  • f1371int-1. For further discussion, see D. Rayner, 'The forms and machinery of the "commune petition" in the fourteenth century', EHR 56 (1941), 225-6.
  • f1371int-2. RDP , IV.648-9; J.E. Powell and K. Wallis, The House of Lords in the Middle Ages (London, 1968), 368-70.
  • f1371int-3. K.L. Wood-Legh, 'Sheriffs, lawyers and belted knights in the parliaments of Edward III', EHR 46 (1931), 385.
  • f1371int-4. Return of the Name of Every Member of the Lower House of Parliament 1213-1874 , 2 vols. (London, 1878), I.184-5.
  • f1371int-5. M. McKisack, The Parliamentary Representation of the English Boroughs during the Middle Ages (Oxford, 1932), 147.
  • f1371int-6. A.K. McHardy, 'The representation of the English lower clergy in parliament during the later fourteenth century', SCH 10 (1973), 100 (n. 13).
  • f1371int-7. G.L. Harriss, King, Parliament and Public Finance in Medieval England to 1369 (Oxford, 1975), 314-20, for the nature of such arguments in the period 1340-60.
  • f1371int-8. H.G. Richardson and G.O. Sayles, The English Parliament in the Middle Ages (London, 1981), chap. XXI (pt. 1), 72-82; cap XXVI, 30-43.
  • f1371int-9. T.F. Tout, Chapters in the Administrative History of Mediaeval England , 6 vols. (Manchester, 1920-33), III.266-7, 270-1.
  • f1371int-10. As emphasised by M. McKisack, The Fourteenth Century (Oxford, 1959), 228.
  • f1371int-11. V.H. Galbraith, 'Articles laid before the parliament of 1371', EHR 34 (1919), 579-82; Tout, Chapters , III.266-7.
  • f1371int-12. For the sources of the friars' arguments, see M. Aston, '"Caim's castles": poverty, politics and disendowment', in The Church, Politics and Patronage in the Fifteenth Century , ed. B. Dobson (Gloucester, 1984), 51.
  • f1371int-13. For what follows (unless otherwise stated), see W.M. Ormrod, 'An experiment in taxation: the English parish subsidy of 1371', Speculum 63 (1988), 58-82; M. Jurkowski, C.L. Smith and D. Crook, Lay Taxes in England and Wales 1188-1688 (London, 1998), 54.
  • f1371int-14. Jurkowski, Smith and Crook, Lay Taxes , 52-4.
  • f1371int-15. Tout, Chapters , III.271; Aston, '"Caim's Castles"', 51 and 71 (n. 28).
  • f1371int-16. RDP , IV.649-50.
  • f1371int-17. CCR 1369-74 , 288-90.
  • f1371int-18. RDP , IV.650-3.
  • f1371int-19. CFR 1369-77 , 110-12; Calendar of Letter Books of the City of London , ed. R.R. Sharpe (London, 1899-1912), Letter Book G .280.
  • f1371int-20. Full references in Ormrod, 'Experiment', 63 (n. 28).
  • f1371int-21. CFR 1369-77 , 124-8; E 179/270/41, 42.
  • f1371int-22. Ormrod, 'Experiment', 61 and n. 19.
  • f1371int-23. Ormrod, 'Experiment', 64-5.
  • f1371int-24. CCR 1369-74 , 316.
  • f1371int-25. 45 Edw III: SR , I.393.
  • f1371int-26. CFR 1369-77 , 141; T.H. Lloyd, The English Wool Trade in the Middle Ages (Cambridge, 1977), 218.
  • f1371int-27. See further discussion in Introduction to parliament of 1372.
  • f1371int-28. 45 Edw III c. 1: SR , I.393.
  • f1371int-29. 45 Edw III c. 2: SR , I.393.
  • f1371int-30. 45 Edw III c. 3: SR , I.393.
  • f1371int-31. 45 Edw III c. 4: SR , I.393.
  • f1371int-32. Parliaments of: 1343 (item 51, no. XXIX); 1344 (item 12, no. IX); January-February 1348 (item 48); 1352 (item 37, no. XXVII); 1369 (item 17); 1373 (item 21, no. IX); N. Adams, 'The judicial conflict over tithes', EHR 52 (1937), 20-1. See also Introduction to parliament of 1373.
  • f1371int-33. 36 Edw III c. 11: SR , I.374.
  • f1371int-34. Harriss, King, Parliament , 408-9; A.J. Verduyn, 'The attitude of the parliamentary commons to law and order under Edward III', D.Phil. thesis, University of Oxford (1991), 162-3; A. Musson and W.M. Ormrod, The Evolution of English Justice: Law, Politics and Society in the Fourteenth Century (Basingstoke, 1999), 87.
  • f1371int-35. For detailed discussion, see N. Saul, Knights and Esquires: The Gloucestershire Gentry in the Fourteenth Century (Oxford, 1981), 110-11, 136-7.
  • f1371int-36. Verduyn, 'Attitude of the commons', 164.
  • f1371int-37. W.M. Ormrod, The Reign of Edward III (London, 1990), 49; C. Given-Wilson, The Royal Household and the King's Affinity: Service, Politics and Finance in England 1360-1413 (London, 1986), 121-3.
  • f1371int-38. M. Powicke, Military Obligation in Medieval England (Oxford, 1962), 182-212; Harriss, King, Parliament , 383-400.
  • f1371int-39. J.R. Maddicott, 'Parliament and the constituencies, 1272-1377', in The English Parliament in the Middle Ages , ed. R.G., Davies and J.H. Denton (Manchester, 1981), 82.
  • f1371int-40. Tout, Chapters , III.268 (n. 4); Richardson and Sayles, English Parliament , chap. XXI (pt. 1), 66-7.
  • f1371int-41. R.A. Griffiths, King and Country: England and Wales in the Fifteenth Century (London, 1991), 33-52.
  • f1371int-42. N. Brooks, 'The organization and achievements of the peasants of Kent and Essex in 1381', in Studies in Medieval History Presented to R.H.C. Davis , ed. H. Mayr-Harting and R.I. Moore (London, 1985), 260-1.
  • f1371int-43. R.H. Hilton, The Decline of Serfdom in Medieval England , 2nd edn (London, 1983), 29-30.
  • f1371int-44. For this debate see Ormrod, Reign of Edward III , 118-19.
  • f1371int-45. A point emphasised by Ormrod, 'Experiment', 59-60.
  • ii-303-48-1. SR , I.393 (c. i)
  • ii-303-68-1. SR , I.393 (c. ii)
  • ii-303-78-1. SR , I.371-3 (cc. ii-vi)
  • ii-303-93-1. SR , I.393 (c. iii)
  • ii-303-113-1. SR , I.259-60 (c. xii)
  • ii-303-129-1. SR , I.178 (c. vi)
  • ii-303-136-1. SR , I.334 (c. iii)
  • ii-303-136-2. SR , I.384 (c. vi)
  • ii-303-136-3. SR , I.376-8
  • ii-303-141-1. SR , I.389 (c. viii)
  • ii-303-141-2. SR , I.391 (c. ii)
  • ii-303-158-1. SR , I.376-8
  • ii-303-186-1. SR , I.374-5 (c. xiii)
  • ii-303-191-1. SR , I.266 (c. iv), 283 (c. vii), 388 (c. v)
  • ii-303-198-1. SR , I.286 (c. xiv)
  • ii-303-200-1. SR , I.388 (c. iii)
  • ii-303-208-1. SR , I.393 (c. iv)