Edward III: November 1372

Parliament Rolls of Medieval England. Originally published by Boydell, Woodbridge, 2005.

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1372 November

Introduction 1372


3 - 24 November

(C 65/28. RP , II.309-315. SR , I.394)

The proceedings of the parliament of 1372 are contained in C 65/28. This is a roll of 7 membranes; membranes 1 and 2 are sewn together chancery style; membranes 3 to 7, containing the petitions of the commons, are also arranged chancery style but are attached to membranes 1 and 2 by being sewn to the top of membrane 1. The association between the roll proper and the schedule of common petitions is indicated by the note at the foot of membrane 2: 'Les peticions des communes et de citezeins et burgeis et les respons sur ycelles faite sont en un roulle attache et cusu a cestes'. Membranes 1 and 2 are each approximately 320 mm. in width; membranes 3 and 4 are approximately 240 mm. in width; membrane 5 is approximately 225 mm. in width; and membranes 6 and 7 are approximately 265 mm. in width. The condition of the roll is good, apart from gallic acid stains at the top right-hand side of membrane 1. The text, written in a small, clear chancery script, occupies the rectos of the membranes only. The dorses are blank, apart from the heading, 'Rotulus parliamenti de anno regni regis E. tercii quadragesimo sexto', at the foot of membrane 2, and the contemporary note, 'Fait a remembre des provisours et des profiz de lour benefiz et de la pen' de outre meer', at the top of membrane 7. There are no marginal headings. Arabic numerals throughout the roll are later. The roll does not appear to be incomplete. It contains no reference to the clerk of parliament presumably responsible for its compilation. The arrangement of attaching the common petitions to the main roll, rather than transcribing them onto it (found also on the rolls for 1371, 1373 and 1376), raises the possibility that the common petitions are in draft, rather than final, form. Three entries among the common petitions on the roll (item 41, no. XXVII; item 42, no. XXVIII; item 42, no. XXIX) have been vacated; the editors of RP , who omitted such entries in the cases of the parliaments of 1371 and 1373, included them in their version of the roll for 1372. Their appearance adds strength to the argument that the schedule of common petitions for 1372 exists, in effect, in draft form; under normal circumstances, such vacated entries would have been removed from the fair copy of the common petitions placed on the parliament rolls. (fn. f1372int-1)

The parliament of 1372 was originally summoned under writs of 1 September to convene at Westminster on 13 October; on 6 October, however, supplementary writs were issued ordering a prorogation to 3 November. The cause of the delay, referred to in the opening speech delivered to parliament (item 2), was a change in the king's military plans: having originally intended to go to war against the French, Edward III had summoned parliament to meet under the titular presidency of the keeper of the realm, Prince Richard, for whose regency detailed arrangements had duly been set out in a conciliar memorandum (Appendix no. 1). However, when the campaign had foundered at the end of September and the king had returned to England, it was decided that Edward should preside in person, and the parliament was postponed in order to ensure that those lords who had been intending to accompany him abroad could attend the assembly. It was a reflection of the high military commitment in France at this time that only two earls and sixteen barons received summonses to parliament; the bishops of Durham and Carlisle, together with five other northern magnates, were ordered to send proxies to parliament so that they could continue in their endeavours with the defence of the northern border, as the arrangements for the defence of the realm made at the time of the king's departure had indeed already specified (Appendix no. 1). Oddly, the close roll makes reference to only one writ of summons issued to a royal minister ex officio : namely, that sent to Sir John Cavendish. (fn. f1372int-2) The election returns for this parliament are well preserved, and supply the names of 72 of the 74 knights of the shires and no fewer than 148 citizens and burgesses as well as the 14 representatives of the Cinque Ports. (fn. f1372int-3) In addition, it is possible to recover the names of five of the proctors of the lower clergy returned to this parliament. (fn. f1372int-4)

The delayed parliament convened on Wednesday 3 November, but was immediately adjourned to Friday 5 November as a result of the late arrival of some of the lords and commons (item 1). On 5 November, the new chancellor, Sir John Knyvet (appointed the previous July), made the opening speech at a plenary session in the Painted Chamber. The speech was very much a formal preliminary, merely recounting the occasion of the delay to the summon of parliament and inviting the submission of private petitions through the usual channels of receivers and triers by Monday 8 November (items 2-6). It is interesting chiefly on a procedural matter: namely, the fact that Knyvet (himself a common lawyer) stated that petitions ought to concern matters 'that cannot be amended or redressed in any [other] of the king's courts but only in parliament' (item 2). This articulated the principle that had been formal procedure for nearly a century, whereby private petitions received in parliament that could be dealt with under the common law and in other tribunals were sent there for action; (fn. f1372int-5) it suggests that one reason for the decline in the number of common petitions known to have been channelled through the triers in the parliaments of Edward III (a well known feature of parliamentary business in the mid-fourteenth century) (fn. f1372int-6) may have been a strict application of this principle, even to the point of declaring certain petitions inadmissible in parliament.

The plenary session having been completed, the king and the lords reconvened (without the commons) in the White Chamber to hear a further speech by Sir Guy Brian, acting on behalf of the Black Prince (items 7-8). Brian spoke only in generalities, but his audience must have been well apprised of the circumstances of Prince Edward's tenure in Aquitaine. (fn. f1372int-7) The defeat of the earl of Pembroke by the Castilian fleet in a naval engagement off La Rochelle in June 1372 had effectively destroyed English primacy at sea and thus made communication between England and Gascony highly problematic; while the king and his eldest son had lingered at Winchelsea in August-September waiting for the winds to change and allow them to set sail for northern France, news had come of the surrender of La Rochelle to French forces and of the defection of one of the prince's erstwhile chief allies in Aquitaine, the captal de Buch. These crises, combined with the prince's ailing health, made it necessary for Edward III to re-establish formal direct sovereignty over Aquitaine and thus take direct responsibility for the continuing war for the defence of Aquitaine. It was in the presence of the king and the lords in the White Chamber that Prince Edward accordingly formally renounced his title as prince of Aquitaine and rendered it back to his father in its entirety. The mood of those who observed this ominous spectacle may safely be assumed to have been anxious, if not openly restive.

On Saturday 6 November, in a further plenary session of lords and commons (held, apparently, in the king's absence), Guy Brian made a further speech largely repeating the chancellor's earlier comments on the general context of the assembly but requesting that the lords and commons consider how to counteract the 'malice and hostility' of the king's enemies (item 9). The description of the speech on the parliament roll is only a summary, and it may be - indeed, it is probable - that Brian made rather more explicit reference to the urgent needs of defence and (by implication, if nothing else) the resulting obligation upon the commonalty to assist the king with subsidies for his wars. The roll is not explicit, but it would seem that the lords and commons conducted their discussion immediately and returned their decision on the same day - a process to be remarked both for its speed and for the way in which the lords were still evidently treated as full players in the grant of the resulting taxes. (fn. f1372int-8) It was decided that two subsidies be granted. The wool subsidy, which had in fact formally expired at Michaelmas 1372 (but was still being collected) was renewed retrospectively from Michaelmas for a period of two years (item 10). It was presumably the military crisis of the summer months that had prevented parliament from being summoned in time to renew the grant before its formal expiry; certainly, no protest is recorded on the parliament roll about the need to make a retrospective extension of the tax. Indeed, the rates offered by parliament achieved new heights. The manner in which the rates are set out on the roll is somewhat confusing, because they are expressed in a different manner for denizens and aliens and in various combinations with the ancient and new customs. The new rates of the subsidy were £2 3s. 4d. per sack of wool and per 240 woolfells; and £4 6s. 8d. per last of hides (the parliament roll itself is initially in error on this last point, expressing the subsidy as £4, and only rectifies it when adding that figure to the ancient and new customs, making the total due per last of hides as £4 for denizens and £5 for aliens). (fn. f1372int-9)

The second subsidy was a direct tax on the laity: a single fifteenth and tenth on the model last employed in 1357. (fn. f1372int-10) Not only did this grant effectively overturn the attempts to reform direct taxation initiated in the parish subsidy of 1371; it also appears to have confirmed that direct taxation had a secondary role to play in the extraordinary finances of the crown, being granted only 'because the total arising from the subsidy and custom [on trade] ... cannot in any way suffice to provide the great expenditures and outlays which the king must make and undertake ...' (item 11). The lords and commons were able to offer this direct tax because the final term for payment of the parish subsidy of 1371 had already passed at Easter 1372; (fn. f1372int-11) the new grant therefore conformed to the principle that no new direct taxation ought to be granted before the existing subsidy expired.

If the grant of the subsidies by the lords and commons was indeed made on 6 November, then there is a gap of two and a half weeks in what the roll tells us about proceedings in this parliament: the next entry relates to the plenary meeting held in the king's presence on Tuesday 23 November in the White Chamber at which the chancellor declared the king's thanks to the commonalty for the grant of aid and the crown's replies to the common petitions were announced (items 12-13). It seems likely that the relatively lengthy list of common petitions engrossed on the parliament roll must have been submitted some time between 6 and 23 November in order to provide the king and council with sufficient time to consider and provide the official responses. One further piece of business remained to be done in full parliament: the promulgation of an ordinance banning the return of practising lawyers and of sheriffs as knights of the shire to represent the county communities in parliament (item 13). The ordinance has received considerable attention, partly because early printed collections of statutes chose to include it as though it had been on the statute roll (which it is not). (fn. f1372int-12) In fact, there is no evidence that it was proclaimed, and very little to suggest that it was actively observed or enforced in the years after 1372: while there we no further serving sheriffs returned as knights of the shire for the remainder of Edward III's reign, the practice revived (albeit on a lesser scale) under Richard II; and while precise figures are lacking (for the very reason that the phrase 'man of law' covers such a wide variety of activities), there is certainly nothing to suggest that either the constituencies or the crown showed an aversion to the continued presence of practising common lawyers as shire representatives in parliament after 1372. (fn. f1372int-13) A particular sting in the tail of the 1372 ordinance was provided by the stipulation that those in the current assembly who fell within the definition of the new ban would receive no expenses for attending this parliament: no writs de expensis were issued on behalf of the nine serving sheriffs known to have attended as shire knights; and closer attention to the eleven other known county representative who did not receive such writs may yet indicate that the ordinance was as much directed against a particular issue within this assembly as against the general principle it established. (fn. f1372int-14)

There is also some doubt as to where the initiative for the 1372 ordinance arose: did it come from the concerns of the commons themselves, or from those of the crown? (fn. f1372int-15) The ordinance's statement that sheriffs 'are common officers of the people and ought to remain in their office to do justice to everyone' seems reasonable enough: to act as a knight of the shire while also serving as sheriff was to be distracted from one's primary responsibilities in the locality. There was, furthermore, an important issue of principle at stake, to which the county communities sometimes drew attention: (fn. f1372int-16) namely, that sheriffs were too inclined to rig the selection of county representatives and, by returning themselves, gave no opportunity either for the expression of political will by the county elite or for private petitioners to channel complaints against the sheriff (and other local officials) to the king in parliament. (fn. f1372int-17) With regard to men of law, the explanation provided by the ordinance is particularly interesting: they ought not to come to parliament as representatives because, as 'attorneys for private individuals', they 'procure and cause to be put forward in parliament many [private] petitions in the name of the commons'. The development of this process whereby the commons were persuaded to adopt or 'avow' private petitions intended to be sent to the committees of triers and to include them in the schedules of common petitions forwarded to the king and council is a significant feature of later fourteenth-century parliamentary practice, (fn. f1372int-18) and evidently caused some concern to the crown and/or some sections of the commons. It is particularly interesting to note in this respect that certain of the common petitions made in this very parliament can be shown to have been 'avowed' private petitions. The outstanding example is the petition formally addressed in the name of the county communities of Wiltshire and Somerset concerning obstructions to free passage on the River Avon (item 24, no. X). In one sense the matter raised here could be said to have been of concern to more than merely those county communities, especially if the guarantee of free traffic upon rivers was extended to the country as a whole (as it was by Magna Carta and by various re-assertions of the principle in fourteenth-century statutes, including one made in the parliament immediately preceding this, in 1371). (fn. f1372int-19) Nevertheless, the fact that a petition from the same counties on the same matter had been dealt with as a private petition in the parliament of 1365 (fn. f1372int-20) may well suggest that some in the commons or council of 1372 felt that there was a growing tendency for matters that ought to proceed via the committees of triers of private petitions were in fact being diverted with the common petitions towards the king and council as a means of promoting their importance and enhancing their chance of a satisfactory outcome. Again, then, there are strong suspicions that the 1372 ordinance reflects immediate concerns around specific cases in the very parliament where it was adumbrated.

Before proceeding to a discussion of the common petitions of this assembly, it is necessary also to draw attention to the unusual action taken upon the dissolution of the parliament of 1372. The final plenary session was evidently that recorded on 23 November, at the end of which the knights of the shires were told to leave and were granted permission to sue for their writs de expensis (item 14): those entitled to them received them the following day. (fn. f1372int-21) However, the representatives of the cities and towns were asked to remain 'for certain reasons' and re-convened in 'a chamber near the White Chamber' later on 23 November evidently without the king but with the Black Prince and 'other prelates and great men': both the location and (particularly) the constitution of this meeting tend to emphasise that it should not be considered as a continuation of the parliament but as a form of great council. The citizens and burgesses were then reminded of the grant of the subsidy of tunnage and poundage that had been made in the great council at Winchester in 1371, which had expired on 1 November 1372. (fn. f1372int-22) Tunnage and poundage had been collected intermittently since 1340, but always on the authority of assemblies of magnates and merchants; (fn. f1372int-23) it would appear that the crown was careful in 1371 to draw a distinction between those occasions and formal sessions of parliament, and dismissed the knights of the shire before proceeding to request a grant from the group that might be regarded as representative of the mercantile interest. The result was a continuation of the subsidy at the existing rates for a further year. (fn. f1372int-24) Despite the apparent effort to ensure that tunnage and poundage was granted outside the formal session of parliament, however, it appears that the citizens and burgesses took advantage of the political leverage offered by the negotiation of the subsidy to put in certain 'common' petitions of their own: although the description of their meeting with the lords makes no mention of this, the memorandum that immediately follows (which states that 'The petitions of the commons and of the citizens and burgesses and the answers given to them are on a roll attached and sewn to this' [item 15]) and the separate headings for 'The petitions of the commons' (before item 15) and 'The petitions of the citizens and burgesses' (before item 46) suggest strongly that an extra set of petitions was delivered to the council as a result of the supplementary meeting on 23 November.

The content of the four petitions sponsored and forwarded by the citizens and burgesses may also suggest that these were issues that had already been discussed in full session of the parliamentary commons, which for various reasons had not been included in the first schedule of common petitions, and which could now be re-adopted, at short notice, and brought to the attention of king and council. The first of these petitions preserves its 'original' address clause from the citizens of London and provides another example of a petition possibly considered for adoption by the commons and now advanced by the burgesses in a corporate capacity. (The petition itself was part of London's on-going campaign against the operation of the Statute of York of 1335 and for its right to regulate its own trade as it thought fit.) (fn. f1372int-25) The second and third petitions, significantly, repeated the substance (and sometimes, indeed, the wording) of two matters that had appeared side-by-side in the common petitions of the previous parliament, of 1371: on the unduly harsh penalties for illegal export of wool (item 47), (fn. f1372int-26) and on the harmful effects of the regulations concerning the Gascon wine trade (item 48). (fn. f1372int-27) Given the circumstances in which the parliament of 1371 had ended and the crown's tendency to provide evasive responses to a number of the common petitions made there (see Introduction to parliament of 1371), it is possible to argue that the commons of 1372 were sensitive to the agenda of the previous assembly and that the mercantile element which took the initiative in the extraordinary session on 23 November was determined to get action on these important matters. The last of the petitions from the citizens and burgesses in 1372 concerned the export of wool by denizens to Middelburg and elsewhere 'contrary to the ordinance in the late parliament' (item 49): this appears to be a reference to the fact that the crown had been regularly issuing licences for denizen exports since the spring of 1372, notwithstanding the ban on denizen exports under the statute made in 1369 at the time when the staple had been removed from Calais to England. (fn. f1372int-28)

The common petitions that precede the petitions of the citizens and burgesses on the parliament roll cover a wide range of issues (items 16-45). It is striking to notice in light of the fact that the parliament made grants of both indirect and direct taxation that the crown was not moved to translate any of its replies to the common petitions into statutes: it has already been pointed out above that the ordinance against the return of sheriffs and practising lawyers as knights of the shires, though often treated as a statute, was never put on the statute roll. Still more remarkable in this respect is the reference in one of the common petitions to 'the statute that will be made in this present parliament' (item 18, no. II): the commons clearly assumed, in the making of their petitions, that the government would respond, as on other occasions in Edward III's reign, to a generous grant of taxation by issuing remedial legislation. Their expectation, however, was not fulfilled. One possible reason for this is that so many items within the common petitions from this parliament represents matters deemed by the government to be issues of procedure, especially with regard to the administration of the law. From the commons' point of view, a number of these issues were of urgent concern and politically sensitive: for example, the right to sue writs of trespass returnable in common pleas as well as in king's bench (item 21, no. VII); the campaign to reduce the limit of legal memory (item 28, no. XIV); the perception that the judicial authority of the council was eroding the rights of individuals at common law (item 16 no. II); and the on-going issue of the costs of purchasing writs in the chancery and the courts (item 32, no. XVIII; item 38, no. XXIV). For the crown, however, such matters could be dealt with either with a dismissal of the claim or with some general statement of intent: formal legislation was simply deemed to be inappropriate or unnecessary. It is particularly to be noted in this respect that, contrary to normal conventions, the crown stated explicitly that no answer was provided to the commons' first request, for a confirmation of Magna Carta and the Charter of the Forests (item 16, no. I). Since there was presumably no question that the crown refused the principle of confirming this legislation, it may be hazarded that the council chose to provide no response in this instance because it had decided not to promulgate formal legislation arising from the parliament and would normally be expected, in the event of a confirmation of the charters, to issue a statute.

It is also to be noted that the crown continued, where necessary, to be assertive in the protection of its own rights and dismissive of the commons' presumption upon such matters. On the question of the injurious effects of the export of money by clergy holding benefices in England, the crown stated that it had already banned the practice, but also pointed out that it was free to withdraw such a measure as it wished (item 27 no. XIII). Similarly, a petition concerning the rights of those who held in chief of the crown was answered with a reminder that 'The king will not deprive himself of the rights of his crown' (item 40, no. XXVI). The commons were not, however, dissuaded by such tactics from tackling sensitive or difficult issues. They continued a campaign against the injustices of escheators that had rumbled on since the early 1360s (item 22 no. VIII; item 31 no. VII), (fn. f1372int-29) and pointed out to the crown the agreement made in the previous parliament about the annual replacement of sheriffs and escheators (item 33, no. XIX). (fn. f1372int-30) They also returned to the issue of the payment of the justices of the peace and of labourers, which had been addressed in the previous parliament (item 29, no. XV) (but on which the crown refused to take any action), (fn. f1372int-31) and they asked for a better solution to the problem of enforcing the labour laws against those who broke their contracts and left their home shires, causing problems of jurisdiction when legal action was attempted against them (item 30, no. XVI). They requested that those appointed as collectors of the special subsidy of £50,000 imposed by the parliament of 1371 should receive expenses in the manner observed in the administration of the collectors of fifteenths and tenths (item 34, no. XX); although this was promised, the exchequer records in fact provide no evidence that expenses were allowed. (fn. f1372int-32) Their request concerning the costs associated with the administration of probate by the church courts (item 36, no. XXII; with further related issues in item 37, no XXIII) is also interesting in that it suggests that the petition made on the same matter in the previous parliament, and on which an evasive answer had been recorded (parliament of 1371, item 24), had in fact already resulted in action by the crown towards the ecclesiastical authorities.

Finally, it is interesting to notice that the parliament roll of 1372 and associated documents allows a few glimpses into the process of construction of the schedule of the common petitions. It has already been noted above that the petition made in the name of 'the common of the counties of Somerset and Wiltshire' (item 24, no. X) repeats the content of a petition previously entered in the names of those shire communities among the private petitions in the parliament of 1365. A petition made in the names of 'the good people of the counties of Essex and Hertfordshire' (item 45, no. XXXII) was also adopted by the commons, perhaps because the issue it contained - a request for the reduction in the fee farm payable by the sheriff as a result of the alienation of franchises and the decline in revenues contributing to the farm - was again one on which other county communities had concerns in the period. (The commons were again to adopt a petition from Essex and Hertfordshire on the same matter in the Good Parliament [parliament of 1376, item 151].) (fn. f1372int-33) Finally, it is interesting to notice that there survives another version of a petition whose opening protocol appears somewhat problematically in the version on the parliament roll (item 20, n. VI), but which was clearly originally made in the name of 'the merchants and mariners of England' complaining of the crown's policies of requisitioning shipping for the wars. The alternative version of this petition may represent an 'original', or even be a section cut away from an earlier schedule of common petitions which the clerk responsible for writing up this section of the parliament roll attempted to harmonise to the style of address more usually associated with a 'common' petition. The fact that the schedule of common petitions as it appears on the parliament roll of 1372 is not a fair copy but a working copy (see above) therefore helps to expose the origins of certain common petitions in a manner presumably often disguised in those parliament rolls where the common petitions represent a finished and streamlined statement.

Text and translation

[p. ii-309]
[col. a]
[memb. 1]
En le parlement sommons a Westm' lendemayn des almes, l'an du regne le roi Edward tierce quarant sisme, adeprimes, par cause qe les grantz et communes somons au parlement ne estoient venuz, fust le dit parlement ajourne tanqe vendredi suant. Quel jour, le roi, les prelatz, grantz et communes assemblez en la chambre Depeinte feust monstre a eux par Monsir Johan Knyvet, adonqe chaunceller, les causes du sommons avantdit, come ensuyt: [Opening of parliament.]
In the parliament summoned at Westminster on the morrow of All Souls' Day in the forty-sixth year of the reign of King Edward the third, first, because the great men and commons summoned to the parliament had not arrived, the said parliament was adjourned until the following Friday. On which day, with the king, the prelates, great men and commons assembled in the Painted Chamber, Sir John Knyvet, then chancellor, declared to them the reasons for the aforesaid summons, as follows:
2. 'Mes sires et communes, le roi, pur la grande affeccion et amour quels il ad eu toudiz et uncore ad a l'estat de seinte esglise, des grantz et de tout son poeple de sa terre, et desirant toudiz purveier al quiete et tranquillite de eux, avant son aler vers la meer contre ses enemys de France q'avoient ars et destrutz partie en sa terre, ordeina Richard filz au prince de Gascoigne d'estre gardein de sa terre en sa absence, et pres de lui ascons des grantz et autres sages de son conseil; (fn. ii-309-6-1) pur diverses mesprisions, periles, outrages et meschiefs, et autrement, qe purroient par cas avenir en absence de lui, fist sommondre un parlement a la quinzeine de Seint Michel a tenir a Westm'. (fn. ii-309-6-2) Devant quel temps, par ascons causes verrois et conuz revient le roi en sa terre, et par tant le poair du dit Richard cessa; issint qe par les causes suisdites, et autres notoirs, le roi fist sommondre un autre parlement, a tenir lendemayn suisdit, ou touz les grantz et autres esteantz a devant en sa compaignie en sa guerre sur la meer poaient estre. (fn. ii-309-6-3) Et voillant par tant et desirant la pees et quiete de seinte esglise et de son dit poeple estre nurry et meintenu en quiete et droit come appent, qe touz ceux qe se sentont grevez en ascun point qe ne poet estre amende ne redresce en nul des places le roi mes en parlement, q'ils meissent avant lour peticions as ces qe sont ordeinez de les receivre et trier, et serront bonement responduz'. Les nouns desqueux ensuont: 2. 'My lords and commons: the king, for the great affection and love which he has always had, and continues to have, for the estate of holy Church, the great men and all his people of his land, and desiring always to provide quiet and tranquillity for them, before his journey overseas against his enemies of France, who have burned and destroyed parts of his land, ordained Richard, son of the prince of Aquitaine, to be the keeper of his land in his absence, and some of the great men and other wise men of his council to be about him; (fn. ii-309-6-1) and for the various crimes, dangers, outrages and misfortunes, and otherwise, which could by chance occur in his absence, he caused a parliament to be summoned to be held at Westminster on the quinzaine of Michaelmas. (fn. ii-309-6-2) Before this time, for certain valid and accepted reasons, the king returned to his land, and therefore the authority of the said Richard ceased; so that for the aforesaid reasons, and other well-known ones, the king caused another parliament to be summoned, to be held on the aforesaid morrow when all the great men and others who were previously in his company in his war upon the seas could be present. (fn. ii-309-6-3) And therefore willing and desiring that the peace and quiet of holy Church and of his said people should be duly nourished and maintained in quiet and justice, he grants that all those who feel themselves aggrieved in any point that cannot be amended or redressed in any of the king's courts but only in parliament, shall put forward their petitions to those who are ordained to receive and try them, and they will be properly answered.' The names of whom follow:
3. Resceivours des peticions d'Engleterre, Irland, Gales et Escoce:

  • Sire Richard Ravenser
  • Sire Wauter Power
  • Sire Nichol Spaigne
  • Sire Thomas de Newenham.
[Receivers and triers of private petitions.]
3. The receivers of the petitions from England, Ireland, Wales and Scotland:

  • Sir Richard Ravenser
  • Sir Walter Power
  • Sir Nicholas Spaigne
  • Sir Thomas Newenham.
4. Item, pur les pecions de Gascoigne et autres terres et paies dela la meer et des Isles:

  • Mestre Johan Branktre
  • Mestre Symond de Multon'
  • Sire William de Mirfeld.
4. Also, for the petitions from Gascony and other lands and regions overseas and the Channel Islands:

  • Master John Branketre
  • Master Simon Multon
  • Sir William Mirfield.
Et ces qe voillent liverer billes, les liveront entre cy et lundy, le jour acompte. And those who will deliver bills should deliver them between now and Monday, the day assigned.
[col. b]
5. Et sont assignez triours des peticions d'Engleterre, Irland, Gales et Escoce:

  • Le roi de Castil et de Leon et duc de Lancastre
  • L'ercevesqe de Canterbirs
  • L'evesqe de Loundres
  • L'evesqe de Wyncestre
  • L'evesqe de Nicole
  • L'evesqe de Ely
  • L'evesqe de Hereford
  • L'evesqe de Wyrcestre
  • L'abbe de Westm'
  • L'abbe de Waltham
  • L'abbe de Seint Esmond de Bury
  • Le conte de Cantebrig
  • Le conte de Hereford
  • Le conte d'Arundell
  • Le conte de la Marche
  • Le conte de Saresbirs
  • Le Sire Despenser
  • Le Sire de Roos
  • Monsir Guy de Briane
  • Monsir Johan Cavendissh
  • Monsir William de Fyncheden
  • Monsir Thomas de Lodelowe
  • Monsir Thomas de Ingelby
5. And the following are assigned triers of petitions from England, Ireland Wales and Scotland:

  • The king of Castile and Leon and duke of Lancaster
  • The archbishop of Canterbury
  • The bishop of London
  • The bishop of Winchester
  • The bishop of Lincoln
  • The bishop of Ely
  • The bishop of Hereford
  • The bishop of Worcester
  • The abbot of Westminster
  • The abbot of Waltham
  • The abbot of Bury Saint Edmunds
  • The earl of Cambridge
  • The earl of Hereford
  • The earl of Arundel
  • The earl of March
  • The earl of Salisbury
  • Lord Despenser
  • Lord Roos
  • Sir Guy Brian
  • Sir John Cavendish
  • Sir William Finchden
  • Sir Thomas Ludlow
  • Sir Thomas Ingelby
- appellez a eux chanceller, tresorer, seneschal et chamberlein quant mestir serra, et ils purront entendre; et auxint les serjantz le roi s'il busoigne. Et tendront lour places en la chambre du chamberlein, pres la chambre Depeinte. - consulting with the chancellor, treasurer, steward and chamberlain when necessary, and when they are able to attend; and also the king's serjeants when necessary. And they shall hold their session in the Chamberlain's Chamber, near the Painted Chamber.
6. Et sont assignez triours des peticions de Gascoigne et autres terres et paies dela la meer et les Isles:

  • L'evesqe de Duresme
  • L'evesqe de Bathe et Welles
  • L'evesqe de Norwicz
  • L'evesqe de Seint Davy
  • L'evesqe de Cicestre
  • L'abbe de Crouland
  • L'abbe de Abyndon'
  • L'abbe de Colcestre
  • Le conte de Warrewyk
  • Le conte de Stafford
  • Le conte de Suffolk
  • Monsir Johan de Charleton de Powys
  • Monsir Rauf Basset de Drayton
  • Monsir Johan Moubray
  • Monsir William de Wychingham
  • Monsir Roger de Meres
6. And the following are assigned triers of petitions from Gascony and other lands and countries overseas and the Channel Islands:

  • The bishop of Durham
  • The bishop of Bath and Wells
  • The bishop of Norwich
  • The bishop of Saint Davids
  • The bishop of Chichester
  • The abbot of Crowland
  • The abbot of Abingdon
  • The abbot of Colchester
  • The earl of Warwick
  • The earl of Stafford
  • The earl of Suffolk
  • Sir John Charlton of Powys
  • Sir Ralph Basset of Drayton
  • Sir John Mowbray
  • Sir William Wichingham
  • Sir Roger Meres
- appellez as eux chanceller, tresorer, seneschal et chamberlein, quant mestir serra, et ils purront entendre; et auxi les serjantz le roi, s'il busoigne. Et tendront lour places en la chambre Marcolf. - consulting with the chancellor, treasurer, steward and chamberlain when necessary, and when they are able to attend; and also the king's serjeants when necessary. And they shall hold their session in the Marcolf Chamber.
[memb. 2]
7. Et issint departiront les communes cel jour. Mes le roi, le prince, les prelatz, ducs, counts, barons et banerettes, apres mesme le jour esteantz en la chambre Blanche, feust monstre devant eux par Monsir Guy Brian coment le prince q'avoit la principalte de Guyen du grant le roi, et esteant en celles parties, avoit plusours foiz signifie au roi par ses messages et lettres qe les revenuz et profitz sourdantz et provenantz des [p. ii-310][col. a] terres de la principalte ne poaient suffire de meyntenir et governer lui et le paiis, et sustenir les guerres contre les enemys de France, et autres charges qe lui covendroit faire et porter, sanz tresgrant eide et costages mettre par le roi son piere autrement par les causes susdites, et autres monstrez au roi et son conseil. [Surrender of the principality of Aquitaine to the king.]
7. And so the commons departed on this day. But later on the same day, with the king, the prince, the prelates, dukes, earls, barons and bannerets being in the White Chamber, Sir Guy Brian declared to them how the prince, who has the principality of Aquitaine of the king's grant, being in those parts, had often made it known to the king by his messages and letters that the revenues and profits arising and accruing from the [p. ii-310][col. a] lands of the principality could suffice to maintain and govern him and the region, and to sustain the wars against their enemies of France, and other charges that are necessary for him to make and support, without very great aid and expenditure being made by the king, his father, for the aforesaid reasons and others declared to the king and his council.
8. Et puis le dit prince mesmes vient en Engleterre, et monstrez et proposez au roi et son conseil les causes avantdites et autres bien tard, par les causes suisditz, et autres notables, le dit prince rendi sus en les mayns le roi la dite principalte, et quantqe il avoit ou avoir purroit du grant le roi en la principalte, terres et pais celles parties; et les chartres et autres faites queux il avoit du dit grant, en presence des ascons des grantz et conseil le roi adonqes liverez au roi; et ore ex habundant rende au roi la dite principalte, et quantqe il ad en ycelle, ove toutes autres choses q'il avoit ou avoir purroit du grant le roi celles parties; et furont monstrez mesmes les chartres et faites illeoqes en la presence du roi, et des prelatz et grantz suisditz, et feust demande du prince par le dit Monsir Guy, si ce feust sa volunte et disoit qe oyl, et granta et conoist bien les chartres et faites. 8. And then the said prince himself came into England and declared and proposed to the king and his council the aforesaid reasons and others newly arising, and for the aforesaid reasons and other notable ones the said prince surrendered the said principality into the king's hands, and everything he had or could have of the king's grant in the principality, lands and regions of those parts; and the charters and other deeds which he had of the said grant were then delivered to the king in the presence of some of the great men and the king's council; and then he returned the said principality to the king, and everything that he had in it, with all other things that he had or could have of the king's grant in those parts; and the same charters and deeds were shown there in the presence of the king and of the prelates and aforesaid great men, and the said Sir Guy asked the prince if it was his will and he said yes, and accepted and properly acknowledged the charters and deeds.
9. Et issint departiront cel jour; et puis le samady prochein, devant le prince, prelatz, ducs, conts, barons et communes esteantz en la chambre Blaunche, Monsir Guy Brian monstra a eux plus en especial les causes des sommons du parlement, et dit coment le roi, par avys des grantz, avoit ordeine plusours des grantz ove poair suffisant, ascons en Gascoigne, ascons a Caleys et Bretaigne, pur contre estere la malice de ses enemys, et les guerroier par toutes les voies qe faire purroient. Et puis pur plusours sodeines novelles qe vindront au roi, il se adrescea mesmes ove tout son poair d'aler sur la meer contre ses enemys, et si feust sur la meer pur guerroier et grever ses enemys a meltz q'il purra. Qi tant pur contrariousete de vent et autres causes resonables revient en Engleterre, et fist sommondre cest parlement, ou les grantz qe estoient ovesqe lui sur la meer y purroient estre, de ordeiner et faire ce qe par bon avys et conseil de eux et autres, et auxi de la commune, le melz qe faire se purra, pur la salvacion de la terre, et plus grever et contreester la malice et le grief de ses enemys, qi plus s'afforcent de grever sibien par terre come par meer qe unqes fesoient adevant. [Statement on the war with France.]
9. And so they departed on this day; and then on the following Saturday, before the prince, prelates, dukes, earls, barons and commons being in the White Chamber, Sir Guy Brian declared in greater detail the reasons for the summons of the parliament, and told them how the king, by the advice of the great men, had appointed several great men, some in Gascony, others in Calais and Brittany, with sufficient power to oppose the malice of his enemies and make war on them in all possible ways. And then, because of further urgent news that came to the king, he prepared himself with all his power to go to sea against his enemies, and was then at sea to make war on and harass his enemies as much as possible. But, because of the contrariness of the wind and other reasonable causes, he returned to England and had this parliament summoned, when the great men who had been with him at sea could be there, to ordain and effect, by the good advice and counsel of them and others and also of the commons, the best that could be done for the salvation of the land, and further to harass and oppose the malice and hostility of his enemies, who strive more than ever to injure him by land as well as by sea.
Et supplia as ditz prelatz, prince, duc, counts et barons et as communes, depar le roi, qe sur ceste matire ils se vorroient aviser, et doner et faire tiel conseil et eide au roi en ceste matire qe melz lour sembleroit profitable en sa terre; et auxi de rebouter la malice de ses ditz enemys. And he requested the said prelates, prince, duke, earls and barons and the commons, on the king's behalf, that they consider this business, and give and provide such counsel and aid to the king in this matter as seemed to them most profitable for his land, and to resist the malice of his said enemies.
10. Queux prelatz, prince, duc, counts, barons et communes eu sur les pointes de lour charge et as dependantz d'ycelles plein deliberacion, et auxi considerantz les grantz et outragouses mises, coustages et despens qe le roi covient faire et mettre par les causes susditz, en defens de la terre et en meintenance de sa guerre contre ses enemys, granteront au roi un subside des leins, quires et peaulx lanutz, de la fest de Seint Michell prochein passe pur terme de deus anz procheins ensuantz pleinement acompliz; c'estassavoir, de chescun sak de lein qe passera hors du roialme d'Engleterre quarant et trois soldz et quatre deniers, et de chescun dusze vintz de peaulx lanutz a tant, et de chescon last de quires quatre livres; aprendre outre l'ancien custume de demy marc de chescun sak < de leine, et demy [col. b] marc de dusze vintz de pealx lanutz, et une marc de chescon last de quires de denizeins; et des aliens, de chescon sak de leine quatre marcs, et de dusze vintz de pealx lanutz quatre marcs; et de chescon last de quirs cent soldz de denzeins, et des aliens oet marcs. > [Grant of subsidies.]
10. The prelates, prince, duke, earls, barons and commons, having had full deliberation on the points of their charge and associated matters, and also considering the great and outrageous outlays, costs and expenses which the king must make and undertake for the aforesaid reasons, in defence of the land and in maintenance of his war against his enemies, granted to the king a subsidy of wool, leather and woolfells from the previous feast of Michaelmas for the term of two full years immediately following; that is to say, for each sack of wool that is exported from the realm of England 43s. 4d., and likewise for every 240 woolfells, and £4 for each last of leather; to be taken in addition to the ancient custom for denizens of a ½ mark on each sack of wool and a ½ [col. b] mark on every 240 woolfells and 1 mark from each last of leather, and for aliens, 4 marks on each sack of wool, and 4 marks on every 240 woolfells, and 100s. on each last of leather for denizens, and 8 marks for aliens.
< 11. Et pur tant qe la somme provenante del subside et custume issint grantez ne poet en nulle manere suffire de perfournir les grantz despens et custages qe le roi covient faire et mettre as causes suisdites, come outement lour estoit monstre, mesmes les prelatz, prince, ducs, > < counts, barons et communes, eiantz a ceo regarde, granteront au roi une quinszime > pur un an, a prendre et lever en manere come la quinszime dareinement grante feust leve et pris. 11. And because the total arising from the subsidy and custom thus granted cannot in any way suffice to provide the great expenditures and outlays which the king must make and undertake for the aforesaid reasons, as was openly declared to them, the same prelates, prince, dukes, earls, barons and commons, considering this, granted to the king a fifteenth for one year, to be taken and levied in the same manner as the fifteenth most recently granted had been levied and taken.
12. Et puis le .xxiij. jour de Novembre prochein suant, le roi, les prelatz, prince, duc, counts, barons et communes assemblez en la Blaunche chambre, feust monstre au roi par le chaunceller la bone volunte des seignurs et communes devers lui; et coment ils lui avoient grantez le subside et quinszime, come est dit. Le roi lour mercya grantment les seignurs et communes del grant eide q'ils lui avoient fait. [Meeting in the White Chamber.]
12. And then on 23 November immediately following, with the king, the prelates, prince, duke, earls, barons and commons assembled in the White Chamber, the chancellor declared to the king the good will of the lords and the commons towards him; and how they had granted him the subsidy and fifteenth, as is said. The king greatly thanked the lords and commons for the great aid which they had made to him.
13. Les peticions queles les communes avoient mis en parlement, et les respons sur eles donez, furont luez, et auxi une ordenance faite en mesme le parlement, en manere q'ensuyt: 13. The petitions which the commons had put forward in parliament, and the answers given to them, were read, and also an ordinance made in the same parliament, in the manner that follows:
Purce qe gentz de ley qe pursuent diverses busoignes en les courts le roi pur singulers persones ove queux ils sont, procurent et font mettre plusours peticions en parlementz en noun des communes, qe rien lour touche mes soulement les singulers persones ove queux ils sont demorez; auxint viscontz qe sont communes ministres au poeple et deivent demurer sur lour office pur droit faire a checuny, sont nomez et ont este devant ces heures et retournez en parlementz chivalers des countees par mesmes les viscontz; est accorde et assentu en cest parlement, qe desormes null homme de ley pursuant busoignes en la court le roi, ne viscont pur le temps q'il est viscont soient retournez ne acceptez chivalers des countees, ne qe ces qe sont gentz de ley et viscontz ore retournez en parlement eient gages. Mes voet le roi qe chivalers et serjantz des meulz vanes du paies soient retournez desore chivalers en parlementz, et q'ils soient esluz en plein countee. Because the men of law who pursue various matters in the king's courts as attorneys for private individuals procure and cause to be put forward in parliament many petitions in the name of the commons, which do not concern them but only the individuals with whom the men of law are engaged; and also because sheriffs, who are common officers of the people and ought to remain in their office to do justice to everyone, name themselves, and before this time have named and returned themselves to parliament as knights of the shires; it is agreed and assented in this parliament that henceforth no man of law pursuing business in the king's court, or sheriff for the time that he is sheriff, shall be returned or accepted as knights of the shires, and that those men of law and sheriffs who have been returned to this parliament shall have no wages. Instead, the king wills that knights and serjeants among the most respected men of the country shall henceforth be returned as knights to parliaments, and that they shall be elected in full county court.
14. Et apres ce conge done as chivalers des countees a departir, et de suer lour briefs pur lour despenses. Et issint departirent ils. [Departure of the knights of the shires.]
14. And after this, permission was given to the knights of the shires to depart, and to sue their writs for their expenses. And so they departed.
15. Mes comande feust as citezeins et burgois q'estoient venuz au dit parlement, q'ils demurassent par ascuns causes; queux citezeins et burgois mesme le jour apres assemblez devant le prince et autres prelatz et grantz en une chambre pres la Blanche chambre feust monstre a eux coment l'an passe estoit grante par un certein terme pur le sauf et seure conduement des niefs et merchandises venantz en ceste terre par meer, et passant d'ycelle, un subside, c'estassavoir, de chescun tonell de vyn venant en ceste terre deus soldz, et de chescun livre de qeconqe merchandie qe ce feust venant ou passant .vi. d. quel terme est ja passe. Qe ils voloient avoir consideracion as perils et meschiefs qe poent avenir a lour niefs et merchandises par les enemys sur la meer, granter un au tiel subside, a durer par un an, pur les causes suisdites. Quel subside ils granteront au roi a prendre et lever en manere come estoit pris et leve l'an darein passe. Et issint departiront. [Additional subsidy granted by the citizens and burgesses.]
15. But the citizens and burgesses who had come to the said parliament were commanded to stay for certain reasons. When these citizens and burgesses assembled later on the same day before the prince and other prelates and great men in a chamber near the White Chamber, they were told how in the past year a subsidy was granted for a certain term for the safe and secure conduct of ships and merchandise coming into this land by sea, and passing from it, that is to say, 2s. on each tun of wine coming into this land, and 6d. on each pound of merchandise of any sort entering or leaving, which term had now passed, that they would be willing to consider the perils and misfortunes which might occur to their ships and merchandise by the enemies on the sea, and grant a similar subsidy to last for one year, for the aforesaid reasons. Which subsidy they granted to the king to be taken and levied in the same manner as it was taken and levied in the previous year. And so they departed.
Les peticions des communes et de citezeins et burgeis et les respons sur ycelles faite sont en un roulle attache et cusu a cestes. The petitions of the commons and of the citizens and burgesses and the answers given to them are on a roll attached and sewn to this.
[p. ii-311]
[memb. 3]
[col. a]
16. I. A lour tresdoute et graciouse seignur le roi; supplient sez povres liges communes: qe la grande chartre et la chartre de la foreste et touz les autres estatuz faitz par nostre dit seignur le roi et sez progenitours, en amendement de son roialme et a tranquillite et ease de son poeple, soient tenuz, gardez et duement executz en touz pointz. [I. Confirmation of the Charters.]
16. I. To their most dread and gracious lord the king; his poor liege commons petition: that the Great Charter, the Charter of the Forest and all the other statutes made by our said lord the king and his progenitors, in improvement of his realm and for the tranquillity and ease of his people, shall be upheld, observed and duly executed in all points.
[editorial note: Responsio] [editorial note: Answer]
[editorial note: No answer has been provided to this petition.] [editorial note: No answer has been provided to this petition.]
II. Item, prie la dite commune: qe nul homme, petit ne grant, de quel condicion q'il soit, ne attempte ne pursue brief, n'en autre manere face chose a contrere des estatuz faitz en temps nostre seignur le roi, ne sez nobles progenitours en plein parlement, n'encontre l'estatut qe serra fait en cest present parlement. Ne qe nul homme ne soit restreint ne article de nul estatut repelle par les prives de conseil nostre seignur le roi, n'en autre manere sanz assent de parlement. Et si ascun persone soit trove qe face al'encontre, soit greve peyne mys sur lui en cest present parlement. [II. Procedure contrary to the common law.]
II. Also, the said commons pray: that no man, small or great, of whatever condition he may be, shall attempt or pursue a writ, or in other manner do anything contrary to the statutes made in the time of our lord the king or of his noble progenitors in full parliament, or contrary to the statute that will be made in this present parliament. And that no man shall be confounded and no article of any statute repealed by the intimates of our lord the king's council, or in other manner without the assent of parliament. And if it is found that any person does the contrary, severe penalty shall be set upon him in this present parliament.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi voet qe les estatuz soient tenuz et gardez. The king wills that the statutes shall be upheld and observed.
17. III. Item, prie la commune: come autrefoith nostre seignur le roi de sa grace especial, en relevacion et ease de son poeple, granta general pardon a sa dite commune des touz maners trespases, mesprisons, necligences et ignorances et des totez articles de eyr dount le punissement cherroit en fyn ou en raunson, ou en autre manere peine pecuniele, et des autres plusours mesfaites par soun dit poeple perpetrez devant la date de dit pardoun, grantant oultre qe nul homme fuisse empesche, mys a respouns ne processe fait de nul point contenue en ycelle, come pluis pleinement est contenu el dit pardoun; (fn. ii-309-60-1) ore tarde, plusours gentz de roialme des diverses condicions, sibien marchantz come autres, sont empeschez en diverses places nostre seignur le roi, sibien en l'escheqer come aillours, des diverses trespasses faitz devant le dit pardoun par force des enditementz maliciousement sur eux faitz. Et les justices et barons del escheqier ne voillent a eux le dit pardoun allower, pur soleins interpretacions qeux ils fount de dit pardoun, a grant empoverissement de la commune; qe pleise a nostre dit seignur le roi et as pieres de la terre qe tiels recordes qeux pendent devant justices ou barons soient vewez en parlement, issint qe jugement se face solom l'effecte et verroie entent de la peticion de poeple adonqe prie; et si les paroles contenuz en le dit pardoun ne soient trovez assetz suffisantz reles < et > descharge a poeple, qe pleise a roi d'enforcer le dit pardon par overtez paroles, affyn qe totez tieles trespasses, forffaitures et mesprisions purroient plenerement estre relessez en totez tieux cas, solom l'effecte et l'entente de dite peticion. [III. Scope of the general pardon.]
17. III. Also, the commons pray: previously our lord the king, of his special grace, in relief and ease of his people, granted a general pardon to his said commonalty of all manner of trespasses, crimes, negligences and ignorances and of all articles of the eyre for which the punishment was a matter of fine or ransom or other kind of pecuniary penalty, and of many other misdeeds perpetrated by his said people before the date of the said pardon, granting further that no man be impeached or put to answer or process made concerning any point contained in the same, as is more fully contained in the said pardon. (fn. ii-309-60-1) But lately, many people of the realm of various conditions, merchants as well as others, have been indicted in various courts of our lord the king, in the exchequer as well as elsewhere, for various trespasses committed before the said pardon on the basis of indictments maliciously made against them. And the justices and barons of the exchequer will not allow them the said pardon, because of the interpretations which they provide ad hoc upon the said pardon, to the great impoverishment of the commonalty. May it please our said lord the king and the peers of the land that such records which are pending before justices or barons be viewed in parliament, so that judgment be made according to the effect and true intent of the petition of the people then requested; and if the words contained in the said pardon do not provide sufficient pardon and discharge for the people, may it please the king to amplify the said pardon with explicit statements, so that all such trespasses, forfeitures and crimes can be fully pardoned in all such cases, according to the effect and intent of the said petition.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi voet qe le pardoun estoise en sa force, et si nul soit grevez de fait a contrarie, monstre en especial, et droit lui serra fait. The king wills that the pardon remain in force, and if anyone is aggrieved of anything to the contrary, he shall declare it particularly, and justice will be done to him.
18. IV. Item, prie la commune: come plusours sires et autres de la commune fount lours liverees des draps Engleys, les qeux ne sont mye en longure ne laeure suffisantz < come l'estatut de Northt' voet, > (fn. ii-309-65-1) parount la commune est decieu et par taunt empovery; qe pleise ordeiner qe touz les draps Englis qeux sont faitz a vendre, si bien rayes come draps de colour, soient taunt en longure et en laeure come le < dit estatut voet, > sur peyne de forfaiture [col. b] de ycelles, qele forfaiture autrefoith estoit nounduement repelle. [IV. Assize of cloth.]
18. IV. Also, the commons pray: whereas many lords and others of the commonalty make their liveries from English cloth which is not of sufficient length or width as prescribed by the statute of Northampton, (fn. ii-309-65-1) by which the commonalty is correspondingly deceived and impoverished; may it please him to ordain that all English cloth which is made to be sold, ray as well as coloured cloth, shall be of the correct length and width as prescribed by the said statute, upon penalty of forfeiture [col. b] of the same, which forfeiture was unduly repealed on a previous occasion.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi se voet aviser ove les prelatz et grantz, et ordeiner covenable remedie. The king will consider this with the prelates and great men and will ordain suitable remedy.
19. V. Item, prie la commune: qe la puraelee q'estoit chivache en temps le roi Edward aiel nostre seignur le roi q'ore est, sey tiegne en la forme q'ele estoit chivache et boundee. Et qe sur ceo soit chartre faite a chescun countee ou ele fuist chivache, ou chartre n'eist mye. Et par la ou ele ne fuyst mye chivache par bones et loialx, et qe chartre soit sur ceo faite saunz fee ent paier en la chauncellerye. [V. Boundaries of the forests.]
19. V. Also, the commons pray: that the boundaries of the forest which were established in the time of King Edward, grandfather of our present lord the king, should be upheld as they were established and limited. And that a charter shall be made thereon to each county in which the boundaries were established in the event that it does not have a charter. And in those cases where the boundaries were not established by good and loyal men, the charter shall be made thereon without a fee being charged in the chancery.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Plest au roi qe la chartre de la foreste soit tenuz et gardee. It pleases the king that the Charter of the Forest be upheld and observed.
20. VI. < Item, prie la commune: qecome > [...] les marchantz et mariners d'Engleterre qe .xx. aunz passez et toutdiz adevant la navie de dit roialme estoit en touz portz et bones villes sur mier et sur ryvers si noble et si pleintivouse qe touz les pays tenoient et appelloient nostre avandit seignur le roi de la mier, et lui et tout soun pays dotoient le pluis par mier et par terre par cause de la dite navie; et ore il est ensi desencrescez et anientyz par diverses causes qe apoy ylia demure suffisientis a defendre la dite pays, si grant mestier estoit, encontre roial poiar yfuisse a grant perille communement de tout la roialme, les qeux causes serroit trope longe des touz escrivre. Mes une cause est principal, la longe arrest qe sovent ad este fait sur les niefs en temps de guerre; c'estassavoir, par un quarter d'an ou pluis avant q'ils passent hors de lour portz saunz rien prendre pur les gages de lour mariners durant celle temps, ou les seignurs des niefs rien prendre de guerdoun pur les apparailementz de lour ditz niefs et custages. Dount ils priont, en eovre de charite, covenable remedie. [VI. Requisitioning of ships.]
20. VI. Also, the commons pray: that whereas [...] the merchants and mariners of England that for 20 years past, and always before that, the fleet of the said realm was so noble and so plentiful in all ports and good towns on the sea and on rivers that all countries held and called our aforesaid lord the king of the sea, and feared him and all his country the more on sea and on land because of the said fleet; and now it has declined and wasted away so much, for various reasons, that a sufficient number hardly remains to defend the said country, if there was need, against a royal power, to the great peril generally of all the realm, which reasons are too long all to be written down. But one reason is paramount: the long period of arrest that has often been made of ships in times of war; that is to say, for a quarter of a year or more before they leave their ports, during which time nothing can be taken for the wages of their mariners, and the lords of the ships have no recompense for the preparation of their said ships and their expenses. Wherefore they pray suitable remedy, in way of charity.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Y plest au roi qe la navie soit meintenue et gardee, a greindre ease et profit qe faire se poet. It pleases the king that the fleet shall be maintained and protected, to the greatest ease and profit that can be done.
21. VII. < Item, prie la commune: qe come > [...] plusours sires et communes de roialme, qe come avant ces hures brefs de commune trespas ount este generalment grantez retornables devant justices del commune bank, la ou plusours seignurs et communes de roialme ount lours attournes en le commune bank avandit; les qeux briefs sont ore defenduz, sanz autre cause forsqe pris pur avauncer les clercz de bank le roi, a grant desease des ditz communes et retardacion de lours suites; purceqe le bank le roi est tutdiz remuable a volunte de roi, et lours attournes ne puissent pursure la dite place pur autres suites qeux ils ount en la commune bank avandit, a grant damage de nostre seignur le roi et de sez communes de roialme. Sur qei pleise a nostre seignur le roi et a soun conseil, pur Dieu et en oevre de charite, d'ordeigner remedie. [VII. Writs of trespass returnable before the common bench.]
21. VII. Also, the commons pray: that whereas [...] many lords and commons of the realm, that whereas before this time writs of common trespass have been generally granted returnable before the justices of the common bench, where many lords and commons of the realm have attorneys; which writs are now forbidden, without other reason than profit, to advance the clerks of the king's bench, to the great distress of the said commons and the delaying of their suits; because the king's bench is always removable at the king's will, and their attorneys may not pursue the said court because of other suits which they have in the aforesaid common bench, to the great damage of our lord the king and of his commonalty of the realm. Wherefore may it please our lord the king and his council to ordain remedy, for God and in way of charity.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Eient briefs en l'un banc et l'autre selonc l'avis et discrecion du chanceller; et issint ad este use avant ces heures. They shall have writs in both benches according to the opinion and discretion of the chancellor; and so it has been observed before this time.
22. VIII. Item, purceqe diverses meschiefs et desheritesons sont avenuz as diverses gentz de roialme, par cause qe eschetours et autres ministres nostre seignur le roi ount seisez plusours terres et tenemenz en la main nostre [p. ii-312][col. a] dit seignur le roi come forffaitz a roi pur tresoun ou felonie surmys en persones mortz, q'unqes en lours vies furent atteintz. Dount les ditz communes prient: qe terres et tenemenz de qeconqes persones deviantz a la foie et ligeance nostre dit seignur le roi ne soient desormes seisez ne tenuz come forffaitz par cause de nulle felonie ne treson surmys es persones mortz. [VIII. Unjust forfeitures on allegations of treason.]
22. VIII. Also, because various misfortunes and disinheritances have occurred to various people of the realm, because escheators and other officers of our lord the king have seised many lands and tenements into the hands of our [p. ii-312][col. a] said lord the king as forfeited to the king for treason or felony pronounced upon deceased persons, who never were attainted during their lives. Wherefore the said commons pray: that lands and tenements of any people whatsoever liable to the fealty and allegiance of our lord the king henceforth shall not be seised or held as forfeited by reason of any felony or treason pronounced upon deceased persons.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi voet qe l'estatut en ce cas fait soit tenuz. (fn. ii-309-88-1) The king wills that the statute made in this case shall be upheld. (fn. ii-309-88-1)
23. IX. < Item, prie la commune: qe come > [...] les heirs, executours, administratours et terretenauntz de touz sez lieges d'Engleterre des qeux nostre seignur le roi prist leynes a Durdraght, queles leynes furent duement cokettez en Engleterre solonc le poys del estandard del escheqier et le custume ent paie a nostre dit seignur le roi, et puis a Durdraght les ditz leyns furent pris al oeps nostre dit seignur le roi, et illeoqes poisez derechief par le poys de celles parties q'est meindre en quantite qe le poys del estandard suisdit; et par cause qe pluis fuist trove a Durdraght par le poys illeoqes qe le poys del estandard suisdit, ils ount este grevez par processe del escheqier, a grant damage de eux. Qe pleise a nostre dit seignur le roi, en eovre de charite, granter une generale pardoun del forfaiture suisdite, sibien a celles qe sont chargez par juggement come ce qe unqore court en demande. [IX. Release from liability concerning wool seized at Dordrecht.]
23. IX. Also, the commons pray: that whereas the heirs, executors, administrators and land tenants of all his liege people of England from whom our lord the king took wool to Dordrecht, which wool was duly cocketed in England according to the weight of the standard of the exchequer and the custom paid thereon to our said lord the king, and then at Dordrecht the said wool was taken to the use of our said lord the king, and there weighed again by the weight of those parts, which is less in quantity than the weight of the aforesaid standard; and because more was found at Dordrecht by the weight there than by the weight of the aforesaid standard, they have been burdened by process of the exchequer, to their great damage. May it please our said lord the king, in way of charity, to grant a general pardon of the aforesaid forfeiture both to those who have been charged by judgment and on that which is still demanded.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi se avisera en ce cas, et ferra de l'avis de nobles, prelatz et grantz de sa terre ce qe lui semblera pur le multz. The king will consider this case further and, on the advice of the nobles, prelates and great men of his land, do what seems to him to be for the best.
24. X. < Item, priont > [...] les communes de les countees de Somers' et Wiltes': qe come la ryvere apelle Avene parentre la citee de Bathe et la ville de Bristut, currant en partie parentre les countees de Somers' et Glouc', par la quele vitailles as ditz communes necessaries en craers et batailles poent estre amegnez et nemye par terre par obstacle de marreys, par gorses de piere et pale en le dit ryvere mys et faitz, et la terre d'unpart et d'autre de dit ryvere enhause, entaunt qe l'ewe est estope, arte et constreint, qe terres, prees et pastures adgisantz sont enoundez et par quele les ditz terres, prees et pastures sovent sont destruitz, et le passage des ditz craers et batailles ove vitailles et autres necessaries pur les ditz communes parentre les avanditz lieux sont destourbez, en damage et grevance des ditz communes; dount ils priont remedie, qe les ditz gorses purroient estre abatuz ou overez, issint qe les craers et les batailles purront passer entre les deux villes en ease des communes avantditz. [X. Obstacles on the River Avon.]
24. X. Also, the commons of the counties of Somerset and Wiltshire pray: concerning the river called Avon between the city of Bath and the town of Bristol, which runs for part of its course between the counties of Somerset and Gloucester, and by which victuals necessary to the said commonalty have to be brought in vessels and boats rather than by land; as a result of obstacles placed in the marshes, weirs of stone and straw set and built in the said river, and the raising of the land on either side of the said river, the water has been stopped, restrained and constricted, the adjacent lands, meadows and pastures are flooded, the said lands, meadows and pastures are often destroyed and the passage of the said vessels and boats with victuals and other necessaries for the said commonalty is disturbed between the aforesaid places, to the damage and grievance of the said commonalty. Wherefore they pray remedy, that the said weirs might be knocked down or removed so that the vessels and the boats can pass between the two towns, in ease of the aforesaid commonalty.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Pursue celui qi se sent grevez, et droit lui serra fait selonc la fourme de l'estatut en ce cas ordeine. (fn. ii-309-98-1) He who shall feel himself aggrieved shall pursue this, and justice will be done to him according to the form of the statute ordained in this case. (fn. ii-309-98-1)
25. XI. Item, a nostre dit seignur le roi et a soun dit conseil; prient les communes: qecome il estoit par lui grante qe nul purveiour fuisse s'il ne fesoit son paiement sur l'accat; qe pleise a lui qe ceste ordeinance soit tenuz come il estoit grante. (fn. ii-309-100-1) [XI. Payment for purveyances.]
25. XI. Also, to our said lord the king and his said council; the commons pray: that whereas it was granted by him that no-one be a purveyor unless he makes his payment upon the purchase; may it please him that this ordinance shall be upheld as it was granted. (fn. ii-309-100-1)
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Il plest au roi; et celui qi se sente grevez pursue et droit lui serra fait. It pleases the king; and he who shall feel himself aggrieved shall pursue this, and justice will be done to him.
[memb. 4]
26. XII. Item, prie la commune: qecome einz ces hures la ou plee ad este pendant entre nostre seignur le roi et autres de communes de roialme, si bien en l'escheqer come aillours, certeins ministres de conseil nostre seignur le roi ount fait enpaneller certeins gentz de eux mesmes, autres qe le viscount de lymesme voudroit avoir retourne; et le dit panell ount baille a viscount pur retourner, a grant damage de la partie. Par qi pleise a nostre seignur le roi granter qe desormes nul panell soit baille a viscount pur retourner par ascun ministre nostre dit seignur le roi, einz qe les viscounts puissent faire les retournes d'eux mesmes, tiels pur queles ils voudront respondre a roi et a la partie. Et si einz ces hures nul panell eit [col. b] en tiel manere este retourne, q'el soit de tout ouste, et tenuz pur nul, a quel hure qe la partie a qi il touche le voudra suire, ou chalenger, sur le passer de dit enqueste. [XII. Empanelling of juries by the king's officers.]
26. XII. Also, the commons pray: that whereas before this time when a plea has been pending between our lord the king and others of the commonalty of the realm, in the exchequer as well as elsewhere, certain officers of our lord the king's council have themselves caused certain people to be empanelled, other than those whom the sheriff himself would have returned; and the said panel has been delivered to the sheriff to be returned, to the great damage of the party. Wherefore may it please our lord the king to grant that henceforth no panel shall be delivered by any officer of our said lord the king to be returned by a sheriff, but that the sheriffs may make the returns themselves, of those who will answer to the king and to the party. And if before this time any panel has [col. b] been returned in such manner, it shall be completely removed and treated as null, from the time that the relevant party will sue or challenge upon the passing of the said inquest.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi voet qe tiels execucions soient faites en manere come la ley demande. The king wills that such procedures shall be carried out in the manner that the law requires.
27. XIII. Item, prie la commune: qecome certeins gentz de seint esglise, beneficez deinz le roialme d'Engleterre, et sibien denizeins come aliens, sibien provisours come autres, qe sont demurantz hors de roialme d'Engleterre, sibien en la court de Rome come aillours hors de ligeance nostre seignur le roi, as qeles grant apport est fait de la moneye d'Engleterre, a grant damage nostre seignur le roi et de tut sa commune; par qi pleise a nostre seignur le roi, qe touz tiels apportes soient desormes defenduz, et la dite moneye levee al oeps nostre seignur le roi, en meintenance de sez guerres, en manere come est fait des abbes et priours aliens. [XIII. Revenues of clergy resident abroad.]
27. XIII. Also, the commons pray: that whereas certain people of holy Church beneficed within the realm of England, both denizens and aliens, provisors as well as others, are living outside the realm of England, in the court of Rome as well as elsewhere outside the allegiance of our lord the king, to whom great payment is made of the money of England, to the great damage of our lord the king and of all his commonalty; wherefore may it please our lord the king that all such payments henceforth shall be forbidden, and the said money levied to the use of our lord the king, in maintenance of his wars, in the manner as it is done in respect of alien abbeys and priories.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi l'ad defendu, et le poet defendre ou doner conge a sa volunte. The king has forbidden it, and can forbid or allow it at his will.
28. XIV. Item, prie la commune: qe lui pleise granter pur diverses oppinions et grantz meschefs qe avignent sovent, et unqore purront avenir, de granter qe temps dount memorie ne court soit abregge, et nemye tenu de si longe temps de le roi Richard, come ad estee use devant cel temps. [XIV. Limit of legal memory.]
28. XIV. Also, the commons pray: that it may please him, as a result of various uncertainties and great misfortunes that often occur and still could occur, to grant that the limit of legal memory be shortened, and not held from as long ago as the time of King Richard, as has been observed before this time.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Estoise le temps limitee come ore est tantqe autrement soit ordeine par bone avis. The limit of legal memory shall remain as it is now until otherwise ordained by good advice.
29. XV. Item, purceqe justice de la pees et de laborers ne parnent fees ne gages de roi, par q'ils ne fount diligealment lour office, en desavantage de roi et del poeple; dount soit ordeine remedie. [XV. Payment of justices of the peace.]
29. XV. Also, because justices of the peace and of labourers do not take fees or wages from the king, they do not perform their offices diligently, to the disadvantage of the king and of the people; wherefore remedy shall be ordained.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soit regard ordeine solonc l'avis de conseil a meilour leyser. Payment shall be ordained at greater leisure according to the advice of the council.
30. XVI. Item, purceqe laborers et servantz sey fuent d'un countee en autre, dount les uns vont as grantz villes et devignent artificers, les uns en estrange pays pur laborer, par cause des excessives lowers, nient demurantz en certein en nul lieu, par qi execucion de l'estatut ne puist estre fait vers eux, et les uns devignent larons; et purce qe punissement suffisaunt n'est ordeyne sur tiels qe les preignent et recettent; dount soit ordeine remedie. [XVI. Contraventions of the labour laws.]
30. XVI. Also, labourers and servants flee from one county to another, and because of excessive wages, certain of them go to great towns and become artisans, and others go to foreign countries to work, not staying definitely in any place, as a result of which execution of the statute cannot be made against them, and some become robbers; and sufficient punishment is not ordained upon those who take and receive them; wherefore remedy should be ordained.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Soient les estatuz ent ordeinez gardez et duement executz. (fn. ii-309-128-1) The statutes ordained thereon shall be upheld and duly executed. (fn. ii-309-128-1)
31. XVII. Item, purceqe les eschetours nostre seignur le roi, sovent foith par mandement le roi et par colour de lour office, enquergent des biens et chateux des futifs et felons, deodandes et autres tieux choses a roi appendantz, et les levent des villes et des totez gentz tieux chateux entremains eiantz ou ent a respondre chargez; parount mesmes les gentz ou lour heirs, par defaut d'acquitance de mesmes les eschetours, par roule des justice, ou par novel enquerre, ou en autre manere, purront autrefoith ent estre chargez. Qe pleise a nostre dit seignur et a son conseil ordeigner qe chescun eschetour eit pleine commission de ceo faire. Et s'ils riens levent d'ascuny sanz comissioun, et sanz tiel acquitance faire, qe la partie eit sa suite devers eux devant les justice de la pees, ou justice d'assises, et de recoverer le double de tiels biens de lui levez, et cely qe les leve ala prisoun, come pur chose fait encontre la pees. [XVII. Levy of goods and chattels by escheators.]
31. XVII. Also, because the escheators of our lord the king, by the king's command and by colour of their office, often inquire into the goods and chattels of fugitives and felons, deodands and other such things belonging to the king, and levy them from vills and from all people having such chattels in hand or charged to answer thereon; whereby the same people or their heirs, in default of an acquittance from the same escheators, can be charged thereon again by the rolls of justices or by new inquiries or in other ways. May it please our said lord the king and his council to ordain that every escheator shall have a full commission to do this. And if he levy anything from anyone without a commission, and without making such an acquittance, the party shall have his suit against the escheator before the justices of the peace or the justices of assizes and shall recover double the value of such goods levied from him, and he who levied them will go to prison as for a thing done against the peace.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Face son office par vertue de sa commission; et quant a recoverir de damages, remedie est ordeine par estatut. The escheator shall perform his office by virtue of his commission; and as regards recovery of damages, remedy is ordained by statute.
32. XVIII. Item, prie la commune: qe le cirographer ne sez clerks ne preignent desormes pur la note et pur [p. ii-313][col. a] l'engrosser d'un fyn fors soulment .iiij. s. come par l'estatut fuist; et q'ils facent engrosser les fyns apluis toust come la ley le suffre, sanz delay faire as parties pur pluis avoir pur lour travaill, ou par colour de lour office; sur peine de forffaiture de lour office, et de paier ala partie greve sez damages a double. Et qe les justice de bank facent execucion de ceste ordeinance par pleint a suite de partie; et qe les attornes faitz ou assignez aprendre la partie de cirographs eient power, par force de mesme l'ordeinance, c'estassavoir chescun pur soun mestre, aprendre tiels pleintes sanz autre garrant de attorne. [XVIII. Fines in the common bench.]
32. XVIII. Also, the commons pray: that neither the chirographer nor his clerks henceforth shall take anything for writing and [p. ii-313][col. a] engrossing fines except the 4s. stated by the statute; and they shall cause the fines to be engrossed as soon as the law allows it, without causing delay to the parties to have more for their labour or by colour of their office, upon penalty of forfeiture of their office and of paying double his damages to the aggrieved party. And that the justices of the bench shall execute this ordinance upon plaint at the suit of the party; and that the attorneys appointed or assigned to inform the party of the chirographs shall have authority on the basis of the same ordinance, that is to say, each for his master, to pursue such plaints without needing additional warrants of attorney.
[memb. 5]
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Il plest au roi. It pleases the king.
33. XIX. Item, pleise a nostre dit seignur le roi qe touz les viscountes et eschetours soient remuez chescun an, come il estoit nadgairs ordeine par l'estatut. (fn. ii-309-140-1) Et qe les viscontes et eschetours soient faitz des meultz vanez de countee, qe purront respondre a roi et a partie. [XIX. Offices of sheriff and escheator.]
33. XIX. Also, may it please our said lord the king that all the sheriffs and escheators shall be removed each year, as it was formerly ordained by the statute. (fn. ii-309-140-1) And that the sheriffs and escheators shall be appointed from the most respected men of the county, who can answer to the king and to the party.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi le voet. The king wills it.
34. XX. Item, qe les coilliours del darrein subside par tout Engleterre (fn. ii-309-145-1) soient allowez pur lours mises et custages come les coilliours de la quinzeisme soleient estre allowez et come les autres officers des diverses places nostre seignur le roi sont allowez pur lours offices et custages. [XX. Expenses of collectors of the special subsidy.]
34. XX. Also, that the collectors of the last subsidy collected throughout England (fn. ii-309-145-1) shall have allowance for their outlay and expenses in the same way as the collectors of the fifteenth customarily have their allowance and other officers of various courts of our lord the king have allowance for their undertakings and expenses.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Regard lour serra fait par avis du conseil. Payment will be made to them by the advice of the council.
35. XXI. < Item, monstre > [...] sa commune: q'ils sont grandement empoverez par le savagine qe destroient lours blees et pastures issint qe plusours lessent lours terres giser freschez, et plusours villes desenhabitez prest les forestes; pur quel desenhabitement les communes portent grevouses charges en diverses subsides et autres eides grantez a roi par la commune. Et auxint plusours sont enditez sur savagine pris hors del bounde del foreste, et par tiels enditementz, pris et emprisonez; et pur lours deliverances paient fyns et raunsons a roi, fees a foresters et as autres ministres, al anientisement del dist commune, et nul profit pur le roi. Sur qoi supplie la dite commune qe nul fee, n'autre chose, pur tieux enditementz desormes soit pris. Et qe gentz de pays purront chaser le purale sanz reez ou stableye faire, sanz estre attache, endite ou empesche par forester ou autre ministre. [XXI. Hunting of game in the purlieus of the royal forests.]
35. XXI. Also, his commons declare: that they are greatly impoverished by the game animals which destroy their corn and pastures so that many leave their lands to lie fallow, and many vills near the forests are uninhabited; for which lack of people the commonalty bears grievous burdens in various subsidies and other aids granted to the king by the commonalty. And also many people are indicted for taking game animals outside the boundaries of the forest, and are taken and imprisoned for such indictments; and they pay fines and ransoms to the king and fees to foresters and other officers for their deliverance, to the destruction of the said commonalty and with no profit for the king. Wherefore the said commons pray that no fee or other thing henceforth shall be taken for such indictments. And that the people of the country can hunt within the purlieu of the forests so long as they do not use snares or hunting parties, and without being attached, indicted or impeached by a forester or other officer.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Estoise la chartre de la foreste en sa force et vertue. (fn. ii-309-153-1) The power and authority of the Charter of the Forest shall stand. (fn. ii-309-153-1)
36. XXII. < Item, prie > [...] sa commune: qecome avant ces hures fuist ordeine qe le archevesqe de Caunterbirs et autres evesqes faisent amendement de ceqe lours comissaries et officials des archedekenes et autres de lours ministres parnent excesse pur proeve de testament, et ent acquitance faire; (fn. ii-309-155-1) et s'ils ne faisent, qe le roi face enquere par sez justices de tiels excesses, et s'ils le troevent, d'ajugger pur extorcion. Et purceqe tiels justices sont rerement assiz par commission de enquere de tiels excesses et extorcions, homme ne puist mye estre aide de tiels injuries faitz, et par cel cause les avant ditz comissaries et officials et lours ministres ount pris pluis q'ils ne soleient faire, pur defaute de punissement. Qe pleise de mettre en certein combien ils prendront; et s'ils parnent oultre, qe chescun qe soi sente greve q'il poet pursure en chescun court ou il pleist, par bref original ou par bille devaunt justices de record; et qe cely qe seit trove coupable de tiel extorcionouse prise, q'il paiera disfoith ataunt, dount le roi eit le moite, et la partie qe suist l'autre moite. [XXII. Proving of wills.]
36. XXII. Also, his commons pray: that whereas before this time it was ordained that the archbishop of Canterbury and other bishops should make amends for the excessive amounts which their commissaries and the officials of archdeacons and others of their officers take for proving wills, and making acquittance thereon; (fn. ii-309-155-1) and that if they did not make amends, the king would inquire into such excesses through his justices, and if they should find excess, to declare them guilty of extortion. And because such justices are rarely appointed by commission to inquire into such excesses and extortions, one cannot obtain assistance against such injuries, and for this reason the aforesaid commissaries and officials and their officers have taken more than they ought, for default of punishment. May it please him to establish precisely how much they should take; and if they take more, that every person who feels himself aggrieved can pursue in any court he pleases by original writ or by bill (as a matter of record) before the justices; and that he who shall be found guilty of such wrongful extortion will pay ten times as much, of which the king shall have one half and the party who sues the other half.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi ad comande as prelatz q'ils facent due et covenable amendement; et s'ils ne facent, le roi ordeinera de sa seignurie covenable remedie. The king has ordered the prelates to make due and suitable amends; and if they do not, the king, of his own authority, will ordain suitable remedy.
[col. b]
37. XXIII. < Item, prient > [...] les communes del roialme d'Engleterre: qecome l'ercevesqes, evesqes, archideaknes et lours officials, comissaries et autres officers preignent des executours les sealx ove les cheynes de les testatours, ou fyns et redempcions pur les ditz sealx, ou autrement ils ne voillent deliverer administracion des biens des ditz testatours a les executours. Par qei prient les ditz communes a nostre dit seignur le roi qe si les ditz ministres de seint esglise de ceo soient atteintz, a suite de roi ou de partie, par brief ou par bille, q'ils paient disfoith ataunt come ils resceivont; et eit cely qe sue pur le roi ou pur lui mesmes l'une moite, et le roi l'autre moite, auxibien de temps passe come de temps avenir. [XXIII. Confiscation of seals of testators during proving of wills.]
37. XXIII. Also, the commons of the realm of England pray: that whereas the archbishops, bishops, archdeacons and their officials, commissaries and other officers take from executors the seals and sealing cords of the testators, or else take fines and redemptions for the said seals, as a condition for delivering administration of the goods of the said testators to the executors. Wherefore the said commons pray our said lord the king that if the said officers of holy Church are attainted of this, at the suit of the king or of the party, by writ or by bill, they shall pay ten times as much as they received; and he who sues for the king or for himself shall have one half, and the king the other half, for times past as well as for times to come.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Eient les prelatz et autres lour ministres les sealx et cheines de ces qe les voillent doner de lour bon gree, issint qe nul soit constreint a ce faire contre sa volunte. The prelates and other of their officers shall have the seals and sealing cords of those who will given them of their free will, but no-one shall be forced to do this contrary to his will.
38. XXIV. Item, prie la commune: qe desicome en la grande chartre soit contenuz, 'quod nulli negabimus, nulli vendemus aut differemus rectum aut justiciam', (fn. ii-309-165-1) al entente des ascuns fyns qe sont pris en la chauncellerie en plusours briefs a contraire del dit estatut, en grant empoverissement de poeple. De qei ils priont remedie, et qe le dit estatut soit desclarree. [XXIV. Fines in chancery.]
38. XXIV. Also, the commons pray: whereas it is contained in the Great Charter, 'that to no-one will we refuse, sell or delay right or justice', (fn. ii-309-165-1) some fines taken in the chancery upon many writs are in effect contrary to the said statute, to the great impoverishment of the people. Wherefore they pray remedy, and that the said statute shall be affirmed.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi usera sicome il et ses auncestres ont fait avant ces heures; et chargera son chanceller qe les fines soient resonables selonc l'estat des persones. The king will do as he and his ancestors have done before this time; and he will order his chancellor that the fines shall be reasonable, according to the estate of the persons concerned.
39. XXV. Item, prie la commune: q'en touz cas de reddisseisine, et la ou bref est mande a viscount d'enquere de wast et de amesurement de pasture, et en touz autres cas ou homme serra atteint des damage, cely encontre qi l'enqueste passe puisse avoir l'atteint franchement, sanz fyn faire, et sibien des tiels enquestes passez en temps passe come en temps avenir. [XXV. Attaint in inquiries of redisseisin.]
39. XXV. Also, the commons pray: that in all cases of redisseisin where a writ is sent to the sheriff to inquire into the waste and admeasurement of pasture, and in all other cases where anyone will be attainted for damages, he against whom the inquest is held may have the attaint freely, without making fine, and this for such inquests in times past as well as in times to come.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Estoise en manere come ad este usee avaunt ces heures. It shall stand in the same manner as has been observed before this time.
40. XXVI. Item, prie la commune: qecome les heirs dez tenauntz qe tiendrent de nostre dit seignur le roi en chief, par service de chivaler ou autrement, nient eiantz conisance de la ley, et esteantz de plein age a temps del moriant de lour auncestre, ount entrez en lour heritage sanz due processe faire en la chauncellerie; par qei lours ditz terres ount este seisez en la main nostre dit seignur le roi longe temps apres la mort par cel cause; et .xx. ou .xl. aunz apres lours heirs, et ceux as qeux les ditz terres ount este alienez par eux ou lours heirs, nient sachant de cel defaute ount este sovent foith grevez sanz coupe de eux, et sovent foith chargez des issues de ycelles heritages puis la mort l'auncestre paramont, en destruccion de eux pur touz jours. Qei pleise a nostre dit seignur le roi, en oevre de charite, et en ease de soun poeple, pardoner en cest present parlement touz les trespas devant ces hures en tieu cas faitz, et qe desoremes nul homme soit en cel cas empeche. [XXVI. Liability of heirs of those making unlawful entry to lands held in chief of the crown.]
40. XXVI. Also, the commons pray: that whereas the heirs of tenants who hold of our said lord the king in chief, by knight service or otherwise, being ignorant of the law and being of full age at the time of the death of their predecessors, have entered into their inheritances without making due process in the chancery; for which reason their said lands have been seised into the hands of our said lord the king a long time after the death; and 20 or 40 years afterwards, their heirs and those to whom the said lands have been alienated by them or their heirs, not knowing of this default, have often been troubled without being guilty, and have often been charged for the issues of the same inheritances after the death of the common ancestor, to their perpetual destruction. May it please our said lord the king, in way of charity and in ease of his people, to pardon in this present parliament all the trespasses made before this time in such cases, and that henceforth no man shall be impeached on this matter.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi ne se voet demettre des droitz de sa corone, mes voet faire grace la ou lui plerra en tiel cas. The king will not deprive himself of the rights of his crown, but will do favour where it pleases him in such cases.
[memb. 6]
Vacat. [XXVII. Purchase of redemptions by clergy.] Void.
41. [[The following text has been deleted:
XXVII. Item, prie la commune: qe come autrefoith au parlement tenuz a Wyncestre, 1 supplie yfuist par la commune, de remedie de ceqe les prelatz et ordinares de seint esglise pristrent sommes pecuniers de gentz de seint esglise et autres, pur redempcion de lour pecche de jour en jour, et an en an, de ceqe ils tiendrent overtement lours concubines, et pur autres pecches et offenses a eux surmys, dount peyne pecunier ne serroit pris de droit; quele chose est cause, meintenance et norisement de lour pecche, en overte desclandre et mal ensaumple de tut la commune; quele chose issint continue nient duement puny est desesploit au roi et a tout le roialme. ]]
41. [[The following text has been deleted:
XXVII. Also, the commons pray: that whereas previously at the parliament held at Winchester 1 remedy was requested by the commons, because from day to day and year to year the prelates and ordinaries of holy Church take sums of money from people of holy Church and others for redemption of their sins, because they openly keep concubines, and for other sins and offences pronounced upon them, for which a money penalty should not rightfully be taken; which practice is the cause, perpetuation and encouragement of their sins, to the open shame and bad example of all the commonalty, and which, if it continues and is not duly punished, is to the detriment of the king and of all the realm. ]]
[[The following text has been deleted:
Qe pleise a nostre seignur le roi ent ordeiner qe touz tiels redempcions soient de tut oustiez; et qe si nul viegne encontre ceste ordeinance, qe le parnour encourge la somme del double issint pris devers le roi, et cely qe le paie eit mesme la peyne. Et qe justices d'assises et de la pees, a totez les foithz q'il bosoigne, eient poiar d'oier et terminer a suite de roi et de partie touchantz les choses suisditz. Et soit qeconqe persone resceu a suire pur le roi, et eit la moite de ceqe serra recovery pur son travail. ]]
[[The following text has been deleted:
May it please our lord the king to ordain thereon that all such redemptions shall be completely prohibited; and that if anyone shall go against this ordinance, the taker shall be liable to the king for double the sum thus taken, and he who pays it shall have the same penalty. And that justices of assizes and of the peace, whenever necessary, shall have power to hear and determine the aforesaid things at the suit of the king and of the party. And any person whatsoever shall be received to sue for the king, and for his labour shall half one half of that which will be recovered. ]]
Vacat. [XXVIII. Action against clergy who keep concubines.] Void.
42. [[The following text has been deleted:
XXVIII. Item, supplie la commune: en avantage de nostre seignur le roi et de tout le roialme, qe les gentz de seint esglise beneficez et curats qe tiegnent lours concubines par certein temps overtement, parount ils sont privables et privez en ley de seint esglise; qe si lours ordinaries ne facent due execucion deinz un dymye an apres le dit temps, qe l'esglise soit tenu voide par ley de terre, et qe cely q'est patroun puisse presenter. Et si l'ordinarie, en qi defaut due execucion de ceo n'est fait, soit patroun, qe title acresce a nostre seignur le roi de presenter a mesme le benefice issint voide. Et qe l'evesqe ou le ordinarie del lieu soient tenuz a resceivre lez presentez en le cas.]]
42. [[The following text has been deleted:
XXVIII. Also, the commons petition: to the advantage of our lord the king and of all the realm, concerning people beneficed of holy Church and curates who openly keep concubines for a certain time, by which they are liable to be deprived, and are deprived, of their benefices by the law of holy Church; that if their ordinaries do not make due execution within six months after the said time, the church shall be held to be vacant by the law of the land, and he who is the patron may present to it. And if the ordinary who failed to make due execution is the patron, the right to present to the same benefice thus vacant shall fall to our lord the king. And that the bishop or the ordinary of the place shall be obliged to accept the presentees in such cases.]]
Vacat. [XXIX. Rights of inheritance.] Void.
Demi sank. Half blood.
XXIX. [[The following text has been deleted:
Item, prie la commune: qe pur temps avenir soit ordeigne, qe si homme enherite eit engendrure des diverses femmes, ou femme enherite eit issu par diverses barons, et le heir ou les heirs del un ou del autre entre ou entrent par descent de heritage apres la mort lour piere ou miere, et deviont sanz issu de lour corps, qe cely q'est pluis proschein heir de sank a piere ou a miere de qi la heritage descendi soit enherite, tut soit il de dymy sank a cely qe drein morust seisi des tenemenz. ]]
XXIX. [[The following text has been deleted:
Also, the commons pray: that for the future it shall be ordained that if a man with rights of inheritance has offspring by various women, or a woman with rights of inheritance has issue by various men, and the heir or heirs of one or other enters by descent of inheritance after the death of their father or mother, and then dies without issue of their body, that he who is the nearest heir by blood to the father or mother from whom the inheritance descended shall have the right of inheritance, though he be of half blood to him who previously died seised of the holdings.]]
43. XXX. Item, prie la commune: qecome recordes et qeconqe chose en la court le roi, de reson devoient demurer illeoqes pur perpetuel evidence et eide de touz [col. b] parties a ycely et de touz ceux a qeux en nul manere ils atteignent, quant mestier lour fuist; et ja de novel refusent en la court nostre dit seignur de serche ou exemplificacion faire des nulles riens qe purra chier en evidence encontre le roi ou desavantage de ly. Qe pleise ordeiner par estatut qe serche et exemplificacion soient faitz as touz gentz de qeconqe recorde qe les touche en ascun manere, auxibien de ceqe chiet encontre le roi come autres gentz. [XXX. Right of access to records in the king's courts.]
43. XXX. Also, the commons pray: that whereas records and so on received in the king's courts should by right remain there as permanent evidence and assistance for all those [col. b] party to them and, when necessary, for all those to whom they relate in any manner; recently the courts of our said lord the king have refused to make a search or exemplification of anything that might fall in evidence against the king or to his disadvantage. May it please him to ordain by statute that such searches and exemplifications shall be made for all people on whatever record concerns them in any manner, whether it falls against the king or against other people.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi le voet. The king wills it.
44. XXXI. Item, prie la commune: qecome de chescun hundred des countees sur la mer sont trovez sur la garde de mier pur enemys alienz certeins gentz q'est appelle petiwacche, a grant empoverissement des countees suisditz, et les qeux gentz ne fount illeqes autre bien si noun de garnir le pays de la venue des enemys, le quel puist auxibien estre fait par meindre noumbre des gentz; qe pleise abregger et descharger chescun hundred de la moite des gentz suisditz. [XXXI. Obligations for coastal defence.]
44. XXXI. Also, the commons pray: that whereas each hundred of the coastal counties have to find certain people called the 'little watch' to guard the sea from foreign enemies, to the great impoverishment of the aforesaid counties, and these people do no other good there except to warn the region of the coming of such enemies, which might also be done by a lesser number of people; may it please him to reduce and discharge each hundred of half of the aforesaid people.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Les gardeins sur les costers de la meer, par avis des seignurs et autres du pays, facent mettre tiel nombre come lour semblera qe doit suffire de reson. The keepers on the sea coasts, by the advice of the lords and others of the region, shall cause such a number to be set as seems to them shall reasonably suffice.
45. XXXII. Item, prient totez les bones gentz des countees d'Essex et Hertford a cest present parlement: qecome les viscountes des ditz countees soient chargez de lever par an des fermes, profitz et serjaunties des ditz countees; en queles sommes avanditz chescun viscount perde par an et pluis, qeux ne purreient en nul manere estre levez, par cause qe nostre dit seignur le roi nadgairs passe ad done certeinz hundredes, baillies et fees a diverses gentz, et plusours rentes, services et comodites as ditz viscountes et a soun office appurtenantz sont destruitz par cretyn de ewe de mer, par qei chescun < an un > homme de bien des ditz countees est destruit ameyns pur touz jours. Dount ils prient remedye. [XXXII. Sheriff's farm of Essex and Hertfordshire.]
45. XXXII. Also, all the good people of the counties of Essex and Hertfordshire at this present parliament pray: that whereas the sheriffs of the said counties are charged to levy £257 yearly from the farms, profits and serjeanties of the said counties; upon which aforesaid sum each sheriff loses £100 yearly and more, which cannot in any manner be levied because our said lord the king lately gave certain hundreds, bailiwicks and fees to various people, and many rents, services and commodities belonging to the said sheriffs and to their office are destroyed by floods of sea water, as a result of which each year at least one man of mean in the said counties is destroyed for ever. Wherefore they pray remedy.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi lour ad fait grace. The king has done favour to them.
[memb. 7]
[col. a]
46. XXXIII. A nostre seignur le roy et son noble conseil; monstrent ses citeszeins de sa citee de Londres: qe come ils n'eient dont vivere si noun par lour travaille et franchise, sur queux franchise la dite citee estoit funduz; et a cause du dite franchise ils soleient travailler par terre et meer en diverses terres a faire lour profit, par quele travaille ils soleient de diverses terres amesner diverses marchandises, a grant commune profit de tout la roialme d'Engleterre, a grant eyde et mayntenance de la dite citee, sustenance et encresce del navie de la dite terre. Et ore tard lour dites franchises lour sont tolluz, encontre la grante nostre dit seignur le roy ses nobles progenitours, ensealez desouz lour seals, et encontre la grante chartre, (fn. ii-309-207-1) a grant distrucion sibien du dite citee, communes damages de la terre come al dite navie. Sur qoy ils priont qe lour plese avoir regard qe la dite citee est funduz sur les ditz franchises, saunz queux ils ne poient la dite citee mayntener, ne les taxes et autres charges porter, come ils soloient faire. Sur qoy ils priont q'ils puissent avoir lours dites franchises solonc la grante nostre dit seignur le roy ses nobles progenitours et la grante chartre. Et qe altiels grantz confermemenz des fraunches soient faitz as toz altres citez et boroghs de roialme. [XXXIII. Franchises of the city of London.]
46. XXXIII. To our lord the king and his noble council; his citizens of his city of London pray: that whereas they have nothing to live on but their labour and franchise, upon which franchise the said city was founded; and by the said franchise they are accustomed to journey by land and sea to various lands to make their profit, from which expeditions they customarily bring back various merchandise from various lands, to the great general profit of the whole realm of England, to the great aid and maintenance of the said city and to the sustenance and increase of the fleet of the said land. Recently their said franchises have been impaired, contrary to the grant of our said lord the king's noble progenitors, sealed with their seals, and contrary to the Great Charter, (fn. ii-309-207-1) to the great destruction of the said city and the general detriment of the land and also to the said fleet. Wherefore they pray that it may please him to consider that the said city was founded on the said franchises, without which they could not maintain the said city or bear the taxes and other charges as they were accustomed to do. Wherefore they pray that they might have their said franchises according to the grant of our said lord the king's noble progenitors and the Great Charter. And that similar grants confirming franchises shall be made to all other cities and boroughs of the realm.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Declarent en especial queles franchises lour sont tolues, et droit lour serra fait. They shall declare in detail which of their franchises have been impaired, and justice will be done to them.
[col. b]
47. Item, ils monstrent: qe come par estatut nadgaires fait fuist ordeine qe nul homme de sa ligeance passeroit ove laynes hors du roialme, sur peyne de forfaiture de vie et membre, terres, tenementz, biens et chateux, a grant profit des aliens et a descres du pris de laynes et a damage de tout la roialme. (fn. ii-309-212-1) Et puis par une autre estatut fuist repellee la forfaiture de vie et membre sibien de temps passee come de temps avenir, la forfaiture de terres et tenementz, biens et chateux esteante en sa force. (fn. ii-309-212-2) Par quele cause tout la commune des marchantz Engleys pur la greindre partie eschueront et lesseront l'achat et marchandise de laynes, a grant amenusement du pris de laynes, et damage de tout la commune. Et ore tard, pur greindre profit du roi et de tout la commune de son roialme, par avys et accord de son conceil, estoit assentu et ordeinee qe toutes gentz devoroient et purroient passer laynes sibien denszeins come foreins; sur quele achat et passage des laynes, quirs et peaux lanuz les ditz marchantz Engleys sont et se doutent estre empechees et damagez sibien du temps passe come en temps avenir, pur cause de la forfaiture de lour terres, tenementz, biens et chateux. Par quoy plese en ceste present parlement faire pardon as ditz marchantz, et a chescun de eux, de tout forfaiture des terres, tenementz, biens et chateux compris en la dite ordenance, sibien [p. ii-315][col. a] du temps passee come en temps avenir. Et qe briefs et maundementz soient surce faitz en l'escheker, et totes autres places le roy, et aillours ou bosoinera, de surceser de tout de faire enquerres, processe ou execucion contre eux ou ascune autre persone par cele cause. Et qe la dite ordenance de forfaiture de terres et tenementz, biens et chateux soit de tout repellee, sibien de temps passe come de temps avenir. [Release from forfeiture in cases of illegal export of wool.]
47. Also, they declare: that whereas by a statute formerly made it was ordained that no man of his allegiance shall pass out of the realm with wool, upon penalty of forfeiture of life and limb, lands, tenements, goods and chattels, to the great profit of aliens, in decrease of the price of wool and to the damage of all the realm. (fn. ii-309-212-1) And then by another statute the forfeiture of life and limb was repealed for times past as well as for times to come, with the forfeiture of lands and tenements, goods and chattels remaining in force. (fn. ii-309-212-2) For which reason the whole commonalty of English merchants for the most part avoid and neglect to purchase and trade in wool, to the great deterioration of the price of wool and to the damage of all the commonalty. And recently, for the greater profit of the king and of all the commonalty of his realm, by the advice and accord of his council, it was agreed and ordained that all people should and could export wool, denizens as well as aliens; for which purchase and export of wool, leather and woolfells the said English merchants are and fear to be impeached and damaged for times past as well as for times to come, by the forfeiture of their lands, tenements, good and chattels. Wherefore may it please him in this present parliament to grant pardon to the said merchants, and to each of them individually, of all forfeiture of lands, tenements, goods and chattels contained in the said ordinance, for [p. ii-315][col. a] times past as well as for times to come. And that writs and orders shall be made thereon to the exchequer and all other courts of the king, and elsewhere when necessary, to cease completely from making inquiries, process or execution against them or any other person for this reason. And that the said ordinance concerning the forfeiture of lands and tenements, goods and chattels, shall be completely repealed, for times past as well as for times to come.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Est acorde et assentu qe la forfaiture de terres et tenemenz cesse de tout; et si nul vorra faire fyn pur tiel trespas, trete ove le conseil le roi, et reson lui serra fait. It is agreed and assented that the forfeiture of lands and tenements shall completely cease; and if anyone will make fine for such trespass, he shall speak with the king's council, and justice will done to him.
48. Item, ils monstrent: qe come par un autre estatut fuist ordeinee qe nul marchant Engleys passeroit vers les parties Garscoigne pur vyns achater illeoqes, si noun q'il trovasse seurete pur achater au meyns cent toneux de vyn, sur peyne de forfaiture de tout le vyn issint dedeins la dite somme achate; (fn. ii-309-217-1) a grant encherissement du dite marchandise, en damage et perde des niefs et de tout la roialme. Par qoy plese en ceste presente parlement ordeiner qe le dit estatut soit outrement [col. b] repelle et la forfaiture susdite pardone, sibien de temps passee come de temps avenir. [Wine trade with Gascony.]
48. Also, they declare: that whereas it was ordained by another statute that no English merchant should pass to parts of Gascony to buy wine there, unless he has found security to buy at least 100 tuns of wine, upon penalty of forfeiture of all the wine purchased below the said amount; (fn. ii-309-217-1) this practice is to the great increase of the price of the said merchandise, and to the damage and loss of ships and of all the realm. Wherefore may it please him in this present parliament to ordain that the said statute be completely [col. b] repealed and the aforesaid forfeiture pardoned, for times past as well as for times to come.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Estoise l'estatut ent fait en sa force, et si nul se sente empeschable par tiel cause, pursue grace devers le roi. The statute made thereon shall remain in force, and if anyone shall feel himself liable to impeachment in such case, he shall seek the king's favour.
49. Item, ils monstrent: qe les gentz qe ont passez lour laynes, quirs, peaux lanuz, par patente nostre seignur le roy desouz son grant seal, sibien a Middelbourgh come aillours, paiant la custume et subside; quele passage est encontre l'ordinance en la darrein parlement. (fn. ii-309-222-1) Qe lour plese garanter la dite passage saunz damage ou perde as ditz marchantz ou nul autre, solonc la tenure des ditz pautentes, nient contresteante le dit estatut. Et qe lour plese avoir regard qe l'estaple des laynes ad estee ordeinez d'estre en diverses lieuz, et sodeinement changez, a damage du roy et sa terre, et sur ce ordeiner qe le dit estaple puis estre ordeinee en ceste parlement d'estre en certein lieu, et par bon avisement, come mieulz serra au roy et sa terre. [Enforcement of the wool staple.]
49. Also, they declare: that people have exported their wool, leather and woolfells by the letters patent of our lord the king under his great seal, to Middelburg and elsewhere, paying the custom and subsidy; which export is contrary to the ordinance in the late parliament. (fn. ii-309-222-1) May it please them to guarantee the said export without damage or loss to the said merchants or any other, according to the tenor of the said letters patent, notwithstanding the said statute. And may it please them to consider that the staple of wool has been ordained to be in various places which are then suddenly changed, to the damage of the king and his land, and by good advice to ordain thereon that the said staple now be established in this parliament to be in a fixed place, as seems best for the king and his land.
[editorial note: Responsio.] [editorial note: Answer.]
Le roi ne voet q'ils soient grevez n'empeschez contre la fourme de lour patentes. The king wills that they should not be aggrieved or impeached contrary to the form of their letters patent.

Appendix 1372


Memorandum for the regency of Prince Richard during Edward III's projected absence from the realm on campaign in France. The top of the document is torn away. It states that Prince ... (who is described as the eldest son [ sic ] of the king) should be keeper of England while the king is out of the realm, and that he should have as his councillors William (Courtenay), archbishop of Canterbury, Simon (Sudbury) bishop of London, William (Wykeham) bishop of Winchester, Richard (Fitzalan) earl of Arundel, Ralph (Stafford) earl of Stafford, Hugh (Courtenay), earl of Devon, the chancellor and (?treasurer) of England, who should consult when necessary with other earls, barons, knights and others of the commonalty. Writs and letters patent are ordered to be sent under the great seal to the prelates, great men, lords, towns, sheriffs and communities of the shires and to the ministers of the prince in Wales enjoining them to be attendant upon the prince as the king's lieutenant. There follow three memoranda: for the appointment of keepers of the peace ('Item soient ordinez sufficeantz gardeins de la pees par tout Engleterre considerees en celle ordenance covenables persones pur la guerre et qi purront niefer les gentz arraiez sil busoigne'); for the appointment of the bishops of Durham and Carlisle, the earl of Angus, Lords Percy, Clifford, Dacre and Musgrave, and Sir Peter Maulay as keepers of the Scottish march, and that instructions be issued to them to remain on the marches at their nearest available places of residence, on pain of forfeiture; and for the sending of instructions to all the areas beyond the Trent that the inhabitants be attendant to the keepers of the marches in order to resist the malice of the Scots, upon which it might be necessary to charge the sheriffs and arrayers to array all those liable for the responsibility of defence.

Source : C 49/47/9.


Petition of the merchants and mariners of England concerning the state of the fleet. Apart from being addressed in the name of the merchants and mariners, rather than of the commons, the petition is identical to that contained on the parliament roll, item 20 (no. VI). The petition, complete in itself, is apparently cut away from a larger document: some traces of writing are evident at the foot of the membrane.

Source : E 28/1/9.


Petition of the poor commons of Berwick upon Tweed that they be allowed to trade in wool to Scotland at agreed rates of duty, in consideration of the great poverty of the town. Endorsed: the men of Berwick may buy Scottish wools and the wools of those parts of Scotland remaining in the hands of the king of England; they may not sell wool to be exported to Scotland on pain of forfeiture. The resulting chancery instrument containing the licence to trade is dated 12 December 1372 and warranted 'by petition of parliament'.

Sources : SC 8/209/10424; Rot.Scot. , I.953.


Petitions of the burgesses of Calais, in eight articles with the royal replies, copied verbatim into a chancery instrument dated 12 December 1372 warranted 'by king and council and by petition of parliament', granting that the staple for wool would remain at Calais and guaranteeing various rights of the burgesses.

Source : Foedera , III.ii.967.


Petition of the abbot of Abingdon for restoration of his temporalities; the resulting royal licence is dated 12 November 1372 and warranted 'by bill of parliament'.

Sources : SC 8/209/10412; CPR 1370-4 , 223-4; G. Lambrick, 'The impeachment of the abbot of Abingdon in 1368', EHR 82 (1967), 250-76, esp. 259-61 and 261, n. 1.


Petition of William Montagu, earl of Salisbury, made in the parliament of 1372 concerning his rights to the honour of Denbigh, assigned (so he claims, in error) to Roger Mortimer, earl of March, in 1354. The petition to the parliament in 1372, and another in 1373, are referred to in a further petition to parliament in 1377 which stated that no action had previously been taken because the new earl of March, Edmund Mortimer, had then been a minor. An extant petition on this matter of uncertain date may be that submitted in 1372 or 1373.

Sources : SC 8/15/735, printed in full in RP , II.392; RP , III. 7; Calendar of Ancient Petitions Relating to Wales , ed. W. Rees (Cardiff, 1975), 34-5.


  • f1372int-1. For further discussion, see D. Rayner, 'The forms and machinery of the "commune petition" in the fourteenth century', EHR 56 (1941), 225-6.
  • f1372int-2. RDP , IV.653-9. For payments to messengers delivering the writs of prorogation, see Issues of the Exchequer, Henry III-Henry VI , ed. F Devon (London, 1847), 194.
  • f1372int-3. Return of the Name of Every Member of the Lower House of Parliament 1213-1874 , 2 vols. (London, 1878), I.188-90. The missing name for Reading is supplied by M. McKisack, The Parliamentary Representation of the English Boroughs during the Middle Ages (Oxford, 1932), 147.
  • f1372int-4. A.K. McHardy, 'The representation of the English lower clergy in parliament during the later fourteenth century', SCH 10 (1973), 100 (n. 13) .
  • f1372int-5. CCR 1279-88 , 56-7; G.O. Sayles, The Functions of the Medieval Parliament of England (London, 1988), 172.
  • f1372int-6. H.G. Richardson and G.O. Sayles, The English Parliament in the Middle Ages (London, 1981), chap. XXI (pt. 2), 3-5.
  • f1372int-7. For what follows, see R. Barber, Edward, Prince of Wales and Aquitaine (London, 1978), 228-9.
  • f1372int-8. See the comments of A.L. Brown, 'Parliament, c. 1377-1422', in The English Parliament in the Middle Ages , ed. R.G. Davies and J.H. Denton (Manchester, 1981), 125.
  • f1372int-9. These calculations are made on a comparison between the parliament rolls of 1369 and 1372, on the one hand, and the commissions to the customs collectors in the fine rolls, on the other: CFR 1369-77 , 28, 189.
  • f1372int-10. M. Jurkowski, C.L. Smith and D. Crook, Lay Taxes in England and Wales 1188-1688 (London, 1998), 52-3, 55.
  • f1372int-11. CFR 1369-77 , 124-8.
  • f1372int-12. SR , I.394 and n.
  • f1372int-13. K.L. Wood-Legh, 'Sheriffs, lawyers and belted knights in the parliaments of Edward III', EHR 46 (1931), 372-81; The House of Commons 1386-1421 , ed. J.S. Roskell, L. Clark and C. Rawcliffe, 4 vols. (Stroud, 1993), I. Appendix B2.
  • f1372int-14. Wood-Legh, 'Sheriffs, lawyers', 380-1.
  • f1372int-15. The arguments have been fully reviewed by G. Dodd, 'Crown, magnates and gentry: the English parliament, 1369-1421', D.Phil. thesis, University of York (1998), 38-40, 184.
  • f1372int-16. M.M. Taylor, 'Parliamentary elections in Cambridgeshire, 1332-38', BIHR 8 (1940-1), 21-6.
  • f1372int-17. For the importance of this latter function in the responsibilities of the knights of the shire, see J.R. Maddicott, 'Parliament and the constituencies, 1272-1377', in English Parliament , ed. Davies and Denton, 62-72.
  • f1372int-18. For a recent discussion, see Dodd, 'Crown, magnates and gentry', 193-200.
  • f1372int-19. 25 Edw III st. 3 c. 4 ( SR , I.315); 45 Edw III c. 2 ( SR , I.393).
  • f1372int-20. Parliament of 1365, Appendix no. 6.
  • f1372int-21. CCR 1369-74 , 475-7.
  • f1372int-22. The details of this earlier grant are reconstructed from CFR 1369-77 , 141; see also T.H. Lloyd, The English Wool Trade in the Middle Ages (Cambridge, 1977), 218.
  • f1372int-23. W.M. Ormrod, 'Finance and trade under Richard II', in Richard II: The Art of Kingship , ed. A. Goodman and J. Gillespie (Oxford, 1999), 172-3.
  • f1372int-24. The details are contained in CFR 1369-77 , 197.
  • f1372int-25. For which see W.M. Ormrod, The Reign of Edward III (London, 1990), 173-4.
  • f1372int-26. See parliament of 1371, item 29.
  • f1372int-27. See parliament of 1371, item 30.
  • f1372int-28. Lloyd, Wool Trade , 219-20.
  • f1372int-29. N. Saul, Knights and Esquires: The Gloucestershire Gentry in the Fourteenth Century (Oxford, 1981), 136.
  • f1372int-30. Parliament of 1371, item 39; and see Introduction to parliament of 1371.
  • f1372int-31. Parliament of 1371, item 36; A.J. Verduyn, 'The attitude of the parliamentary commons to law and order under Edward III', D.Phil. thesis, University of Oxford (1991), 164.
  • f1372int-32. W.M. Ormrod, 'An experiment in taxation: the English parish subsidy of 1371', Speculum 63 (1988), 80 (n. 111).
  • f1372int-33. W.M. Ormrod, 'The politics of pestilence: government in England after the Black Death', in The Black Death in England , ed. W.M. Ormrod and P.G. Lindley (Stamford, 1996), 169 (n. 65).
  • ii-309-6-1. See Appendix no. 1
  • ii-309-6-2. RDP , IV.653-5
  • ii-309-6-3. RDP , IV.655-8
  • ii-309-60-1. SR , I.376-8
  • ii-309-65-1. SR , I.260 (c. xiv)
  • ii-309-88-1. SR , I.367-8 (c. xii)
  • ii-309-98-1. SR , I.315 (c. iv), 393 (c. ii)
  • ii-309-100-1. Unknown.
  • ii-309-128-1. SR , I.313 (c. vii), 367 (c. x)
  • ii-309-140-1. SR , I.266 (c. iv), 283 (c. vii), 388 (c. v)
  • ii-309-145-1. That is, the special subsidy of 1371: see Introductions to parliaments of 1371 and 1372
  • ii-309-153-1. SR , I.121 (cc. xi-xiii)
  • ii-309-155-1. Cf. parliament of 1371, item 24
  • ii-309-165-1. SR , I.117 (c. xxix)
  • ii-309-181-1. That is, the great council held at Winchester following the parliament of 1371: see Introduction to parliament of 1371. There is no record of this matter on the parliament roll of 1371, which reports some of the other business of the Winchester great council
  • ii-309-207-1. SR , I.115 (c. ix)
  • ii-309-212-1. SR , I.334 (c. iii)
  • ii-309-212-2. SR , I.384 (c. vi)
  • ii-309-217-1. SR , I.391 (c. ii)
  • ii-309-222-1. SR , I.390-1 (c. i)