Pages 237-240

An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Westmorland. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1936.

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106 WARCOP (G.c.)

(O.S. 6 in. (a)XV, N.E., (b)XVI, N.W., (c)XVI, S.W., (d)XXIII, N.W.)

Warcop is a parish and village 5 m. S.E. of Appleby. The church, the bridge and Warcop Hall are the principal monuments.


Warcop, the Parish Church of St Columba

c(1). Parish Church of St. Columba (Plate 10) stands N.W. of the village. The walls are of local sandstone rubble with dressings of the same material; the roofs are slate-covered. The lower part of the N. wall of the Nave may be part of a 12th-century church, and the thickness of the walls containing the transept-arches may indicate that it had a central tower. To this building Transepts were added in the 13th century; the S. transept seems to be rather the earlier; the chancel-arch was re-built late in the same century. The South Aisle was added in the 15th century when the W. wall was re-built. The South Porch is probably a 16th or 17th-century addition. The church was restored in 1855 when the Chancel was re-built; the two annexes W. of the N. transept are modern.

The church is of no great architectural interest, but among the fittings the enriched coffin-lids are noteworthy.

Architectural Description—The Chancel (35¼ ft. by 18 ft.) is modern except for the late 13th-century chancel-arch which has probably been reconstructed; it is two-centred and of two chamfered orders; the responds have each a half-round shaft with moulded capital and base.

The Nave (53½ ft. by 18½ ft.) has, in the N. wall, a 13th-century two-centred arch of two chamfered orders, the inner resting on modern corbels; the responds are splayed and the outer order of the arch on the N.E. is stopped with a trefoiled arch; farther W. is a modern window with traces of a blocked window to the E. and a blocked doorway to the W.; the doorway is probably of the 15th century and has chamfered jambs and two-centred head. In the S. wall is a 13th-century two-centred arch of two chamfered orders, the inner resting on modern corbels; the responds are chamfered but one angle on the E. has been partly cut away; farther W. is a 15th-century arcade of two bays, with two-centred arches of two chamfered orders; the octagonal column and the semi-octagonal responds have moulded capitals and bases. In the W. wall is a partly restored 15th-century window of three cinque-foiled lights in a square head with a moulded label; on the W. gable is a square bell-turret, perhaps of the 16th or 17th century; it projects to the E. and W. on corbels and has square-headed openings.

The North Transept (21¼ ft. by 18½ ft.) or Burton Porch, has two windows in the E. wall, two in the N. and one window and a doorway in the W. wall, all modern.

The South Transept (19¾ ft. by 19¼ ft.) or Blea Tarn Porch has an E. window, all modern except the early 14th-century outer jambs, two-centred arch and label with carved stops; in the S. wall is a square-headed window, largely modern except the external jambs, head, label and stops, which are of the 14th century. In the W. wall is a 15th-century two-centred arch of two chamfered orders; the semi-octagonal responds have moulded capitals and bases; the straight joint in the E. respond of the nave indicates that this arch is slightly later than the nave arcade.

The South Aisle (about 13 ft. wide) has, in the S. wall, a partly restored 15th-century window of four pointed lights in a square head with a moulded label; the 15th-century S. doorway has chamfered jambs and two-centred arch. In the W. wall is a window similar to that in the S. wall but of three lights. Across the aisle is a modern arch.

The South Porch is of the 16th or 17th century and has an outer archway with plain jambs and four-centred head.

The Roof of the nave is probably of the 15th century and has four trusses with curved collars and curved cutting on the principals above the collars; it is now ceiled. The S. transept has three plain trusses; perhaps of the 17th century; the roof is ceiled.

Fittings—Brass-indent: In former vestry—of inscription-plate, two shields or leopards' faces and two roundels. Brackets: In nave—over responds of chancel-arch, two stone corbels. Churchyard Cross: S. of transept—square base and lower part of octagonal shaft, formerly used for sundial. Coffin-lids (Plate 32): In N. transept—over W. doorway, (1) tapering slab with ornamental cross, foliagespray and sword; (2) slab with incised cross on stepped base, partly re-cut; forming jamb of same doorway, (3) tapering slab with ornamental cross. In churchyard—against S. aisle—(4) tapering slab with ornamental cross and sword; (5) tapering slab with ornamental cross and shears at side. In churchyard—S. of chancel, (6) plain tapering slab; S. of porch, (7) tapering slab with ornamental cross, sprigged stem and shears; (8) tapering slab with ornamental cross and shears; (9) tapering slab with ornamental cross, sprigged stem and sword. All late 13th or early 14th-century. Communion Table: In N. transept—with turned legs, late 17th-century, top modern. Door: In S. doorway—of battens with oak lock, date uncertain, front modern. Monument: In churchyard—S. of transept, freestone effigy of woman with veiled head-dress and probably dog at feet, probably 14th-century, much defaced. Piscinæ: In N. transept—in E. wall, recess with trefoiled head, moulded label and carved stops, round drain partly cut away, 13th-century. In S. transept—in S. wall, recess with moulded jambs, round head and label, probably 13th century. Scratchings: On masonry of N. transept and W. wall—various masons' marks. Seating: In N. transept—two stools with turned legs, probably early 18th-century. In S. transept—pew of late 17th-century panelling. Sedile: In N. transept —in S. wall, recess (Plate 47) with trefoiled head and moulded label, 13th-century, lower part altered. Sundial: On S. wall of porch—round scratch-dial. Miscellanea: In N. transept—on W. wall, stone panel with part of cross, mostly covered by boarding. In vicarage-garden—various worked and moulded stones, 13th-century and later.

Condition—Good, except timber work.


c(2). Warcop Bridge (Plate 153) over the Eden 650 yards S. of the church, is a rubble structure of three spans with segmental arches and cut-water piers. The arches have each four square ribs on the soffit and the cut-waters are splayed back below the semi-hexagonal refuges in the parapet. The roadway is about 10 ft. wide. The bridge dates probably from the 16th century and has been little altered.


c(3). Village Cross on the S. side of the village 650 yards E.S.E. of the church, is now represented only by five steps set square on plan. They are said to have been moved from a more central position in the village and now support a may-pole.

c(4). Warcop Hall (Plate 18), 450 yards E. of the church, is of two storeys; the walls are of rubble and the roofs are slate-covered. The W. part of the house was built late in the 16th century but the rest of the building is 18th-century or modern. The old block has a small gabled wing of the same age projecting to the S. Many of the windows are original and have stone mullions and moulded labels. In the N. wall is a doorway with a segmental head with a modern or re-cut inscription. The small wing projecting to the N. is of early 18th-century date. Inside the old building is some early 17th-century panelling and doors with cock's head hinges. The main room or old kitchen has a wide fireplace with a segmental head. On the first floor one room is lined with late 17th-century panelling. Several original doorways with four-centred heads, remain. The roof, with four trusses, is probably also original. The cellar beneath the main 18th-century block may be older than the superstructure.


b(5). Burton Hall, house and fish-ponds 1¾ m. N. of the church. The House is of two storeys; the walls are of rubble and the roofs are slate-covered. It belonged to the family of Hilton but the present building is largely modern. The porch has an outer doorway with moulded jambs and square head with a narrow riband-panel above and the whole enclosed in a cable-moulding; the mouldings are of Gothic form but the doorway in its present form is presumably of 16th-century or later date. The inner doorway is of the 14th or 15th century and has moulded jambs and ogee head. The outbuilding adjoining the house on the E. is of the same age and appears to have formed part of a larger house. Inside the house is a carved head-corbel and an early 16th-century stone shield with a variation of the Hilton arms. In the garden is the head of a window of two round-headed lights; it is probably of the 13th century. Other fragments are built into the house itself and into neighbouring buildings.

The Fish-ponds, W. of the house, are three in number, set in a rectangular enclosure surrounded by a ditch and bank with an outer bank on the S.E.


c(6). Outbuildings, at Sandford Hall ¾ m. W.N.W. of the church, are modern but incorporate some mediæval stones said to have come from a former chapel; they include the vaulted head of a small canopy.

c(7). Outbuilding at Sandford 270 yards W.S.W. of (6), is modern but incorporates a door-head with the initials and date R. and A.W. 1693.

c(8) High Green Farm, house 100 yards W.N.W. of (7), has been re-built, but incorporates a door-lintel with the initials and date T.M. 1690; the surname initial seems to have been cut away.

d(9). Abbey Hall, house at Bleatarn nearly 1½ m. S.W. of the church, is of two storeys; the walls are of rubble and the roofs are slate-covered. It was built probably in the 17th century but has been much altered and added to.



c(10). Earthwork, marked Camp on O.S., 50 yards S. of the church, consists of a fragmentary moated or ditched enclosure of nearly rectangular shape. It has been partly destroyed by houses and gardens but appears to have enclosed an area of about 2 acres. There is an outer bank along the W. end of the enclosure.


c(11). Earthwork, 500 yards N.E. of the church, appears to have formed a rhomboidal moated enclosure but the ditches on the N. and S. are very slight. The E. and W. ditches are still wet and have ramparts along both sides.


Howgill Fold, in the Parish of Warcop.

a(12). Earthwork, marked site of Fort on O.S., on the N. side of the main road at Coupland on the W. end of the parish, lies at the N.E. end of a slight ridge. The only remains are faint traces of a sinking about 87 ft. square and possibly of a cross-wall.

b(13). Howgill Fold, village-settlement (1,100 ft. above O.D.) 2¼ m. N.N.E. of the church, occupies a slight shelf on a S. slope. It consists of a rhomboidal enclosure with rounded angles enclosing an area of ¾ acre. The enclosing wall was about 6 to 8 ft. thick and towards the S. end of the N.W. wall is an entrance; this appears to have been partly blocked by two flagstones set on edge. There is a gap at the S.E. angle. Within the enclosure are traces of a circular hut or enclosure about 39 ft. in diameter and S.E. of it is a small circle of about 9 ft. Traces of other round huts remain in the northern part. The settlement appears to be of similar type to that in Dufton parish.


b(14). Tumuli are marked on the O.S. on the S. of the main road 1 m. N.N.W. of the church. They have now been ploughed out, but may be those referred to in Arch. Journ. III, p. 273, as being on Sandford Moor.

c(15). Lynchets, on a N. slope about ¾ m. S.E. of the church, are ill-defined.