Townships: Cantsfield

A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 8. Originally published by Victoria County History, London, 1914.

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'Townships: Cantsfield', in A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 8, (London, 1914) pp. 232-237. British History Online [accessed 1 March 2024]

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Cantesfelt, Dom. Bk.; Canceveld, 1202; Cancefeld 1208; Cauncefeud, 1241; Cauncefild, 1283.

This township is bounded on the north in part by Cant Beck, on the south by the Greeta. At the west it extends to the level ground along the Lune, though it does not actually touch this river; to the east it becomes more hilly, a height of 300 ft. over sea level being attained in the south-east corner. The village lies near the centre, with Thurland Castle nearly a mile to the west. There is an area of 1,221½ acres, including 17 acres of inland water, and in 1901 the population was 103. (fn. 1)

The road from Lancaster to Kirkby Lonsdale crosses the western end of the township, and from it another road, which passes through the village, goes east into Yorkshire.


As a member of the lordship of Whittington Earl Tostig held Cantsfield in 1066, it being then assessed as four plough-lands. (fn. 2) Somewhat later it was with Tunstall included in the Hornby fee, (fn. 3) and the dependence continued until 1885, when a payment of £2 10s. due annually to the lord of Hornby for Tunstall and Cantsfield was redeemed by Mr. North. (fn. 4) The latter township was granted together with Farleton to Geoffrey de Valoines, (fn. 5) and then to Hugh de Morewich, (fn. 6) whose son Hugh came of age and succeeded about 1200. (fn. 7) Later it was held in moieties known as the manors of Thurland and Cantsfield, of which the former was the principal, its lords having Tunstall also, and acquiring the manors of Burrow and Leck.

The lordship of THURLAND, a name which may have been used from the first, though it does not occur till 1402, has an obscure origin. In 1201 Gilbert de Notton released to Akarias de Austwick all his title to three plough-lands in Cantsfield. (fn. 8) A year afterwards Akarias came to an agreement with William de Tunstall and Thomas his son respecting boundaries and common rights. (fn. 9) Akarias held the manor of Cantsfield at the beginning of 1208, when he had a dispute with Hugh de Morewich, lord of Farleton and Cantsfield—six plough-lands in all. (fn. 10) This dispute was settled at the end of the same year by Richard de Heggefeld, Godith his wife, Thomas de Tunstall, Maud his wife, Ingrith, John and Akarias on one side and Hugh de Morewich on the other, the former party releasing all their right in the multure of the three plough-lands in Farleton, and Hugh releasing 12s. 4d. out of the 39s. due to him for the manor and mill of Cantsfield and from the multure of the said six plough-lands held of him. (fn. 11) It is probable that Godith, Maud and Ingrith were daughters and heirs of Akarias de Austwick, John and Akarias being near of kin and tenants also. Thomas de Tunstall had a son William, (fn. 12) who in 1241 obtained from Sarah daughter of Robert de Stanton a release of 6 oxgangs of land in Austwick and 2 out of 5 oxgangs in Cantsfield. (fn. 13) William son of Thomas de Tunstall was living in 1246, when Joan widow of Roger de Tunstall claimed dower against him. (fn. 14) In the same year he acquired from John de Cansfield 7 oxgangs of land in Cantsfield, with a further messuage and 6 oxgangs there, an eighth part of Old Wennington, and land in Wrayton. (fn. 15)

William de Tunstall was succeeded (fn. 16) by a son (fn. 17) and a grandson, (fn. 18) each named John. The chief messuage of the family had been fixed in Cantsfield before 1292. (fn. 19) William son and heir of John de Tunstall was a minor in 1315, when his wardship was claimed by John son of Robert de Harrington. (fn. 20) He had come into possession by 1328, when the Abbot of Croxton claimed a debt of 20 marks from him, (fn. 21) and his son William was in possession in 1359. (fn. 22) William added the manors of Over Burrow, Nether Burrow and part of Leck to the family inheritance in 1370, (fn. 23) and thus made the Tunstalls more prominent. He is probably the William de Tunstall who was knight of the shire in 1384. (fn. 24) He obtained a charter of free warren in his demesne lands in Tunstall, Cantsfield, Burrow, Leck and Newton in 1376, (fn. 25) and in 1381 received a general pardon. (fn. 26) He died in 1387. (fn. 27)

He was succeeded by Sir Thomas Tunstall, probably his son, who was already a knight in 1382, (fn. 28) and who in 1402 obtained the king's licence to crenellate his manor of Thurland and to inclose and impark 1,000 acres of meadow, &c., called Fairthwaite. (fn. 29) Sir Thomas died in 1415 holding the manor of Cantsfield of John Harrington in socage by a rent of 3s. 4d.; also the manors of Tunstall, Burrow and Leck, Newton and Hubberthorn. His son and heir, William Tunstall, was twenty-four years old. (fn. 30) The new lord made a feoffment of his castle or manor of Thurland in 1417 and of his other possessions. (fn. 31) He did not long survive, for in 1425–6 his widow Anne made agreements with Thomas Tunstall, his brother and heir male, as to her dower, for which she received £40 a year. (fn. 32)

Tunstall of Tunstall. Sable three combs argent.

Thomas Tunstall was serving in the French wars in 1418. (fn. 33) He was made a knight in 1426 for his conduct at the battle of Verneuil in 1424. (fn. 34) Sir Thomas and Eleanor his wife were pardoned in 1427 for having married without the king's consent; she was the widow of Sir Philip Darcy. (fn. 35) Sir Thomas was on a commission of array in the same year. (fn. 36) There is again a slight defect in the evidence, (fn. 37) the next to appear being Sir Richard Tunstall, (fn. 38) a Lancastrian who was attainted in 1461, (fn. 39) but was afterwards pardoned and restored. (fn. 40) Sir Richard, who made a settlement of his manors in 1490 (fn. 41) and died in or before 1492, had a son William, who died in 1499, and a daughter Eleanor, whose son and heir Christopher Askew was then aged twentyone. (fn. 42) The heir male was Thomas son of Thomas brother of Sir Richard, aged twenty, and his wardship was granted to Sir Edward Stanley of Hornby. (fn. 43)

Thomas was dead in February 1503–4, when his brother Brian was allowed to enter on the inheritance. (fn. 44) Brian enjoyed the lordship for less than ten years, being slain at Flodden 9 September 1513. (fn. 45) He held the castle and manor of Thurland as before, viz. in socage of Lord Harrington. By Isabel his wife he left three children—Marmaduke, aged six, Anne, aged three, and Brian, born after his father's death. The guardianship of the heir he bequeathed to his 'brother Doctor' Cuthbert Tunstall, the most famous member of the family, (fn. 46) Bishop of Durham from 1530 to 1559, when he was deprived by Queen Elizabeth. Marmaduke was to be put to school so that he might learn to serve God in His commandments. (fn. 47) He entered on his inheritance in 1529 (fn. 48) and was made a knight in 1533, at Anne Boleyn's coronation. (fn. 49) He aided in the suppression of the northern rebellion in 1536. (fn. 50) At his death in 1557 he held the manor of Thurland and other manors as before, with the addition of an eighth part of the manor of Hackinsall and Preesall. (fn. 51) His heir was his son Francis, aged twenty-seven, who entered on possession in 1561. (fn. 52)

Francis Tunstall was externally a conformist in religious matters when the Elizabethan changes were made, but being notoriously disaffected (fn. 53) he was brought up for examination in 1568 before the queen's commissioners. He replied that he had usually attended service at Tunstall Church within the past twelve months, but had not received the communion; he had entertained Vaux, the exWarden of Manchester, but had not been aware that the laws forbade it. (fn. 54) In spite of his religious dangers he was able to purchase the manor of Garneygarth in Whittington. He made a settlement of Thurland and other manors in 1585, (fn. 55) and died in or before 1587, leaving a son Francis as heir, but under age, being seventeen years old. (fn. 56) He obtained the inheritance in 1591, (fn. 57) but was involved in a number of disputes and money difficulties, (fn. 58) and about 1605 sold Thurland and the other manors in Tunstall to John Girlington, removing to Scargill in Yorkshire, inherited from his grandmother the wife of Sir Marmaduke. (fn. 59) The new lord of Thurland died in 1612, but was not then seised of any manors or lands in the county. Nicholas, his son and heir, was twenty years of age. (fn. 60)

Nicholas Girlington recorded a pedigree in 1613 as 'of Thurland,' (fn. 61) and in 1619 made a feoffment or mortgage of the castle of Thurland, the advowson of Tunstall, &c. (fn. 62) Like their predecessors the Girlingtons were Roman Catholics, (fn. 63) and John the son and heir of Nicholas (fn. 64) zealously espoused the king's cause at the opening of the Civil War. (fn. 65) He was made a knight (fn. 66) and major-general, (fn. 67) and was killed in 1645 near Melton Mowbray, (fn. 68) or died of wounds received. In North Lancashire in 1643 many of the Royalists took refuge in Hornby and Thurland Castles. Sir John Girlington, reputed a 'strong malevolent in those parts,' kept Thurland, but in June surrendered it to Colonel Assheton upon conditions which, as was alleged, he did not keep. (fn. 69) Later in the year he was again in possession, and having, wrote Colonel Rigby, the Parliamentary commander, 'drawn forces into his castle of Thurland, he began to plunder the country and commit robberies and murders. And thereupon for the suppression of him and his adherents I repaired thither, and after seven weeks' strait siege of the castle it was delivered unto me to be demolished, upon agreement to suffer him and all his in the castle to pass away with their lives and goods.' The Royalists of Cartmel and Furness had joined with those of Cumberland and Westmorland in an attempt to raise the siege, but were defeated on l October; the castle was surrendered two or three days later and almost demolished. (fn. 70)

Girlington of Thurland. Argent a cheveron between three bees sable.

The heir, John Girlington, was born about 1638, so that he was a minor at his father's death. Thurland Castle and other lands were seized by the Parliament, and in 1646 were granted on lease to Edward Aspinwall and Robert Cunliffe, paying a rent to the agents for sequestration to the public use. (fn. 71) The fortunes of the family were probably broken by the war, and though after the Restoration John Girlington acted as high sheriff in 1662–3 (fn. 72) and recorded a pedigree in 1665, (fn. 73) the whole estate or lordship was sold in 1698, (fn. 74) to John Borrett, a wealthy London lawyer, afterwards of Shoreham. (fn. 75) By his will of 1738 he left Thurland to his son Thomas, who died in 1751, leaving two daughters. The elder, Susannah, married William Evelyn, and her trustees sold to Robert Welch in December 1771. (fn. 76) In 1780 Robert's son Henry sold it to Miles North of Newton, who had inherited part of the lands of Thurland from his grandfather James Bordrigge, brother-in-law and beneficiary under the will of John Borrett. The North family retained it until 1885, in which year it was sold by Mr. North North to the late Edward Brown Lees of Clarksfield, Oldham. (fn. 77) He died in 1896, and was succeeded by his eldest son Mr. Eric Brown Lees, now lord of the manors of Tunstall, Cantsfield and Burrow. (fn. 78)

Lees of Thurland. Argent two bars raguly between three crosslets fitchy in chief and a falcon in base all gules.

THURLAND CASTLE (fn. 79) is situated about half a mile to the west of Cantsfield village and about a quarter of a mile to the south of Tunstall, and stands on a low natural mound completely encircled by a moat about 25 ft. wide filled with water. The site, which is at the foot of the slope of a hill between the River Greeta on the south and the Cant Beck on the north, was originally a defensive one, the castle effectively commanding the whole of its surroundings. The building appears to have been originally erected in the 14th century, and early in the 15th century Sir Thomas Tunstall obtained a licence to crenellate the house. Very little of this building, however, now remains, it having been left in a more or less ruinous state after the siege in 1643, when the interior was burned and a considerable portion of the house destroyed. Sir John Girlington fitted up a few apartments on the site of the hall and adjoining rooms when he was high sheriff in 1662–3, (fn. 80) but the house remained in a ruined state till 1809, when it was partly restored by Richard Toulmin North, from designs by Jeffrey Wyatt. The original building was built round three sides of a courtyard, the fourth or south side of which was occupied by a gateway. The hall was at the east and the kitchen and offices at the west end of the north wing; the east wing contained the chapel, and the west wing, which has now disappeared, probably consisted of stables and outbuildings. Wyatt's rebuilding is said to have consisted of the 'chapel and entrance court,' (fn. 81) and some years later, about 1829, further additions, which however were never completed, were made to the east wing, extending it southward. (fn. 82) A fire which occurred on 17 April 1876 destroyed the greater part of Wyatt's work, and since that date the house has been almost entirely rebuilt and is now practically a modern mansion. (fn. 83) Whitaker, writing in 1819, states that the first rebuilding was 'very judiciously ' done on the old foundations, 'the preservation of the old walls as far as they reach having a most happy effect on the colour of the whole,' (fn. 84) and later rebuildings have preserved such parts of the old building as were left by Wyatt. The existing house is a reconstruction of the old north and east wings, the former being about 128 ft. in length, with an average width of 28 ft. and having a later extension to the west; and the latter, which is swung round to the west at an acute angle, 125 ft. in length. The building is of two stories in the castellated style of domestic architecture, with mullioned and transomed windows and embattled parapets, the east and west ends of the north wing being carried up as towers. The whole of the interior has been remodelled and the chapel has ceased to exist, the only portions of the original building now remaining being probably the lower parts of the external walling of the east end of the north wing and the north end of the east wing. It is, however, difficult actually to distinguish the extent of the ancient walling, as the rubble masonry erected at the beginning of the last century, much of which still remains, has now weathered so as to have the appearance of much earlier work. Only two architectural features of the mediaeval house remain, one a small slit window opening, now built up, at the north end of the east wing, and the other an interesting gritstone doorway on the south side of the north wing, probably of early 15th-century date, with trefoiled pointed head and external hood mould. The jambs of the doorway, which probably opened on to the screens at the west end of the hall, have been carved with ornament, of which that on the west side remains, consisting of two fleurs de lis, a lion, a pomegranate and a rose. On the east side the ornament has been worn away, but on the soffit of the middle foil, at the crown of the arch, there is a carved head. The wall is here 5 ft. 6 in. thick, as on the north side of the hall, but the walls at the north end of the east wing are a foot less. The house is approached from the south by a bridge over the moat, the entrance being in the east wing facing the courtyard, and a terrace with stone retaining wall and buttresses runs along the north and east sides, forming upper and lower gardens between the moat and the house.

Plan of Thurland Castle

The manor of CANTSFIELD properly so called, of which Thurland was held, belonged to a family using the local name, but little is known of its history. (fn. 85) About the middle of the 13th century Sir Richard de Cansfield married Aline Fleming and so acquired the manor of Aldingham. They had three children, John, William and Agnes, the last ultimately succeeding. She married Robert de Harrington, and their son John inherited Cantsfield and Aldingham. (fn. 86) The lordship thus passed to the Harringtons of Aldingham, but a smaller manor of Cantsfield was long held by a family, also surnamed Cansfield, (fn. 87) whose principal seat was at Robert Hall in Tatham, (fn. 88) and has descended in the same way to Captain Frederick Gerard. No manor is now claimed.

But few other estates appear in the records (fn. 89) Robert Townson, who had served in the Civil War under Sir John Girlington, compounded for his 'delinquency' in 1649 by a fine of £25s. (fn. 90) Christopher Parkinson of Laithbutts and Nicholas Gardnett in 1717 registered their estates as 'Papists.' (fn. 91)

Thomas de Tunstall obtained the king's licence in 1397 to endow a chaplain to celebrate daily in the church of Tunstall. (fn. 92) This chantry seems to have been transferred to the altar of St. John Baptist in the chapel in Thurland Castle, for in 1469 John Bentham was appointed its chaplain. (fn. 93) The right of presentation belonged to Cockersand Abbey, and one of the canons acted as cantarist. (fn. 94) At the Suppression in 1547 Abraham Clitheroe was the priest, celebrating daily for the souls of his founders, and having a stipend of £6 a year from lands in Wennington and elsewhere. (fn. 95) Since then there has been no place of worship in the township.


  • 1. Census Rep.
  • 2. V.C.H. Lancs. i, 288b. The assessment may be only three plough-lands.
  • 3. Ibid. 319.
  • 4. Information of Col. B. N. North of Newton Hall.
  • 5. Lancs. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 79. The whole was assessed as six plough-lands and was held by knight's service.
  • 6. Hugh had Farleton from Philip de Valoines, brother of Geoffrey, and from the fine of 1208 it appears that he had Cantsfield also. There is a notice of him in Foss's Judges. He died about 1187.
  • 7. J. C. Hodgson, Northumberland, v, 350.
  • 8. Curia Regis R. 25, m. 4d.; Towneley MS. HH, no. 529.
  • 9. Akarias released his claim in 100 acres of land beyond the stream dividing Alnov from Tunstall, and in the several meadows of Cantsfield and Tunstall. The Tunstalls in return granted that four places, viz. Scaleberg, Herdhappelire, Withekenberg and Sorithsteinberg, from the brook between Scaleberg and Lethoneberg downwards to the Cant, and so upwards by the brook coming from Watriveling down to Crossberg, should lie uncultivated for common pasture of all their beasts in Tunstall and Cantsfield for ever. Other lands were to be tilled as William and Thomas de Tunstall might desire, Akarias having common of pasture in what they left uncultivated, but no meadow was to be made therein. Akarias and his heirs were to render a pound of pepper as acknowledgement; Final Conc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 14. John de Cansfield, Thomas de Tunstall and William his brother occur as witnesses in the Fountains Chartul. fol. 157b. It may be noticed that a Copsi de Tunstall gave a house at Bolton to Rievaulx Abbey, and that Acharius de Tunstall in 1172 with the consent of his sons gave a grange in the same place to the abbey; Dugdale, Mon, v, 274, 282. These benefactors may have been of Tunstall in Yorkshire. Acaris de Tunstall also gave land in Bolton to St. Mary's Abbey, York, and Godiva de Tunstall released her dower in the same; Dods. MSS. ix, fol. 75, 75b.
  • 10. Rot. de Oblatis et Fin. (Rec. Com.), 424–5.
  • 11. Final Conc. i, 31.
  • 12. William son of Thomas de Tunstall granted land in Tunstall for life to Roger son of William de Tunstall, perhaps an uncle, in 1227; ibid. 48. Roger had land in Wennington; ibid. 51. William obtained a plough-land in Tunstall in 1235; ibid. 59.
  • 13. Final Conc. i, 148. The 2 oxgangs of land in Cantsfield were then occupied in dower by Agnes widow of Richard de Goldburg. One pound of cummin was to be rendered yearly by William de Tunstall.
  • 14. Assize R. 404, m. 14d.; see also the account of Tunstall. A William de Tunstall, clerk, was juror in 1252–4; Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 186, 194.
  • 15. Feet of F. East. 30 Hen, III, file 39, no. 81. The title of John de Cansfield is given in a contemporary pleading about Austwick, where he claimed as son and heir of John son and heir of Emma, sister and heir of Akarias de Austfield, living in the time of King John; Assize R. 1045, m. 10 d.
  • 16. According to the pedigree alleged in the claim for the advowson of Tunstall vicarage in 1375, viz.—William de Tunstall -s. Thomas -s. William -s. John -s. John -s. William -s. William (plaintiff); De Banco R. 460, m. 402 d. It appears to be erroneous in stating that the first-named William presented to the vicarage as late as the reign of Henry III.
  • 17. John de Tunstall had a dispute in 1279 with John de Cansfield concerning the customs and services due for a free tenement in Cantsfield; De Banco R. 31, m. 79 d.; 36, m. 10. He made a claim against Margaret de Nevill in 1285; Assize R. 1271, m. 12. John son of William de Tunstall was still chief lord of Tunstall in 1292, when he was engaged in various suits with the Abbot of Croxton and others; Assize R. 408, m. 68 d., &c. (see Tunstall). Maud the widow of John de Tunstall was living in 1302; Assize R. 418, m. 8. An Adam de Tunstall and Isabel his wife in 1280 claimed dower in Cantsfield against Henry 'de la Despenser'; De Banco R. 36, m. 41 d. Ellis and Adam de Tunstall were executors of the will of John de Tunstall in 1302; ibid. 145, m. 163, 314d.
  • 18. John son of John de Tunstall was engaged in various pleas in 1295 and later; Assize R. 1306, m. 17; 419, m. 1; 420, m. 8. His wife was named Gundreda; ibid. 418, m. 15; 419, m. 9; De Banco R. 159, m. 116. In 1300 Alice widow of John de Ripon claimed dower in two messuages and 2 oxgangs of land in Cantsfield held by John de Tunstall; ibid. 133, m. 23 d. John son of John de Ripon, a minor, claimed two messuages, &c., against John and Adam de Tunstall, but John had the king's protection, as serving in Scotland in the retinue of John Buteturte; Assize R. 419, m. 7. It was stated that John de Ripon the father died about 1297 holding of John de Tunstall by knight's service and a rent of 1 lb. of cummin, paying 7½d. to a scutage of 40s.; ibid. 420, m. 8, 9.
  • 19. John de Tunstall's capital messuage was in Cantsfield, according to a pleading of that year; Assize R. 408, m. 27 d.
  • 20. De Banco R. 212, m. 429. The plaintiff alleged that John de Tunstall had held of him by knight's service. The defendants were Roger son of Matthew de Burgh and Gundreda his wife (no doubt the widow of John) and John de Washington. Roger and Gundreda were executors of John de Tunstall's will; ibid. m. 302.
  • 21. De Banco R. 275, m. 245, 245 d.; he is described as William son of John son of John. A year later John son of Robert son of Adam de Preston made a claim against William son of John de Tunstall by right of inheritance; Assize R. 427, m. 3.
  • 22. Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 7, m. 1 d.; a claim against him by John de Tunstall for a messuage and 2 oxgangs of land in Tunstall.
  • 23. Final Conc. ii, 178. In 1375, aa above stated, he claimed the advowson; De Banco R. 460, m. 402 d. He acquired further lands in Arkholme in 1384; Final Conc. iii, 23.
  • 24. Pink and Beaven, Parl. Repre. of Lancs. 41.
  • 25. Chart R. 162 (47–51 Edw. III), m. 6, no. 14.
  • 26. Dep. Keeper's Rep. xl, App. 521.
  • 27. The writ of diem cl. extr. was issued 6 Sept.; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxii, App. 360.
  • 28. In that year he granted his manor of Masongill with the advowson of Thornton in Lonsdale to his son William, who had married Anne; Dods. MSS. lxii, fol. 1, no. 13. A Thomas Tunstall is named in 1389; Cal. Pat. 1388–92, p. 59. Sir Thomas occurs in 1397–8; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 61. Thomas son of Sir Thomas received a fourth part of the lordship of Kirkby Lonsdale in 1400, while a further release of the manor of Masongill was in 1404 made to Sir Thomas Tunstall, William his son and Anne the wife of William; Dods. MSS. loc. cit. no. 11, 14.
  • 29. Cal. Pat. 1401–5, p. 164.
  • 30. Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 115.
  • 31. Dods MSS. lxii, fol. 1b, no. 24; fol. 2, no. 1.
  • 32. Ibid. fol. lb, no. 20; fol. 2, no. 2. William Tunstall left a daughter Isabel, who in 1432 was contracted to marry Nicholas son of Nicholas son of John Wortley; ibid. fol. 1b, no. 23.
  • 33. Dep. Keeper's Rep. xli, App. 751.
  • 34. Metcalfe, Bk. of Knights, 1.
  • 35. Cal. Pat. 1422–9, p. 394.
  • 36. Ibid. 405.
  • 37. According to a pedigree (not trustworthy) in Whitaker's Richmondshire (ii, 270) Sir Richard was the son of Sir Thomas. See also Plantagenet Harrison, Yorks. i, 300.
  • 38. Richard Tunstall, esquire, occurs in a Westmorland pleading of 1446; De Banco R. Trin. 24 Hen. VI, m. 41 d. He was squire of the body to Henry VI and in an act of resumption in 1455 an annuity of 50 marks was reserved to him as Sir Richard Tunstall, knight; Parl. R. v, 318. He was one of the king's feoffees in 1459; Ibid. 355.
  • 39. Ibid. 477, 479. Thomas Tunstall of Thurland (said to be his brother) was attainted at the same time. The lordship of Thurland, with Tunstall, Over Burrow, Nether Burrow, &c., was in 1465 granted to Sir James Harrington; Cal. Pat. 1461–7, pp. 445, 461. Two inquiries were made as to Sir Richard's manors and lands. He held the castle and manor of Thurland, half the manor of Cantsfield, messuages, water mill, &c., in Tunstall, park called Fairthwaite, manor of Over Burrow with lands, &c., in Over Burrow, Nether Burrow and Gale; the manor of Leck, with lands', water mill, &c., there; messuages, &c., in Old Wennington, Nether Wennington, Hubberthorn in Warton, Arkholme, Docker, Hornby, Lancaster, Goosnargh and Newton (Whittington); Chan. Inq. p.m. 5 Edw. IV, no. 45. In 1465 the castle, manor and lordship of Thurland, &c., were granted to Sir James Harrington; but much of the estate was bestowed on John Tunstall, esq.; Cal. Pat. 1461–7, pp. 445, 460, 422.
  • 40. Pardons were granted to Sir Richard in 1468 and 1471; ibid. 1467–77, pp. 97, 271. His petition for restoration was read and granted in 1472–3; Parl. R. vi, 47–8. Sir Richard is apparently the Tunstall who is celebrated in the ballad of 'Flodden Field' for his loyalty to the cause of Lancaster, where it is said that in consequence Henry VII called him 'undefined Tunstall' and that he fought at Stoke. The ballad erroneously names Brian, 'a trusty 'squire,' as his son instead of his nephew; and Scott in 'Marmion' seems to have misapplied the epithet quoted, as he calls Brian the 'stainless knight.'
  • 41. Pal. of Lanc. Writs Prothon. 5 Hen. VII.
  • 42. Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. iii, no. 37. In 1493 as William son and heir of Sir Richard Tunstall he made a settlement of his manors, &c. The castle and manor of Thurland, with messuages and lands in Cantsfield, were held of Lord Harrington in socage. Elizabeth widow of Sir Richard claimed the dower which had been assigned to her in May 1492.
  • 43. Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxix, App. 561.
  • 44. Dep, Keeper's Rep. xxxix, App. 561.
  • 45. He is several times mentioned in the old ballad of 'Flodden Field,' in which the manner of his death is described. He is said to have been the first of the English to attack and becoming separated from his men was surrounded and slain.
  • 46. He was the illegitimate son of Thomas Tunstall and was born at Hackforth in the North Riding in 1474; Dict. Nat. Biog.; Whitaker, Richmondshire, ii, 52.
  • 47. Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. iv, no. 3. Brian's will (dated 16 Aug.) is recited in full and may be read in Whitaker, op. cit. ii, 271. He gave 40s. to the friars of Lancaster for 100 masses for his soul and 6s. 8d. to each house of pardon and prayer of which he was a brother; two priests were to sing for his soul in Tunstall Church during his son's minority, receiving £4. a year each. His wife was to have Thurland Castle and other lands for life; also all the tithe bams and hay he occupied in Tunstall parish. The wardship of the heir was granted to Cuthbert Tunstall in August 1514; L. and P. Hen. VIII, i, 5288.
  • 48. Dep. Keeper's Rep. ut sup.
  • 49. Metcalfe, Bk. of Knights, 65.
  • 50. L. and P. Hen. VIII, xi, 947 (2), 1251 (2), 1392. In 1537 he was put in charge of Furness Abbey estates, one of his duties being to 'see that all curates thereabouts set forth the king's supremacy and the usurpations of the Bishop of Rome'; ibid, xii (1), 881. His signature was appended. He afterwards acted as a West Riding magistrate.
  • 51. Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. x, no. 5. For a dispute as to his personal estate see Chan. Proc. (Ser. 2), bdle. 154, no. 127.
  • 52. Dep. Keeper's Rep. ut sup.
  • 53. In 1564 the Bishop of Chester reported him as unfavourable to the queen's proceedings in religion; Camd. Misc. (Camd. Soc.), ix, 80. See also Cal. S. P. Dom. 1566–79, p. 47.
  • 54. Gibson, Lydiate Hall, 202, from S. P. Dom. Eliz. xxxvi, 2. He was 'suspected' but outwardly conforming in 1577; ibid. 216.
  • 55. Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 47, m. 53.
  • 56. Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xiv, no. 6 (almost illegible); xv, no. 32.
  • 57. Dep. Keeper's Rep. ut sup.
  • 58. Anct. D. (P.R.O.), A 6574. The feet of fines show a number of sales. In 1598 he was specially assessed for his wife's recusancy, he himself being like his father a conformist externally; Gibson, op. cit. 262.
  • 59. Misc. (Cath. Rec. Soc.), iv, 166. A fine of 1605 shows that Francis Tunstall and Elizabeth his wife were still in possession; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 68, no. 42. In July the same year Francis Tunstall of Scargill and John Girlington of Thurland made a grant to William Batty of Over Burrow; Mr. Crofton's note. For later Tunstalh see Foley, Rec. S. J. v, 690–3. Some of the family remained in the parish, for in 1629 Thomasin Tunstall and Alice Clopton, both described as of Fairthwaite, compounded for the twothirds of their estates liable to sequestration for recusancy, paying fines of £2 10s. a year each; Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), xxiv, 173. There is a Tunstall pedigree at the end of vol. ii of the Chronicle of St. Monica's, Louvain (ed. Hamilton).
  • 60. Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc.), i, 218.
  • 61. Visit. of 1613 (Chet. Soc.), 36.
  • 62. Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 93, no. 18; the plaintiff was George Pudsey. It seems to be this Nicholas Girlington who died in 1628 holding a small estate in Torver in Furness and leaving a son John, aged sixteen. A brother Anthony was in possession; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxv, no. 5.
  • 63. In 1608 Thurland Castle, Fairthwaite Park, the rectory of Tunstall and other possessions of John Girlington, recusant, were on that account granted on lease to Edmund Thurstan and others; Pat. 5 Jas. I, pt. xxi. The recusant lists include Nicholas Girlington (1619), Anthony Girlington (1625), William Girlington (1633), and John Girlington (1667); Gillow, Bibl. Dict. of Engl. Cath. ii, 494. John Girlington, another of the family, became a Benedictine in 1653 and died in 1729; Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), xiii, 136.
  • 64. In religion he was outwardly a conformist, and was high sheriff at the opening of the Civil War; Civil War Tracts (Chet. Soc.), 325.
  • 65. He was denounced by the Parliament as a delinquent, but continued to act with Lord Strange, taking part in the attack upon Manchester; ibid. 14, 23, 45. At the beginning of 1643 he was in charge of Lancaster Castle, but had to abandon it to the Parliament; soon afterwards he assisted in the attack upon it; ibid. 84, 85.
  • 66. At York, 6 June 1642; Metcalfe, op. cit.
  • 67. Dugdale, Visit.
  • 68. Civil War Tracts, 344. His widow (see below) stated that he died in March 1645. Another account says that he was shot in the foot in a skirmish near East Bradford in Yorkshire, and eventually died of it; War in Lancs. (Chet. Soc.), 42.
  • 69. Civil War Tracts, 106, 140.
  • 70. Ibid. 148–51. Rigby's letter to the Speaker is dated 17 Oct.; he says: 'Though I endeavoured to have preserved all the combustible materials therein from fire, yet I could not therein prevail with the common soldiers without great displeasure,' and he asks for an indemnity. There is another account by an eyewitness in War in Lancs. (41), which says that the siege began in the middle of August; the main body of the besiegers was at Mr. Cansfield's house, about half a mile from Thurland, and their ordnance was planted on the east side of the castle, which was strong and resolutely defended.
  • 71. Royalist Comp. Papers (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), iii, 72. The widow (Catherine, who afterwards married Adam Bland, in 1646 claimed her dower and thirds and the discharge of her own lands, worth £400 a year. The fine was fixed at £800; Cal. Com. for Camp. ii, 1096. The son John, aged sixteen, in 1654 sent in a petition; ibid. 1097. Nothing is said about recusancy in the reports.
  • 72. P.R.O. List, 73. As shown above John Girlington was afterwards a recusant and in 1690 was considered a Jacobite; Cal. S. P. Dom. 1690–1, pp. 22–3.
  • 73. Dugdale, Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 119. He had four daughters—Magdalene, Katherine, Elizabeth and Margaret; through the second, the eventual heiress, an interest in Thurland came to the Butlers of Rawcliffe; Gillow, op. cit. ii, 494; i, 365. Margaret wife of John Girlington of Thurland was a convicted recusant in the time of Charles II; Misc. (Cath. Rec. Soc.), v, 248.
  • 74. The date is due to Col. North. In a fine of 1693 respecting the manor of Tunstall, the advowson of the church, &c., John Girlington was deforciant and Robert Fowler plaintiff; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 230, m. 165. A brass plate in the church states that John Girlington died in 1706, aged sixty-nine.
  • 75. Borrett presented to Tunstall Church in 1699. See Hasted, Kent, i, 317, for the Borretts.
  • 76. To the deed of December 1771 the parties were (1) William Sea wen, (2) William Evelyn and Susanna his wife, (3) Robert Welch; Com. Pleas Recov. R. Mich. 12 Geo. III, m. 96. In a fine in 1783 respecting Thurland Castle, the manor of Tunstall, &c., the deforciants were Miles North, Charles Jackson, Alice his wife, Jonathan Webster and Dorothy his wife; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 409, m. 19. For the North family see the account of Whittington.
  • 77. Information of Col. North.
  • 78. Pedigree in Burke, Landed Gentry.
  • 79. A block plan of the house and site is given in V.C.H. Lancs. ii, 551, where the earthworks are described.
  • 80. Whitaker, Richmondshire, ii, 273–4.
  • 81. Dict. of Archit. (Archit. Publ. Soc.), viii, 78. Wyatt prepared the plans, but the work was carried out under the superintendence of Webster, architect, of Kendal.
  • 82. Webster was the architect.
  • 83. The work of rebuilding has been done at two principal periods; the first immediately after the fire in 1876, the last in 1888, Messrs. Austin & Paley of Lancaster being the architects.
  • 84. Richmondshire, ii, 274, where there is an illustration showing the ruins of the west wing. There are also two views of Thurland Castle by N. G. Philips, published in 1823, one of which shows the ruins of the west wing, but the other, purporting to be a view within the courtyard, is difficult to understand, the position of the existing mediaeval doorway being obviously incorrect in relation to other parts of the building. The remains of the gateway are shown in this picture.
  • 85. See the accounts of Farleton in Melling and Thurnham. One Beatrice de Stainford, widow, gave to Joan wife of John de Cantsfield 3 oxgangs of land in Cansfield, with a part of the mill, at the rent of a pound of cummin yearly; Add. MS. 32104, no. 1171. John de Cansfield in 1235 obtained from Joan de Cansfield an oxgang of land she held in dower, while granting 2 other oxgangs to Uchtred Prat, Alice his wife and William Kidel; Final Conc. i, 66. It was probably the same John who in 1252 obtained from Hughde Morewich the manor of Farleton and a release of the 26s. 8d. rent for the tenement held of Hugh in Cantsfield; ibid. 113. In 1251 John de Cansfield was a free tenant in the Mowbray fief in Ewcross in Yorkshire; Yorks. Inq. (Yorks. Arch. Soc.), i, 25.
  • 86. a Furness Couch. (Chet. Soc.), 84. In 1285 the heir of Sir Richard de Cansfield held the six plough-lands in Cantsfield and Farleton of the lord of Hornby by knight's service; Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 262. John de Harrington held a moiety of the manor of Cantsfield in 1319; ibid, ii, 37.
  • 87. Its connexion with the older family is unknown, as also is the descent, till the 16th century. A John de Cansfield occurs in 1318–19; Cal. Pat. 1317–21, pp. 78, 394. A Robert Cansfield appears at Tatham in 1376, and was no doubt the owner of Robert Hall. A later Robert, perhaps of this family, was dead in 1520, when the custody of Anne (Agnes) and Elizabeth his daughters and heirs was granted to Thomas Cansfield and others; Duchy of Lanc. Misc. Bks. xxii, 50. They proved their age in 1527–8, Agnes having been born at Lancaster in 1505 and Elizabeth in 1510; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. vi, no. 42. Elizabeth 'daughter and sole heir' of Robert Cansfield married William Charnock of Leyland; Visit. of 1613 (Chet. Soc.), 104.
  • 88. John Cansfield died in 1515 holding an estate in Cantsfield, not styled a manor, of Sir Edward Stanley Lord Mounteagle as of his manor of Hornby by knight's service; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. iv, no. 9. Elizabeth his widow held the capital messuage of Cantsfield for her life. Thomas Cansfield held in 1597, but the tenure was not recorded; ibid, xvii, no. 4. The estate was called a manor in fines dating from 1602 to 1695, already cited in the account of Robert Hall; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 64, no. 190, &c. Elizabeth and Francis Batty in 1585 claimed lands called oxgang in Cantsfield against Thomas Cansfield; see Ducatus Lanc. (Rec. Com.), iii, 156, 169.
  • 89. William Clifton of Kidsnape died in 1517 holding lands in Cantsfield of John Cansfield by a rent of 2½d.; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. v, no. 21. This estate passed to George Kirkby and his brother William; ibid, xi, no. 8; xvii, no. 16. Francis Townson and others had common of pasture in Cow Close in 1584 in right of William Kirkby; Ducatus Lanc. iii, 142. Thomas Garnett died in 1610 holding in Cantsfield of Lord Morley as of his manor of Thurland by 1d. rent; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 175. John Smith in 1627 also held of Lord Morley as of his manor of Thurland; his heir was his son Thomas, aged thirty-seven; Towneley MS. C 8, 13 (Chet. Lib.), 1070. The Morleys of Wennington had lands in Tunstall and Cantsfield which were sold to Henry Marsden in 1674; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 192, m. 11.
  • 90. Cal. Com. for Comp. iii, 2112.
  • 91. Estcourt and Payne, Engl. Cath. Nonjurors, 146.
  • 92. Cal. Pat. 1396–9, p. 82.
  • 93. Raines MSS. (Chet. Lib.), xxii, 401. Sir Thomas Tunstall is said to have presented him.
  • 94. V.C.H. Lancs. ii, 157.
  • 95. Raines, Chant. (Chet. Soc.), 233–4.