A Topographical Dictionary of England. Originally published by S Lewis, London, 1848.
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DUDDON, a township, in the parish of Tarvin, union of Great Boughton, Second division of the hundred of Eddisbury, S. division of the county of Chester, 3 miles (N. W. by W.) from Tarporley; containing 200 inhabitants. The manor was for many generations in moieties between the families of Bruen and Done; the first passed, with Bruen-Stapleford, to Mr. Wilbraham, and the other with the Utkinton estate to Mr. Arden. Duddon Hall, which continued to be the seat of a younger branch of the Dones long after the extinction of the elder branch, is now a farmhouse. The township lies on the road from Tarporley to Chester, and comprises about 600 acres, of a clayey and sandy soil. The tithes have been commuted for £44. 2. payable to the vicar, and £67. 7. to the Dean and Chapter of Lichfield. A church, dedicated to St. Peter, was erected in 1833, with a national school adjoining.
DUDLESTON, a chapelry, in the parish and union of Ellesmere, hundred of Pimhill, N. division of Salop, 4¾ miles (N. W. by N.) from Ellesmere; containing 1030 inhabitants. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Crown; impropriators, H. Mainwaring and E. Kynaston, Esqrs.; net income, £238. The chapel is dedicated to St. Mary, and has been enlarged. A school, now in union with the National Society, was endowed with a rent-charge of £10 by Frances Edwards.
DUDLEY, a borough, and the head of a union, in the Lower division of the hundred of Halfshire, Dudley and E. divisions of the county of Worcester, though locally in the S. division of the hundred of Offlow and of the county of Stafford, 26 miles (N. N. E.) from Worcester, and 118 (N. W. by N.) from London; containing 31,232 inhabitants, of whom 17,077 are in the town. This place derives its name from Dodo, or Dudo, a Saxon prince, by whom it was owned at the time of the heptarchy, and who built a castle here about the year 700, which, during the contest between Stephen and the Empress Matilda, was garrisoned for the latter by Gervase Paganell, to whom the barony at that time belonged. Gervase having subsequently taken part in the rebellion of Prince Henry against his father, Henry II., his castle was demolished in the 20th year of that monarch's reign. Roger de Somery, obtaining possession of the barony, began to convert his mansion into a castle, and for his firm adherence to Henry III. in his wars with the barons, was permitted by his sovereign to perfect the fortifications. The present keep, with the gateway and chapel, is of the architecture of the 13th century; the other buildings were erected by John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, in the time of Edward VI. In the early part of the civil war the castle was garrisoned by the royalists, and in 1644 defended by Colonel Beaumont with great bravery against the parliamentarians, who were compelled to raise the siege by the arrival of a detachment from Worcester; it was afterwards made untenable by order of the house of commons, and an accidental fire, which occurred in 1750, completed its demolition.
The castle was built on an elevated limestone rock, the summit and acclivities of which are richly wooded; the remains are extensive and highly interesting, and comprise the entrance gateway, leading to a court-yard of about an acre, on one side of which, overlooking the town, is the keep, consisting of four circular towers connected by a curtain, two of them in ruins, and raised on a lofty artificial mound. Further on are, the chapel, a curious specimen of architecture; the great hall, 75 feet by 56, approached by a colonnade of the Doric order; and the domestic apartments and offices, in the Elizabethan style. The postern tower and buildings connected with it, including an octagonal staircase tower, occupy a third side of the court-yard, the fourth being protected by a strong wall. A moat surrounded the whole, and additional protection was given by strong outworks. The castle and its precincts are extra-parochial; the grounds are very extensive, and have been beautifully laid out in shrubberies and walks, affording a succession of different views of this highly picturesque ruin. About half a mile from the town was a priory of Cluniac monks, founded about the year 1161 by Gervase Paganell, and dedicated to St. James, as a cell to the abbey at Wenlock; the revenue, at the Dissolution, was £36. 3. There are still considerable remains, mantled with ivy, forming a pleasing feature in the view from the Castle Hill; and near them the late Earl of Dudley erected a handsome building in the later English style, which, from its proximity to the ruins, is called the Priory.
The Town is situated in a tract of country whose surface is finely varied, though in several places disfigured by mining operations, which are extensively prosecuted in the vicinity; the principal street is spacious, and of a gently bending form, terminated by the lofty spire of the parish church. The whole is lighted with gas conveyed by pipes; it is macadamized, and the High-street has a broad flagged pathway on each side. The houses are in general neat and well built, and many of them large and elegant; the inhabitants are supplied with water, under an act obtained in 1833: the Castle Hill is a favourite place of resort, and highly interesting to the botanist. A public subscription library, established in 1805, contains a large collection of books: a geological society was founded in 1842. The Trade of Dudley arises chiefly from the geological character of the neighbourhood, which is remarkable for the variety and extent of its mines of coal and ironstone, lying on each side of a ridge of basaltic rock and limestone. Between the different veins of coal are found immense beds of ironstone; and the produce of this singularly rich mineral district affords an abundant supply for numerous works. In Tividale are the coal-works of Messrs. Wagstaff and Skidmore. The iron manufacture is carried on to a very considerable extent; a large quantity of ore is smelted, and the metal is not only formed into pigs, bars, sheets, and rods, but in extensive foundries cast into water and gas pipes, cylindrical pillars, rafters, gates, hurdles, and other articles, and manufactured into spades, scythes, grates, fenders, vices, and indeed into implements of agriculture and tools of every description: the vicinity, for a circuit of several miles, abounds with nail manufacturers. The Withymoor works, for manufacturing scythes, spades and shovels, nails, chains, &c., have been carried on by the Griffin family for more than a century, and many of the articles made here are secured by patent. The Burnt-Tree works, belonging to Mr. Thomas Marsh, were established in 1827, and employ about 120 persons in the manufacture of grates, fenders, and fire-irons. The limestone, exclusively of what is consumed in the making of iron, to which, from its superior quality, it gives a high degree of perfection, is used for agricultural and architectural purposes, and is much admired for the beauty and variety of the fossils with which the stone abounds. The basalt is chiefly obtained in the adjoining parish of Rowley, and is well adapted for making and repairing roads, being little inferior to granite. The manufacture of flint glass is carried on extensively, and there are several cutting-mills. Here is a brewery, belonging to Messrs. Scholefield, Young, and Stephen; and the business done in malting is considerable. A canal tunnel, one mile and threequarters in length, thirteen feet high, and nine feet wide, has been cut through the rock whereon the castle is built, for the conveyance of the limestone from the caverns under the Castle Hill, in which it is procured, to the iron-furnaces: it is in some places more than twenty yards below the surface, and communicates with the Birmingham and Stourbridge canals. An act was passed in 1845, authorising the construction of a railway from Oxford, by Worcester and Dudley, to Wolverhampton; and in 1846 two acts affecting Dudley were obtained, one for a line from Birmingham to the Oxford and Wolverhampton railway at Dudley, and the other for a line from the same town to the Liverpool and Birmingham railway at Bushbury, near Wolverhampton, with a branch to Dudley. An act has also been passed for a railway from Dudley to Walsall. The market is on Saturday: the fairs are on May 8th, for cattle, cheese, and wool; Aug. 5th, for lambs; and Oct. 2nd, for horses, cattle, cheese, onions, and wool. The town is under the superintendence of a mayor, bailiff, and other officers, appointed annually at the court leet of the lord of the manor; but they exercise no magisterial authority. It sent two members to parliament in the 23rd of Edward I., from which period it discontinued to exercise the privilege: it now sends one member under the act of the 2nd of William IV., cap. 45, the elective franchise being vested in the £10 householders of the parish, comprising 3632 acres; the returning officer is annually appointed by the sheriff. The powers of the county debt-court of Dudley extend over the registration-district, or poor law union.
Dudley formerly comprised the parishes of St. Thomas and St. Edmund, now united, the church of the former being parochial. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £7. 18. 6½.; net income, £1000; patron and impropriator, Lord Ward: the tithes were commuted for land and money payments in 1784. The church was rebuilt in 1819, at an expense of £23,000, of which sum, £7600, including £2000 contributed by the Earl of Dudley, were raised by subscription, and the remainder by a rate; it is a handsome structure in the later English style, with an elegant and lofty spire, and from its elevated situation forms a fine feature in the landscape. The church of St. Edmund, at the lower extremity of the town, having been demolished during the parliamentary war, was rebuilt, chiefly at the expense of two brothers of the name of Bradley, assisted by a subscription among the parishioners, about the commencement of the last century; it is now a district church, in the gift of the Vicar, with a net income of £200 a year. Churches at Evehill and Freebodies, in the parish, have been built on sites given by Lord Ward's trustees, by subscription, aided by a grant of £1000 from the Incorporated Society; they are neat edifices, and contain 1500 free sittings; the living of each is in the gift of the Vicar, and has an income of £200. A church has also been erected at Netherton, upon a site presented by the Earl of Dudley, who died in 1833; it is dedicated to St. Andrew: the income is £220, and the Vicar presents to this living also. There are places of worship for Primitive, Kilhamite, and Wesleyan Methodists, for Baptists, the Society of Friends, Independents, Roman Catholics, and Unitarians.
The free grammar school was founded in the year 1562, by Thomas Wattewood, clothier, of Stafford, and Mark Bysmore, silk-worker, of London, and endowed at various periods with land, the rental of which is £368. 18.: the old school-house having fallen into decay, the school was removed for some time to a house in Wolverhampton-street, and a handsome schoolroom was built in King-street in 1840; a good house was purchased for the master in 1836, in High-street. A charity school, and a charity for clothing seven poor men, were established on the 3rd of June, 1819, by Mrs. Cartwright, in consequence of a legacy for that purpose by the Rev. Henry Antrobus, minister of St. Edmund's, who died about half a century since. The Church Blue-coat school was founded in 1708, and there are now about 230 boys: part of the funds, which, by subsequent endowments by the Rev. Thomas Bradby and others, amount to £482. 6. 6., is applied to the support of an infants' school. A school of industry, in which about 200 girls are educated, is kept in the upper rooms of the Bluecoat school. There is also a school founded in 1732, and endowed with land, by Robert, Samuel, and Ann Baylis; the schoolroom has been rebuilt, in Towerstreet: there are from 230 to 240 boys, and under the superintendence of the charity is also a school of industry for 120 females. A fund of £63. 18., arising from a bequest of John Tandy and others, is distributed every year in clothing to the poor; and £16. 9., bequeathed by Jasper Cartwright, are annually distributed in bread. Richard Foley, in 1650, founded almshouses for sixteen people, to which is now added a workhouse. The union of Dudley comprises four parishes, three of them in the county of Stafford, and one in that of Worcester; and contains a population of 86,028. In Lady-wood, 2½ miles from the town of Dudley, and 3 miles from Stourbridge, is a valuable saline spa, in high estimation for its efficacy in cutaneous disorders and complaints arising from indigestion: the water was analysed in 1820, by Mr. Cooper, and a wine pint was found to contain, on the average, carbonic acid 2.1 cubic inches, and azote 0.4; muriate of soda 49.75 grains, of lime 19.07, of magnesia 7.50, and of iron 0.13; carbonate of lime 1.50, of magnesia 1.70, and of iron 0.90; total, 80.55 grains. There are several chalybeate springs. About a quarter of a mile from the town is a tract of about 20 acres, vulgarly called the Fiery Holes, from which smoke continually issues, and sometimes flame; veins of coal underneath are supposed to have been set on fire by some accident, and to have continued burning ever since. Richard Baxter, the celebrated nonconformist divine in the reign of Charles II., was for some time master of the grammar school.
DUDLEY-HILL, a hamlet, in the chapelry of Bowling, parish and union of Bradford, wapentake of Morley, W. riding of York, 1½ mile from Bradford. This populous hamlet abounds with coal, of which several mines are in operation; and there are two worstedmills. Fairs for horses, cattle, and pigs, are held on the 3rd of November and 8th of March. Here are places of worship for Primitive Methodists and Wesleyans.
DUESHILL, a township, in the parish of Hallystone, union of Rothbury, W. division of Coquetdale ward, N. division of Northumberland, 7½ miles (W.) from Rothbury; containing 36 inhabitants. At Harehaugh, near the southern extremity of the township, is the site of a strong triple intrenchment thrown up by the Britons; and near it are several of the stones of an ancient British temple.
Duffield (St. Alkmund)
DUFFIELD (St. Alkmund), a parish, in the union of Belper, hundred of Appletree, S. division of the county of Derby, 4¼ miles (N.) from Derby; comprising the chapelries of Belper, Heage, Holbrook, and Turnditch, and the townships of Duffield, Hazlewood, Shottle with Postern, and Windley; the whole containing 17,664 inhabitants, of whom 3108 are in the township of Duffield. In Domesday book it is called Dunelle, and is described as having "a church, a priest, and two mills;" it afterwards formed part of the demesne of Henry de Ferrers, who, in 1096, possessed a castle on an eminence north-west of the village, the site of which is now named Castle-Orchard. This fortress was held by several of the turbulent descendants of that powerful baron; one of them, William, for rebellion in the reign of Henry II., lost his estates by confiscation, but in 1199 they were restored by King John, to his son William, with the title of Earl of Derby. Earl Robert joined in Simon de Montfort's rebellion, and garrisoned his castle of Duffield against Henry III., but was defeated and taken prisoner at Chesterfield by Henry de Almaine, upon which the king sent his son, afterwards Edward I., into the county of Derby, to ravage with fire and sword the lands of the earl, and take revenge for his disloyalty; the castle was dismantled, and the demesne fell to the crown. In 1330, Henry, Earl of Lancaster, claimed seven parks in Duffield Frith; and in the reign of Elizabeth, frequent mention is made of the extent and importance of the royal possessions at Duffield, of the appointments of stewards, rangers, and various other officers, and of great leets and three weeks' courts held here, it being then a portion of the duchy of Lancaster, which it continued to be till the reign of Charles I., when it was granted to several persons.
The parish comprises 17,390 acres, of which 3002 are in the township of Duffield; it is situated on the road from Derby to Matlock, and contains, besides several populous villages, the market-town of Belper. For an account of its cotton and silk mills, bleach-yards, and coal and iron works, see the articles on Milford, Belper, and Heage; stone is obtained for various uses, and there is a quarry for scythe-stones. The village is pleasantly situated in a fine plain through which flows the river Derwent, and contains many good houses. The Midland railway has a station here; the Eaton canal is about a mile distant. There are cattle-fairs on the Thursday following New Year's day, and on March 1st. The large and elegant mansion of Farnah Hall, a seat of the Curzon family, stands in a fine park, near the Wirksworth road. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £8. 4.; patron, the Bishop of Lichfield; impropriator, Earl Beauchamp; net income, £150. The great tithes of Duffield township have been commuted for £458, and the small for £10; the impropriate glebe consists of 120 acres, and the vicarial of 12 acres. Besides the parish church, which is an ancient structure, there are churches at Belper, Hazlewood, Heage, Holbrook, and Turnditch; and the Ecclesiastical Commissioners have endowed two church districts, named respectively Bridge-Hill and Milford, and both in the patronage of the Crown and the Bishop, alternately. The Baptists, Wesleyans, and others have places of worship. William Gilbert, in the 7th of Elizabeth, surrendered lands for the maintenance of a school, towards which Joseph Webster, in 1685, bequeathed an annuity of £10; the income is £95. There is a national school; and two infant schools are maintained by subscription. An almshouse for two persons, built by Anthony Bradshaw, who died in 1614, is endowed with a rent-charge upon an estate at Holbrook, and with £100, the gift of William Potterell, in 1735. William, Lord Hastings, who was beheaded by King Richard III., was chief forester of Duffield.
DUFFIELD, NORTH, a township, in the parish of Skipwith, union of Selby, wapentake of Ouse and Derwent, E. riding of York, 5½ miles (N. E.) from Selby; containing 350 inhabitants. It is situated to the west of the river Derwent, and comprises 3275 acres of land, all inclosed. The village, which is small and scattered, is on the road from Selby to Market-Weighton. The tithes were commuted for land, at the time of the inclosure, about 40 years since. There are places of worship for Wesleyans and Primitive Methodists. On the banks of the Derwent may be traced the mound and ditches of Duffield Castle, the seat of Lord Hussey, who was executed for joining in Aske's "Pilgrimage of Grace," in the reign of Henry VIII.
DUFFIELD, SOUTH, a township, in the parish of Hemingbrough, union of Selby, wapentake of Ouse and Derwent, E. riding of York, 5 miles (E. N. E.) from Selby; containing 224 inhabitants. It is to the west of the Derwent, and comprises 1643a. 31p., forming one of the Bishop of Ripon's manors of Howdenshire. At the inclosure, about 30 years since, the impropriate tithes were commuted for 294 acres of land. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans.
DUFFRIN, a hamlet, in the parish of Bassaleg, union and division of Newport, hundred of Wentlloog, county of Monmouth; containing 193 inhabitants.
Dufton (St. Cuthbert)
DUFTON (St. Cuthbert), a parish, in East ward and union, county of Westmorland, 4 miles (N. E.) from Appleby; containing, with the township of Keisley, 466 inhabitants, of whom 441 are in Dufton township. It comprises 19,250 acres, of which about 2057, long since inclosed, consist of meadow, pasture, and arable land; 2118 acres are common pasture recently inclosed, under act of parliament; 15,000 acres are moor, and about 75 wood. The living is a discharged rectory, valued in the king's books at £19. 2. 6.; net income, £172; patron, the Earl of Thanet. The church was rebuilt in 1784, at the expense of the parishioners and the Rev. William Kilner, the rector, and is a plain structure, situated about half a mile north of the village. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. The free school was founded in 1623, by Christopher Walker, rector, and was further endowed with a bequest by Michael Todd in 1692.
DUGGLEBY, a township, in the parish of Grindalyth, union of Malton, wapentake of Buckrose, E. riding of York, 6¾ miles (E. S. E.) from Malton; containing 226 inhabitants. It is on the road from Malton to Sledmere, and comprises by computation 1820 acres: the village is situated in a vale below Kirby-Grindalyth. There is a place of worship for Wesleyans. At a short distance to the east is a large tumulus.
DUKERSHAGG, a township, in the parish of Ovingham, union of Hexham, E. division of Tindale ward, S. division of Northumberland, 13 miles (W. S. W.) from Newcastle-upon-Tyne; containing 7 inhabitants. This place, also called Dukeshagg, and Ducashagg, is a small township lying on Stanley burn, near the Hexham road, and on the borders of the county of Durham. It is above one mile south-east from Prudhoe.
DUKINFIELD, a township, in the parish of Stockport, union of Ashton-under-Lyne, hundred of Macclesfield, N. division of the county of Chester; adjoining Ashton-under-Lyne, and containing 22,394 inhabitants. This place is supposed to derive its name from the circumstance of the standard of the Danes having been captured here by the victorious Saxons; the figure of a raven or doken was impressed on the Danish flag, and the spot was named, in the Anglo-Saxon dialect, Dockenveldt, or the Field of the Raven. At the earliest period to which records extend, the township was included in the fee of Dunham-Massey: the third Hamon de Massey confirmed Dukinfield to Matthew de Bramhall, about 1190; and the family of Dukinfield appears to have held the place in fee of the Bramhalls, and to have been connected with it for a period exceeding five centuries. The widow of Sir William Dukinfield Daniel (a name assumed by the family) conveyed the estate, in marriage, to the Astleys, about 1767; and the present lord of the manor is Francis Dukinfield P. Astley, Esq.
The village is seated upon a pleasant eminence, at the foot of which, to the north, runs the river Tame. This river separates the township from the town of Ashton-under-Lyne, in Lancashire, as it did the kingdoms of Northumbria and Mercia during the heptarchy, when strong fortifications for the protection of each at this point were constructed, on opposite banks of the stream: some vestiges of the works are still discernible. Sixty years ago, the inhabitants consisted of only a few farmers and labourers, but since the introduction of the cotton-trade the place has become extensive and prosperous: two cotton-mills were erected prior to 1794; there were four in 1814, six in 1818, and seven in 1825; and at present these manufactories are numerous, and employ many thousand hands. The district is also rich in mineral treasures, and its mines and quarries are very productive. There are fifty beds or veins of coal, the greater number of them workable, the shafts of some being sunk to the depth of 300 yards; iron-ore is also abundant, and the operations for smelting it seem to have been carried on in remote times, from the otherwise unaccountable breaks that are frequently met with in the strata of one particular mine, and from the large quantity of scoriæ found in the vicinity. Fire-bricks are made in great perfection, from a superior clay; and the stone of Harrop-Edge quarry is of very good quality. The Ashton and Stockport road, and the Peak-Forest and Huddersfield canals, pass through; and in 1846 an act was passed for making a branch, nearly a mile in length, of the Manchester and Sheffield railway, to this place. Dukinfield Old Hall was originally built in the Norman era; but the gabled front and frogged pinnacles of the present edifice denote it to be a structure of the reign of Henry VIII. The building was formerly large, of quadrangular form, and surrounded by a moat, which is yet partially remaining; it continued to be the abode of the Dukinfields till the last century, but is now a dilapidated dwelling. Dukinfield Lodge, a modern house, is delightfully situated on a wooded eminence overlooking the Tame.
The township comprises 1690 acres of land, principally good pasture and meadow; the manure is chiefly lime, with marl on the lighter grounds. A church, dedicated to St. John the Evangelist, was erected in 1840-1841, and consecrated on May 24th in the latter year; it stands on a commanding eminence in the part of Dukinfield adjoining Stalybridge, and is a plain neat edifice containing 1200 sittings, whereof 605 are free: the cost, £4500, was defrayed by Her Majesty's Commissioners and by subscription. The living is a perpetual curacy, with a net income of £280 per annum; patron, the Rector of Stockport. An ecclesiastical parish, called St. Mark's, was formed of a part of Dukinfield adjoining Ashton, in February 1846, under the act 6th and 7th of Victoria, cap. 37; the district assigned is about two miles from north to south, and a mile and a half from east to west, and contains a population of about 6000. The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patronage of the Bishop of Chester and the Crown, alternately; net income, £150. The first stone of the church was laid in May, 1847; the building is in the early English style, with a tower and spire, and cost £3000. Another ecclesiastical district, called Castle Hall, and situated in the town of Stalybridge (which is partly in this township), was formed, also in 1846, under the same act. The Calvinists, Independents, Primitive and Wesleyan Methodists, Methodists of the New Connexion, Moravians, Unitarians, and Roman Catholics have places of worship; and there are various schools in connexion with the Establishment, and with the dissenters. A village library, established in 1833, contains about 1100 volumes. Lieut.-Col. Robert Dukinfield, a distinguished officer, and a member of Cromwell's council of state in 1653, was born here.
Dulas (St. Michael)
DULAS (St. Michael), a parish, in the union of Dore, hundred of Webtree, county of Hereford, 13½ miles (S. W. by W.) from Hereford; containing 60 inhabitants. The surface of the parish is highly undulated, and consists of 797 acres. The living is a perpetual curacy; net income, £75; patron, James M. P. Hopton, Esq.; impropriators, Mr. Hopton and the Rev. Henry Burton. The great tithes have been commuted for £25, and those of the incumbent for £42.
DULCOTT, a tything, in the city and union of Wells, hundred of Wells-Forum, E. division of Somerset; containing 129 inhabitants.
Dullingham (St. Mary)
DULLINGHAM (St. Mary), a parish, in the union of Newmarket, hundred of Radfield, county of Cambridge, 3¾ miles (S. by W.) from Newmarket; containing 758 inhabitants. The parish is near the road from London to Newmarket, and the works of the Newmarket and Chesterford railway were commenced here, in October, 1846. It comprises 3421a. 1r. 26p. The living is a discharged vicarage, valued in the king's books at £12. 15. 5., and has a net income of £165; the patronage and impropriation belong to Mrs. Pigott. The tithes were commuted for land and a money payment in 1806; the glebe contains 87 acres, with a good glebe-house, built by the present incumbent. The Wesleyans have a place of worship; and there is a school with an endowment of £5 per annum.
Duloe (St. Cuby)
DULOE (St. Cuby), a parish, in the union of Liskeard, hundred of West, E. division of the county of Cornwall, 3¾ miles (N. N. W.) from West Looe; containing 937 inhabitants. This parish is bounded on the east by the Looe navigation. A few years since, a silver and lead mine was opened, and wrought for some time, but without adequate success. The living is a vicarage and a rectory consolidated, valued together in the king's books at £30. 15. 2½., and in the patronage of Balliol College, Oxford: the tithes have been commuted for £620, and the glebe comprises 53 acres. The church contains an altar-tomb with sculptured ornaments, upon which is a recumbent figure of an armed knight, with an inscription in memory of Sir John Colshull, who died in 1483.
Dulverton (Holy Trinity)
DULVERTON (Holy Trinity), a market-town and parish, and the head of a union, in the hundred of Williton and Freemanners, W. division of Somerset, 14 miles (W.) from Wiveliscombe, and 163 (W. by S.) from London; containing 1422 inhabitants. This place probably derives its name from being seated in a deep valley, and upon a ford on the river Barle, which rises in Exmoor Forest, and, after flowing through the town under a stone bridge of five arches, falls into the Exe near Brushford. Dulverton, perhaps on account of the remoteness of its situation from any great public thoroughfare, is but little connected with events of historical importance, the only circumstance upon record being the execution in the market-place of several individuals who were concerned in the rebellion of 1745. The town consists principally of two streets; the houses are in general well built, and the inhabitants amply supplied with water. There is a great number of forest deer, preserved in the adjoining woods. A silk-manufactory has been established, in which several children are employed. The market, originally granted by Philip and Mary to twelve trustees, who were to apply the profits to the improvement of the town, and the benefit of the poor, is on Saturday, and is well supplied with corn and the produce of the dairy: the fairs are on July 10th and November 8th. Courts leet and baron are held annually, at the former of which two constables, two tythingmen, two ale-tasters. two surveyors of weights and measures, and other officers, are chosen and sworn into office before the steward of the manor. The parish comprises 8120 acres, of which about 1200 are common or waste. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £21. 10. 10.; patrons and appropriators, the Dean and Chapter of Wells. The great tithes have been commuted for £300, and the vicarial for £421; the appropriators have a glebe of 5 acres. The church is a neat edifice in the ancient English style with a square embattled tower. A school was founded in 1636, by Elizabeth Dyke, of Pixton, who endowed it with a tenement producing £12 per annum, which endowment was subsequently increased with legacies to about £22 per annum: it is further supported by subscription, and is now conducted upon the national system. The poor law union of Dulverton comprises 11 parishes or places. About a mile and a half west-north-west of the town is Bury Castle, an ancient encampment. In the neighbourhood is a mineral spring, the water of which is impregnated with iron, but it is not now used medicinally: there is also a spring called Holy Well, to which, on Holy-Thursday, it was formerly the custom to carry persons afflicted with disease.
DULWICH, a hamlet, in the parish and union of Camberwell, E. division of the hundred of Brixton and of the county of Surrey, 4½ miles (S.) from London; containing 1904 inhabitants. The village is pleasantly situated in a small vale, sheltered by rising grounds in the immediate vicinity, and by the Surrey hills in the distance; the houses are irregularly built, but of handsome and respectable appearance, and the environs abound with elegant villas. It is lighted by subscription among the inhabitants, and is within the limits of the metropolitan police establishment. A fair for toys is held on the Monday after Trinity-Monday, and a court leet annually. A free school was founded in 1741, by James Alleyn, Esq., master of God's Gift College, who endowed it with lands in the parish of Kennington, now producing a rental of more than £200 per annum; the school-house, facing the college buildings, was given by the master and warden of the college. There are several medicinal springs in the immediate neighbourhood, the water of which is similar in its properties to that of Sydenham.
At the eastern extremity of the village is God's Gift College, founded in the year 1619, by Edward Alleyn, who endowed it with the manor of Dulwich, and tenements in the parishes of St. Botolph, Bishopsgate, in London, and St. Luke, in the county of Middlesex, producing at present a revenue of £14,000, for a master (who must bear the same name as the founder), a warden, four fellows, six poor brethren, six poor sisters, twelve poor scholars, six assistants, and thirty non-resident members, to be chosen from the parishes of St. Botolph, St. Saviour (Southwark), St. Luke, and Camberwell. Of the four fellows, three must be in holy orders, and graduates of Oxford or Cambridge, and the fourth well skilled in music; the two senior fellows are to officiate in the chapel of the college, the third to be master of the grammar school, and the fourth, who officiates as organist and choir-master, to be the usher. In addition to the twelve scholars on the foundation, the sons of inhabitants of Dulwich are entitled to gratuitous instruction, and strangers are admitted on payment of such sum to the master and usher as shall be appointed by the master and warden of the college; according to whose discretion, certain sums may be allowed as exhibitions to either of the universities. Scholars sent from this school, and taking the degree of master of arts, receive a further sum, and obtain a preference in election to any of the offices in the college. The brethren and sisters have apartments, with every thing requisite supplied them, and a very considerable pecuniary allowance. The buildings, chiefly in the Elizabethan style, occupy three sides of a quadrangle, the chapel forming one side: the east wing was handsomely rebuilt of red brick ornamented with stone, in 1740, and contains the schoolroom and apartments for the fellows; the opposite wing comprises the library and apartments for the scholars. The whole has been lately faced with Roman cement, and beautified. The chapel has been enlarged by the addition of an aisle and a gallery, for the accommodation of the inhabitants; divine service is performed regularly in the morning and afternoon: the altar-piece is ornamented with a fine painting of the Ascension, presented by Mr. Hall; and in front of the chancel is a black marble slab, covering the tomb of the founder, who was buried in the chapel. An extensive collection of pictures was bequeathed to the college by Sir Francis Bourgeois in 1811, for the reception of which a handsome gallery was erected at the south end of the college; the building is well calculated to display the pictures, and comprises five rooms, in each of which are many specimens of the first masters, of the Italian, Flemish, and English schools.
Dumbleton (St. Peter)
DUMBLETON (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Winchcomb, Lower division of the hundred of Kiftsgate, E. division of the county of Gloucester, 6 miles (S. by W.) from Evesham; containing 497 inhabitants. The parish is situated about a mile and a half from the road between Cheltenham and Evesham, and comprises 2155a. 8p.: a rivulet called the Isborn runs through it. Stone of a very hard kind is quarried for repairing the roads and for lime: large quantities of fossil shells are found in the quarries. Many of the females are employed in making gloves for the Worcester houses. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £18. 16. 8.; net income, £354; patron, E. Holland, Esq. The glebe contains 72 acres, and a large glebehouse. The church is a very ancient edifice, with an embattled tower at the west end, and has several monuments to the family of Cocks, who for a long time held the estate. John Cocks, in 1728, gave an estate at Tainton, comprising upwards of 58 acres, and producing £70 per annum, part of which is applied in apprenticing a boy, £20 towards a school, and the rest to the poor.
Dummer (All Saints)
DUMMER (All Saints), a parish, in the union and hundred of Basingstoke, N. division of the county of Southampton, 4 miles (S. W.) from Basingstoke; containing 412 inhabitants. The parish is situated near the road from London to Southampton, and in a district abounding with pleasing scenery; it comprises by computation 2182 acres, of which about 1913 are arable, 39 meadow, and 120 wood: the surface is hilly, and the soil heavy. An iron-foundry gives employment to about thirty persons. The living is a rectory, valued in the king's books at £14. 12. 3½., and in the gift of W. Adams, Esq.: the tithes have been commuted for £443. 15., and the glebe comprises 83½ acres, and a glebe-house. The church is an ancient edifice, with a tower of wood. A school on the national plan is partly supported by an endowment of £15. 5. per annum. Whitefield, soon after his ordination in 1736, had the temporary charge of this parish; and here also Hervey is said to have written his Meditations.
DUMMER-ANDREWS-SWATHLING, an extraparochial liberty, in the union of South Stoneham, hundred of Mansbridge, Southampton and S. divisions of Hants, 3 miles (N. N. E.) from Southampton.
Dunchideock (Holy Trinity)
DUNCHIDEOCK (Holy Trinity), a parish, in the union of St. Thomas, hundred of Exminster, Wonford and S. divisions of Devon, 4½ miles (S. W. by W.) from Exeter; containing 208 inhabitants. The living is a rectory, with that of Shillingford St. George consolidated, valued in the king's books at £14. 17. 1.; net income, £312; patron, Sir L. V. Palk, Bart. The church contains a handsome monument to the memory of General L. Lawrence, commander-in-chief in India about the middle of the last century.
Dunchurch (St. Peter)
DUNCHURCH (St. Peter), a parish, in the union of Rugby, Rugby division of the hundred of Knightlow, N. division of the county of Warwick, 15 miles (E. N. E.) from Warwick; containing, with the township of Thurlaston, 1390 inhabitants. The parish is bounded on the east by a portion of Northamptonshire, and situated on the London and Birmingham road; and comprises by admeasurement 4747 acres, of which a considerable part is the property of Lord J. Scott, brother to the Duke of Buccleuch. The village contains some good inns and several respectable houses, presenting the appearance of a small market-town; at its northern extremity is an obelisk, where stood an ancient cross. Fairs for cattle have been established on the second Mondays in January and March, the 29th of June, the third Monday in August, the 15th of September, and the third Monday in November. The living is a vicarage, valued in the king's books at £14. 1. 10½.; patron, the Bishop of Lichfield; impropriator, Lord J. Scott: the great tithes have been commuted for £250, and the vicarial for £220; the glebe contains about 42 acres, with an excellent glebe-house, enlarged and repaired at a considerable cost by the incumbent, the Rev. J. Sandford. The church is a handsome and curious edifice, with a square embattled tower: the tower is in the later English style, much enriched; the western porch has a fine Norman arch, embellished with heads and zig-zag mouldings. The chancel is of early English architecture, with some windows in the decorated style; the nave is also decorated, and the doorways of the aisles are ornamented with remarkably rich mouldings. The edifice has been completely restored at an expense of £2000, raised by subscription, towards which Lord J. Scott contributed upwards of £600. The Baptists have a place of worship. Here is a free grammar school, founded in 1707, and endowed by a bequest from Francis Boughton, of 27 acres of land and a house for the master, who must be a clergyman; the same benefactor left 24 acres of land, directing the produce to be applied in apprenticing boys. There is also a school in union with the National Society. In 1695, Thomas Newcombe, printer to Charles II., James II., and William III., bequeathed property for erecting and endowing six almshouses, which were rebuilt in 1818. Dunchurch is celebrated as the place of rendezvous for those concerned with Guy Fawkes, and where Digby first received intelligence of the discovery of the plot.
DUNCTON, a parish, in the union of Sutton (under Gilbert's act), hundred of Rotherbridge, rape of Arundel, W. division of Sussex, 3½ miles (S. by W.) from Petworth; containing 308 inhabitants. The parish is pleasantly situated on the road from London to Chichester by way of Petworth, and at the foot of the Downs, from which the view is extensive and richly diversified. It once formed part of the parish of Petworth, but was separated from it by an act of the 4th and 5th of William and Mary. The area is 1326a. 26p., of which about 569 acres, including some orchard ground, are arable, 365 meadow and pasture, and 367 wood, hedge-rows, &c. The living is a rectory not in charge, in the gift of Colonel Wyndham: the tithes have been commuted for £160. Near the church are the remains of a hypocaust, discovered in 1815, and also of a Roman bath.